Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Blood Circulation: The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Extracorporeal Circulation: Diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside the body but continuous with the bodily circulation.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency: Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Infarction, Posterior Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS induced by ISCHEMIA in the POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which supplies portions of the BRAIN STEM; the THALAMUS; TEMPORAL LOBE, and OCCIPITAL LOBE. Depending on the size and location of infarction, clinical features include OLFACTION DISORDERS and visual problems (AGNOSIA; ALEXIA; HEMIANOPSIA).Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: A condition caused by underdevelopment of the whole left half of the heart. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the left cardiac chambers (HEART ATRIUM; HEART VENTRICLE), the AORTA, the AORTIC VALVE, and the MITRAL VALVE. Severe symptoms appear in early infancy when DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS closes.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Norwood Procedures: A set of surgical procedures performed to establish sufficient outflow to the systemic circulation in individuals with univentricular congenital heart malformations, such as HYPOPLASTIC LEFT HEART SYNDROME, and MITRAL VALVE atresia, associated with systemic outflow obstruction. Follow-on surgeries may be performed and consist of a HEMI-FONTAN PROCEDURE as the stage 2 Norwood procedure and a FONTAN PROCEDURE as the stage 3 Norwood procedure.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Fontan Procedure: A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.Blalock-Taussig Procedure: A cardiovascular procedure performed to create a blood supply to the PULMONARY CIRCULATION. It involves making a connection between the subclavian, or carotid branch of the AORTA, or the AORTIC ARCH to the PULMONARY ARTERY.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Ginkgo biloba: The only specie of the genus Ginkgo, family Ginkgoacea. It is the source of extracts of medicinal interest, especially Egb 761. Ginkgo may refer to the genus or species.Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans: Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)Photometry: Measurement of the various properties of light.Poloxalene: A copolymer of polyethylene and polypropylene ether glycol. It is a non-ionic polyol surface-active agent used medically as a fecal softener and in cattle for prevention of bloat.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Animal Fins: Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Baths: The immersion or washing of the body or any of its parts in water or other medium for cleansing or medical treatment. It includes bathing for personal hygiene as well as for medical purposes with the addition of therapeutic agents, such as alkalines, antiseptics, oil, etc.Sunburn: An injury to the skin causing erythema, tenderness, and sometimes blistering and resulting from excessive exposure to the sun. The reaction is produced by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Prince Edward Island: An island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence constituting a province of Canada in the eastern part of the country. It is very irregular in shape with many deep inlets. Its capital is Charlottetown. Discovered by the French in 1534 and originally named Ile Saint-Jean, it was renamed in 1799 in honor of Prince Edward, fourth son of George III and future father of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p981 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p433)Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.JapanCoronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.

The functional anatomy of the normal human auditory system: responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz tones at varied intensities. (1/8163)

Most functional imaging studies of the auditory system have employed complex stimuli. We used positron emission tomography to map neural responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz sine-wave tones presented to the right ear at 30, 50, 70 and 90 dB HL and found activation in a complex neural network of elements traditionally associated with the auditory system as well as non-traditional sites such as the posterior cingulate cortex. Cingulate activity was maximal at low stimulus intensities, suggesting that it may function as a gain control center. In the right temporal lobe, the location of the maximal response varied with the intensity, but not with the frequency of the stimuli. In the left temporal lobe, there was evidence for tonotopic organization: a site lateral to the left primary auditory cortex was activated equally by both tones while a second site in primary auditory cortex was more responsive to the higher frequency. Infratentorial activations were contralateral to the stimulated ear and included the lateral cerebellum, the lateral pontine tegmentum, the midbrain and the medial geniculate. Contrary to predictions based on cochlear membrane mechanics, at each intensity, 4.0 kHz stimuli were more potent activators of the brain than the 0.5 kHz stimuli.  (+info)

Loss of endothelium and receptor-mediated dilation in pial arterioles of rats fed a short-term high salt diet. (2/8163)

A high salt diet often is regarded as an accessory risk factor in hypertension, coincidental to the deleterious effect of high blood pressure on vasodilator function. The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term ingestion of a high salt diet per se impairs vasodilator function in the cerebral circulation independent of blood pressure changes. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal salt (0.8%) or high salt (4%) diet for 3 days. Mean arterial pressures were similar in the normal and high salt groups (123+/-2 and 125+/-2 mm Hg, respectively). Subsequently, the responses of the in situ pial arterioles to acetylcholine, iloprost, and sodium nitroprusside were determined in cranial windows using intravital videomicroscopy. Pial arterioles of rats fed normal and high salt diets showed similar resting diameters of 69+/-2 and 72+/-3 microm, respectively, but their reactivity patterns to vasodilator stimuli were markedly different. Arterioles of rats fed a normal salt diet dilated progressively up to 17+/-3% in response to the endothelium-dependent agent acetylcholine (10(-9) to 10(-6) mol/L) and dilated by 22+/-2% in response to the prostaglandin I2 receptor agonist iloprost (3x10(-11) mol/L). In contrast, pial arterioles of rats fed a high salt diet constricted by 4+/-3% and 8+/-2% in response to acetylcholine and iloprost, respectively. Sodium nitroprusside (10(-6) mol/L), a nitric oxide donor, dilated pial arterioles of rats fed low and high salt diets by a similar amount (19+/-3% and 16+/-2%, respectively), suggesting that signaling mechanisms for dilation distal to the vascular smooth muscle membrane were intact after high salt intake. These results provide the first evidence that the short-term ingestion of a high salt diet may severely impair the vasodilator function of the in situ cerebral microcirculation independent of blood pressure elevation.  (+info)

Parametric mapping of cerebral blood flow deficits in Alzheimer's disease: a SPECT study using HMPAO and image standardization technique. (3/8163)

This study assessed the accuracy and reliability of Automated Image Registration (AIR) for standardization of brain SPECT images of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Standardized cerebral blood flow (CBF) images of patients with AD and control subjects were then used for group comparison and covariance analyses. METHODS: Thirteen patients with AD at an early stage (age 69.8+/-7.1 y, Clinical Dementia Rating Score 0.5-1.0, Mini-Mental State Examination score 19-23) and 20 age-matched normal subjects (age 69.5+/-8.3 y) participated in this study. 99mTc-hexamethyl propylenamine oxime (HMPAO) brain SPECT and CT scans were acquired for each subject. SPECT images were transformed to a standard size and shape with the help of AIR. Accuracy of AIR for spatial normalization was evaluated by an index calculated on SPECT images. Anatomical variability of standardized target images was evaluated by measurements on corresponding CT scans, spatially normalized using transformations established by the SPECT images. Realigned brain SPECT images of patients and controls were used for group comparison with the help of statistical parameter mapping. Significant differences were displayed on the respective voxel to generate three-dimensional Z maps. CT scans of individual subjects were evaluated by a computer program for brain atrophy. Voxel-based covariance analysis was performed on standardized images with ages and atrophy indices as independent variables. RESULTS: Inaccuracy assessed by functional data was 2.3%. The maximum anatomical variability was 4.9 mm after standardization. Z maps showed significantly decreased regional CBF (rCBF) in the frontal, parietal and temporal regions in the patient group (P < 0.001). Covariance analysis revealed that the effects of aging on rCBF were more pronounced compared with atrophy, especially in intact cortical areas at an early stage of AD. Decrease in rCBF was partly due to senility and atrophy, however these two factors cannot explain all the deficits. CONCLUSION: AIR can transform SPECT images of AD patients with acceptable accuracy without any need for corresponding structural images. The frontal regions of the brain, in addition to parietal and temporal lobes, may show reduced CBF in patients with AD even at an early stage of dementia. The reduced rCBF in the cortical regions cannot be explained entirely by advanced atrophy and fast aging process.  (+info)

Nitric oxide modulates endothelin 1-induced Ca2+ mobilization and cytoskeletal F-actin filaments in human cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells. (4/8163)

A functional interrelation between nitric oxide (NO), the endothelial-derived vasodilating factor, and endothelin 1 (ET-1), the potent vasoconstrictive peptide, was investigated in microvascular endothelium of human brain. Nor-1 dose-dependently decreased the ET-1-stimulated mobilization of Ca2+. This response was mimicked with cGMP and abrogated by inhibitors of guanylyl cyclase or cGMP-dependent protein kinase G. These findings indicate that NO and ET-1 interactions involved in modulation of intracellular Ca2+ are mediated by cGMP/protein kinase G. In addition, Nor-1-mediated effects were associated with rearrangements of cytoskeleton F-actin filaments. The results suggest mechanisms by which NO-ET-1 interactions may contribute to regulation of microvascular function.  (+info)

Expression of neuropeptide Y receptors mRNA and protein in human brain vessels and cerebromicrovascular cells in culture. (5/8163)

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been suggested as an important regulator of CBF. However, except for the presence of Y1 receptors in large cerebral arteries, little is known about its possible sites of action on brain vessels. In this study, we sought to identify the NPY receptors present in the human cerebrovascular bed. Specific Y1 receptor binding sites, localized on the smooth muscle of human pial vessels and potently competed by NPY, polypeptide YY (PYY), and the selective Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP 3226, were identified by quantitative radioautography of the Y1 radioligand [125I]-[Leu31, Pro34]-PYY. In contrast, no specific binding of the Y2-([125I]-PYY3-36) and Y4/Y5-(125I-human pancreatic polypeptide [hPP]) radioligands could be detected. By in situ hybridization, expression of Y1 receptor mRNA was restricted to the smooth muscle layer of pial vessels, whereas no specific signals were detected for either Y2, Y4, or Y5 receptors. Similarly, using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), mRNA for Y1 but not Y2, Y4, or Y5 receptors was consistently detected in isolated human pial vessels, intracortical microvessels, and capillaries. In human brain microvascular cells in culture, PCR products for the Y1 receptors were exclusively found in the smooth muscle cells. In cultures of human brain astrocytes, a cell type that associates intimately with brain microvessels, PCR products for Y1, Y2, and Y4 but not Y5 receptors were identified. Finally, NPY significantly inhibited the forskolin-induced cAMP production in smooth muscle but not in endothelial cell cultures. We conclude that smooth muscle Y1 receptors are the primary if not exclusive NPY receptors associated with human brain extraparenchymal and intraparenchymal blood vessels, where they most likely mediate cerebral vasoconstriction.  (+info)

Disrupted temporal lobe connections in semantic dementia. (6/8163)

Semantic dementia refers to the variant of frontotemporal dementia in which there is progressive semantic deterioration and anomia in the face of relative preservation of other language and cognitive functions. Structural imaging and SPECT studies of such patients have suggested that the site of damage, and by inference the region critical to semantic processing, is the anterolateral temporal lobe, especially on the left. Recent functional imaging studies of normal participants have revealed a network of areas involved in semantic tasks. The present study used PET to examine the consequences of focal damage to the anterolateral temporal cortex for the operation of this semantic network. We measured PET activation associated with a semantic decision task relative to a visual decision task in four patients with semantic dementia compared with six age-matched normal controls. Normals activated a network of regions consistent with previous studies. The patients activated some areas consistently with the normals, including some regions of significant atrophy, but showed substantially reduced activity particularly in the left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (iTG) (Brodmann area 37/19). Voxel-based morphometry, used to identify the regions of structural deficit, revealed significant anterolateral temporal atrophy (especially on the left), but no significant structural damage to the posterior inferior temporal lobe. Other evidence suggests that the left posterior iTG is critically involved in lexical-phonological retrieval: the lack of activation here is consistent with the observation that these patients are all anomic. We conclude that changes in activity in regions distant from the patients' structural damage support the argument that their prominent anomia is due to disrupted temporal lobe connections.  (+info)

The cerebral haemodynamics of music perception. A transcranial Doppler sonography study. (7/8163)

The perception of music has been investigated by several neurophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Results from these studies suggest a right hemisphere dominance for non-musicians and a possible left hemisphere dominance for musicians. However, inconsistent results have been obtained, and not all variables have been controlled by the different methods. We performed a study with functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) of the middle cerebral artery to evaluate changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) during different periods of music perception. Twenty-four healthy right-handed subjects were enrolled and examined during rest and during listening to periods of music with predominant language, rhythm and harmony content. The gender, musical experience and mode of listening of the subjects were chosen as independent factors; the type of music was included as the variable in repeated measurements. We observed a significant increase of CBFV in the right hemisphere in non-musicians during harmony perception but not during rhythm perception; this effect was more pronounced in females. Language perception was lateralized to the left hemisphere in all subject groups. Musicians showed increased CBFV values in the left hemisphere which were independent of the type of stimulus, and background listeners showed increased CBFV values during harmony perception in the right hemisphere which were independent of their musical experience. The time taken to reach the peak of CBFV was significantly longer in non-musicians when compared with musicians during rhythm and harmony perception. Pulse rates were significantly decreased in non-musicians during harmony perception, probably due to a specific relaxation effect in this subgroup. The resistance index did not show any significant differences, suggesting only regional changes of small resistance vessels but not of large arteries. Our fTCD study confirms previous findings of right hemisphere lateralization for harmony perception in non-musicians. In addition, we showed that this effect is more pronounced in female subjects and in background listeners and that the lateralization is delayed in non-musicians compared with musicians for the perception of rhythm and harmony stimuli. Our data suggest that musicians and non-musicians have different strategies to lateralize musical stimuli, with a delayed but marked right hemisphere lateralization during harmony perception in non-musicians and an attentive mode of listening contributing to a left hemisphere lateralization in musicians.  (+info)

Correlation of regional cerebral blood flow and change of plasma sodium concentration during genesis and satiation of thirst. (8/8163)

Positron emission tomography studies were conducted during genesis of moderate thirst by rapid i.v. infusion of hypertonic saline (0.51 M) and after satiation of thirst by drinking water. The correlation of regional cerebral blood flow with the change in the plasma Na concentration showed a significant group of cerebral activations in the anterior cingulate region and also a site in the middle temporal gyrus and in the periaqueductal gray. Strongest deactivations occurred in the parahippocampal and frontal gyri. The data are consistent with an important role of the anterior cingulate in the genesis of thirst.  (+info)

article{3b545620-2f5d-4405-9964-2753884aaa8d, abstract = {The effect of moderate hypoglycaemia (venous blood glucose 2.0 +/- 0.2 mmol/l; mean +/- SD) on regional cerebral blood flow and cerebral volume was studied in a group of ten right-handed patients with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (age 26.0 +/- 2.4 years, duration 18.4 +/- 3.8 years) using an intravenous Xenon 133 single photon emission computed tomography technique. After 10 min of hypoglycaemia, global cerebral blood flow had increased to 55.8 +/- 4.5 ml.100 g-1.min-1 compared to the initial normoglycaemic flow of 49.5 +/- 3.7 ml.100 g-1.min-1 (p < 0.01). A further increase in global cerebral blood flow to 59.5 +/- 4.5 ml.100 g-1.min-1 (p < 0.05) occurred 15 min after normalization of the blood glucose level. The global cerebral blood flow change from before hypoglycaemia to after recovery was inversely related to the initial glucose level. No change in the relative distribution of the regional cerebral blood flow ...
Recently, short-term visual deprivation has been shown to affect a variety of non-visual processes and regional cortical activity (Sathian & Zangaladze, 2001). Surprisingly, very little is known about how such visual deprivation impacts regional cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) or its adaptation with the underlying neuronal activity (i.e., neurovascular coupling). The current study sought to investigate the effects of short-term (two-hour) visual deprivation on regional CBFv and neurovascular coupling. CBFv (transcranial Doppler ultrasound) was measured concurrently in the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Neurovascular coupling was assessed using established methods, consisting of two minutes of baseline (eyes closed and reading), five cycles of 40 seconds reading - 20 seconds eyes-closed (primary protocol), and five cycles of 40 seconds eyes-moving - 20 seconds eyes-closed (secondary protocol). Neurovascular coupling, using both protocols, was collected ...
J. M. Whitley, D. S. Prough, A. K. Lamb, D. D. Deal, D. S. DeWitt; REGIONAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW FOLLOWING RESUSCITATION FROM HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK IN DOGS WITH A SUBDURAL MASS. Anesthesiology 1988;69(3A):A539. Download citation file:. ...
Chi, O.Z., C. Hunter, X. Liu, S.K. Chokshi and H.R. Weiss. Effects of fentanyl pretreatment on regional cerebral blood flow in focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Pharmacol. 85:153-157, 2010.. Chi, O.Z., C. Hunter, X. Liu and H.R. Weiss. The effects of isoflurane pretreatment on cerebral blood flow, capillary permeability, and oxygen consumption in focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Anesth. Analg. 110:1412-1418, 2010.. Liu, X., C. Hunter, H.R. Weiss and O.Z. Chi. Effects of blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors on blood-brain barrier disruption in focal cerebral ischemia. Neurol. Sci. 31:699-703, 2010.. Chi, O.Z., C. Hunter, X. Liu, Y. Chi and H.R. Weiss. Effects of GABAA receptor blockade on regional cerebral blood flow and blood-brain barrier disruption in focal cerebral ischemia. J. Neurol. Sci. 301:66-70, 2011.. Chi, O.Z., C. Hunter, X. Liu and H.R. Weiss. The effects of dexmedetomidine on regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption during severe hemorrhagic hypotension in rats. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cerebral blood flow autoregulation is impaired in schizophrenia. T2 - A pilot study. AU - Ku, Hsiao Lun. AU - Wang, Jiunn Kae. AU - Lee, Hsin-Chien. AU - Lane, Timothy Joseph. AU - Liu, I-Chao. AU - Chen, Yung Chan. AU - Lee, Yao Tung. AU - Lin, I Cheng. AU - Lin, Chia Pei. AU - Hu, Chaur-Jong. AU - Chi, Nai-Fang. PY - 2017/10. Y1 - 2017/10. N2 - Patients with schizophrenia have a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases and higher mortality from them than does the general population; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Impaired cerebral autoregulation is associated with cerebrovascular diseases and their mortality. Increased or decreased cerebral blood flow in different brain regions has been reported in patients with schizophrenia, which implies impaired cerebral autoregulation. This study investigated the cerebral autoregulation in 21 patients with schizophrenia and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. None of the participants had a history of cardiovascular ...
Changes in cerebral blood flow are an essential feature of Alzheimers disease and have been linked to apolipoprotein E-genotype and cerebral amyloid-deposition. These factors could be interdependent or influence cerebral blood flow via different mechanisms. We examined apolipoprotein E-genotype, amyloid beta-deposition, and cerebral blood flow in amnestic mild cognitive impairment using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling MRI in 27 cognitively normal elderly and 16 amnestic mild cognitive impairment participants. Subjects underwent Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography and apolipoprotein E-genotyping. Global cerebral blood flow was lower in apolipoprotein E ɛ4-allele carriers (apolipoprotein E4+) than in apolipoprotein E4- across all subjects (including cognitively normal participants) and within the group of cognitively normal elderly. Global cerebral blood flow was lower in subjects with mild cognitive impairment compared with cognitively normal. Subjects with ...
Progressive loss of brain tissue is seen in some patients with schizophrenia and might be caused by increased levels of glutamate and resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) alterations. Animal studies suggest that normalization of glutamate levels decreases rCBF and prevents structural changes in hippocampus. However, the relationship between glutamate and rCBF in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of humans has not been studied in the absence of antipsychotics and illness chronicity. Ketamine is a non-competitive N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor antagonist that transiently induces schizophrenia-like symptoms and neurobiological disturbances in healthy volunteers (HV). Here, we used S-ketamine challenge to assess if glutamate levels were associated with rCBF in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in 25 male HV. Second, we explored if S-ketamine changed neural activity as reflected by rCBF alterations in thalamus and accumbens that are connected with ACC. Glutamatergic metabolites were measured in ACC with magnetic
Definition of Cerebrovascular circulation with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
This study sought to determine the degree of agreement between asymmetries of neuropsychological functioning and nine methods of quantifying asymmetries of regional cerebral blood flow.. The regional cerebral blood flow methods combined three markers of cerebral blood flow asymmetry (percent hemispheric difference, maximum percent probe-pair asymmetry, and number of probe-pair asymmetries) with three indexes of regional cerebral blood flow (fast compartment flow, initial slope index, and initial slope). Eleven patients with left hemispheric ischemic strokes and 13 with right hemispheric ischemic strokes were studied with the xenon-133 inhalation technique and neuropsychological tests.. Blind clinical judgments of neuropsychological asymmetry significantly correlated with all nine methods of cerebral blood flow asymmetry determination; correlations ranged from -0.42 to -0.77. Clinical judgment of asymmetry of neuropsychological functioning accurately predicted the hemisphere of lower flow in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Frontotemporal cerebral blood flow change during executive and declarative memory tasks in schizophrenia. T2 - A positron emission tomography study. AU - Ragland, John D. AU - Gur, Ruben C.. AU - Glahn, David C.. AU - Censits, David M.. AU - Smith, Robin J.. AU - Lazarev, Mark G.. AU - Alavi, Abass. AU - Gur, Raquel E.. PY - 1998/7. Y1 - 1998/7. N2 - Schizophrenia affects prefrontal and temporal-limbic networks. These regions were examined by contrasting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during executive (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test [WCST]), and declarative memory tasks (Paired Associate Recognition Test [PART]). The tasks, and a resting baseline, were administered to 15 patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy controls during 10 min positron emission tomography 15O-water measures of rCBF. Patients were worse on both tasks. Controls activated inferior frontal, occipitotemporal, and temporal pole regions for both tasks. Similar results were obtained for controls matched to ...
Hypoxia increases cerebral blood flow (CBF), but it is unknown whether this increase is uniform across all brain regions. We used H215O positron emission tomography imaging to measure absolute blood flow in 50 regions of interest across the human brain (n = 5) during normoxia and moderate hypoxia. PCO2 was kept constant (44 Torr) throughout the study to avoid decreases in CBF associated with the hypocapnia that normally occurs with hypoxia. Breathing was controlled by mechanical ventilation. During hypoxia (inspired PO2 = 70 Torr), mean end-tidal PO2 fell to 45 ᠶ.3 Torr (means ᠓D). Mean global CBF increased from normoxic levels of 0.39 ᠰ.13 to 0.45 ᠰ.13 ml/g during hypoxia. Increases in regional CBF were not uniform and ranged from 9.9 ᠸ.6% in the occipital lobe to 28.9 ᠱ0.3% in the nucleus accumbens. Regions of interest that were better perfused during normoxia generally showed a greater regional CBF response. Phylogenetically older regions of the brain tended to show larger ...
Although it is now well documented (6, 8) that pial as well as intracerebral vessels are amply supplied with sympathetic adrenergic nerves which, as shown for pial arteries, fulfill ultra-structural...
Four major, interdependent mechanisms are involved in the control of cerebral blood flow: metabolic coupling: neural control, involving both extrinsic and intrinsic neural pathways: Pco2 and autoregulation. Although this division may be somewhat artificial and these control mechanisms probably operate in concert, it is useful to consider each separately. Metabolic Control Local cerebral blood flow (CBF) is regionally heterogeneous. The varied pattern of CBF is neither random nor related to the anatomic organization of the cerebral vasculature or to known differences in the innervation patterns of the cerebral vessels. Neuronal activity is the principal energy-consuming process in the brain. Local cerebral blood flow adjusts to the level of energy generation; therefore, it is the activity in the neuronal circuits that is the major determinant of variations and regional patterns of cerebral blood flow. Normally there is exquisite coupling between the regional cerebral metabolic demand for oxygen ...
Oak Za Chi, Hwu Meei Wei, Dorene A. OHara, Arabinda K. Sinha, Harvey R. Weiss; Effects of Pentobarbital and Isoflurane on Regional Cerebral Oxygen Extraction and Consumption with Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Rats. Anesthesiology 1993;79(2):299-305. Download citation file:. ...
This study investigated whether the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) would alter blood flow and oxygen balance in the ischemic cerebrocortex of isoflurane-anesthetized Long-Evans rats.. Fifteen minutes after middle cerebral artery occlusion, L-NAME (1.5 mg/min per kilogram) was infused intravenously to the L-NAME group (n = 14), and normal saline was given to the control group (n = 14) for 45 minutes. In each group, regional cerebral blood flow was determined with [14C]iodoantipyrine, and arterial and venous oxygen saturations were determined by microspectrophotometry.. In both groups regional cerebral blood flow of the ischemic cortex was significantly lower than that of the contralateral cortex ([mean +/- SD] 55 +/- 13 versus 110 +/- 29 mL/min per 100 g in the control group and 35 +/- 13 versus 90 +/- 24 mL/min per 100 g in the L-NAME group). Compared with the blood flow in the ischemic cortex of the control group, L-NAME significantly reduced ischemic ...
The results of studies utilizing the nitrous oxide technic for measuring cerebral blood flow have been reviewed and divided into three groups: (1) those in which cerebral blood flow and metabolism were normal, (2) those in which cerebral blood flow was increased, and (3) those in which cerebral blood flow and metabolism were decreased. The factors which apparently regulate and control cerebral blood flow and metabolism are reviewed and discussed.. ...
3) with the assumption that the large and small vessel Hcts are equal.12. Strictly, recirculation effects should be recognized and removed from the curves. In reality, unless there is significant BBB permeability or areas of very low flow, recirculation effects may be ignored and actually lead to improved estimates of plasma volume that are less sensitive to contrast agent delivery rates (ie, CBF). In low-flow regions, if the tracer does not complete its first passage within the time given for the measurement (usually about 25-30 seconds), it will be undercounted and vp will be underestimated. Because of this result, some authors writing about ischemia have used the term "perfused CBV".13 This may account for the discrepancies seen in between PWI and C15O PET estimates of CBV in ischemia.14 In fact, in the extreme, one would prefer to image as late after injection as possible; when the contrast agent concentration is changing slowly, it more closely approximates a steady-state or "blood pool" ...
The Windkessel properties of the vasculature are known to play a significant role in buffering arterial pulsations, but their potential importance in dampening low-frequency fluctuations in cerebral blood flow has not been clearly examined. In this study, we quantitatively assessed the contribution of arterial Windkessel (peripheral compliance and resistance) in the dynamic cerebral blood flow response to relatively large and acute changes in blood pressure. Middle cerebral artery flow velocity (MCA(V); transcranial Doppler) and arterial blood pressure were recorded from 14 healthy subjects. Low-pass-filtered pressure-flow responses (,0.15 Hz) during transient hypertension (intravenous phenylephrine) and hypotension (intravenous sodium nitroprusside) were fitted to a two-element Windkessel model. The Windkessel model was found to provide a superior goodness of fit to the MCA(V) responses during both hypertension and hypotension (R² = 0.89 ± 0.03 and 0.85 ± 0.05, respectively), with a ...
We used H(2)15O positron emission tomography (PET) to measure age-related changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during a verbal recognition memory task. Twelve young adults (20 to 29 years) and 12 older adults (62 to 79 years) participated. Separate PET scans were conducted during Encoding, Baseline, and Retrieval conditions. Each of the conditions involved viewing a series of 64 words and making a two-choice response manually. The complete reaction time (RT) distributions in each task condition were characterized in terms of an ex-Gaussian model (convolution of exponential and Gaussian functions). Parameter estimates were obtained for the mean of the exponential component (tau), representing a task-specific decision process and the mean of the Gaussian component (mu) representing residual sensory coding and response processes. Independently of age group, both tau and mu were higher in the Encoding and Retrieval conditions than in the Baseline condition, and tau was higher during ...
All inhaled anesthetics increase cerebral blood flow and decrease cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2). Nitrous oxide, however, will increase CMRO2. Nitrous oxide, as well as inhaled anesthetics, causes cerebral vasodilation. However, if the patients blood pressure drops, the increase in cerebral blood flow will be attenuated or abolished because volatile anesthetics inhibit autoregulation. Isoflurane causes the least cerebral vasodilation, maintaining autoregulation better than other volatile anesthetics. Isoflurane also has no effect on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production and decreases resistance to CSF absorption. Desflurane increases CSF production without significantly effecting CSF reabsorption. ...
To test the hypothesis that craving for alcohol in the alcohol-dependent individual is mediated by a limbic circuit involving the caudate nuclei, regional cerebral blood flow was measured with [99mTc]HMPAO SPECT during control and craving conditions in 9 alcohol-dependent subjects. In all subjects, blood flow in the head of the right caudate nucleus increased during the craving condition, and these blood flow increases were strongly correlated with the experimentally induced increases in craving for alcohol. These new findings suggest a functional role for the limbic striatum in the mediation of craving and impaired control over alcohol consumption.
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The aim of the study is to determine if regional cerebral blood flow, measured by dynamic arterial spin labeling (dASL), can be a biomarker for stage of Alzheimers disease. The study is designed to be conducted in 2 parts in participants with mild to moderate Alzheimers disease, and participants with normal cognition. Various imaging studies will be done using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) along with neurocognitive assessments. Participants who meet the study-entry criteria will have up to 8 study visits. Repeat imaging studies may be required if the initial data are incomplete or un-interpretable. The maximum number of PET scans during the study will be limited to four ...
The aim of the study is to determine if regional cerebral blood flow, measured by dynamic arterial spin labeling (dASL), can be a biomarker for stage of Alzheimers disease. The study is designed to be conducted in 2 parts in participants with mild to moderate Alzheimers disease, and participants with normal cognition. Various imaging studies will be done using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) along with neurocognitive assessments. Participants who meet the study-entry criteria will have up to 8 study visits. Repeat imaging studies may be required if the initial data are incomplete or un-interpretable. The maximum number of PET scans during the study will be limited to four ...
Modulation of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system results in changes in memory performance, including working memory (WM), in animals and in patients with Alzheimer disease. To identify associated changes in the functional brain response, we studied performance measures and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using positron emission tomography (PET) in healthy subjects during performance of a WM task. Eight control subjects received an infusion of saline throughout the study and 13 experimental subjects received a saline infusion for the first 2 scans followed by a continuous infusion of physostigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, for the subsequent 8 scans. rCBF was measured using H215O and PET in a sequence of 10 PET scans that alternated between rest and task scans. During task scans, subjects performed the WM task for faces. Physostigmine both improved WM efficiency, as indicated by faster reaction times, and reduced WM task-related activity in anterior and posterior regions of ...
The goal of this study was to determine if regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF)in the left and right hemithalami or the left and right heads of the cau
TY - JOUR. T1 - Opioids and the prostanoid system in the control of cerebral blood flow in hypotensive piglets. AU - Armstead, W. M.. AU - Mirro, R.. AU - Busija, D. W.. AU - Leffler, Charles. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - The interaction between opioid and prostanoid mechanisms in the control of cerebral hemodynamics was investigated in the conscious hypotensive piglet. Radiomicrospheres were used to determine regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in piglets pretreated with the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, or its vehicle, saline, during normotension, hypotension, and after the administration of indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, during hypotension. Hemorrhage (30 ml/kg) decreased systemic arterial pressure from 68 ± 12 to 40 ± 10 mm Hg but did not decrease blood flow to any brain region. Indomethacin treatment (5 mg/kg) of hypotensive piglets decreased blood flow to all brain regions within 20 min; this decrease blood flow to all brain regions within 20 rebral vascular ...
Continuous recording of mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MCBFV) by Doppler ultrasound allows detection of low-frequency (LF) oscillations, which reflect sympathetic activity in the cerebral circulation. To establish whether the sympathetic drive to the cerebral circulation is altered in patients with compensated cirrhosis, and, if so, where alterations take place, LF oscillations of MCBFV, heart rate (RR interval) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) were analysed in 10 patients with cirrhosis and 10 control subjects during supine rest and on stimulation of carotid baroreceptors using a neck chamber applying sinusoidal suction. Bivariate analysis was used to study the relationship between pairs of oscillations. In the case of a significant association, the delay in the appearance of the oscillation in MCBFV, SAP and RR was calculated. Baroreceptor stimulation induced significant increases in SAP LF and RR LF power in both groups, while MCBFV LF power increased only in controls. During ...
Standard techniques of cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurement provide information on both global and regional flow in patients with cerebral ischaemia or infarction. Recent availability of positron emission tomography (PET), recording oxygen and glucose metabolism, as well as blood flow and blood volume, gives a more detailed and accurate understanding of pathophysiological changes after stroke.. Changes in cerebral infarction. NON-ISCHAEMIC HEMISPHERE. Mild reduction in global CBF - perhaps due to transneuronal depression of metabolism in the unaffected hemisphere - diaschisis.. In the normal brain, cerebral blood flow to a particular part varies depending on the metabolic requirements, i.e. the supply of 02 and glucose is coupled to the tissue needs. After infarction, between areas of reduced flow and areas of luxury perfusion, lie areas of relative luxury perfusion where reduced flow exceeds the tissue requirements, i.e. uncoupling of flow and metabolism has occurred.. Studies with SPECT ...
The effects of positioning of head of bed positioning on blood flow reaching the brain can now be monitored non-invasively and continuously using a new device designed by University of Pennsylvania.
This study was performed to investigate the regulatory mechanism of cerebral blood flow of adenosine A $_{2B}$ receptor agonist in the rats, and to define whether its mechanism is mediated by adenylate cyclase, guanylate cyclase and potassium channel. In pentobarbital-anesthetized, pancuronium-par...
Cerebral blood flow and metabolism have been evaluated during exercise to elicit robust "activation" compared with during anaesthesia. It is demonstrated that physical exercise requires an approximately 20 % increase in cerebral blood flow and metabolic rate for oxygen. This reflects that low intensity exercise is associated with increasing cerebral oxygenation, while cerebral oxygenation decreases during maximal exercise, since marked hyperventilation reduces arterial carbon dioxide tension and therefore cerebral blood flow at the same time as the metabolic rate for oxygen is elevated ...
Type 2 diabetes exerts complex effects on cerebral microvasculature that may alter cerebral blood flow regulation. We found a decrease of mean BFV and an increase of CVR in type 2 diabetic patients during baseline, hypocapnia, and hypercapnia. Baseline mean BFV was negatively associated with periventricular WMH grade and volume on T2-weighted images and with A1C and inflammation markers. WMHs were also linked with uncontrolled diabetes, elevated CVR, and impaired CO2 reactivity. The relationship between WMH, uncontrolled diabetes and reduced BFV is of clinical relevance as a potential mechanism for cerebrovascular disease in elderly with type 2 diabetes.. Aging is associated with brain atrophy, changes in frontal subcortical white matter, and executive cognitive dysfunction (9). The CO2 reactivity diminishes with age, uncontrolled diabetes, and risk factors for atherosclerosis (22). In community-living elderly people, blood flow in the WMHs was lower compared with normal-appearing white matter ...
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia is well studied in small-animal models, which offer reproducibility and control of confounding variables-factors essential to hypothesis-testing. This presentation first highlights insights into the ischemic penumbra enabled by a multimodal experimental approach; second, discusses gene expression in ischemia; and third, confronts the challenges of neuroprotectant therapy. Summary of Review- The ischemic penumbra: Transient (2-hour) middle cerebral artery suture-occlusion in anesthetized rats gives rise to highly consistent neurological and histopathological sequelae. Autoradiographic local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) studies at 2 hours of occlusion define the penumbra as a region of intermediate CBF depression (20% to 40% of control) surrounding the densely ischemic core (5% to 20% of control) and constituting one half of the entire lesion. Local glucose metabolic rate in the acute penumbra is not reduced despite the critical CBF reduction, so ...
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Authors: Feldstein CA.. Epidemiological studies suggest an association between chronic blood pressure (BP) changes and Alzheimers disease (AD). In particular, there is growing evidence that hypertensive people that do not have their BP adequately treated and controlled in midlife are more likely to develop AD in late-life. It has been hypothesized that cerebrovascular disease is a common pathway which connects hypertension and AD in individuals with apolipoprotein E genotype through brain hypoperfusion and hypoxia. This could accelerate amyloid-β aggregation that disrupts cell-to-cell connectivity and leads to eventual brain neuron loss. Also, high BP contributes to worsen AD by raising oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Aging-related structural and functional disturbances appear to exacerbate the deleterious effect of chronic hypertension on cerebral blood flow autoregulation. There is evidence suggesting that some antihypertensive drug classes reduce the risk and progression of AD ...
Authors: Feldstein CA.. Epidemiological studies suggest an association between chronic blood pressure (BP) changes and Alzheimers disease (AD). In particular, there is growing evidence that hypertensive people that do not have their BP adequately treated and controlled in midlife are more likely to develop AD in late-life. It has been hypothesized that cerebrovascular disease is a common pathway which connects hypertension and AD in individuals with apolipoprotein E genotype through brain hypoperfusion and hypoxia. This could accelerate amyloid-β aggregation that disrupts cell-to-cell connectivity and leads to eventual brain neuron loss. Also, high BP contributes to worsen AD by raising oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Aging-related structural and functional disturbances appear to exacerbate the deleterious effect of chronic hypertension on cerebral blood flow autoregulation. There is evidence suggesting that some antihypertensive drug classes reduce the risk and progression of AD ...
Firstly, is like to say that over the years Ive tried various supplements in an attempt to maximize my brain power and unlock its potential - you name it, Ive probably tried it. Lately, Ive been testing the effects of L-Arginine and the role it plays in nitric oxide production, a potent vasodilator that is imperitive to cardiovascular health. Many gentlemen seek this for the promise it shows in cases of ED, but Ive no need to stimulate blood flow to my "second brain", Im only interested in trying to increase cerebral blood flow for the sake of cognitive improvement.. Anyway, I first bought a bottle of generic L-Arginine from Sprouts, but didnt seem to get much from it. Then I read another study, and thought Id try again with a different brand. Thats when I found this product. I dont really suffer with hypertension, but after just a week of using it, my systolic blood pressure saw an average decline of 5mm/Hg. Its a subtle change, but Im not complaining - any strain I can take off my ...
By measuring brain blood flow noninvasively using arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI, we can now begin to detect brain changes much earlier than before," said Dr. Sina Aslan, founder and president of Advance MRI and collaborator on the study. "One key region where we saw increases in brain blood flow was the anterior cingulate, indicating higher neuronal activity and metabolic rate. The anterior cingulate has been linked to superior cognition in late life.". Exercisers who improved their memory performance also showed greater increase in brain blood flow to the hippocampus, the key brain region affected by Alzheimers disease. Chapman pointed out that by using noninvasive brain imaging techniques, brain changes were identified earlier than memory improvements, implicating brain blood flow as a promising and sensitive metric of brain health gains across treatment regimens.. "Physical exercise may be one of the most beneficial and cost-effective therapies widely available to everyone to elevate ...
Aged, Aged; 80 and over, Brain/*metabolism, Carotid Stenosis/physiopathology/surgery, Cerebrovascular Circulation/*physiology, Constriction, Endarterectomy; Carotid, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Oximetry, Oxygen/*blood, Prospective Studies, Regional Blood Flow, Research Support; Non-U.S. Govt, Spectroscopy; Near-Infrared ...
CSH is a very uncommon lesion and is distinctly unusual in the brain. This case illustrates advanced imaging findings of this rare process. We believe that the slightly increased regional cerebral blood volume and increased regional cerebral blood flow are related to hyperemia from the underlying reactive/inflammatory process. Additionally, we postulate that the flow-void-like areas on FLAIR imaging represent prominent veins, which result from the partial perivascular nature of the inflammation. Mild postcontrast enhancement likely relates to an element of breakdown at the blood-brain barrier from the same process. NAA is a marker of neuronal cell health. Decreased NAA peak is commonly seen in nonspecific neuronal loss, including ischemia, trauma, inflammation, infection, tumors, dementia, and gliosis. Choline is a marker of membrane turnover and is present to a greater degree in white matter than in gray matter. Choline is increased in tumors, inflammation, and chronic hypoxia. Lactate is not ...
Increasing brain circulation, Using Meditation To Lower Heart Rate And Improve Circulation. after running, your heart pumps more blood because your brain and body need more oxygen.
Cerebral metabolism (typically given by the cerebral metabolic requirement for oxgygen, CMRO2) has a linear association with cerebral blood flow - this is known as flow-metabolism coupling. This is controlled locally through the release of vasoactive mediators, such as H+, adenosine, and NO. Determinants of cerebral metabolism include:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Age-related cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2 after cerebral ischemia in swine. AU - Helfaer, M. A.. AU - Kirsch, J. R.. AU - Haun, S. E.. AU - Koehler, Raymond C. AU - Traystman, R. J.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - We tested the hypothesis that cerebral blood flow (CBF) reactivity to CO2 after global ischemia takes longer to recover in 1- to 2-wk-old piglets than in 6- to 10-mo-old pigs. All animals were sedated with ketamine and anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. Cerebral ischemia was produced by sequentially tightening ligatures around the inferior vena cava and ascending aorta for 10 min. The microsphere-determined CBF response to hypercapnia (arterial PCO2 ~65 mmHg) was depressed at 60 min of reperfusion (9 ± 6% of preischemia; means ± SE) and remained depressed at 120 min (33 ± 23% of preischemia, means ± SE) in young pigs. In older pigs, the response was also depressed at 60 min of reperfusion (21 ± 9% of preischemia) but was not depressed at 120 min. The pattern ...
Functional magnetic resonance imaging, or fMRI for short, is a non-invasive method with which changes in local cerebral blood flow can be viewed superimposed on anatomical reconstructions of the brain in humans. The spin axes of the nuclei of hydrogen atoms are aligned upright in a strong magnetic field. Short radio pulses deflect the spin axes. Small discrepancies in the time that the nuclei take to newly upright their axes are dependent on the blood oxygenation. fMRI uses blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals. Brain tissue cannot store the oxygen and sugar brain cells need to function. Therefore, local blood flow increases when nerve cells start processing information and the blood oxygen level rises. Conversely, blood flow diminishes when nerve cell activity is inhibited. With fMRI, scientists exploit the relationship between nerve cell activity and blood flow to reconstruct functional cerebral activation maps. It is important to note that, while nerve cells respond to sensory ...
KFAR SABA, ISRAEL--(Marketwired - Jun 26, 2014) - Ornim Medical, Inc., the manufacturer of the successful CerOx™ Cerebral Flow Monitor, has now completed the recruitment process for a U.S.-based salesforce that will introduce the c-FLOW™, its next generation Cerebral Blood Flow Monitor. Sales of c-FLOW™ are expected to begin in...
Parkinsons disease is a slowly progressive degenerative neurologic disorder affecting the brain center that are responsible for control and regulation of movement. The degenerative or idiopathic form of Parkinsons disease is the most common; there is also a secondary form with a known or suspected cause. The cause of the disease is mostly unknown. The […]. Read more ...
Interest in the brains circulation dates back more than a century and has been steadily growing. Quantitative methods for measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and energy metabolism became available in the middle of the 20th century and gave a new boost to the research. Scientific meetings dealing with CBF and metabolism were arranged, and the fast growing research led to a demand for a specialized journal. In this scientific environment, the International Society for Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism (ISCBFM) and its official Journal of Cerebral Metabolism were established in 1981 and has since then been a major success. The development of new brain imaging methods has had a major impact. Regulation of CBF and ischemia has been the main topics at the meetings. A new field of brain mapping research emerged and has now its own society and meetings. Brain emission tomography research has grown within the society and is now an integrated part. The ISCBFM is a sound society, and support of ...
This study demonstrated that cortical and subcortical atrophy in type 2 diabetes is associated with diminished regional cerebral perfusion and vasoreactivity. Brain atrophy, as indicated by CSF volume, was prominent in the frontal and temporal regions. Hypoperfusion during baseline rest and diminished CBF response to hypercapnia affected all regions. A1C levels and diabetic retinopathy were further associated with CBF reduction, altered vasoreactivity, and atrophy that was most prominent in the temporal region. This study focused on neuroasymptomatic subjects; therefore, those with significant late complications of diabetes and history of cerebrovascular accidents that may further affect CBF were excluded. Cerebromicrovascular disease and endothelial dysfunction affect multiple brain regions and vascular territories and are associated with CBF dysregulation beyond the brain atrophy.. Hyperglycemia is a unifying mechanism for diabetic tissue damage in the brain, as glucose utilization requires ...
Welcome to the ISCBFM Website!. The International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism (ISCBFM) promotes research in cerebral blood flow, cerebral metabolism, and cerebral function in physiological and pathophysiological states. Interests of members of the Society range from the molecular and genomic mechanism of ischemia through clinical investigations of cerebral blood flow and metabolism.. ...
Statistical parametric mapping analysis of the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and symptom clusters of the depressive mood in patients with pre-dialytic chronic kidney disease ...
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied at normocapnia and after a challenge with 5% CO2 in 59 diabetic patients and 28 controls. There was a significant age-related decline in CBF in both groups, which suggests that diabetes does not affect the rate of decrease of CBF with age. After CO2 challenge CBF increased in most of the controls; in the patients CBF increased in 23, decreased in 26, and remained stable in 10. Thus the reactivity of cerebral blood vessels in diabetics is altered. Diabetics have diminished cerebrovascular reserve and are thus at increased risk of cerebrovascular disease because they are unable to compensate when necessary with an increased CBF. ...
Introduction: Alzheimers disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder that causes the degeneration of brains nerve cells. The causes of AD are still not fully understood, thus hindering the development of efficacious treatments that can cure, or at least delay disease onset. Historically, research in the field emphasized on studying brains nerve cells. Recently, it was demonstrated that destabilization of the cerebral blood vessels, which decisively supports the survival of brains nerve cells, causatively contributes to AD initiation and progression. The destabilized cerebral blood vessels deprive the brain from nutrients, and alter the removal of toxic amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides leading to its aggregation, which constitute with tau protein aggregation the main pathological hallmarks of AD. The mechanisms underlying cerebral blood vessels destabilization are not fully characterized. Recent reports have demonstrated that the apolipoprotein E gene variant ɛ4 (ApoEɛ4), which ...
Learning can be categorized into cue-instructed and spontaneous learning types; however, so far, there is no detailed comparative analysis of specific brain pathways involved in these learning types. The aim of this study was to compare brain activity patterns during these learning tasks using the in vivo imaging technique of single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). During spontaneous exploratory learning, higher levels of rCBF compared to cue-instructed learning were observed in motor control regions, including specific subregions of the motor cortex and the striatum, as well as in regions of sensory pathways including olfactory, somatosensory, and visual modalities ...
Moment-to-moment adjustment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to neuronal activity via the homeostatic mechanism known as neurovascular coupling (NVC) has an essential role in maintenance of normal brain...
Two-photon NADH imaging exposes boundaries of oxygen diffusion in cortical vascular supply regions.; Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism; Vol 31(1). 2011 Jan ...
Seventy-six patients with sCS (35 female [46.1%] and 41 male [53.9%]), with a mean age of 4.5 years (range 0.2-19.2 years), were compared with 86 control subjects (38 female [44.2%] and 48 male [55.8%]), with a mean age of 6.4 years (range 0.1-17.8 years). Untreated sCS patients , 1 year old had lower CBF than control subjects. In older age categories, CBF normalized to values observed in controls. Graphical analyses of CBF by age showed that the normally expected peak in CBF during childhood, noted at 4 years of age in control subjects, occurred at 5-6 years of age in patients with sCS. Patients with longitudinal pre- to postoperative CBF measurements showed significant increases in CBF after surgery. ...
The effect CSD wave propagation on maximum (VTmax-black bars) and minimum (VTmin-gray bars) amplitudes of reflectedlight (reflectance), cerebral blood flow (CBF
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phenylephrine increases cerebral blood flow during low-flow hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in baboons. AU - Schwariz, Arthur E.. AU - Minanov, Oktavijan. AU - Stone, J. Gilbert. AU - Adams, David C.. AU - Sandhu, Aqeel A.. AU - Pearson, Mark E.. AU - Kwiatkowski, Pawel. AU - Young, William L.. AU - Michler, Robert E.. PY - 1996/8/23. Y1 - 1996/8/23. N2 - Background: Although low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has become a preferred technique for the surgical repair of complex cardiac lesions in children, the relative hypotension and decrease in cerebral blood flow (CBF) associated with low flow may contribute to the occurrence of postoperative neurologic injury. Therefore, it was determined whether phenylephrine administered to increase arterial blood pressure during low-flow CPB increases CBF. Methods: Cardiopulmonary bypass was initiated in seven baboons during fentanyl, midazolam, and isoflurane anesthesia. Animals were cooled at a pump flow rate of 2.5 1 · min -1 · m ...
This study was performed to determine whether stimulation of the carotid chemoreceptors increases total or regional cerebral blood flow and whether activation of arterial chemoreceptors contributes to cerebral vasodilation during systemic hypoxemia. In anesthetized and ventilated dogs, carotid chemoreceptors were stimulated with nicotine or hypoxic and hypercapnic blood. To measure total and regional cerebral blood flow, we used labeled 15-mu microspheres. Stimulation of chemoreceptors did not increase cerebral blood flow or produce significant redistribution of cerebral blood flow, even though the chemoreflex was intact in these animals (as manifested by vasoconstriction in muscle, kidney, and small bowel) and the cerebral vessels dilated in response to systemic hypercapnia. In other studies in anesthetized, ventilated dogs and rhesus monkeys, cerebral vasodilator responses to systemic hypoxemia were observed before and after denervation of carotid and aortic chemoreceptors. Systemic hypoxemia ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Low Cerebral Oxygen Consumption and Blood Flow in Patients With Cirrhosis and an Acute Episode of Hepatic Encephalopathy. AU - Iversen, Peter. AU - Sørensen, Michael. AU - Bak, Lasse Kristoffer. AU - Waagepetersen, Helle Sønderby. AU - Vafaee, Manouchehr Seyedi. AU - Borghammer, Per. AU - Mouridsen, Kim. AU - Jensen, Svend Borup. AU - Vilstrup, Hendrik. AU - Schousboe, Arne. AU - Ott, Peter. AU - Gjedde, Albert. AU - Keiding, Susanne. PY - 2009/3. Y1 - 2009/3. N2 - Background & Aims: It is unclear whether patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE) have disturbed brain oxygen metabolism and blood flow. Methods: We measured cerebral oxygen metabolism rate (CMRO2) by using 15O-oxygen positron emission tomography (PET); and cerebral blood flow (CBF) by using 15O-water PET in 6 patients with liver cirrhosis and an acute episode of overt HE, 6 cirrhotic patients without HE, and 7 healthy subjects. Results: Neither whole-brain CMRO2 nor CBF differed significantly between cirrhotic ...
Hyperventilation is frequently used to prevent or postpone the development of cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension in patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). The influence of such therapy on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) remains, however, unknown. In this study the CBF-distribution pattern was determined within the first 12 hours after development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) stage 4 before and during hyperventilation. Ten consecutive patients (median age 48 [range 33-57] years) with FHF and 9 healthy controls (median age 54 [24-58] years) had rCBF determined by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using intravenous injection of 133Xenon. For determination of high resolution CBF pattern, the patients were also studied with 99mTc-hexa-methylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) in the hyperventilation condition. There was no significant difference in the rCBF distribution pattern during normoventilation as compared with hyperventilation. The anterior to posterior (AP) ...
The first five chapters of the thesis review the literature on intracranial pressure, the cerebral circulation and their interrelation and set the scene for the experimental work which is described in chapters 6 to 11. Intracranial pressure is now measured routinely in many clinical centres but a great deal of caution is required in interpreting the results, particularly with respect to the method of measurement, the history of any raised pressure and the values of other physiological variables such as blood pressure and cerebral blood flow. The cerebral circulation itself displays a remarkable tendency to remain constant, the fundamental concept being that there exists a basic control mechanism which acts to maintain cerebral blood flow in order to meet the metabolic requirements of the brain. The methods used to measure cerebral blood flow in the work described are metabolically inert gas clearance techniques based on the Pick principle. Hemisphere blood flow in baboons was measured by the ...
Measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), analysis ofcerebrospinal fluid, auditory brain stem responses (ABR) andoculomotor tests
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Perfusion-weighted imaging is used to select patients with acute ischemic stroke for intervention, but knowledge of cerebral perfusion can also inform the understanding of ischemic injury. Arterial spin labeling allows repeated measurement of absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) without the need for exogenous contrast. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between dynamic CBF and tissue outcome in the month after stroke onset. METHODS: Patients with nonlacunar ischemic stroke underwent ≤5 repeated magnetic resonance imaging scans at presentation, 2 hours, 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month. Imaging included vessel-encoded pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling using multiple postlabeling delays to quantify CBF in gray matter regions of interest. Receiver-operator characteristic curves were used to predict tissue outcome using CBF. Repeatability was assessed in 6 healthy volunteers and compared with contralateral regions of patients. Diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted
Maintaining a constant cerebral blood flow during a change in cerebral perfusion pressure is known as autoregulation. The integrity of this phenomenon is considered to be important in preventing cerebral lesions in preterm infants. A study was carried out using Doppler ultrasound measurements of cerebral blood flow velocities (CBFV) as an indicator of alterations in cerebral haemodynamics. CBFV were recorded on a beat to beat basis over 60 second epochs, during which time the cerebral perfusion pressure was changed by rapidly altering the infants posture from horizontal to either 20 degrees head up or head down. An informative response in CBFV was considered to be either (a) a uniphasic, immediate, passive alteration in velocity occurring with the change in posture and without a subsequent change or (b) a biphasic response of an initial change in CBFV followed within 20 seconds by a second response. This latter response is considered to be consistent with autoregulatory activity. A total of 501 ...
Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a method by which relative cerebral blood flow (CBF) of the cortex can be measured. Although the method is easy to employ, LDF only measures relative CBF, while absolute CBF cannot be quantified. LDF is useful for investigating CBF changes in a number of different applications including neurovascular and stroke research. This chapter will prepare the reader for rodent experiments using LDF with two preparations. The closed skull preparation can be used to monitor CBF with an intact skull, but in adult rats, thinning of the skull is required to obtain an accurate cortical CBF signal. The open skull preparation requires a craniotomy to expose the surface of the brain and the LDF probe is held close to the surface to measure cerebral perfusion.
TY - GEN. T1 - Cerebral hemodynamic changes after wartime traumatic brain injury. AU - Razumovsky, Alexander. AU - Tigno, Teodoro. AU - Hochheimer, Sven M.. AU - Stephens, Fred L.. AU - Bell, Randy. AU - Vo, Alexander H.. AU - Severson, Meryl A.. AU - Marshall, Scott A.. AU - Oppenheimer, Stephen M.. AU - Ecker, Robert. AU - Armonda, Rocco A.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with the severest casualties from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). From October 1, 2008, the U.S. Army Medical Department initiated a transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound service for TBI; included patients were retrospectively evaluated for TCD-determined incidence of post-traumatic cerebral vasospasm and intracranial hypertension after wartime TBI. Ninety patients were investigated with daily TCD studies and a comprehensive TCD protocol, and published diagnostic criteria for vasospasm and increased intracranial pressure (ICP) were applied. TCD signs ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Validation of the CBF, CBV, and MTT Values by Perfusion MRI in Chronic Occlusive Cerebrovascular Disease. T2 - A Comparison with 15O-PET. AU - Kaneko, Koichiro. AU - Kuwabara, Yasuo. AU - Mihara, Futoshi. AU - Yoshiura, Takashi. AU - Nakagawa, Makoto. AU - Tanaka, Atsuo. AU - Sasaki, Masayuki. AU - Koga, Hirofumi. AU - Hayashi, Kazutaka. AU - Honda, Hiroshi. PY - 2004/5. Y1 - 2004/5. N2 - Rationale and Objectives. To evaluate the reliability of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time (MTT) values obtained by deconvolution algorithm perfusion-weighted MR imaging (D-PWI), we compared these values with those obtained by first-moment algorithm perfusion-weighted MR imaging (F-PWI) and 15O-PET. Subjects and Methods. Six healthy volunteers and eleven patients with chronic occlusive cerebrovascular disease were studied with both perfusion-weighted MR imaging and 15O-PET, and region-of-interest analyses were performed. Normalization factors for CBF ...
Cerebral blood flow measurements in subarachnoid haemorrhage with an intravenous isotope technique: methodological studies : the significance of cerebral blood flow determinations in the timing of surgery of arterial aneurysm ...
Abstract. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) induces acute changes in the cerebral microcirculation. Recent findings ex vivo suggest neurovascular coupling (NVC), the process that increases cerebral blood flow upon neuronal activity, is also impaired after SAH. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether this occurs also in vivo. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to either sham surgery or SAH by filament perforation. Twenty-four hours later NVC was tested by forepaw stimulation and CO2 reactivity by inhalation of 10% CO2. Vessel diameter was assessed in vivo by two-photon microscopy. NVC was also investigated ex vivo using brain slices. Cerebral arterioles of sham-operated mice dilated to 130% of baseline upon CO2 inhalation or forepaw stimulation and cerebral blood flow (CBF) increased. Following SAH, however, CO2 reactivity was completely lost and the majority of cerebral arterioles showed paradoxical constriction in vivo and ex vivo resulting in a reduced CBF response. As previous results ...
Functional neuroimaging studies have pointed to a possible role of cerebral circuits involving the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices, the striatum, and thalamus in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of 16 drug-free Brazilian patients with OCD and 17 healthy subjects matched for age, gender, handedness and level of education was measured with [99m-Tc] HMPAO single photon emission computed tomography. Analysis of covariance identified four regions of interest with significantly higher rCBF: the right superior and inferior frontal cortex and the right and left thalamus. Positive correlations between symptom severity measured by Clinical Global Impression scores and rCBF were found in the right and left inferior frontal lobes and in the right basal ganglia. Compulsive behavior was inversely correlated with rCBF in the right thalamus, and duration of illness correlated positively with rCBF in the right and left superior frontal ...
Principal Investigator:Kudo Kohsuke, Project Period (FY):2014-04-01 - 2017-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:Radiation science
TY - JOUR. T1 - Brain Blood Flow Modulates the Neurotoxic Action of Hyperbaric Oxygen via Neuronal and Endothelial Nitric Oxide. AU - Moskvin, A. N.. AU - Zhilyaev, S. Yu. AU - Sharapov, O. I.. AU - Platonova, T. F.. AU - Gutsaeva, Diana Raisovna. AU - Kostkin, V. B.. AU - Demchenko, I. T.. PY - 2003/11/1. Y1 - 2003/11/1. N2 - Studies on conscious rats with inhibition of NO synthase were used to assess the dynamics of brain blood flow and EEG traces during hyperbaric oxygenation at 4 or 5 atm. Oxygen at a pressure of 4 atm induced cerebral vasoconstriction in intact animals and decreased blood flow by 11-18% (p , 0.05) during 60-min exposure to hyperbaric oxygenation. Paroxysmal EEG activity and oxygen convulsions did not occur in rats at 4 atm of O2. At 5 atm, convulsive activity appeared on the EEG at 41 ± 1.9 min, and blood flow decreased significantly during the first 20 min; blood flow increased by 23 ± 9%, as compared with controls, (p , 0.01) before the appearance of convulsions on the ...
Cardiovascular health; cerebral blood flow regulation; cerebrovascular function Dr. Philip Ainslies research is focused on the integrated mechanisms that regulate human cerebral blood flow in health and disease, the influence of environmental stress, and the effects of exercise training on cerebrovascular function.. Dr. Philip Ainslie is a Professor in the School of Health and Exercise Sciences at UBC Okanagan, the Co-Director of the Centre for Heart, Lung & Vascular Health, and an ICORD Investigator. His Ph.D. (in exercise physiology & metabolism) was a collaborative project between the Liverpool John Moores University, University of Manchester and University of Oxford. Following completion of a post-doctoral research fellowship at the University of Calgary he began a faculty position in 2005, as Lecturer and Principal Investigator in the Department of Physiology at the University of Otago, New Zealand. Here, he established his independent research program, focusing on the integrative ...
Free Online Library: Effect of backrest position on intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure in individuals with brain injury: a systematic review. by Journal of Neuroscience Nursing; Health care industry Brain injuries Care and treatment Primary care nursing Methods Primary nursing
TY - JOUR. T1 - When the air hits your brain. T2 - Cerebral autoregulation of brain oxygenation during aerobic exercise allows transient hyperoxygenation: Case report. AU - Bollo, Robert J.. AU - Williams, Susan C.. AU - Peskin, Charles. AU - Samadani, Uzma. PY - 2010/8. Y1 - 2010/8. N2 - OBJECTIVE: Cerebral autoregulation maintains a relatively stable cerebral blood flow over a range of perfusion pressures. During exercise, regional cerebral blood flow may be elevated in particular areas of the brain. This case report presents the impact of aerobic exercise on intracranially measured pressure and brain tissue oxygenation in an adult human. CLINCIAL PRESENTATION: A 30-year-old man with idiopathic intracranial hypertension treated with cerebrospinal fluid diversion was monitored with a Licox intracranial brain oxygen and pressure monitor (Integra NeuroSciences Corporation, Plainsboro, New Jersey) for refractory nonpostural headaches exacerbated after exercise. He performed trials of running and ...
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygenation (COx) are generally well-preserved in COPD. It is unknown whether prevalent cardiovascular co-morbidities, such as heart failure, may impair CBF and COx responses to exertion. Eighteen males with moderate-to-severe COPD (8 with and 10 without overlapping heart failure) underwent a progressive exercise test with pre-frontal CBF and COx measurements (indocyanine green and near-infrared spectroscopy). Mean arterial pressure and cardiac output were lower from rest to exercise in overlap. Only COPD patients demonstrated an increase in arterialized PCO2 towards the end of progressive exercise. CBF index was consistently higher and increased further by similar to 40% during exercise in COPD whereas a similar to 10% reduction was observed in overlap. COx was lower in overlap despite preserved arterial oxygenation. In conclusion, heart failure introduces pronounced negative effects on CBF and COx in COPD which may be associated with clinically relevant outcomes, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelial influences on cerebrovascular tone. AU - Andresen, Jon. AU - Shafi, Nadeem. AU - Bryan, Robert M.. PY - 2006/1/1. Y1 - 2006/1/1. N2 - The cerebrovascular endothelium exerts a profound influence on cerebral vessels and cerebral blood flow. This review summarizes current knowledge of various dilator and constrictor mechanisms intrinsic to the cerebrovascular endothelium. The endothelium contributes to the resting tone of cerebral arteries and arterioles by tonically releasing nitric oxide (NO • ). Dilations can occur by stimulated release of NO • , endothelium-derived hyperpolarization factor, or prostanoids. During pathological conditions, the dilator influence of the endothelium can turn to that of constriction by a variety of mechanisms, including decreased NO • bioavailability and release of endothelin-1. The endothelium may participate in neurovascular coupling by conducting local dilations to upstream arteries. Further study of the cerebrovascular ...
Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied by the arteriovenous oxygen difference method in 13 patients with untreated or ineffectively treated severe hypertension, nine patients with effectively treated, formerly severe hypertension, and ten normotensive controls. Resting mean blood pressure in these three groups was 145 +/- 17 (1 SD) mm Hg, 116 +/- 18 mm Hg, and 98 +/- 10 mm Hg, respectively. Blood pressure was decreased by trimethaphan infusion combined with head-up tilt. The lower limit of CBF autoregulation in the three groups was 113 +/- 17 mm Hg, 96 +/- 17 mm Hg, and 73 +/- 9 mm Hg, and the lowest tolerated blood pressure where mild symptoms of brain hypoperfusion were encountered was 65 +/- 10 mm Hg, 53 +/- 18 mm Hg, and 43 +/- 8 mm Hg. These pressures were all significantly higher (P less than 0.01) in the group of untreated or ineffectively treated hypertensive patients than in the normotensive group demonstrating a shift of CBF autoregulation in the former. The ...
Regional (frontal, parietal, occipital, cortical, and basal ganglia) cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was examined at 1.5 and 3.5 MAC inspired isoflurane/O2 anesthesia in the rat using the radioactive microsphere technique to determine the effects of controlled hypotension with deep isoflurane anesthesia
This chapter focuses on potential confounding factors in the interpretation of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in fMRI studies of cognitive aging. Studies generally attribute age-related changes in BOLD signal to age-related changes in neural activity, thereby assuming that the coupling between BOLD signal and neural activity is the same for young and older adults. However, this coupling may be altered by age-related changes in the neurovascular system and by comorbidities associated with aging. Age-related changes of the neurovascular system likely to affect the BOLD signal include changes in ultrastructure (e.g., sclerosis), resting cerebral blood flow (CBF), vascular reactivity, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption. The BOLD signal may also be affected by comorbidities associated with aging, such as leukoariosis and small strokes, and by medications. ...
A. H. Craig, J. L. Cummings, L. A. Fairbanks, L. Itti, B. L. Miller, J. Li, I. Mena, Cerebral blood flow correlates of apathy in Alzheimer disease, Archives of Neurology, Vol. 53, No. 11, pp. 1116-20, Nov 1996. [1998 impact factor: 3.375] (Cited by 231). Abstract: BACKGROUND: Apathy is a pervasive noncognitive neuropsychiatric disturbance in Alzheimer disease, which causes significant caregiver distress. The neuroanatomical substrate of apathy is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and the presence and severity of the personality disturbance, apathy, in individuals with Alzheimer disease. DESIGN: Analysis of the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow as measured by single photon emission computed tomography and severity of apathy as measured by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory using an analysis of variance design. We examined regional cerebral perfusion alterations as measured by xenon 133Xecalibrated technetium Tc 99m ...
Computed tomography (CT) perfusion imaging is a technique for the measurement of cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and time-to-peak or mean transit time. The technique involves the administration of a single-bolus dose of iodinated contrast material, followed by spiral CT imaging during the passage of the contrast bolus through the cerebral vasculature. CT perfusion is a fast and inexpensive brain imaging modality for use in the management of patients with various neurological disorders, ranging from acute stroke to subarachnoid hemorrhage. This article reviews the technique of CT perfusion and presents several illustrative cases in which this imaging modality was used effectively in the critical care of patients with neurological disorders. Copyright © 2005 Humana Press Inc. All rights of any nature whatsoever are reserved ...
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Semantic Scholar extracted view of Local cerebral blood flow and oxygen tension at different stages of surgical intervention in patients with meningiomas of the superior sagittal sinus by Semeniutin Vb et al.
AIM: This study evaluated if the fatigue and apathy arising during exercise with hypoglycaemia could relate to a lowering of the cerebral metabolic rates of glucose and oxygen. METHODS AND RESULTS: Six males completed 3 h of cycling with or without glucose supplementation in random order. Cerebral blood flow, metabolism and interleukin-6 (IL-6) release were evaluated with the Kety-Schmidt technique. Blood glucose was maintained during the glucose trial, while it decreased from 5.2 +/- 0.1 to 2.9 +/- 0.3 mmol L-1 (mean +/- SE) after 180 min of exercise in the placebo trial with a concomitant increase in perceived exertion (P , 0.05). During hypoglycaemia, the cerebral glucose uptake was reduced from 0.34 +/- 0.05 to 0.28 +/- 0.04 micromol g(-1) min(-1), while the cerebral uptake of beta-hydroxybutyrate increased to 5 +/- 1 pmol g(-1) min(-1) (P , 0.05). The reduced glucose uptake was accompanied by a lowering of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen from 1.84 +/- 0.19 mmol g(-1) min(-)1 during ...
article{412594, abstract = {Impulsive aggression in dogs has an important impact on human public health. Better insight into the pathophysiology of this phenomenon could lead to more adequate diagnosis and treatment. Indirect in vivo research on peripheral body fluids and post-mortem studies in impulsive animals and humans indicate a deficient serotonergic system in general and disturbances in the serotonin-2A (5-HT2A) receptor in particular. In this study, brain perfusion and the 5-HT2A receptors were examined in impulsive, aggressive dogs, in comparison with a group of normally behaving animals. In order to decide which dogs to include in this study, owners were asked to describe the general behaviour of the dogs, the circumstances in which aggression occurred and their conduct during aggressive acts. Finally, 19 dogs were retained for this study, showing, according to different behavioural specialists, disinhibited dominance aggression. Functional imaging studies were performed on all these ...
UNLABELLED: Using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, we investigated the moving correlation between slow waves in arterial blood pressure (ABP) and blood flow velocity (FV) at different levels of cerebrovascular vasodilation provoked by changing PETCO2. Fourteen healthy volunteers were examined. The FV in middle cerebral arteries, PETCO2, and ABP were recorded during normocapnia, hypercapnia, and hypocapnia. The moving correlation coefficients between ABP and mean FV (FVm) or systolic FV (FVs) during spontaneous fluctuations in ABP were calculated for 3-min epochs and averaged for each investigation, thus yielding the mean index (Mx) and systolic index (Sx). As a reference method, Aaslids cuff tests were performed to obtain the rate of regulation (RoR). RoR, Mx, and Sx significantly depended on PETCO2 (analysis of variance, P | 0.00001). At high PETCO2, cerebrovascular reactivity was disturbed as reflected in RoR values of | 0.17/s for all volunteers and increased values of Mx (| 0.4 in 86% of
Dynamic cerebral autoregulation (DCA) capacity along with the degree of internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis and characteristics of the plaque can also play an important role in selection of appropriate treatment strategy. This study aims to classify the patients with severe ICA stenosis according to preoperative state of DCA and to assess its dynamics after surgery. Thirty-five patients with severe ICA stenosis having different clinical type of disease underwent reconstructive surgery. DCA was assessed with transfer function analysis (TFA) by calculating phase shift (PS) between Mayer waves of blood flow velocity (BFV) and blood pressure (BP) before and after operation ...
Results 21 preterm infants with median (range) gestational age of 25(23-30) weeks, birth weight 805(630-1250) grams, chronological age 14(8-27) days and pre-BT Haemoglobin 10.3(7.7-12.2) g/dl were studied.. Pre-BT ACA peak systolic (0.37 m/s) and mean velocity (0.19 m/s) decreased significantly post-BT (0.32 and 0.16 respectively; p , 0.01). There was no significant change in RI (p = 0.57) and PI (p = 0.53) in the ACA and SVC flow (p = 0.16) post-BT.. The cerebral HbO2 increased significantly (mean difference 12.53 µM; p , 0.001) post-BT. The pre-BT mean cerebral tissue oxygenation index (TOI) (66.5%) increased significantly post-BT (73.6%; p , 0.001).. ...
When a reduction in blood flow lasting seconds occurs, the brain tissue suffers ischemia, or inadequate blood supply.[33][34] If the interruption of blood flow is not restored in minutes, the tissue suffers infarction followed by tissue death.[35] When the low cerebral blood flow persists for a longer duration, this may develop into an infarction in the border zones (areas of poor blood flow between the major cerebral artery distributions). In more severe instances, global hypoxia-ischemia causes widespread brain injury leading to a severe cognitive sequelae called hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.[36] An ischemic cascade occurs where an energetic molecular problem arises due to lack of oxygen and nutrients. The cascade results in decreased production of adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, which is a high-energy molecule needed for cells in the brain to function.[37] Consumption of ATP continues in spite of insufficient production, this causes total levels of ATP to decrease and lactate acidosis to ...
J Hepatol. 2011 Oct 22. [Epub ahead of print] Effects of Anti-Viral Therapy and HCV Clearance on Cerebral Metabolism and Cognition. Byrnes V, Miller A, Lowry D, Hill E, Weinstein C, Alsop D, Lenkinsk...
Early neurological deterioration (END) is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Although several predictive factors have been reported, there are little data about the hemodynamic factors. Our aim was to determine the capacity of cerebral hemodynamic reserve (CHR) to predict END. We studied 100 hospitalized patients with a first ever ischemic stroke of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) within the first 24 hours of symptoms onset. END was defined as a drop of at least one point in the Canadian Stroke Scale between admission and 72 hours. The mean flow velocity (mV) in the MCA and the CHR were measured by means of transcranial Doppler within the first 24 hours of admission. The CHR was expressed as the percentage increase in the MCA mV divided by the absolute increase in the end-tidal CO2 pressure in mm Hg after carbogen inhalation. END was observed in 23 patients. Reduced values of the mV in the symptomatic MCA (P = 0.043) and of the CHR in the symptomatic hemisphere (P | 0.001) were
The CHARIS GUI provides an integrated platform for evaluating data necessary for developing predictive models of intracranial hyptertension (IH).. The chosen test index which the underlying algorithms use is the well-established PRx, a moving correlation index between mean arterial blood pressure and intracranial pressure. This is based on the assumption that normal intracranial pressure (ICP) should not directly correlate with arterial blood pressure (ABP).. After loading the data, the algorithm packet averages the data to reduce information volume and calculates the PRx of the input waveforms. It will then search through the data to detect noteable events based on the set threshold parameters. Upon the detection of each potential IH location, the user will be prompted to state whether or not it is an artifact, ultimately resulting in a set of semi-supervised detected events.. The GUI provides a convenient interface to load, process, label, graph, and save the waveforms, features, and events. ...
The CHARIS GUI provides an integrated platform for evaluating data necessary for developing predictive models of intracranial hyptertension (IH).. The chosen test index which the underlying algorithms use is the well-established PRx, a moving correlation index between mean arterial blood pressure and intracranial pressure. This is based on the assumption that normal intracranial pressure (ICP) should not directly correlate with arterial blood pressure (ABP).. After loading the data, the algorithm packet averages the data to reduce information volume and calculates the PRx of the input waveforms. It will then search through the data to detect noteable events based on the set threshold parameters. Upon the detection of each potential IH location, the user will be prompted to state whether or not it is an artifact, ultimately resulting in a set of semi-supervised detected events.. The GUI provides a convenient interface to load, process, label, graph, and save the waveforms, features, and events. ...
Relationship between cardiac output and cerebral blood flow in patients with intact and with impaired autoregulation.: Intravascular volume expansion has been s
By Marianna Catege Dr. Yingtian Pan, Professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Stony Brook, and his team, have discovered a new imaging technique that allows for a clearer picture of the direction, speed, and quantity of cerebral blood flow. This discovery expands upon and provides an ultrahigh-resolution picture for Stony Brook Medical scientists…
Neurosurgery. 2010 Sep;67(3 Suppl Operative):ons102-7; discussion ons107. doi: 10.1227/01.NEU.0000383152.50183.81. Clinical Trial
article{f476d972-e2ea-40d9-834f-c3cd9805e8a7, abstract = {,p,Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and glucose metabolism are commonly associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated as key contributors to the secondary injury process after TBI. Here, pretreatment with the nitrone radical scavengers (alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) or its sulfonated analogue sodium 2-sulfophenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (S-PBN) were used as tools to study the effects of ROS on rCBF and glucose metabolism after moderate (2.4-2.6 atm) lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) in rats. S-PBN has a half-life in plasma of 9 min and does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In contrast, PBN has a half-life of 3 h and readily penetrates the BBB. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and glucose metabolism was estimated by using (99m)Tc-HMPAO and [(18)F]Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) autoradiography, respectively, at 42 min (n = 37) and 12 h (n = 34) after the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dynamic cerebral autoregulation and tissue oxygenation in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. AU - Tarumi, Takashi. AU - Dunsky, David I.. AU - Khan, M. Ayaz. AU - Liu, Jie. AU - Hill, Candace. AU - Armstrong, Kyle. AU - Martin-Cook, Kristin. AU - Cullum, C. Munro. AU - Zhang, Rong. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - BACKGROUND: Vascular disease and dysfunction are associated with the higher risk of Alzheimers disease hypothetically due to cerebral hypoperfusion. Brain perfusion is protected by cerebral autoregulation, which, under normal conditions, maintains a constant cerebral blood flow and brain tissue oxygenation.OBJECTIVE: To determine whether dynamic regulation of cerebral blood flow and tissue oxygenation is impaired in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI).METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with aMCI and 15 control subjects with normal cognitive function underwent the measurements of cerebral hemodynamics, brain MR imaging, and neurocognitive assessment. Dynamic ...
J Mol Neurosci. DOI 10.1007/s12031 -017-0944-7. CrossMark. Proteomic Expression Changes in Large Cerebral Arteries After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rat Are Regulated by the MEK-ERK1/2 Pathway. Anne H. Müller1 • Alistair V.G. Edwards2 • Martin R. Larsen2 • Janne Nielsen1 • Karin Warfvinge1,3 • Gro K. Povlsen1 • Lars Edvinsson1,3. Received: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 # The Author(s) 2017. This article is an open access publication. Abstract Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious clinical condition where leakage of blood into the subarachnoid space causes an acute rise in intracranial pressure and reduces cerebral blood flow, which may lead to delayed cerebral ischemia and poor outcome. In experimental SAH, we have previously shown that the outcome can be significantly improved by early inhibition of the MAPK/ERK kinase/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK1/2) pathway. The aim of this study was to apply mass spectrometry to investigate the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reduction in cerebral blood flow volume in infants complicated with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy resulting in cerebral palsy. AU - Fukuda, Sumio. AU - Mizuno, Keisuke. AU - Kawai, Satomi. AU - Kakita, Hiroki. AU - Goto, Tatenobu. AU - Hussein, Mohamed Hamed. AU - Daoud, Ghada A.. AU - Ito, Tetsuya. AU - Kato, Ineko. AU - Suzuki, Satoshi. AU - Togari, Hajime. PY - 2008/4/1. Y1 - 2008/4/1. N2 - Hypoxic ischemic brain can result in cerebral palsy, mental retardation, and learning disabilities in surviving children. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the cerebral blood flow volume in infants complicated with brain damage after the birth. Nine term infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and 41 normal term infants were studied. Four infants with HIE suffered from CP or mental retardation, and the other five infants exhibited normal neurodevelopment. The mean blood flow velocity and diameter of the internal carotid artery and the vertebral artery were measured for 28 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intraluminal suture occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in spontaneously hypertensive rats. AU - Dogan, Aclan. AU - Başkaya, Mustafa K.. AU - Rao, V. L Raghavendra. AU - Rao, A. Muralikrishna. AU - Dempsey, Robert J.. PY - 1998/4. Y1 - 1998/4. N2 - In models of middle cerebral artery occlusion using intraluminal suture, the size and the distribution of ischemic injury vary considerably among laboratories. In transcranial models of cerebral ischemia, a more consistent cerebral ischemic lesion is seen in Spontaneously Hypertensive rats (SHR). In the present study, we performed intraluminal suture occlusion of the MCA in SHR and compared its reproducibility with those in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Male SHR and SD rats were anesthetized with halothane and subjected to 2 h of temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion by an intraluminal suture. Comparisons of regional cerebral blood flow figures taken throughout the experiment and lesion volume figures taken at 24 h after ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sex-Dependent Differences in Physical Exercise-Mediated Cognitive Recovery Following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Aged Rats. AU - Cohan, Charles H.. AU - Youbi, Mehdi. AU - Saul, Isabel. AU - Ruiz, Alex A.. AU - Furones, Concepcion C.. AU - Patel, Pujan. AU - Perez, Edwin. AU - Raval, Ami P.. AU - Dave, Kunjan R.. AU - Zhao, Weizhao. AU - Dong, Chuanhui. AU - Rundek, Tatjana. AU - Koch, Sebastian. AU - Sacco, Ralph L.. AU - Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.. PY - 2019/9/18. Y1 - 2019/9/18. N2 - Stroke remains a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. No current treatments exist to promote cognitive recovery in survivors of stroke. A previous study from our laboratory determined that an acute bout of forced treadmill exercise was able to promote cognitive recovery in 3 month old male rats after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that 6 days of intense acute bout of forced treadmill exercise (physical exercise - PE) ...
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... gaseous messengers in cerebrovascular circulation". J. Appl. Physiol. 100 (3): 1065-76. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00793.2005. ...
Moyamoya disease is an extremely rare cerebrovascular condition that limits blood circulation to the brain, consequently ... If sufficient circulation is restored within a short period of time, symptoms may be transient. However, if a significant ... Brain ischemia (a.k.a. cerebral ischemia, cerebrovascular ischemia) is a condition in which there is insufficient blood flow to ...
Frijns CJ, Kappelle LJ (Aug 2002). "Inflammatory cell adhesion molecules in ischemic cerebrovascular disease". Stroke: A ... Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 33 (8): 2115-22. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000021902.33129.69. PMID 12154274. Lu C, Takagi J, ...
... cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases: a meta-analysis". Circulation. 126 (18): 2177-83. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA. ... cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases, and that "More comprehensive laws were associated with larger changes in risk." The ...
... blood circulation MeSH G09.330.582.163.159 --- cerebrovascular circulation MeSH G09.330.582.163.248 --- collateral circulation ... placental circulation MeSH G09.330.582.163.770 --- pulmonary circulation MeSH G09.330.582.163.780 --- regional blood flow MeSH ... splanchnic circulation MeSH G09.330.582.163.881.552 --- liver circulation MeSH G09.330.582.400 --- hemodynamic processes MeSH ... pulmonary circulation MeSH G09.772.770.755 --- respiration MeSH G09.772.770.755.700 --- respiratory mechanics MeSH G09.772. ...
Newer methods allow development of cerebrovascular organoids, and micro pumps to provide circulation through them are being ...
A Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 31 (11): 2648-52. doi:10.1161/01.STR.31.11.2648. PMID 11062289. Dragon-Durey MA, Rougier N, ... "Frequencies of certain complement protein alleles and serum levels of anti-heat-shock protein antibodies in cerebrovascular ...
... disease includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation. ... The incidence of cerebrovascular disease increases as an individual ages. Causes of acquired cerebrovascular disease include ... Other symptoms of cerebrovascular disease include migraines, seizures, epilepsy, or cognitive decline. However, cerebrovascular ... Cerebrovascular diseases can also present less commonly with headache or seizures. Any of these diseases can result in vascular ...
San Francisco is a collective of faculty and staff investigating matters related to cerebral circulation, particularly ... The Center for Cerebrovascular Research was established at the University of California San Francisco in 2000. The CCR is a ... The Center for Cerebrovascular Research at the University of California, ... cerebrovascular disease resulting from narrowing of major blood vessels in the brain and vascular malformation of the brain. ...
Once in the arterial circulation, a clot can travel to the brain, block a vessel there, and cause a stroke (cerebrovascular ... refers to an embolus which is carried from the venous side of circulation to the arterial side, or vice versa. It is a kind of ...
If the middle cerebral artery is occluded during a stroke (cerebrovascular accident (CVA)), there is dramatic loss of blood ... This circulation is in the leptomeninges, the two deeper layers of the meninges - the pia mater and the arachnoid mater. ... The leptomeningeal collateral circulation is a network of blood vessels supplying the brain that follows a diffuse course over ... The leptomeningeal collateral circulation allows a very limited degree of compensation for this. However, this mild ...
747.8) Other specified anomalies of circulatory system (747.81) Congenital anomalies of cerebrovascular system (747.82) Spinal ... vessel anomaly (747.83) Persistent fetal circulation (747.9) Unspecified congenital anomaly of circulatory system (748) ...
... and Vascular Biology Stroke Circulation Circulation Research Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and ... Cerebrovascular Disease Basic life support Advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) Automated external defibrillator (AED) American ...
They are effective in the arterial circulation, where anticoagulants have little effect.[citation needed] They are widely used ... in primary and secondary prevention of thrombotic cerebrovascular or cardiovascular disease. Antiplatelet therapy with one or ...
... a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cerebrovascular diseases.. This category reflects the organization of International ... Pages in category "Cerebrovascular diseases". The following 25 pages are in this category, out of 25 total. This list may not ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Cerebrovascular_diseases&oldid=893176734" ...
The leading causes of mortality for all age groups are cerebrovascular diseases (11.6%); ischemic heart disease (9.9%); ... immunity disorders (7.1%); diseases of the respiratory system (6.8%); diseases of pulmonary circulation and other forms of ...
The Dutch TIA Trial Study Group". Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 23 (9): 1220-4. doi:10.1161/01.STR.23.9.1220. PMID ... Cerebrovascular diseases (Basel, Switzerland). 16 (3): 280-5. doi:10.1159/000071128. PMID 12865617. Vermeer, SE; Koudstaal, PJ ... CHS Collaborative Research Group". Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 28 (6): 1158-64. doi:10.1161/01.STR.28.6.1158. ... Relationship with index-stroke subtype, vascular risk factors, and mortality". Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 25 ( ...
... , also known as brain aneurysm, is a cerebrovascular disorder in which weakness in the wall of a cerebral ... These cells initially invade the subarachnoid space from the circulation in order to phagocytose the hemorrhaged red blood ... Aneurysms in the posterior circulation (basilar artery, vertebral arteries and posterior communicating artery) have a higher ... National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Brain Aneurysm & Cerebrovascular Resource Cerebral Aneurysm Calculator ...
2 (3). Streeten, D.H.P. (1987). Orthostatic Disorders of the Circulation. New York: Plenum Medical. p. 116. Kario, K.; Eguchi, ... Increased occurrence of silent cerebrovascular ischemia Systolic orthostatic hypertension increases stroke risk. There is not ... Circulation Journal. 73 (6): 1002-1007. PMID 19430163. Yatsuya, H.; Folsom, A. R.; Alonso, A.; Gottesman, R. F.; Rose, K. M.; ... Japanese Circulation Journal. 52 (12): 1408-1414. PMID 2977192. Takada, Y.; Shimizu, H.; Kazatani, Y.; Azechi, H.; Hiwada, K.; ...
Zimmet JM, Hare JM (October 2006). "Nitroso-redox interactions in the cardiovascular system". Circulation. 114 (14): 1531-44. ... "The potential for xanthine oxidase inhibition in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease". ...
Li P, Qiu T, Qin C (19 January 2015). "NADPH oxidase p22phox C242T polymorphism and ischemic cerebrovascular disease: an ... Circulation. 97 (2): 135-7. doi:10.1161/01.cir.97.2.135. PMID 9445163. Gardemann A, Mages P, Katz N, Tillmanns H, Haberbosch W ... hypertension atherosclerosis or diabetes and its complications and ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. The results from these ...
CBF is equal to the cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) divided by the cerebrovascular resistance (CVR): CBF = CPP / CVR Control ... The following description is based on idealized human cerebral circulation. The pattern of circulation and its nomenclature ... Cerebral circulation is the movement of blood through the network of cerebral arteries and veins supplying the brain. The rate ... They are part of the Circle of Willis, which provides backup circulation to the brain. In case one of the supply arteries is ...
Caro CG (1978). The Mechanics of The Circulation. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-263323-1. .. ... and a heightened risk of cerebrovascular disease.[50] Within both high and low blood pressure groups, a greater degree of ... The Framingham Heart Study". Circulation. 96 (1): 308-15. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.96.1.308. PMID 9236450.. ... Freis ED (April 1976). "Salt, volume and the prevention of hypertension". Circulation. 53 (4): 589-95. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.53.4. ...
... is a cerebrovascular neurosurgeon and the director of the Division of Cerebrovascular Neurosurgery [3], the field created by ... In 1913 and 1914, Dandy and Kenneth D. Blackfan published two landmark papers on the production, circulation, and absorption of ... which marked the birth of cerebrovascular neurosurgery. During his 40-year medical career, Dandy published five books and more ... including the description of the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain, surgical treatment of hydrocephalus, the ...
In this way, the same flow through the coronary circulation is maintained over a range of pressures. This part of coronary ... Paulson, O. B.; S. Strandgaard; L. Edvinsson (1990). "Cerebral autoregulation". Cerebrovascular and Brain Metabolism Reviews. 2 ... If a sufficient flow of oxygen is met and the resistance in the coronary circulation rises (perhaps due to vasoconstriction), ... Sarnoff SJ, Mitchell JH, Gilmore JP, Remensnyder JP (1960). "Homeometric autoregulation in the heart" (PDF). Circulation ...
published in Circulation found no significant difference in the incidence of cognitive dysfunction 3 months after either OPCAB ... It is unclear how increases in bypass time would result in such increases if pre-existing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular ... Samuels MA (June 2006). "Can cognition survive heart surgery?". Circulation. 113 (24): 2784-6. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA. ... Circulation. 113 (24): 2790-5. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.587931. PMID 16769915. Van Dijk D, Jansen E, Hijman R, Nierich A ...
"Cerebrovascular Division, Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitari del Sagrat Cor, Universitat de Barcelona, CIBER de ... a journal of cerebral circulation. 37 (10): 2644-7. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000241106.81293.2b. PMID 16946150.. ... "Cerebrovascular Disease Service, Palmer 127, West Campus, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Caplan LR. Diakses tanggal 2011 ... "Diabetes mellitus and cerebrovascular disease". Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical ...
... partial anterior circulation infarct (PACI), lacunar infarct (LACI) or posterior circulation infarct (POCI). These four ... Bamford, J.M. (2000). "The Role of the Clinical Examination in the Subclassification of Stroke". Cerebrovascular Diseases. 10: ... On the other hand, they often detach, move into blood circulation, and eventually block smaller downstream branches of arteries ... Based on the extent of the symptoms, the stroke episode is classified as total anterior circulation infarct (TACI), ...
A mechanism of Ginkgo biloba action is its ability to stimulate blood circulation to deprived areas of the body including the ... The results showed that the extract had different types of neuroprotective and cerebrovascular effects. When bilobalide was ... Cerebral insufficiency, a medical term used to designate symptoms associated with poor blood circulation in the brain (Anon. ... Ginkgo biloba implies improved blood circulation to the brain. ...
This topic will review the major clinical syndromes associated with posterior circulation ischemia related to stenosis or ... Twenty percent of ischemic events in the brain involve posterior circulation (vertebrobasilar) structures. ... Posterior circulation cerebrovascular syndromes. Author. Louis R Caplan, MD. Louis R Caplan, MD ... Symptoms and signs of posterior circulation ischemia in the new England medical center posterior circulation registry. Arch ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
"Cerebrovascular Circulation" by people in this website by year, and whether "Cerebrovascular Circulation" was a major or minor ... "Cerebrovascular Circulation" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Cerebrovascular Circulation" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Cerebrovascular Circulation". ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Circulation.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person ... In the fetus with HLHS but not SVrp, there is a steady decline in cerebrovascular resistance throughout gestation which may ... Abstract 17236: Comparative Analysis of Cerebrovascular Resistance in the Fetus with Single Ventricle Type of Congenital Heart ... Abstract 17236: Comparative Analysis of Cerebrovascular Resistance in the Fetus with Single Ventricle Type of Congenital Heart ...
Abstract 033: Cardio-Cerebro-Vascular Diseases: Prevention in Metabolic Syndrome Patients. Günter Siegel, Eugeny Ermilov ... Your Name) thought you would like to see the Circulation Research web site. ... Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Circulation Research. ... MS is associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes and cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases (CCVD) (Figure). ...
Definition of Cerebrovascular circulation with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more ... cerebrovascular. cerebrovascular accident. cerebrovascular accident prevention. cerebrovascular circulation (current term). ... Cerebrovascular Circulation Images Lexicographical Neighbors of Cerebrovascular Circulation. cerebrospinal rhinorrhoea. ... Medical Definition of Cerebrovascular circulation. 1. The circulation of blood through the vessels of the brain. (12 Dec 1998) ...
Cerebrovascular geometry in the anterior circulation: an analysis of diameter, length and the vessel taper ... Cerebrovascular geometry in the anterior circulation: an analysis of diameter, length and the vessel taper ... The anterior cerebral circulation, particularly the carotid ophthalmic segment and the carotid siphon, is a frequent site for ... Knowledge of the cerebrovascular dimensions is integral to the performance of neurovascular procedures. These procedures may ...
Cerebrovascular Circulation. Academic Appointments. * Associate Professor - Med Center Line, Neurology & Neurological Sciences ... Clinical and Radiographic Natural History of Cervical Artery Dissections JOURNAL OF STROKE & CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES Schwartz ... Cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular autoregulation in a swine model of pediatric cardiac arrest and hypothermia CRITICAL ... She also studies methods of non-invasive measurement of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and cerebrovascular autoregulation ...
The Effects of Reduced Cerebrovascular Circulation on the Auditory Brain Stem Response (ABR). Mills, Janice A.; Ryals, Brenda M ...
Serial publications: Circulation, monthly; Circulation Research, monthly; Stroke--A Journal of Cerebrovascular Circulation, ... Current Contents of Cerebrovascular Disease--Stroke, quarterly; Recurring Bibliography of Hypertension, bimonthly--published in ...
cerebrovascular circulation. sitting. Additional relevant MeSH terms: Ischemia. Brain Ischemia. Cerebral Infarction. Pathologic ... Cerebrovascular Disorders. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. Vascular Diseases. ... Patients with history of cerebrovascular disease, coronary occlusive disease and/or obesity (body mass index , 30) were ...
... Congress Chairperson:Takeshi Kimura, M.D., Ph.D.( ... Cerebrovascular circulation/stroke. 29. Congenital heart disease/Kawasakis disease. 30. Coronary circulation/chronic coronary ... Copyright © 2019 - The 84th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Japanese Circulation Society. All Rights Reserved. ...
Instead, it actually measures changes in cerebrovascular circulation.. Helping to regulate that circulation are specialized ...
... and the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can facilitate management of cerebral pathologies. For this reason, various... ... Critical closing pressure in cerebrovascular circulation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1999;66:606-11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Computer simulation of cerebrovascular circulation: assessment of intracranial hemodynamics during induction of anesthesia. J ... Assessment of critical closing pressure in the cerebral circulation as a measure of cerebrovascular tone. Acta Neurochir Wien. ...
Diabetes adversely affects cerebrovascular arterial circulation. The risk of stroke is increased by 150-400% for patients with ...
Increase Blood Circulation Care Cerebrovascular Disease Low Level Laser Therapy Device Adantages: Portable wearable design , ... Professional Laser Hair Regrowth Personal Beauty Machine Improve Blood Circulation 1. 650nm wavelength laser for hair regrowth ...
Next message: Cerebrovascular Circulation Modelling Software? * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ author ] ...
Cerebrovascular Circulation*. Glaucoma / physiopathology*. Glaucoma, Open-Angle / physiopathology. Homeostasis*. Humans. Middle ... CBFV in NPG and POAG indicates impaired cerebral autoregulation and might contribute to an increased risk of cerebrovascular ...
Cerebrovascular Circulation. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Kinetics. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. Phosphates / ...
Kim Y, Bogert LWJ, Immink RV et al (2011) Effects of aging on the cerebrovascular orthostatic response. Neurobiol Aging 32:344- ... Houtman S, Colier WNJM, Hopman MTE, Oeseburg B (1999) Reproducibility of the alterations in circulation and cerebral ... Smielewski P, Kirkpatrick PJ, Minhas P et al (1995) Can cerebrovascular reactivity be measured with near-infrared spectroscopy ... Volunteers were excluded from participation when having a history of stroke, cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases, ...
Circulation Supplement 58(2): II-205. A long-term decline in death rates from cerebrovascular diseases in the USA accelerated ... Soltero I.; Liu K.; Cooper R.; Stamler J.; Garside D., 1978: Trends in mortality from cerebro vascular diseases in the usa 1960 ... If the 1960 rates had persisted in 1975, 87,600 more lives would have been lost to cerebrovascular diseases. Although there ...
Process and equipment for diagnosing circulation (cerebrovascular) disorders. US5676140 *. 26 Jul 1995. 14 Oct 1997. Nihon ... Shimada et al., "Effects of multiple scattering and peripheral circulation on arterial oxygen saturation measured with a pulse- ... Shimada et al., Effects of multiple scattering and peripheral circulation on arterial oxygen saturation measured with a pulse ...
Alzheimer Disease; Astrocytes; Axons; Blood-Brain Barrier; Capillaries; Cerebrovascular Circulation; Microscopy; Nerve Fibers, ...
  • Although several factors may contribute to CAA in humans, the neuronal origin of transgenic APP, high levels of Aβ in cerebrospinal fluid, and regional localization of CAA in APP23 mice suggest transport and drainage pathways rather than local production or blood uptake of Aβ as a primary mechanism underlying cerebrovascular amyloid formation. (pnas.org)
  • Understanding the dynamic relationship between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can facilitate management of cerebral pathologies. (springer.com)
  • Preserving cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients during surgery and anesthesia may be challenging as it requires good control over both circulation and ventilation, and CBF is not easily monitored. (physiology.org)
  • In this chapter, we briefly discuss the major factors regulating cerebral blood flow including important anatomical features for a functional understanding of the regulation of the cerebral circulation. (springer.com)
  • Stem cells exert therapeutic effects against ischemic stroke via transplantation of exogenous stem cells or stimulation of endogenous stem cells within the neurogenic niches of subventricular zone and subgranular zone, or recruited from the bone marrow through peripheral circulation. (omicsonline.org)
  • The risk for ischemic vascular events involving cerebrovascular circulation and the abdominal arteries is increased. (nih.gov)
  • In the past few years, interest in peripheral vascular and cerebrovascular intervention has blossomed. (nih.gov)
  • The Guide to Peripheral and Cerebrovascular Intervention brings together experts in the field of endovascular therapy to cover topics such as the basics of vascular anatomy, the pearls of appropriate case selection, and the fundamental equipment and pharmacotherapy for successful procedures. (nih.gov)
  • Color Doppler imaging identifies four syndromes of the retrobulbar circulation in patients with amaurosis fugax and central retinal artery occlusions," Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society , vol. 90, pp. 383-402, 1992. (hindawi.com)
  • The anterior cerebral circulation, particularly the carotid ophthalmic segment and the carotid siphon, is a frequent site for endovascular interventions. (bmj.com)
  • Another initiative focuses on the mechanisms controlling cerebral circulation and disease states such as stroke and neuronal damage found in Alzheimer's disease. (mcw.edu)
  • APP23 mice on an App -null background developed a similar degree of both plaques and CAA, providing further evidence that a neuronal source of APP/Aβ is sufficient to induce cerebrovascular amyloid and associated neurodegeneration. (pnas.org)
  • Although early or combined therapy may be warranted to improve cognition, these findings unequivocally point to pioglitazone as a most promising strategy for restoring cerebrovascular function and counteracting several AD markers detrimental to neuronal function. (jneurosci.org)
  • Intravascular sonography has been used to assess the outcomes of different percutaneous interventions, including angioplasty and stent implantation, and to provide detailed characterization of atherosclerotic lesions, aneurysms, and dissections within the cerebrovascular circulation. (ajnr.org)
  • Currently there are 3 types of sonography used to assess the extracranial and the intracranial circulation: 1) transcranial Doppler, 2) B-mode sonography, and 3) intravascular sonography ( Table ). (ajnr.org)
  • REVASCAT was a multicenter randomized controlled trial enrolling patients within 8 hours of symptom onset and confirmed anterior circulation, large vessel occlusion. (cns.org)
  • The Extend-IA multicenter randomized trial conducted in Australia and New Zealand included patients with a confirmed anterior circulation occlusion who received IV alteplase (0.9 mg/kg) within 4.5 hours of symptom onset. (cns.org)
  • The ESCAPE Trial aimed to assess the role for thrombectomy for patients with stroke due to anterior circulation proximal vessel occlusion. (cns.org)
  • Cerebrovascular Circulation" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • Background A study was undertaken to determine the typical length, diameter and taper of vessels in the anterior cerebral circulation. (bmj.com)
  • The goal of the study was to generate measurements for the anterior circulation only. (bmj.com)
  • Time-dependent action of carbon monoxide on the newborn cerebrovascular circulation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Computer simulation of cerebrovascular circulation: assessment of intracranial hemodynamics during induction of anesthesia. (springer.com)
  • Continued assessment of this diagnostic technique in both the intracranial and extracranial circulation will lead to increased use in clinical practice with the intent to improve outcomes. (ajnr.org)
  • 2.1 mmol/L) and severe clinical condition, impaired cerebral circulation or unfavourable outcome. (diva-portal.org)
  • Using aged (∼16 months) amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice that exhibit increased production of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and severe cerebrovascular and memory deficits, we examined the capacity of in vivo treatments with the antioxidants N -acetyl- l -cysteine (NAC) and tempol, or the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist pioglitazone to rescue cerebrovascular function and selected markers of AD neuropathology. (jneurosci.org)
  • In a neurointensive environment, real-time monitoring of a patient with these indices may be able to provide a detection of the onset of a cerebrovascular phenomenon, which could have otherwise been missed. (springer.com)