Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the SUPERIOR SAGITTAL SINUS or the inferior sagittal sinus. Sagittal sinus thrombosis can result from infections, hematological disorders, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES. Clinical features are primarily related to the increased intracranial pressure causing HEADACHE; NAUSEA; and VOMITING. Severe cases can evolve to SEIZURES or COMA.Euthanasia, Animal: The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).Infarction: Formation of an infarct, which is NECROSIS in tissue due to local ISCHEMIA resulting from obstruction of BLOOD CIRCULATION, most commonly by a THROMBUS or EMBOLUS.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Phenylketonurias: A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Blood Specimen Collection: The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.Intracranial Hemorrhages: Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.Dried Blood Spot Testing: Techniques for using whole blood samples collected on filter paper for a variety of clinical laboratory tests.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Urogenital Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.United StatesIntracranial Arteriovenous Malformations: Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.Arteriovenous Malformations: Abnormal formation of blood vessels that shunt arterial blood directly into veins without passing through the CAPILLARIES. They usually are crooked, dilated, and with thick vessel walls. A common type is the congenital arteriovenous fistula. The lack of blood flow and oxygen in the capillaries can lead to tissue damage in the affected areas.PolyvinylsCerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Arecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.ArizonaAutomation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Leukoencephalopathies: Any of various diseases affecting the white matter of the central nervous system.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Leukoaraiosis: Non-specific white matter changes in the BRAIN, often seen after age 65. Changes include loss of AXONS; MYELIN pallor, GLIOSIS, loss of ependymal cells, and enlarged perivascular spaces. Leukoaraiosis is a risk factor for DEMENTIA and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS.Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases: Pathological processes or diseases where cerebral MICROVESSELS show abnormalities. They are often associated with aging, hypertension and risk factors for lacunar infarcts (see LACUNAR INFARCTION); LEUKOARAIOSIS; and CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Anterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Biological Ontologies: Structured vocabularies describing concepts from the fields of biology and relationships between concepts.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Labyrinth Diseases: Pathological processes of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) which contains the essential apparatus of hearing (COCHLEA) and balance (SEMICIRCULAR CANALS).Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Cellulitis: An acute, diffuse, and suppurative inflammation of loose connective tissue, particularly the deep subcutaneous tissues, and sometimes muscle, which is most commonly seen as a result of infection of a wound, ulcer, or other skin lesions.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Ear, Inner: The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.Ear, Middle: The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.Ear, External: The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.Hepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Lithium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain lithium as an integral part of the molecule.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Lithium Carbonate: A lithium salt, classified as a mood-stabilizing agent. Lithium ion alters the metabolism of BIOGENIC MONOAMINES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, and affects multiple neurotransmission systems.Propiolactone: Disinfectant used in vapor form to sterilize vaccines, grafts, etc. The vapor is very irritating and the liquid form is carcinogenic.Neurosurgery: A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Libraries, Digital: Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Library Collection Development: Development of a library collection, including the determination and coordination of selection policy, assessment of needs of users and potential users, collection use studies, collection evaluation, identification of collection needs, selection of materials, planning for resource sharing, collection maintenance and weeding, and budgeting.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Book SelectionMagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Frontal Bone: The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Zygoma: Either of a pair of bones that form the prominent part of the CHEEK and contribute to the ORBIT on each side of the SKULL.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Cranial Sutures: A type of fibrous joint between bones of the head.Skull Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony part of the skull.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.DirectoryBibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Sodium Nitrite: Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)MethemoglobinMethemoglobinemia: The presence of methemoglobin in the blood, resulting in cyanosis. A small amount of methemoglobin is present in the blood normally, but injury or toxic agents convert a larger proportion of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, which does not function reversibly as an oxygen carrier. Methemoglobinemia may be due to a defect in the enzyme NADH methemoglobin reductase (an autosomal recessive trait) or to an abnormality in hemoglobin M (an autosomal dominant trait). (Dorland, 27th ed)Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Nitrite Reductases: A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Mouth Rehabilitation: Process of restoring damaged or decayed teeth using various restorative and non-cosmetic materials so that oral health is improved.Intracranial Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions involving ARTERIES in the skull, such as arteries supplying the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, the BRAIN STEM, and associated structures. They include atherosclerotic, congenital, traumatic, infectious, inflammatory, and other pathological processes.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Cerebral Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.TetrazolesAspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Ticlopidine: An effective inhibitor of platelet aggregation commonly used in the placement of STENTS in CORONARY ARTERIES.Levonorgestrel: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.Intrauterine Devices, Medicated: Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.Contraceptive Agents, Female: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Contraceptives, Postcoital, Synthetic: Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.Ethinyl Estradiol: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Contraceptives, Oral, Combined: Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.Desogestrel: A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.Norgestrel: A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.HCT116 Cells: Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems: Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.American Speech-Language-Hearing Association: A professional society concerned with the diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and remediation of speech, language, and hearing disorders.Speech-Language Pathology: The study of speech or language disorders and their diagnosis and correction.Dysarthria: Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)Audiology: The study of hearing and hearing impairment.Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)SwitzerlandOtorhinolaryngologic Diseases: Pathological processes of the ear, the nose, and the throat, also known as the ENT diseases.Communication Disorders: Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.Apraxias: A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)CD-ROM: An optical disk storage system for computers on which data can be read or from which data can be retrieved but not entered or modified. A CD-ROM unit is almost identical to the compact disk playback device for home use.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Foramen Ovale, Patent: A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.GreeceManagement Quality Circles: Participation of employees with management as a labor-management team, in decisions pertaining to the operational activities of the organization or industry.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Blood Pressure Determination: Techniques for measuring blood pressure.Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory: Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sphygmomanometers: Instruments for measuring arterial blood pressure consisting of an inflatable cuff, inflating bulb, and a gauge showing the blood pressure. (Stedman, 26th ed)Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.International Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Evoked Potentials, Visual: The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Ice Cover: A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.World War I: Global conflict primarily fought on European continent, that occurred between 1914 and 1918.Famous PersonsVermontNew Hampshire

Comparative total mortality in 25 years in Italian and Greek middle aged rural men. (1/4408)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Mortality over 25 years has been low in the Italian and very low in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study; factors responsible for this particularity were studied in detail. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: 1712 Italian and 1215 Greek men, aged 40-59 years, cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, representing over 95% of the populations in designated rural areas. DESIGN: Entry (1960-61) data included age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking habits, total serum cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), arm circumference, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 3/4 seconds (FEV); the same data were obtained 10 years later. Multivariate Cox analysis was performed with all causes death in 25 years as end point. MAIN RESULTS: Italian men had higher entry levels of SBP, arm circumference, BMI, and VC; Greek men had higher cholesterol levels, smoking habits, and FEV. Mortality of Italian men was higher throughout; at 25 years cumulative mortality was 48.3% and 35.3% respectively. Coronary heart disease and stroke mortality increased fivefold in Italy and 10-fold in Greece between years 10 and 25. The only risk factor with a significantly higher contribution to mortality in Italian men was cholesterol. However, differences in entry SBP (higher in Italy) and FEV (higher in Greece) accounted for, according to the Lee method, 75% of the differential mortality between the two populations. At 10 years increases in SBP, cholesterol, BMI, and decreases in smoking habits, VC, FEV, and arm circumference had occurred (deltas). SBP increased more and FEV and VC decreased more in Italy than in Greece. Deltas, fed stepwise in the original model for the prediction of 10 to 25 years mortality, were significant for SBP, smoking, arm circumference, and VC in Greece, and for SBP and VC in Italy. CONCLUSION: Higher mortality in Italian men is related to stronger positive effects of entry SBP and weaker negative (protective) effects of FEV; in addition 10 year increases in SBP are higher and 10 year decreases in FEV are larger in Italy. Unaccounted factors, however, related to, for example, differences in the diet, may also have contributed to the differential mortality of these two Mediterranean populations.  (+info)

Short stature and cardiovascular disease among men and women from two southeastern New England communities. (2/4408)

BACKGROUND: Short stature has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), although the reason for the association remains unclear. Data on the relation between stature and stroke is more limited. We examined the association between stature and CHD as well as between stature and stroke in men and women from two communities in southeastern New England. METHODS: Coronary heart disease and stroke events were abstracted from medical records between January 1980 and December 1991. An epidemiological diagnostic algorithm developed to measure CHD was used in the present analysis. Unadjusted relative risks (RR) and RR adjusted for age, smoking status, obesity, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol <0.91 mmol/l, total cholesterol >6.21 mmol/l, hypertension, diabetes, education, and being foreign born were computed by gender-specific height categories separately for men (n = 2826) and women (n = 3741). RESULTS: A graded inverse association between stature and risk of CHD was observed among men which persisted after adjustment for confounders. Men >69.75 inches had an 83% lower risk of CHD compared with men < or = 65 inches. In addition, the tallest men had a 67% decreased risk of stroke compared with the shortest men. No significant relation between stature and CHD or stroke was observed among women. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the hypothesis that stature is inversely related to both risk of CHD and stroke at least among men. Factors which might explain this association remain to be determined.  (+info)

Genetic and gender influences on sensitivity to focal cerebral ischemia in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat. (3/4408)

We have investigated genetic transmission of increased sensitivity to focal cerebral ischemia and the influence of gender in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP). Halothane-anesthetized, 3- to 5-month-old male and female Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), SHRSP, and the first filial generation rats (F1 crosses 1 and 2) underwent distal (2 mm) permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by electrocoagulation. Infarct volume was measured by using hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections and image analysis 24 hours after ischemia and expressed as a percentage of the volume of the ipsilateral hemisphere. Infarct volume in males and females grouped together were significantly larger in SHRSP, F1 cross 1 (SHRSP father), and F1 cross 2 (WKY father), at 36.6+/-2.3% (mean+/-SEM, P<0.001, n=15), 25.4+/-2.4% (P<0.01, n=14), and 33. 9+/-1.6% (P<0.001, n=18), respectively, compared with WKY (14+/-2%, n=17). Male F1 cross 1 (18.9+/-2.4%, n=6) developed significantly smaller infarcts than male F1 cross 2 (32.8+/-2%, n=8, P<0.005). Females, which underwent ischemia during metestrus, developed larger infarcts than respective males. A group of females in which the cycle was not controlled for developed significantly smaller infarcts than females in metestrus. Thus, the increased sensitivity to MCAO in SHRSP is retained in both F1 cross 1 and cross 2 hybrids, suggesting a dominant or codominant trait; response to cerebral ischemia appears to be affected by gender and stage in the estrous cycle. In addition, the male progenitor of the cross (ie, SHRSP versus WKY) influences stroke sensitivity in male F1 cohorts.  (+info)

Delay in presentation of patients with acute stroke to hospital in Oxford. (4/4408)

We identified prospectively all patients (181 patients, 183 episodes) admitted to hospital in Oxford with acute stroke from 1 January to 30 June 1997. Data were inadequate in 30, leaving 153 episodes in 151 patients (63 men, 90 women). Structured interviews were used to investigate the timing of events preceding admission. Most strokes (91%) occurred at home, and 36% of patients were alone. After a median delay of 15 min, 56% called a GP (median 30 min response), 41% an ambulance (median 48 min to admission), and 3% went directly to A&E. Median time from hospital admission to doctor assessment was 69 min. Factors reducing delay were: initially calling an ambulance rather than a GP (p < 0.0001); onset not at home (p < 0.001); symptoms improving between onset and admission (p < 0.002); and altered consciousness (p < 0.002). The stroke was not recognized by 44% of patients, but no significant delay resulted. Overall, 31% were admitted within 3 h of onset, 46% within 6 h. Initial contact with the GP is a major determinant of delay. If acute therapies for stroke become available, GPs should be the primary targets for an educational initiative.  (+info)

Optimal thrombolytic strategies for acute myocardial infarction--bolus administration. (5/4408)

Optimal strategies for thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) are still being sought because the TIMI 3 flow rates achievable using standard regimens average approximately 60%. Double bolus administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a novel approach with potential for earlier patency combined with ease of administration. We reviewed total patency rates, TIMI 3 patency rates, mortality, stroke and intracranial haemorrhage rates in the major trials of accelerated infusion tPA/bolus tPA/reteplase in acute myocardial infarction. A direct comparison was performed with results of two recent trials of double bolus (two 50 mg boli, 30 min apart) vs. accelerated infusion tPA: the Double Bolus Lytic Efficacy Trial (DBLE), an angiographic study, and the COBALT Trial, a mortality study. The DBLE trial showed equivalent patency rates for accelerated infusion and double bolus administration of tPA. Reviewing other angiographic trials, total patency and TIMI 3 patency rates achievable with double bolus tPA were comparable to those with accelerated infusion tPA or bolus reteplase administration. The COBALT study demonstrated a 30-day mortality of 7.53% in patients treated with accelerated infusion tPA compared with 7.98% for double bolus tPA treated patients. The small excess in mortality with double bolus treatment was confined to the elderly; in those < or = 75 years, mortality rates were 5.6% and 5.7%, for double bolus and accelerated infusion, respectively, and rates for death or non-fatal stroke were 6.35% and 6.3%, respectively. Comparison with other trials demonstrated mortality, stroke and intracranial haemorrhage rates with double bolus treatment similar to those associated with either accelerated infusion tPA or bolus reteplase treatment. Double bolus administration of tPA to patients with acute myocardial infarction is associated with total patency, TIMI 3 patency, mortality, stroke and intracranial haemorrhage rates similar to those associated with either accelerated infusion of tPA or bolus reteplase.  (+info)

Assessment of swallowing and referral to speech and language therapists in acute stroke. (6/4408)

The best clinical assessment of swallowing following acute stroke, in order to decide whether to refer a patient to a speech and language therapist (SLT), is uncertain. Independently of the managing clinical team, we prospectively investigated 115 patients (51 male) with acute stroke, mean age 75 years (range 24-94) within 72 h of admission, using a questionnaire, structured examination and timed water swallowing test. Outcome variables included referral to and intervention by a speech and language therapist (SLT), dietary modification, respiratory complications and death. Of those patients in whom an SLT recommended intervention, 97% were detected by an abnormal quantitative water swallowing test; specificity was 69%. An SLT was very unlikely to recommend any intervention if the test was normal. Inability to perform a water test and/or abnormality of the test was associated with significantly increased relative risks of death, chest infection and dietary modification. A timed water swallowing test can be a useful test of swallowing and may be used to screen patients for referral to a speech and language therapist after acute stroke.  (+info)

Premature morbidity from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. (7/4408)

OBJECTIVE: To determine rates of morbidity due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: I used the California Hospital Discharge Database, which contains information on all discharges from acute care hospitals in California, to identify women with SLE who had been hospitalized for treatment of either acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF), or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) from 1991 to 1994. I compared the proportions of hospitalizations for each cause among women with SLE with those in a group of women without SLE, for 3 age strata (18-44 years, 45-64 years, and > or =65 years). RESULTS: Compared with young women without SLE, young women with SLE were 2.27 times more likely to be hospitalized because of AMI (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.08-3.46), 3.80 times more likely to be hospitalized because of CHF (95% CI 2.41-5.19), and 2.05 times more likely to be hospitalized because of CVA (95% CI 1.17-2.93). Among middle-aged women with SLE, the frequencies of hospitalization for AMI and CVA did not differ from those of the comparison group, but the risk of hospitalization for CHF was higher (odds ratio [OR] 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.73). Among elderly women with SLE, the risk of hospitalization for AMI was significantly lower (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.51-0.89), the risk of hospitalization for CHF was higher (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.49), and the risk of hospitalization for CVA was not significantly different from those in the comparison group. CONCLUSION: Young women with SLE are at substantially increased risk of AMI, CHF, and CVA. The relative odds of these conditions decrease with age among women with SLE.  (+info)

G20210A mutation in prothrombin gene and risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and venous thrombosis in a large cohort of US men. (8/4408)

BACKGROUND: A single base pair mutation in the prothrombin gene has recently been identified that is associated with increased prothrombin levels. Whether this mutation increases the risks of arterial and venous thrombosis among healthy individuals is controversial. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective cohort of 14 916 men, we determined the prevalence of the G20210A prothrombin gene variant in 833 men who subsequently developed myocardial infarction, stroke, or venous thrombosis (cases) and in 1774 age- and smoking status-matched men who remained free of thrombosis during a 10-year follow-up (control subjects). Gene sequencing was used to confirm mutation status in a subgroup of participants. Overall, carrier rates for the G20210A mutation were similar among case and control subjects; the relative risk of developing any thrombotic event in association with the 20210A allele was 1.05 (95% CI, 0.7 to 1.6; P=0.8). We observed no evidence of association between mutation and myocardial infarction (RR=0.8, P=0.4) or stroke (RR=1.1, P=0.8). For venous thrombosis, a modest nonsignificant increase in risk was observed (RR=1.7, P=0.08) that was smaller in magnitude than that associated with factor V Leiden (RR=3.0, P<0. 001). Nine individuals carried both the prothrombin mutation and factor V Leiden (5 controls and 4 cases). One individual, a control subject, was homozygous for the prothrombin mutation. CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of US men, the G20210A prothrombin gene variant was not associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction or stroke. For venous thrombosis, risk estimates associated with the G20210A mutation were smaller in magnitude than risk estimates associated with factor V Leiden.  (+info)

*Transcranial Doppler

Toole, J. F. (1990). Cerebrovascular disorders. New York: Raven Press. McDonald, D. A. (1974). Blood flow in arteries pp. 311- ... Njemanze, P. C., Beck, O. J., Gomez, C. R., & Horenstein, S. (1991). "Fourier analysis of the cerebrovascular system". Stroke. ... ischemic cerebrovascular disease, subarachnoid hemorrhage, arteriovenous malformations, and cerebral circulatory arrest. The ...

*Carolyn M. Mazure

Cerebrovascular Disorders, 38(4):240-246, 2014. List of female scientists in the 21st century Medical research Public Health " ...

*Viken Babikian

He studies cerebrovascular disorders such as stroke. Boston University School of Medicine: Clinical Faculty: Viken L. Babikian ... MD Boston Medical Center: Stroke & Cerebrovascular Center: Viken Babikian, MD. ...

*Animal model of stroke

The term stroke subsumes cerebrovascular disorders of different etiologies, featuring diverse pathophysiological processes. ...

*Vladimir Hachinski

"Charitable Trust, Mihara Cerebrovascular Disorder Research Promotion Fund, Mihara Award: Past Winners". www.mihara.umin.jp. ... Mihara Award in research on cerebrovascular disorders 1990: Ontario Trillium Clinical Scientist Award 1989: Featured in ... From 1973-74, a research fellowship with the Ontario Department of Health brought him to a cerebrovascular laboratory at the ... "National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - Canadian Stroke Network Vascular Cognitive Impairment Harmonization ...

*Nefiracetam

1994). "Clinical evaluation of DM-9384 in the treatment of cerebrovascular disorders: early phase II study". Jpn. Pharmacol. ... It has been shown to exhibit antiamnesia effects for the Alzheimer's type and cerebrovascular type of dementia. In addition, it ...

*Carlos Posadas

... as a result of cerebrovascular disorders. At his death he was living in No.215 Emerald Street, Buenos Aires Horacio Ferrer, El ...

*Werner Hacke

Hacke's main clinical and research activities are in the field of cerebrovascular disorders and critical care neurology. The ...

*Cerebrovascular disease

Moyamoya is an example of an idiopathic cerebrovascular disorder that results in narrowing and occlusion of intracranial blood ... The incidence of cerebrovascular disease increases as an individual ages. Causes of acquired cerebrovascular disease include ... Other symptoms of cerebrovascular disease include migraines, seizures, epilepsy, or cognitive decline. However, cerebrovascular ... Cerebrovascular disease includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral ...

*Joshua B. Bederson

Bederson joined Mount Sinai in 1992 as the Director of the Clinical Program for Cerebrovascular Disorders and served as Vice- ... A high-ranking member of many cerebrovascular societies, Bederson is chair of the AANS/CNS Cerebrovascular section. With ... "Cerebrovascular Applications of Image Guidance." In: Germano IM (ed), Advances in Image-Guided Brain and Spine Surgery. Thieme ... He completed a fellowship in cerebrovascular surgery at the Barrow Neurological Institute in Arizona under Dr. Robert F. ...

*Wake Forest School of Medicine

Cerebrovascular Disorders. A flurry of building projects beginning in the late 1950s and continuing today began a period of ...

*Hormone replacement therapy (menopause)

... such as cerebrovascular disorders, obesity, and mood fluctuations. In addition, some research has found an onset of diabetes ...

*Monique Breteler

... research interest is in the etiology and preclinical detection of age-related neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular disorders, ... metabolic disorders, inflammation, and vascular mechanisms. Since 2011 she is Director of Population Health Sciences at the ... a prospective population-based study of frequency and causes of age-related disorders that includes 15,000 persons and has been ...

*Neurological disorder

For example, cerebrovascular disorders involve brain injury due to problems with the blood vessels (cardiovascular system) ... A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system. Structural, biochemical or electrical abnormalities in the brain ... The broadest division is between central nervous system disorders and peripheral nervous system disorders. The Merck Manual ... The specific causes of neurological problems vary, but can include genetic disorders, congenital abnormalities or disorders, ...

*Diagnosis-related group

... specific cerebrovascular disorders, pneumonia, and hip/knee replacement. These DRGs comprised nearly 30 percent of all hospital ... nutritional disorders, and pediatrics along with support for other populations. One challenge in working with the APDRG ...

*Intracranial aneurysm

... , also known as brain aneurysm, is a cerebrovascular disorder in which weakness in the wall of a cerebral ... National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Brain Aneurysm & Cerebrovascular Resource Cerebral Aneurysm Calculator ... disorders/cerebral_aneurysm_85,P08772/ Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Waters, Michael F.; Giza, Christopher C. (2005). Neurological ...

*ICD-10 Chapter IX: Diseases of the circulatory system

Cerebrovascular disorders in diseases classified elsewhere (I69) Sequelae of cerebrovascular disease (I70) Atherosclerosis ... Disorders of both mitral and aortic valves (I08.1) Disorders of both mitral and tricuspid valves (I08.2) Disorders of both ... Other specified disorders of arteries and arterioles (I77.9) Disorder of arteries and arterioles, unspecified (I78) Diseases of ... Other specified noninfective disorders of lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes (I89.9) Noninfective disorder of lymphatic vessels ...

*Neuromuscular disease

Some examples of central disorders include cerebrovascular accident, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, Huntington's ... genetic/hereditary disorders and some forms of the collagen disorder Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, exposure to environmental ... List of neuromuscular disorders Muscle Motor neuron diseases ICD-10 Chapter XIII: Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and ... "Neuromuscular Disorders: MedlinePlus". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-24. Swash, Michael; Schwartz, Martin S. (2013-03-14 ...

*Polyestradiol phosphate

... or lipid metabolism disorders Cerebrovascular events (i.e., stroke) Acute liver disease or previously confirmed liver disease, ...

*Birth control pill formulations

... or thromboembolic disorders A past history of deep vein thrombophlebitis or thromboembolic disorders Cerebrovascular or ...

*Systemic lupus erythematosus

Other common neuropsychiatric manifestations of SLE include cognitive dysfunction, mood disorder, cerebrovascular disease, ... seizures, polyneuropathy, anxiety disorder, psychosis, depression, and in some extreme cases, personality disorders. Steroid ... A common neurological disorder people with SLE have is headache, although the existence of a specific lupus headache and the ... Neurological disorders contribute to a significant percentage of morbidity and mortality in people with lupus. As a result, the ...

*List of MeSH codes (C10)

... cerebrovascular disorders MeSH C10.228.140.300.100 --- basal ganglia cerebrovascular disease MeSH C10.228.140.300.100.200 --- ... headache disorders MeSH C10.228.140.546.399 --- headache disorders, primary MeSH C10.228.140.546.399.750 --- migraine disorders ... sleep disorders, circadian rhythm MeSH C10.886.425.200.500 --- jet lag syndrome MeSH C10.886.425.800 --- sleep disorders, ... communication disorders MeSH C10.597.606.150.500 --- language disorders MeSH C10.597.606.150.500.050 --- agraphia MeSH C10.597. ...

*Quantitative electroencephalography

... such as cerebro-vascular disorders and epilepsy, though it remains yet to be accepted in other clinical areas, such as ... diagnosing mild traumatic brain injury or psychiatric disorders. The use of qEEG techniques in investigations in clinical and ...

*Cinepazide

... balance disorders, cerebrovascular disease, and vascular complications of diabetes. In 1988 the drug was withdrawn from the ... is a vasodilator used in China for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and peripheral vascular ...

*Doctor of Medicine

... movement disorders, neuromuscular disorders, cerebrovascular surgery, skull base surgery, neurocritical care, pediatric cardiac ...

*List of ICD-9 codes 390-459: diseases of the circulatory system

Valvular disorder, mitral, NOS (424.1) Valvular disorder, aortic, NOS (424.2) Valvular disorder, tricuspid, NOS (424.3) ... Other late effects of cerebrovascular disease (438.81) Apraxia cerebrovascular disease (438.82) Dysphagia cerebrovascular ... 436) Acute but ill-defined cerebrovascular disease (437) Other and ill-defined cerebrovascular disease (437.0) Cerebral ... Other disorders of circulatory system (459.8) Other specified disorders of circulatory system (459.81) Venous insufficiency, ...
We investigated 60 patients with cerebrovascular disorders using a three-dimensional transcranial Doppler blood flow mapping system. A composite display of the circle of Willis is created with computer assistance, allowing accurate vessel identification and optimal data documentation of blood flow velocity and direction in the basal cerebral arteries. The basilar artery was insonated in every patient; the middle cerebral artery and the most distal internal carotid artery were found in 95% of the patients, the anterior cerebral artery in 85%, and the posterior cerebral artery in 84%. Insonation problems occurred predominantly in elderly women. Transcranial Doppler blood flow mapping showed an abnormal result in 23 of 60 patients (38%). An intracranial stenosis with greater than 50% diameter reduction or occlusion was found in 10 of 31 patients (32%) with completed stroke, reversible ischemic neurologic deficit, or transient ischemic attack. Collateral blood flow mechanisms could be demonstrated ...
Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES; or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
List of causes of Cerebrovascular disorders and Nerve symptoms and Ringing in ears, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
(KudoZ) Spanish to English translation of pudiendo... presentar un cuadro vascular: show/manifest the symptoms of cerebrovascular disorder [Medical].
The present study investigates for the first time the relationship of LA volumes and reservoir function with subclinical cerebrovascular disease. We demonstrated that greater LA volumes and smaller LA reservoir function are associated with SBI and WMHV. In addition, we showed that LAVmin is a stronger predictor of silent cerebrovascular lesions than the commonly used LAVmax, and that its significant association with subclinical brain disease persisted after controlling for potential confounders and risk factors.. The mechanisms linking an increase in LA volume with cerebrovascular disease are not completely understood, but it is reasonable to hypothesize that the mechanisms suggested for the relationship between LA size and stroke may, at least in part, apply to silent cerebrovascular disease as well. This is biologically plausible considering that: 1) subjects with subclinical brain lesions are more likely to experience an overt cerebrovascular event; and 2) subclinical and overt ...
A silent stroke is a stroke that does not have any outward symptoms associated with stroke, and the patient is typically unaware they have suffered a stroke. Despite not causing identifiable symptoms a silent stroke still causes damage to the brain, and places the patient at increased risk for both transient ischemic attack and major stroke in the future. In a broad study in 1998, more than 11 million people were estimated to have experienced a stroke in the United States. Approximately 770,000 of these strokes were symptomatic and 11 million were first-ever silent MRI infarcts or hemorrhages. Silent strokes typically cause lesions which are detected via the use of neuroimaging such as MRI. The risk of silent stroke increases with age but may also affect younger adults. Women appear to be at increased risk for silent stroke, with hypertension and current cigarette smoking being amongst the predisposing factors. These types of strokes include lacunar and other ischemic strokes and minor ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Validation of the CBF, CBV, and MTT Values by Perfusion MRI in Chronic Occlusive Cerebrovascular Disease. T2 - A Comparison with 15O-PET. AU - Kaneko, Koichiro. AU - Kuwabara, Yasuo. AU - Mihara, Futoshi. AU - Yoshiura, Takashi. AU - Nakagawa, Makoto. AU - Tanaka, Atsuo. AU - Sasaki, Masayuki. AU - Koga, Hirofumi. AU - Hayashi, Kazutaka. AU - Honda, Hiroshi. PY - 2004/5. Y1 - 2004/5. N2 - Rationale and Objectives. To evaluate the reliability of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time (MTT) values obtained by deconvolution algorithm perfusion-weighted MR imaging (D-PWI), we compared these values with those obtained by first-moment algorithm perfusion-weighted MR imaging (F-PWI) and 15O-PET. Subjects and Methods. Six healthy volunteers and eleven patients with chronic occlusive cerebrovascular disease were studied with both perfusion-weighted MR imaging and 15O-PET, and region-of-interest analyses were performed. Normalization factors for CBF ...
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Although this analysis does not allow for distinction between the relative importance of cohort versus period effect on the decline of stroke mortality, our results suggest that both effects are present in the decline of stroke mortality in Spain.. Dating from the beginning of the century, successive generations in Spain evince a decreasing risk of dying of stroke, irrespective of age and year of death, something which can be interpreted as a lowering in the probability of exposure to the risk factors for cerebrovascular mortality. Similar cohort effects have been described in Italy, England and Wales, Australia, Canada, and the United States.8 9 10 11 12 There are no data on stroke incidence trends in Spain, yet incidence decreased in other developed countries until the 1980s.13 14 15 16 From 1960 onward, industrial development in Spain brought with it massive rural-urban migration and a sharp socioeconomic rise, which could go some way to explain a subsequent decline in cerebrovascular risk. ...
The Multidisciplinary team in the Center for Cerebrovascular Diseases in the Department of Neurosurgery diagnoses, treats, and cares for patients suffering from cerebrovascular disorders including stroke, brain aneurysms, and carotid stenosis. Our specialists include neurosurgeons, interventional neuroradiologists, neurologists, and radiation specialists, who are supported by nurse practitioners, physician assistants and registered nurses specifically trained in the treatment of cerebrovascular disorders.
At the conclusion of this activity, participants should be able to:. 1. Discuss recent clinical and research advances in cerebrovascular neurosurgery.. 2. Describe current pre-operative, operative, and post-operative management of cerebrovascular disorders.. 3. Analyze current management of patients with complex cerebrovascular disorders. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cerebrovascular risk factors and preclinical memory decline in healthy APOE ε4 homozygotes. AU - Caselli, R. J.. AU - Dueck, A. C.. AU - Locke, D. E C. AU - Sabbagh, M. N.. AU - Ahern, Geoffrey L. AU - Rapcsak, Steven Z. AU - Baxter, L. C.. AU - Yaari, R.. AU - Woodruff, B. K.. AU - Hoffman-Snyder, C.. AU - Rademakers, R.. AU - Findley, S.. AU - Reiman, E. M.. PY - 2011/3/22. Y1 - 2011/3/22. N2 - Objective: To characterize the effects of cerebrovascular (CV) risk factors on preclinical memory decline in cognitively normal individuals at 3 levels of genetic risk for Alzheimer disease (AD) based on APOE genotype. Methods: We performed longitudinal neuropsychological testing on an APOE ε4 enriched cohort, ages 21-97. The long-term memory (LTM) score of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) was the primary outcome measure. Any of 4 CV risk factors (CVany), including hypercholesterolemia (CHOL), prior cigarette use (CIG), diabetes mellitus (DM), and hypertension (HTN), was ...
Stroke occurs when blood vessels to the brain are blocked (ischemic stroke) or burst (hemorrhagic stroke). This prevents oxygen from reaching the brain and damage can begin within minutes. The parts of the body controlled by the section of the brain affected will no longer work properly.
Cerebrovascular disease during pregnancy can be distilled into two major categories: thrombosis/ischemia (including arterial and venous infarction) and hemorrhage (including intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage). Normal physiologic changes assoc
Cause of Death, Cerebrovascular Accident/*mortality, Cerebrovascular Disorders/mortality, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Research Support; Non-U.S. Govt, Survivors, Sweden/epidemiology ...
The proper management of patients with cerebral ischemia or infarction depends upon (1) the etiology of the process, (2) its state of evolution, and (3) the relationship between the disorder in the...
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Scripps neurologists and neurosurgeons care for the entire spectrum of cerebrovascular disorders, involving the veins and arteries within the brain and neck.
Dr. Hakan Ay is a clinical neurologist who is appointed by departments of Neurology and Radiology at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School. Dr. Ay is specialized in stroke and cerebrovascular disorders. Dr. Ay`s research at the A.A. Martinos Center involves using imaging to investigate the clinic-anatomic-functional relationships in ischemic brain injury. Dr. Ay has developed various MRI-based methods to map clinical deficits using non-a priori anatomical hypotheses, to identify stroke etiology, and to predict tissue and clinical outcome following ischemic stroke. Dr. Ay`s other research interests include transient ischemic attacks, neurocardiology, stroke recovery, and genetic and plasma markers of ischemic brain injury.. ...
An imprecise term referring to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA.
I. Cerebral aneurysm is defined as a cerebrovascular disorder causes of the blood vessel to bulge or balloon out of the wall of a blood vessel as a result of the weaken of blood vessels and veins and occurred mostly at the bifurcations and branches of the large arteries located at the Circle of Willis. …. ...
18 645 patients 40-75 years of age (mean age 61 y, 69% postmenopausal women) from Japan with or without coronary artery disease (previous myocardial infarction [MI], coronary interventions, or angina pectoris) who had a total cholesterol concentration ⩾6.5 mmol/l (low density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol concentration ⩾4.4 mmol/l). Exclusion criteria included acute MI, cardiovascular (CV) reconstruction, or cerebrovascular disorders in … ...
Trends in Cerebrovascular Surgery (Acta Neurochirurgica Supplement) List Price:$219.00 ADD TO SHOPPING CART This volume provides an overview of new concepts in neurovascular interventions based on clinical and scientific knowledge of cerebrovascular disorders. It especially focuses on subarachnoid hemorrhage and
Cranial nerves pathology. Spasticity; cerebrovascular disorders. Parkinsons disease. ALS; Dementia. Multiple Sclerosis. Acute and chronic neuropathies. Epilepsy and EEG. Tumours. Cranioencephalic traumatism. Myopathies. Neuroradiology and rehabilitation.. ...
Eye Res. 345-347, 346f radiation therapy complications and, 368- 369 systemic conditions and, 319-369 cerebrovascular disorders, 347-358 immunologic disorders, 319- 336 Buuying 416 пinfeCiious disorders.
A silent stroke is a situation in which a person has a stroke but it only causes negligible symptoms, which a person may not even...
Looking for Cerebrovascular disease? Find out information about Cerebrovascular disease. of or relating to the blood vessels and the blood supply of the brain Explanation of Cerebrovascular disease
Advances in the acute treamtent of cerebral hemorrhage have improved the prognosis of the most morbid form of stroke, but gaps between evidence and practice remain in this fast-changing field. This session will present crucial evidence for improving the outcome of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. This program complements Cerebrovascular Disease I: Prevention, Cerebrovascular Disease III: Update on Neuroimaging Modalities and Endovascular Therapies for Acute Ischemic Stroke, and Cerebrovascular Disease IV: Telestroke, but covers independent topics ...
Patients were randomized to either the surgical group or medical group. In the surgical group, a unilateral or bilateral carotid endarterectomy angiography was performed if it had not been done prior to randomization. Aspirin use was discouraged in the surgical group. In the medical group, patients received aspirin 80 mg daily. All patients received treatment for other cerebrovascular risk factors as needed.. ...
To cut your risk of stroke, treating hypertension with medication and lifestyle changes can help, Manganaro said. Control your weight, reduce your consumption of red meat, eat more plant foods and talk to your doctor about starting an exercise program. If you smoke, make it a priority to quit. Smokers have double the risk of stroke than non-smokers, because smoking can lead to excessive blood clotting.. ...
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Part of the What Do I Do Now? series, Cerebrovascular Disease a case-based approach to cover common and important topics in the examination, investigation, and management of stroke, embolism, thrombosis, hemorrhage, and other critical presentations of cerebrovascular disease. Each chapter provides a discussion of the diagnosis, key points to remember, and selected references for further reading.
NEW YORK Walter Cronkite, the premier TV anchorman of the networks golden age who reported a tumultuous time with reassuring authority and came to be called the most trusted man in America, died Friday. He was 92.Cronkites longtime chief of staff, Marlene Adler, said Cronkite died at 7:42 p.m. at his Manhattan home surrounded by family. She said the cause of death was cerebral vascular disease.Adler said, I have to go now before breaking down into
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Aliev G, Smith MA, Seyidov D, Neal ML, Lamb BT, Nunomura A, Gasimov EK, Vinters HV, Perry G, Lamanna JC, Friedland RP. The role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular lesions in Alzheimers disease ...
Alzheimers disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia. Research into environmental factors is currently focused on cerebrovascular risk factors.1 Treatment of vascular risk factors has been associated with slower cognitive decline and reduced risk of AD in older populations.2 Genetics are important in rare genetically determined autosomal dominant familial patients with AD or frontotemporal dementia (FTD).3 Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a risk factor for familial late-onset sporadic AD, but its role as a risk factor in younger populations is unclear. The role of APOE as a risk factor for FTD is controversial.. Early-onset dementia is dementia that develops in individuals prior to the age of 65 years, and some studies suggest it is associated with a higher mortality. AD and FTD are the most common causes of dementia in this population.4 The onset of FTD may be characterised by behavioural change and speech disturbance, whereas AD is usually characterised by defective episodic memory. It is ...
It is an object of the invention to present an input and display apparatus for handwritten characters capable of freely editing input handwritten characters. A handwritten character entered on a touch panel by using a pen is registered as one stroke data. The registered one stroke data is divided in two stroke data by using the pen, or two stroke data are combined into one stroke data. By combination of stroke data division and combination, partial deletion in stroke data, blank insertion in stroke data, and insertion of other stroke data into stroke data are realized.
Inflammation is increasingly being understood to be a key component to the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular lesions. Ferumoxytol, an iron oxide nanoparticle coated by a carbohydrate shell, has been used in MRI studies as an inflammatory marker because it is cleared by macrophages. Ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI has emerged as an important tool for noninvasive assessment of the inflammatory status of cerebrovascular lesions, namely aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. Moreover, preliminary evidence suggests that ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI could be applied as a non-invasive tool to differentiate
The team induced a mild stroke similar to a silent stroke in the striatum area of the brain in mice. They found there was inflammation and brain damage in the striatum following the stroke, which they had expected. What the researchers didnt expect was the impact on another area of the brain, the substantia nigra. When they analysed the substantia nigra they recorded a rapid loss of Substance P (a key chemical involved in its functions) as well as inflammation. The team then analysed changes in the brain six days after the mild stroke and found neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra. Dopaminergic neurones had been killed.. Talking about the findings Dr Pinteaux said: "It is well known that inflammation following a stroke can be very damaging to the brain. But what we didnt fully appreciate was the impact on areas of the brain away from the location of the stroke. Our work identifying that a silent stroke can lead to Parkinsons disease shows it is more important than ever to ensure stroke ...
Various forms of cerebrovascular disorders may lead to cognitive impairment and dementia in the elderly [17]. While pure VaD - most frequently caused by infarctions - is rare, it is generally assumed that cerebrovascular pathology contributes to the development of cognitive impairment in other neurodegenerative diseases, in particular in mixed AD/VaD. Such mixed disorders are frequently observed in the brains of elderly individuals and their prevalence and severity increase with advancing age [37]. In aged individuals, lacunes, microbleeds, WMLs and microinfarcts have been associated with cognitive decline, including reduced mental speed and impaired executive functions [38]. Cerebral SVD may interact with pathophysiological processes in AD either independently of each other or through additive or synergistic effects on cognitive decline [39, 40]. There are several clinical classification criteria for VaD/VCI, such as the NINDS-AIREN criteria, the State of California Disease Diagnostic and ...
MACHADO, Sheila Braga; MENDES, Florentino Fernandes and ANGELINI, Adriana de Campos. Moyamoya disease and sevoflurane anesthesia outside the surgery center: case report. Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. [online]. 2002, vol.52, n.3, pp.344-347. ISSN 0034-7094. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-70942002000300010.. BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Moyamoya disease is a progressive cerebrovascular disorder implying anesthetic challenges due to patients poor brain perfusion, in addition to being a major cause for stroke in young people. This report aimed at describing a case of Moyamoya s disease in a patient submitted to general anesthesia with sevoflurane for a diagnostic procedure outside the surgery center. CASE REPORT: Male child, 13 years old, physical status ASA IV, with Moyamoya disease and neurological sequelae after three previous strokes, chronic renal failure and systemic hypertension admitted for high digestive endoscopy. In the supine position and after monitoring, inhalational induction was attained ...
Dr. Rudrajit Kanjilal, Neuro-surgeon at CMRI. Moyamoya disease is a well recognized phenomenon since 1940s, though it is a relatively uncommon cerebrovascular disorder which at times occur due to familial reason or genetic mutation. Originally, it was thought that the disease was region specific, specially Japan and other Asian countries, since it was first discovered in Japan. However, now we have seen that all races are equally prone to developing this disease. Arguably, its occurance is higher in Asian countries than in Europe or North America. The name of the disorder "Moyamoya" has been derived from Japanese language which means "puff of smoke". This exactly describes the appearance of the bunch of tangled tiny vessels formed at the base of the brain. In Japan it is a genetic, familial disease, while in India, it is sporadic, we dont see a familial trend in Indian subcontinent. It is idiopathic and mostly happen due to genetic mutation, but the incidence is not very rare. Causes and ...
Systems: Using Cox proportional hazards models, we examined the association between pipe smoking and mortality from tobacco-associated cancers and other disorders in a cohort of U. S. men registered in the Cancer Prevention Study II, an American Cancer Society prospective study. Results: Current pipe smoking, compared with never use of tobacco, was linked with a heightened risk of death from cancers of the lung (relative risk = 5. 95% confidence interval = 4. to 6.01), oropharynx (RR = 3. 95% CI = 2. to 7.08), esophagus (RR = 2. 95% CI = 1. to 3.95), colorectum (RR = 1. 95% CI = 1. to 1.73), pancreas (RR = 1. 95% CI = 1. to 2.09), and larynx (RR = 13. 95% CI = 5. to 33.1), and from coronary heart disease (RR = 1. 95% CI = 1. to 1.43), cerebrovascular disorder (RR = 1. 95% CI = 1. to 1.48), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (RR = 2. 95% CI = 2. to 4.11). To provide a more accurate estimate of the hazards connected with pipe smoking, we analyzed data on a substantial number of exclusive ...
Moyamoya disease is a rare, progressive cerebrovascular disorder caused by blocked arteries at the base of the brain in an area called the basal ganglia. The name
... joined the Tallahassee Neurological Clinic in 2012, after working as a Neurosurgeon at the University of Florida. He is board certified by the American Board of Neurological Surgery.. For his undergraduate studies, Dr. Lawson attended Harvard University and graduated magna cum laude with a degree in biochemical sciences in 2000. He then attended the University of Florida and received his medical degree cum laude in 2004. During medical school he was inducted into the Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) honor society. In July 2006, Dr. Lawson became a resident in Neurosurgery following several years of training in a combined general surgery/plastic and reconstructive surgery program. During his Neurosurgical training at UF he completed an 18-month dedicated fellowship in Endovascular Neurosurgery under the direction of Drs. Brian Hoh, J Mocco, and Chris Firment. This specialized training qualifies Dr. Lawson to treat complex cerebrovascular disorders such as intracranial aneurysms, ...
If naiveté alone was the crucial fault of this monograph, then it could, perhaps, at least be recommended for the naïve. But the concept of "chronic low perfusion" (of brain) recurring through the work is so misleading that the book is not recommended.. Current neurological opinion would take issue, and strongly so, with the belief that most cases of "chronic dizziness," syncope, dimness of vision, and decreased mentation or giddiness on arising (matutinal dizziness) are caused by diminished general vascular perfusion of brain. Perhaps current neurological opinion in this regard is in error. But I would need more than vague ...
Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States, but it is estimated that 80 percent of strokes are preventable. Many strokes can be prevented by medical treatment of risk factors and vascular surgery is the primary specialty that treats carotid artery plaques to prevent stroke.. Plaque build up in the carotid artery can lead to TIA (mini stroke) or stroke. For stroke prevention, we offer treatment for severe carotid narrowing in patients without clinical symptoms or for those with moderate to severe narrowing who are experiencing clinical symtpoms. Our division are known expertises on both carotid surgery and carotid stenting, as well as national and internationally recognized research on carotid disease.. Patients with vertebral arteries narrowing may notice vertigo (room spins), dizziness (there are many causes of dizziness, vertebral artery narrowing is an uncommon cause), and fainting. This constellation of symptoms is called vertebral insufficiency. Vascular surgery ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Global Markets Directs, Ischemic Cerebral Stroke - Pipeline Review, H2 2014, provides an overview of the Ischemic Cerebral Strokes therapeutic pipeline. This report provides
Depression is common amongst stroke victims, thus antidepressants are prescribed. A study finds that antidepressants improve stroke victims physical health, too.
The use of non-invasive brain and vascular imaging with CT and MRI scanning has continued to increase rapidly. This increase in imaging has led to the frequent detection of asymptomatic or incidental neurovascular conditions, including arteriovenous malformations, cavernous malformations, aneurysms, and carotid stenoses. There is considerable controversy in the management of these conditions which are very commonly seen in clinical practice. Faculty will review the evaluation and management of these asymptomatic neurovascular conditions ...
These are brain injuries that go unnoticed by doctors, unless the children have testing with a special MRI, he said. We looked at every child who went to the hospital for a 30-month period and identified about 400 children that came in with hemoglobin below 5.5 g/dL. That represented about 12 percent of the admissions for sickle cell disease and about 1 percent of the total admissions to Childrens Medical Center ...
The following are the current most viewed articles on Wikipedia within Wikipedias Cerebrovascular diseases category. Think of it as a Whats Hot list for Cerebrovascular diseases. More info ». This is a beta release and so the figures may be a day or two out of date. Wed love to get your thoughts. ...
Researchers have found that stroke victims develop higher risk for Alzheimer s disease because of gradual build-up of toxic chemicals due to reduced oxygen to the brain.
Botox is considered a poison with a purpose. Millions of Americans use it to help smooth their wrinkles. As more people use Botox as the ultimate wrinkle remover, doctors are realizing that its benefits go far deeper than the skin. Now its being used to help stroke victims. A study showing these benefits was released in October 2005.
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Comerota, A.J.; Katz, M.L.; Hosking, J.D.; Hashemi, H.A.; Kerr, R.P.; Carter, A.P., 1995: Is transcranial Doppler a worthwhile addition to screening tests for cerebrovascular disease?
The current invention provides novel methods for treating victims of cerebrovascular diseases such as stroke. The methods of the current invention rehabilitate weakened and atrophied muscles by applying electrical stimulation to the muscles. Preferably, the electric current cycles between on and off thereby at 10 second intervals thereby stimulating the muscle for 10 seconds and allowing the muscle to relax for 10 seconds. Treatment periods are preferably 15 minutes per day, five days per week. In general, treatments are performed over a 3 to 12 month period. Patients treated according to the disclosed methodology experience significant improvements in their overall quality of life.
Background and Purpose Little is known about the pattern of cerebrovascular disease CVD for diabetic and nondiabetic patients or about the cost of treatment for CVD in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to extend previous work to describe the epidemiology and cost of acute care of CVD as a frequent comorbidity of diabetes in a UK...
Diagnosis and conservative treatment of cerebrovascular disease (costs for program #130987) ✔ University Hospital Giessen UKGM ✔ Department of Neurology ✔ BookingHealth.com
Cerebrovascular Disease Diagnostics (costs for program #183569) ✔ University Hospital Marburg UKGM ✔ Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine ✔ BookingHealth.com
Is Cerebrovascular Accident a common side effect of Atenolol? View Cerebrovascular Accident Atenolol side effect risks. Female, 56 years of age, was diagnosed with blood pressure abnormal, eczema and took Atenolol .
Is Cerebrovascular Accident a common side effect of Cardensiel? View Cerebrovascular Accident Cardensiel side effect risks. Female, 77 years of age, was diagnosed with myeloma recurrence and took Cardensiel Oral.
o, if youre reading this, you are wondering about strokes. Either you, one of your parents or other loved one has had a stroke and you want answers. You may be a doctor and, like me you have been struck with the revelation that in the past 50 years we have made virtually no advances in either the immediate management of stroke victims or any impact on diminishing the long term deficits which so profoundly affect the lives of these patients and their families. Your questions could and, in fact, should include: "What causes a stroke?" "What kinds of strokes are there?" "How can I prevent a stroke?" "What happens in the Emergency Room when a new stroke patient is admitted?" "What should be done in the Emergency Room when a new stroke is admitted?" "What can be done if …. ...
It was a shock to him and his family when Hamza Al Hashim had a stroke in March but, just two months after attending a specialist rehab centre, hes on his way home to continue his recovery there.
That is an excellent question and it is very admirable that you would like to help your friend with these issues that he is having. Although you are a
A woman began noticing the early signs of a mini-stroke but was alert enough to send a video that doctors later used to treat her symptoms.
Care guide for Cerebrovascular Accident. Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
o, if youre reading this, you are wondering about strokes. Either you, one of your parents or other loved one has had a stroke and you want answers. You may be a doctor and, like me you have been struck with the revelation that in the past 50 years we have made virtually no advances in either the immediate management of stroke victims or any impact on diminishing the long term deficits which so profoundly affect the lives of these patients and their families. Your questions could and, in fact, should include: "What causes a stroke?" "What kinds of strokes are there?" "How can I prevent a stroke?" "What happens in the Emergency Room when a new stroke patient is admitted?" "What should be done in the Emergency Room when a new stroke is admitted?" "What can be done if …. ...
someone having a stroke may just look unaware or confused. Stroke victims have the best chance if someone around them recognizes the symptoms and acts quickly.. ...
People in their 80s are often prescribed drugs to ward off a stroke when the risk of a stroke is not that high and the drugs have other side effects, finds a perspective published online in Evidence Based Medicine.
Marutani, Eizo; Yamada, Marina; Ida, Tomoaki; Tokuda, Kentaro; Ikeda, Kohei; Kai, Shinichi; Shirozu, Kazuhiro et al. (Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, 2015) Link to Published Version ...
Of all the things parents worry about happening to their children, strokes usually arent one of them. Thats why Christina Lovett of Mattoon, Ill., and the family pediatrician thought her
Editor-Christopher J Weir and colleagues conclude from their study of a cohort of 750 non-diabetic patients with stroke that hyperglycaemia (plasma glucose concentration ,8 mmol/l) during the acute phase has an adverse influence on outcome and that this is independent of severity of stroke.1 Stroke severity was assessed in a limited way using only the Oxfordshire community stroke project classification and time to resolution of symptoms (≤72 hours or ,72 hours), both of which are relatively inaccurate measures. When two variables are closely correlated-for example, stroke severity and glucose concentration-the one that is most accurately measured (glucose concentration) will always emerge as the strongest explanatory variable in multiple regression even if it is, in fact, less important.2. We have produced a series of validated models to predict the probability of survival and disability using the 530 patients from the Oxfordshire community stroke project who were seen within 30 days of their ...
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play an important role in ischemic stroke. However, there are few studies on the relationship between EPC and nondisabling ischemic cerebrovascular events. Our aim was to investigate the association of EPCs and SDF-1 (serum stromal cell-derived factor-1) with NICE (nondisabling ischemic cerebrovascular events). TIA (transient ischemic attack) and minor stroke patients (153 in total) who had an onset of symptoms within 1 day were consecutively collected. 83 of the patients were categorized into the HR-NICE (high-risk nondisabling ischemic cerebrovascular event) group, and 70 of the patients were in the NHR-NICE (non-high-risk nondisabling ischemic cerebrovascular events) group. Adopted FCM (flow cytometry) was used to measure EPCs, taking double-positive CD34/KDR as EPCs. ELISA was used to measure the concentrations of serum SDF-1 and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor). By the sequence of admission time, 15 patients were selected separately from the HR-NICE
Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has been clinically used in many countries for treatment of cerebrovascular disorders such as stroke and dementia for more than 30 years. Currently, vinpocetine is also available in the market as a dietary supplement to enhance cognition and memory. Due to its excellent safety profile, increasing efforts have been put into exploring the novel therapeutic effects and mechanism of actions of vinpocetine in various cell types and disease models. Recent studies have revealed a number of novel functions of vinpocetine, including anti-inflammation, antagonizing injury-induced vascular remodeling and high-fat-diet-induced atherosclerosis, as well as attenuating pathological cardiac remodeling ...
Disorders of the centrally located thalamus, which integrates a wide range of cortical and subcortical information. Manifestations include sensory loss, MOVEMENT DISORDERS; ATAXIA, pain syndromes, visual disorders, a variety of neuropsychological conditions, and COMA. Relatively common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; BRAIN HYPOXIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and infectious processes ...
Disorders of the centrally located thalamus, which integrates a wide range of cortical and subcortical information. Manifestations include sensory loss, MOVEMENT DISORDERS; ATAXIA, pain syndromes, visual disorders, a variety of neuropsychological conditions, and COMA. Relatively common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; BRAIN HYPOXIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and infectious processes ...
In Response:. We appreciate the comments raised by Dahl et al in the letter above. However, there are a number of differences in the study design reported in our article published in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology1 and that of both Dahl et al2 and Elzouki et al,3 which could have led to discrepancies in the concluded role for alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT). While our study examined the association of common and rare AAT variants with progression of atherosclerosis in individuals with well defined atherosclerotic disease, the others looked at the occurrence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) or ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD) in individuals who carried rare AAT deficiency genotypes compared with controls. Atherosclerosis progression, IHD, and ICVD are very different disease endpoints, and furthermore, the causes of ischemia are multiple.4 In addition, while our study is a prospective analysis of angiographically defined disease, the other two are case:control analyses. So the ...
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BACKGROUND: The risk of recurrent stroke is up to 10% in the week after a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke. Modelling studies suggest that urgent use of existing preventive treatments could reduce the risk by 80-90%, but in the absence of evidence many health-care systems make little provision. Our aim was to determine the effect of more rapid treatment after TIA and minor stroke in patients who are not admitted direct to hospital. METHODS: We did a prospective before (phase 1: April 1, 2002, to Sept 30, 2004) versus after (phase 2: Oct 1, 2004, to March 31, 2007) study of the effect on process of care and outcome of more urgent assessment and immediate treatment in clinic, rather than subsequent initiation in primary care, in all patients with TIA or minor stroke not admitted direct to hospital. The study was nested within a rigorous population-based incidence study of all TIA and stroke (Oxford Vascular Study; OXVASC), such that case ascertainment, investigation, and follow-up were
Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to assess relations between arterial stiffness as measured by CFPWV and continuous measures of cognitive function. All cognitive function models were adjusted for the following covariates: age, height, weight, heart rate, diabetes mellitus, previous cardiovascular disease, use of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medication, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, triglycerides, smoking, education level, and depressive symptoms. We tested interactions of both CVR and WMH with CFPWV by incorporating corresponding interaction terms in the analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess relations of arterial stiffness with subclinical infarcts and microbleeds, adjusting for all of the above-mentioned covariates except education level and depressive symptoms. All continuous variables were entered as sex-specific z scores. CFPWV was inverted to normalize the distribution and limit heteroskedasticity; the inverted value was ...
Increasing evidence suggests to vascular damage as an early contributor to the development of two leading causes of age-associated dementia, namely Alzheimer disease (AD) and AD-like pathology such as stroke. This review focuses on the role of G protein-coupled receptor kinases, particularly GRK2 as they relate to dementia and how the vascular abnormalities is involved in cerebrovascular pathogenesis. Any possible involvement of GRKs in AD pathogenesis is an interesting notion, whose exploration may help bridge the gap in our understanding of the heart-brain connection in relation to neurovisceral damage and vascular complications in AD. The a priori basis for this inquiry stems from the fact that kinases of this family regulate numerous receptor functions in the brain, the myocardium and elsewhere. The aim of this review is to discuss the finding of GRK2 overexpression in the context of the early AD pathogenesis, since increased levels of GRK2 immunoreactivity were found in vulnerable neurons from AD
There will be without any doubt a place for quality articles in the area of neurosurgery showing ways and techniques that could assist in the treatment of occlusive cerebrovascular diseases, spinal cord and encephalic arteriovenous malformations cerebral aneurysms, cavernomas, dural fistulas, cerebral and cerebellar hemorrhage and cerebellar moyamoya disease and techniques to perform cerebral arterial encephalic bypass ...
Background: Continuous changes in stroke treatment and care, as well as changes in stroke characteristics, may alter stroke outcome over time. The aim of this paper is to describe time trends for treatment and outcome data, and to discuss if any such changes could be attributed to quality changes in stroke care. Methods: Data from Riks-Stroke, the Swedish stroke register, were analyzed for the time period of 1995 through 2010. The total number of patients included was 320,181. The following parameters were included: use of computed tomography (CT), stroke unit care, thrombolysis, medication before and after the stroke, length of stay in hospital, and discharge destination. Three months after stroke, data regarding walking, toileting and dressing ability, as well social situation, were gathered. Survival status after 7, 27 and 90 days was registered. Results: In 1995, 53.9% of stroke patients were treated in stroke units. In 2010 this proportion had increased to 87.5%. Fewer patients were ...
The invention provides a novel cerebral stroke recurrence inhibitor, and relates to a simple evaluation method for an cerebral stroke recurrence inhibitor. According to the simple evaluation method us
Prevention of stroke may be classified as primary prevention, if there is no previous history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA), and secondary...
BACKGROUND: Vascular disease is associated with increased risk of dementia. Vascular health worsens with age. We investigated the relationship between self-reported vascular disease and brain pathology. METHODS: Brain donations to the population-based MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (n=456, age range 66-103 years) were assessed using a standard protocol for Alzheimers disease (AD) and cerebrovascular pathology. History of stroke, angina, diabetes, medicated hypertension and heart attack were identified from self- and proxy-report interviews, retrospective informant interviews and death certificates. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations between each health condition and dichotomised neuropathological variables adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Stroke (36%), angina (23%), diabetes (12%), medicated hypertension (35%) and heart attack (22%) were frequently reported. Self-reported stroke was strongly associated with vascular, but not AD pathology. Medicated hypertension was
BACKGROUND: Stroke mortality rates in Brazil are the highest in the Americas. Deaths from cerebrovascular disease surpass coronary heart disease. AIM: To verify stroke mortality rates and morbidity in an area of São Paulo, Brazil, using the World He
A stroke is a serious condition where the blood supply to a part of the brain is cut off, usually by a blood clot blocking an artery (ischaemic stroke) or a bleed (haemorrhagic stroke). A large proportion of stroke victims suffer from long-term complications depending on the area of the brain that is affected, affecting their ability to speak, think and move. People with severe stroke experience significant muscle weakness which means that they spend much of their time in bed or sitting. This inactivity can cause their muscles to become even weaker and stiffer and may lead them to experience sudden drops in blood pressure when they move from lying to standing (orthostatic hypotension (OH). This further interferes with their ability to participate in intensive stroke rehabilitation, overall recovery and quality of life. Currently physiotherapy for people with severe stroke concentrates on practicing tasks such as getting in and out of bed into a chair that are important for independence and ...
An open study on the clinical efficacy of citicoline in patients with chronic cerebral vasculopathy. and Cumsille M. citicoline zynapse 1000mg Lefkowitz D
About 800,000 Americans suffer from a stroke each year. This is an increase from years past due to the ever-aging demographics of America. Not only are there more strokes each year, strokes are now more survivable than before thanks to advances in technology and medicine. Each year, the population of stroke survivors increases, creating a growing and underserved market. Strokes are notorious for causing long-term disability including forms of paralysis, memory loss and constipation. Post stroke, about 90 percent of patients require a form of rehab; many of these rehab methods are now being deemed "inadequate" for fully rehabilitating a patient. Traditional methods of rehabilitation revolve around what is known as gait therapy. Gait therapy is the rehabilitation of a patients walking ability post-injury or disability. One of the go-to pieces of equipment for gait therapy has been the treadmill, but treadmills lack the dynamic ability to rehab a patients sense of balance so that they may ...
Treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases is one of the most challenging problems of modern medicine. Tortuosity of a carotid artery (CA) is a common pathology that may cause ischemic stroke. In this study, 3D FEM models with fluid-structure interactions of carotid arteries with pathological tortuousities of four main types (S-bending,C-bending, kinking, coiling) along with normal CA were built using a real 3D-geometry based on computer tomography data. ...
Strokes arent necessarily generic in nature. There are several stroke types to consider, and each has their own method of treatment. Read on to learn more.
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According to researchers, a new study finds stroke victims who suffer from dementia are more than five times likely to die than stroke victims
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cerebrovascular complications of alcohol and sympathomimetic drug abuse. AU - Bruno, Askiel. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Alcohol abuse has been linked to intracranial hemorrhage, both intracerebral and subarachnoid. Some studies have found a dose-response relationship, so that increasing levels of abuse are associated with greater risk of hemorrhage. However, alcohol abuse has not been clearly linked to cerebral infarction, and some studies find that mild-to-moderate drinking appears to be associated with a decreased risk of cerebral infarction. Intravenous administration of drugs of abuse predisposes to endocarditis, which may lead to embolic stroke. Associations have been reported between various sympathomimetic drugs and cerebral infarction. A possible mechanism for cerebral infarction is focal arterial vasoconstriction and occasionally cerebral vasculitis. Associations have also been reported between various sympathomimetic drugs and intracranial hemorrhage. A likely ...
Cardium Therapeutics (OTCBB:CDTP) and its subsidiary InnerCool Therapies announced today that its endovascular temperature modulation technology was featured in the March 2007 issue of Mens Health. The article "The Miracle on Ice" highlights the benefits of InnerCools Celsius Control System during a cranial bypass surgery performed at Stanford University Medical Center. A copy of the article can be accessed at http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/rms/menh_1-19934755/. A reporter for Mens Health, Mikel Jollett, follows Gary K. Steinberg, M.D., Ph.D., Chairman of Neurosurgery at Stanford University Medical Center, while he performs an intracranial bypass surgery. The patient is cooled to 33 degrees Celsius, or 91.4 degrees Fahrenheit, with InnerCools Celsius Control system providing Dr. Steinberg with the valuable time necessary to bypass the blockages in the brain without causing brain-cell death. The patients underlying condition is Moyamoya disease, a progressive cerebrovascular disorder caused ...
Postoperative paraplegia is a devastating complication of inferior descending thoracic (iDTA) and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAA) operation. Despite refinements in surgical technique for spinal protection, the risk of postoperative neurologic deficit remains significant. Postoperative paraplegia in endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) was improved remarkably than conventional operations, but this method has an incidence of 5%. Cerebrospinal fluid drainage (CSFD) and dosage of Naloxone might be effective to protect spinal cord from ischemia. But these adjuncts are not clear yet in EVAR. A purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of CSFD on the incidence of spinal cord injury after EVAR of iDTA and TAAA. [Method] 625 patients received EVAR from January 1996 to March 2007. In these patients, the cases that stent-graft ending was inserted in periphery ahead of Th12 were 93. The average age was 73.4 years. Preoperative complications included 10 cases of cerebrovascular disorder, 9 cases ...
RCVS is a cerebrovascular disorder that can be occur as late as 3 weeks after an uncomplicated pregnancy, characteristic neuroimaging finding accompanied by severe and acute headache are important key features to consider RCVS diagnosis.. Here were present a 39-year-old woman, presented with headache and subsequent right hemiparesis 3 weeks after abortion. First brain CT scan was unremarkable. Brain CT angiography showed multiple segmental stenosis and at later scans, she developed sub arachnid hemorrhage (SAH) which is a pathognomonic feature of RCVS. She was treated with calcium channel blocker and headache relieved and hemiparesis was improved. Final diagnosis was made based on normal trans-cranial Doppler (TCD) study after 4 weeks of symptoms onset.. ...
Title:Basal Ganglia Enlarged Perivascular Spaces are Linked to Cognitive Function in Patients with Cerebral Small Vessel Disease. VOLUME: 11 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Marjolein Huijts, Annelien Duits, Julie Staals, Abraham A Kroon, Peter W de Leeuw and Robert J van Oostenbrugge. Affiliation:Department of Neurology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht , The Netherlands.. Keywords:Cerebral small vessel disease, cognition, enlarged perivascular spaces, hypertension, lacunar stroke, white matter lesions.. Abstract:Enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) are a feature of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) and have been related to cSVD severity. A higher number of EPVS were related to decreased cognition in healthy elderly, but this has never been investigated in patients at high risk of cSVD. We included 189 patients with a high risk of cSVD (hypertensive patients and lacunar stroke patients). Patients underwent brain MRI and extensive neuropsychological assessment. EPVS ...
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that common variants in the collagen genes COL4A1/COL4A2 are associated with sporadic forms of cerebral small vessel disease. METHODS: We conducted meta-analyses of existing genotype data among individuals of European ancestry to determine associations of 1,070 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the COL4A1/COL4A2 genomic region with the following: intracerebral hemorrhage and its subtypes (deep, lobar) (1,545 cases, 1,485 controls); ischemic stroke and its subtypes (cardioembolic, large vessel disease, lacunar) (12,389 cases, 62,004 controls); and white matter hyperintensities (2,733 individuals with ischemic stroke and 9,361 from population-based cohorts with brain MRI data). We calculated a statistical significance threshold that accounted for multiple testing and linkage disequilibrium between SNPs (p | 0.000084). RESULTS: Three intronic SNPs in COL4A2 were significantly associated with deep intracerebral hemorrhage (lead SNP odds ratio [OR] 1.29, 95%
Cognitive impairment is common in patients with cerebral small vessel disease, but is not well detected using common cognitive screening tests which have been primarily devised for cortical dementias. We developed the Brief Memory and Executive Test (BMET); a rapid screening measure sensitive to the impaired executive function and processing speed characteristic of small vessel disease (SVD). To assess the BMETs validity for general use, we evaluated it when administered by non-psychologists in a multicentre study and collected control data to derive normative scores. Two-hundred participants with SVD, defined as a clinical lacunar stroke and a corresponding lacunar infarct on MRI, and 303 healthy controls aged between 40-90 years old were recruited. The BMET, as well as the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), were performed. Overall, 55 SVD participants underwent repeat testing at 3 months to assess the BMET test-retest reliability. Administering the BMET

Cerebrovascular DisordersCerebrovascular Disorders

The Center for Cerebrovascular Disorders in Children has a team of pediatric neurosurgeons, neurologists, radiologists & more ... Cerebrovascular Disorders Cerebrovascular Disorders. Center for Cerebrovascular Disorders in Children. We are the only program ... Because cerebrovascular disease presents differently in children than in adults, our Center is designed to meet the unique ... of our primary team members works solely in the pediatric setting with a clinical interest in disorders of the cerebrovascular ...
more infohttps://www.childrens.com/specialties-services/specialty-centers-and-programs/center-for-cerebrovascular-disorders

Cerebrovascular disorders complicating pregnancyCerebrovascular disorders complicating pregnancy

Cerebrovascular disease during pregnancy can be distilled into two major categories: thrombosis/ischemia (including arterial ... This topic review will focus on the relationship between pregnancy and cerebrovascular disorders. Other neurologic disorders ... Cerebrovascular disorders complicating pregnancy. Authors. Men-Jean Lee, MD. Men-Jean Lee, MD ... Management and outcome of pregnancy in women with thrombophylic disorders and past cerebrovascular events. Acta Obstet Gynecol ...
more infohttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/cerebrovascular-disorders-complicating-pregnancy

Pediatric Cerebrovascular DisordersPediatric Cerebrovascular Disorders

Cerebrovascular disorders refer to a number of conditions that in children are typically linked to congenital malformations ( ... How cerebrovascular disorders are treated:. Depending on the nature and location of the malformation, the Childrens general ... Cerebrovascular disorders refer to a number of conditions that in children are typically linked to congenital malformations ( ... How cerebrovascular disorders are diagnosed:. Children with suspicious symptoms receive a thorough evaluation. If symptoms are ...
more infohttps://childrensnational.org/choose-childrens/conditions-and-treatments/brain--nervous-system/cerebrovascular-disorders

Therapy of Cerebrovascular Disorders | SpringerLinkTherapy of Cerebrovascular Disorders | SpringerLink

TOOLE, J.F., PATEL, A.N.: Cerebrovascular Disorders, p. 237-242. New York: McGraw Hill 1974.Google Scholar ... Toole J.F. (1977) Therapy of Cerebrovascular Disorders. In: Zülch K.J., Kaufmann W., Hossmann KA., Hossmann V. (eds) Brain and ... In: Cerebrovascular diseases (P. SCHEINBERG, Ed.). New York: Raven Press Publ., 1976.Google Scholar ... on Cerebrovascular Dis. (P. SCHEINBERG, Ed.), New York: Raven Press 1976.Google Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-66662-9_30

Cerebrovascular Disorders - MU Health CareCerebrovascular Disorders - MU Health Care

Often times these conditions can lead to stroke - one of the most well-known cerebrovascular diseases - or brain hemorrhage ... Cerebrovascular disorders include a wide variety of conditions that affect the blood vessels and circulation in the brain. When ... Cerebrovascular disorders include a wide variety of conditions that affect the blood vessels and circulation in the brain. When ... Cerebrovascular conditions have similar symptoms and treatment procedures as stroke and are treated by the same specialists. ...
more infohttps://www.muhealth.org/conditions-treatments/neurosciences/missouri-stroke-center/Cerebrovascular-Disorders

Stroke and Cerebrovascular Disorders | GuthrieStroke and Cerebrovascular Disorders | Guthrie

Similarly, cerebrovascular disorders affect the blood vessels and arteries that supply the brain, but come in many forms. These ...
more infohttps://www.guthrie.org/services/stroke-and-cerebrovascular-disorders

Cerebrovascular Disorder - ONACerebrovascular Disorder - ONA

Mental Health Disorder Linked to Poorer Survival in NSCLC. *Incidence of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder High Among Patients ... Psychotropic Medications With Mood Disorder Indications. *Complications and Management of Coagulation Disorders in Leukemia ... Always rule out conditions such as hypoglycemia, electrolyte disorders, metabolic encephalopathy from the liver, or kidney ...
more infohttp://www.oncologynurseadvisor.com/obstetrics-and-gynecology/cerebrovascular-disorder/article/618429/

Cerebrovascular Disorders and Stroke Recovery | UEFCerebrovascular Disorders and Stroke Recovery | UEF

Cerebrovascular Disorders and Stroke Recovery. Our group has strong clinical and experimental expertise in translational ... CNS-active drugs in aging population at high risk of cerebrovascular events: Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies. ... Hiltunen M, Jolkkonen J. In: Thalamus: Anatomy, Functions and Disorders, ed. Song JL. Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 83-98, 2011 ...
more infohttp://www.uef.fi/en/web/neuro/stroke

Cerebrovascular Disorders and Stroke Recovery | UEFCerebrovascular Disorders and Stroke Recovery | UEF

Cerebrovascular Disorders and Stroke Recovery. Our group has strong clinical and experimental expertise in translational ... CNS-active drugs in aging population at high risk of cerebrovascular events: Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies. ... Hiltunen M, Jolkkonen J. In: Thalamus: Anatomy, Functions and Disorders, ed. Song JL. Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 83-98, 2011 ...
more infohttp://www.uef.fi/web/neuro/stroke

Stroke & Cerebrovascular Disorders | UK HealthCareStroke & Cerebrovascular Disorders | UK HealthCare

World-class care right here in Kentucky Nearly 2,000 people in Kentucky died of stroke in 2010*. Its the fifth leading cause of death in the Commonwealth. And even those who survive often face a lifetime of disability. At UK HealthCare, were on a mission to provide the highest level of stroke care possible. And to turn those statistics around.
more infohttps://ukhealthcare.uky.edu/kentucky-neuroscience-institute/neurosurgery/stroke

Cerebrovascular Disorders | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard CatalystCerebrovascular Disorders | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst

"Cerebrovascular Disorders" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Cerebrovascular Disorders" was a major ... "Cerebrovascular Disorders" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Cerebrovascular Disorders" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Cerebrovascular Disorders". ...
more infohttps://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/Profiles/display/Concept/Cerebrovascular%20Disorders

Cerebrovascular Disorder - The Clinical AdvisorCerebrovascular Disorder - The Clinical Advisor

Differences Between Cyclothymic Disorder and Unspecified Bipolar Disorder in Youth May Indicate Course of Disorder ... Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk may decrease with LABA/LAMA in COPD *Does Bipolar I Disorder Effect the Course of ... Always rule out conditions such as hypoglycemia, electrolyte disorders, metabolic encephalopathy from the liver, or kidney ...
more infohttp://www.clinicaladvisor.com/obstetrics-and-gynecology/cerebrovascular-disorder/article/618426/

Cerebrovascular Disorders
      - Cerebrovascular Occlusion
     Summary Report | CureHunterCerebrovascular Disorders - Cerebrovascular Occlusion Summary Report | CureHunter

Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels ... Cerebrovascular Occlusion; Cerebrovascular Insufficiency; Brain Vascular Disorder; Cerebrovascular Disorder; Cerebrovascular ... Cerebrovascular Disorders (Cerebrovascular Occlusion). Subscribe to New Research on Cerebrovascular Disorders A spectrum of ... related to Cerebrovascular Disorders: 1. CyclandelateIBA 10/01/1984 - "Chronic cerebrovascular disorders: a clinical study with ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD002561.do

Dr. Jeremy Payne, MD - Phoenix, AZ - Vascular Neurology & Cerebrovascular Disorders | Healthgrades.comDr. Jeremy Payne, MD - Phoenix, AZ - Vascular Neurology & Cerebrovascular Disorders | Healthgrades.com

Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Jeremy Payne, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
more infohttps://www.healthgrades.com/physician/dr-jeremy-payne-xql42

按主题Cerebrovascular Disorders浏览Technical documents按主题"Cerebrovascular Disorders"浏览Technical documents

Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in Europe, but standards of care vary widely. It has been shown that improving the organization of care for people with stroke significantly improves the outcome. To improve ...
more infohttps://extranet.who.int/iris/restricted/handle/10665/107133/browse?locale-attribute=zh&type=mesh&authority=Cerebrovascular+Disorders

Cerebrovascular Disorders | Department of Neurological SurgeryCerebrovascular Disorders | Department of Neurological Surgery

Cerebrovascular Disorders Program. 400 Parnassus Ave, 8th Floor. San Francisco, CA 94143-0350. tel (415) 353-7500. fax (415) ... Cerebrovascular Disorders. The Neurovascular Disease and Stroke Center at UCSF Medical Center brings an integrated, ... Clinical and basic cerebrovascular research within the Department of Neurological Surgery is done in collaboration with the ... a wide range of research aimed at directly improving clinical outcomes and care for patients with cerebrovascular disorders. ...
more infohttps://neurosurgery.ucsf.edu/cerebrovascular-disorders

Stable xenon CT CBF measurements in prevalent cerebrovascular disorders (stroke). | StrokeStable xenon CT CBF measurements in prevalent cerebrovascular disorders (stroke). | Stroke

Stable xenon CT CBF measurements in prevalent cerebrovascular disorders (stroke).. J S Meyer, H Okayasu, H Tachibana, T Okabe ... Stable xenon CT CBF measurements in prevalent cerebrovascular disorders (stroke).. J S Meyer, H Okayasu, H Tachibana and T ... Stable xenon CT CBF measurements in prevalent cerebrovascular disorders (stroke).. J S Meyer, H Okayasu, H Tachibana and T ... Symptomatic cerebrovascular disease was characterized by accentuation of age-related LCBF declines. TIAs with unilateral ICA ...
more infohttp://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/15/1/80

presentar un cuadro vascular | show/manifest the symptoms of cerebrovascular disorderpresentar un cuadro vascular | show/manifest the symptoms of cerebrovascular disorder

... show/manifest the symptoms of cerebrovascular disorder [Medical]. ... show/manifest the symptoms of cerebrovascular disorder. Entered ... VaD may be defined as a dementia resulting from brain injury due to a cerebrovascular disorder. The term cerebrovascular ... VaD may be defined as a dementia resulting from brain injury due to a cerebrovascular disorder. The term cerebrovascular ... 2. presentar un cuadro vascular = show/manifest the symptoms of cerebrovascular disorder. Definition of Vascular Dementia ...
more infohttps://www.proz.com/kudoz/spanish_to_english/medical/34548-pudiendo_presentar_un_cuadro_vascular.html

Search of: Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies | Cerebrovascular Disorders - List Results - ClinicalTrials.govSearch of: Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies | 'Cerebrovascular Disorders' - List Results - ClinicalTrials.gov

1268 Studies found for: Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies , Cerebrovascular Disorders ... Comparing Effects of Various Combinations of 6 Hertz(Hz) rTMS & LFrTMS on Motor Recovery Due to Cerebrovascular Disease. * ... A Study of Donepezil Hydrochloride in Patients With Dementia Associated With Cerebrovascular Disease. *Dementia Associated With ... Prevalence of Genetic Polymporphism on RNF213 rs112735431 Gene in Non-cardioemboli Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease. *Ischemic ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?recr=Open&cond=%22Cerebrovascular+Disorders%22&show_flds=Y

Three-dimensional transcranial Doppler blood flow mapping in patients with cerebrovascular disorders. | StrokeThree-dimensional transcranial Doppler blood flow mapping in patients with cerebrovascular disorders. | Stroke

Three-dimensional transcranial Doppler blood flow mapping in patients with cerebrovascular disorders.. K Niederkorn, L G Myers ... We investigated 60 patients with cerebrovascular disorders using a three-dimensional transcranial Doppler blood flow mapping ... Three-dimensional transcranial Doppler blood flow mapping in patients with cerebrovascular disorders. ... Three-dimensional transcranial Doppler blood flow mapping in patients with cerebrovascular disorders. ...
more infohttp://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/19/11/1335

PPT - Chapter 62 Management of Patients with  Cerebrovascular  Disorders PowerPoint Presentation - ID:1178769PPT - Chapter 62 Management of Patients with Cerebrovascular Disorders PowerPoint Presentation - ID:1178769

Functional abnormality of the CNS that occurs when the blood supply is disrupted Stroke is the primary cerebrovascular disorder ... Chapter 62 Management of Patients with Cerebrovascular Disorders . Cerebrovascular Disorders. ... perspectives on psychological disorders anxiety disorders somatoform disorders dissociative disorders mood disorders ... Chapter 62 Management of Patients with Cerebrovascular Disorders . Cerebrovascular Disorders. Functional abnormality of the CNS ...
more infohttps://www.slideserve.com/mandell/chapter-62-management-of-patients-with-cerebrovascular-disorders

Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects Thesaurus - cerebrovascular disorder - Classes | NCBO BioPortalComputer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects Thesaurus - cerebrovascular disorder - Classes | NCBO BioPortal

broad category of disorders of blood flow in the arteries and veins which supply the brain; includes cerebral infarction, brain ... broad category of disorders of blood flow in the arteries and veins which supply the brain; includes cerebral infarction, brain ... http://ncicb.nci.nih.gov/xml/owl/EVS/Thesaurus.owl#Cerebrovascular_Disorder CSEO LOOM ... but refers to vascular disorders of the entire brain. ... but refers to vascular disorders of the entire brain. ...
more infohttp://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/CRISP?p=classes&conceptid=http%3A%2F%2Fpurl.bioontology.org%2Fontology%2FCSP%2F0617-5281

Targeting Therapeutics Across the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB), Prerequisite Towards Thrombolytic Therapy for Cerebrovascular...Targeting Therapeutics Across the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB), Prerequisite Towards Thrombolytic Therapy for Cerebrovascular...

blood brain barrier (BBB) cerebral ischemic disorders drug delivery earthworm protease neurodegenerative disorder thrombolytic ... Prerequisite Towards Thrombolytic Therapy for Cerebrovascular Disorders-an Overview and Advancements. ... The role of the blood-CNS barrier in CNS disorders and their treatment. Neurobiol Dis. 2010;37:3-12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Neurological disorders and therapeutics targeted to surmount the blood-brain barrier. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:3259-78. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1208/s12249-015-0287-z

Cerebrovascular disorders: molecular insights and therapeutic opportunities - Semantic ScholarCerebrovascular disorders: molecular insights and therapeutic opportunities - Semantic Scholar

Here we will discuss molecular insights into neurological disorders resulting either from excessive vessel growth (cerebral ... that vessels and angiogenic molecules actively participate in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. ... Cerebrovascular disorders: molecular insights and therapeutic opportunities. @article{Storkebaum2011CerebrovascularDM, title={ ... Cerebrovascular disorders: molecular insights and therapeutic opportunities}, author={Erik Storkebaum and Annelies Quaegebeur ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Cerebrovascular-disorders%3A-molecular-insights-and-Storkebaum-Quaegebeur/438c41c7a500097c48a16d638c272f6217022b47
  • Shim JW, Madsen JR. VEGF Signaling in Neurological Disorders. (harvard.edu)
  • The Department of Neurological Surgery is also home to cutting-edge surgical anatomy laboratory that is focused on developing more effective surgical strategies for complex cerebrovascular and skull base lesions. (ucsf.edu)
  • Emerging evidence suggests, however, that vessels and angiogenic molecules actively participate in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Barrow Neurological Institute also offers three fellowships: Cerebrovascular under the direction of Dr. Robert F. Spetzler, Neuroendovascular under the direction of Drs. Felipe C. Albuquerque and Andrew F. Ducruet, and Spinal Neurosurgery under the direction of Dr. Nicholas Theodore. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cerebrovascular Disorders" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Cerebrovascular Disorders" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Cerebrovascular Disorders" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Cerebrovascular Disorders" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • However, no amount of technical information can substitute for the judgment of the clinician who must understand the natural history of the disorder and relate it to the patient, his family unit, and in some cases, to his community. (springer.com)