The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside the body but continuous with the bodily circulation.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.
Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.
The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.
NECROSIS induced by ISCHEMIA in the POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which supplies portions of the BRAIN STEM; the THALAMUS; TEMPORAL LOBE, and OCCIPITAL LOBE. Depending on the size and location of infarction, clinical features include OLFACTION DISORDERS and visual problems (AGNOSIA; ALEXIA; HEMIANOPSIA).
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
A characteristic symptom complex.
A condition caused by underdevelopment of the whole left half of the heart. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the left cardiac chambers (HEART ATRIUM; HEART VENTRICLE), the AORTA, the AORTIC VALVE, and the MITRAL VALVE. Severe symptoms appear in early infancy when DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS closes.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
A set of surgical procedures performed to establish sufficient outflow to the systemic circulation in individuals with univentricular congenital heart malformations, such as HYPOPLASTIC LEFT HEART SYNDROME, and MITRAL VALVE atresia, associated with systemic outflow obstruction. Follow-on surgeries may be performed and consist of a HEMI-FONTAN PROCEDURE as the stage 2 Norwood procedure and a FONTAN PROCEDURE as the stage 3 Norwood procedure.
Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.
A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.
A cardiovascular procedure performed to create a blood supply to the PULMONARY CIRCULATION. It involves making a connection between the subclavian, or carotid branch of the AORTA, or the AORTIC ARCH to the PULMONARY ARTERY.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
The only specie of the genus Ginkgo, family Ginkgoacea. It is the source of extracts of medicinal interest, especially Egb 761. Ginkgo may refer to the genus or species.
Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)
Measurement of the various properties of light.
A copolymer of polyethylene and polypropylene ether glycol. It is a non-ionic polyol surface-active agent used medically as a fecal softener and in cattle for prevention of bloat.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The immersion or washing of the body or any of its parts in water or other medium for cleansing or medical treatment. It includes bathing for personal hygiene as well as for medical purposes with the addition of therapeutic agents, such as alkalines, antiseptics, oil, etc.
An injury to the skin causing erythema, tenderness, and sometimes blistering and resulting from excessive exposure to the sun. The reaction is produced by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood flow reaches by following the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The geographic area of New England in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. States usually included in this region are Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.
Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.
A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.
The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.

The functional anatomy of the normal human auditory system: responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz tones at varied intensities. (1/8163)

Most functional imaging studies of the auditory system have employed complex stimuli. We used positron emission tomography to map neural responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz sine-wave tones presented to the right ear at 30, 50, 70 and 90 dB HL and found activation in a complex neural network of elements traditionally associated with the auditory system as well as non-traditional sites such as the posterior cingulate cortex. Cingulate activity was maximal at low stimulus intensities, suggesting that it may function as a gain control center. In the right temporal lobe, the location of the maximal response varied with the intensity, but not with the frequency of the stimuli. In the left temporal lobe, there was evidence for tonotopic organization: a site lateral to the left primary auditory cortex was activated equally by both tones while a second site in primary auditory cortex was more responsive to the higher frequency. Infratentorial activations were contralateral to the stimulated ear and included the lateral cerebellum, the lateral pontine tegmentum, the midbrain and the medial geniculate. Contrary to predictions based on cochlear membrane mechanics, at each intensity, 4.0 kHz stimuli were more potent activators of the brain than the 0.5 kHz stimuli.  (+info)

Loss of endothelium and receptor-mediated dilation in pial arterioles of rats fed a short-term high salt diet. (2/8163)

A high salt diet often is regarded as an accessory risk factor in hypertension, coincidental to the deleterious effect of high blood pressure on vasodilator function. The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term ingestion of a high salt diet per se impairs vasodilator function in the cerebral circulation independent of blood pressure changes. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal salt (0.8%) or high salt (4%) diet for 3 days. Mean arterial pressures were similar in the normal and high salt groups (123+/-2 and 125+/-2 mm Hg, respectively). Subsequently, the responses of the in situ pial arterioles to acetylcholine, iloprost, and sodium nitroprusside were determined in cranial windows using intravital videomicroscopy. Pial arterioles of rats fed normal and high salt diets showed similar resting diameters of 69+/-2 and 72+/-3 microm, respectively, but their reactivity patterns to vasodilator stimuli were markedly different. Arterioles of rats fed a normal salt diet dilated progressively up to 17+/-3% in response to the endothelium-dependent agent acetylcholine (10(-9) to 10(-6) mol/L) and dilated by 22+/-2% in response to the prostaglandin I2 receptor agonist iloprost (3x10(-11) mol/L). In contrast, pial arterioles of rats fed a high salt diet constricted by 4+/-3% and 8+/-2% in response to acetylcholine and iloprost, respectively. Sodium nitroprusside (10(-6) mol/L), a nitric oxide donor, dilated pial arterioles of rats fed low and high salt diets by a similar amount (19+/-3% and 16+/-2%, respectively), suggesting that signaling mechanisms for dilation distal to the vascular smooth muscle membrane were intact after high salt intake. These results provide the first evidence that the short-term ingestion of a high salt diet may severely impair the vasodilator function of the in situ cerebral microcirculation independent of blood pressure elevation.  (+info)

Parametric mapping of cerebral blood flow deficits in Alzheimer's disease: a SPECT study using HMPAO and image standardization technique. (3/8163)

This study assessed the accuracy and reliability of Automated Image Registration (AIR) for standardization of brain SPECT images of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Standardized cerebral blood flow (CBF) images of patients with AD and control subjects were then used for group comparison and covariance analyses. METHODS: Thirteen patients with AD at an early stage (age 69.8+/-7.1 y, Clinical Dementia Rating Score 0.5-1.0, Mini-Mental State Examination score 19-23) and 20 age-matched normal subjects (age 69.5+/-8.3 y) participated in this study. 99mTc-hexamethyl propylenamine oxime (HMPAO) brain SPECT and CT scans were acquired for each subject. SPECT images were transformed to a standard size and shape with the help of AIR. Accuracy of AIR for spatial normalization was evaluated by an index calculated on SPECT images. Anatomical variability of standardized target images was evaluated by measurements on corresponding CT scans, spatially normalized using transformations established by the SPECT images. Realigned brain SPECT images of patients and controls were used for group comparison with the help of statistical parameter mapping. Significant differences were displayed on the respective voxel to generate three-dimensional Z maps. CT scans of individual subjects were evaluated by a computer program for brain atrophy. Voxel-based covariance analysis was performed on standardized images with ages and atrophy indices as independent variables. RESULTS: Inaccuracy assessed by functional data was 2.3%. The maximum anatomical variability was 4.9 mm after standardization. Z maps showed significantly decreased regional CBF (rCBF) in the frontal, parietal and temporal regions in the patient group (P < 0.001). Covariance analysis revealed that the effects of aging on rCBF were more pronounced compared with atrophy, especially in intact cortical areas at an early stage of AD. Decrease in rCBF was partly due to senility and atrophy, however these two factors cannot explain all the deficits. CONCLUSION: AIR can transform SPECT images of AD patients with acceptable accuracy without any need for corresponding structural images. The frontal regions of the brain, in addition to parietal and temporal lobes, may show reduced CBF in patients with AD even at an early stage of dementia. The reduced rCBF in the cortical regions cannot be explained entirely by advanced atrophy and fast aging process.  (+info)

Nitric oxide modulates endothelin 1-induced Ca2+ mobilization and cytoskeletal F-actin filaments in human cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells. (4/8163)

A functional interrelation between nitric oxide (NO), the endothelial-derived vasodilating factor, and endothelin 1 (ET-1), the potent vasoconstrictive peptide, was investigated in microvascular endothelium of human brain. Nor-1 dose-dependently decreased the ET-1-stimulated mobilization of Ca2+. This response was mimicked with cGMP and abrogated by inhibitors of guanylyl cyclase or cGMP-dependent protein kinase G. These findings indicate that NO and ET-1 interactions involved in modulation of intracellular Ca2+ are mediated by cGMP/protein kinase G. In addition, Nor-1-mediated effects were associated with rearrangements of cytoskeleton F-actin filaments. The results suggest mechanisms by which NO-ET-1 interactions may contribute to regulation of microvascular function.  (+info)

Expression of neuropeptide Y receptors mRNA and protein in human brain vessels and cerebromicrovascular cells in culture. (5/8163)

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been suggested as an important regulator of CBF. However, except for the presence of Y1 receptors in large cerebral arteries, little is known about its possible sites of action on brain vessels. In this study, we sought to identify the NPY receptors present in the human cerebrovascular bed. Specific Y1 receptor binding sites, localized on the smooth muscle of human pial vessels and potently competed by NPY, polypeptide YY (PYY), and the selective Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP 3226, were identified by quantitative radioautography of the Y1 radioligand [125I]-[Leu31, Pro34]-PYY. In contrast, no specific binding of the Y2-([125I]-PYY3-36) and Y4/Y5-(125I-human pancreatic polypeptide [hPP]) radioligands could be detected. By in situ hybridization, expression of Y1 receptor mRNA was restricted to the smooth muscle layer of pial vessels, whereas no specific signals were detected for either Y2, Y4, or Y5 receptors. Similarly, using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), mRNA for Y1 but not Y2, Y4, or Y5 receptors was consistently detected in isolated human pial vessels, intracortical microvessels, and capillaries. In human brain microvascular cells in culture, PCR products for the Y1 receptors were exclusively found in the smooth muscle cells. In cultures of human brain astrocytes, a cell type that associates intimately with brain microvessels, PCR products for Y1, Y2, and Y4 but not Y5 receptors were identified. Finally, NPY significantly inhibited the forskolin-induced cAMP production in smooth muscle but not in endothelial cell cultures. We conclude that smooth muscle Y1 receptors are the primary if not exclusive NPY receptors associated with human brain extraparenchymal and intraparenchymal blood vessels, where they most likely mediate cerebral vasoconstriction.  (+info)

Disrupted temporal lobe connections in semantic dementia. (6/8163)

Semantic dementia refers to the variant of frontotemporal dementia in which there is progressive semantic deterioration and anomia in the face of relative preservation of other language and cognitive functions. Structural imaging and SPECT studies of such patients have suggested that the site of damage, and by inference the region critical to semantic processing, is the anterolateral temporal lobe, especially on the left. Recent functional imaging studies of normal participants have revealed a network of areas involved in semantic tasks. The present study used PET to examine the consequences of focal damage to the anterolateral temporal cortex for the operation of this semantic network. We measured PET activation associated with a semantic decision task relative to a visual decision task in four patients with semantic dementia compared with six age-matched normal controls. Normals activated a network of regions consistent with previous studies. The patients activated some areas consistently with the normals, including some regions of significant atrophy, but showed substantially reduced activity particularly in the left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (iTG) (Brodmann area 37/19). Voxel-based morphometry, used to identify the regions of structural deficit, revealed significant anterolateral temporal atrophy (especially on the left), but no significant structural damage to the posterior inferior temporal lobe. Other evidence suggests that the left posterior iTG is critically involved in lexical-phonological retrieval: the lack of activation here is consistent with the observation that these patients are all anomic. We conclude that changes in activity in regions distant from the patients' structural damage support the argument that their prominent anomia is due to disrupted temporal lobe connections.  (+info)

The cerebral haemodynamics of music perception. A transcranial Doppler sonography study. (7/8163)

The perception of music has been investigated by several neurophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Results from these studies suggest a right hemisphere dominance for non-musicians and a possible left hemisphere dominance for musicians. However, inconsistent results have been obtained, and not all variables have been controlled by the different methods. We performed a study with functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) of the middle cerebral artery to evaluate changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) during different periods of music perception. Twenty-four healthy right-handed subjects were enrolled and examined during rest and during listening to periods of music with predominant language, rhythm and harmony content. The gender, musical experience and mode of listening of the subjects were chosen as independent factors; the type of music was included as the variable in repeated measurements. We observed a significant increase of CBFV in the right hemisphere in non-musicians during harmony perception but not during rhythm perception; this effect was more pronounced in females. Language perception was lateralized to the left hemisphere in all subject groups. Musicians showed increased CBFV values in the left hemisphere which were independent of the type of stimulus, and background listeners showed increased CBFV values during harmony perception in the right hemisphere which were independent of their musical experience. The time taken to reach the peak of CBFV was significantly longer in non-musicians when compared with musicians during rhythm and harmony perception. Pulse rates were significantly decreased in non-musicians during harmony perception, probably due to a specific relaxation effect in this subgroup. The resistance index did not show any significant differences, suggesting only regional changes of small resistance vessels but not of large arteries. Our fTCD study confirms previous findings of right hemisphere lateralization for harmony perception in non-musicians. In addition, we showed that this effect is more pronounced in female subjects and in background listeners and that the lateralization is delayed in non-musicians compared with musicians for the perception of rhythm and harmony stimuli. Our data suggest that musicians and non-musicians have different strategies to lateralize musical stimuli, with a delayed but marked right hemisphere lateralization during harmony perception in non-musicians and an attentive mode of listening contributing to a left hemisphere lateralization in musicians.  (+info)

Correlation of regional cerebral blood flow and change of plasma sodium concentration during genesis and satiation of thirst. (8/8163)

Positron emission tomography studies were conducted during genesis of moderate thirst by rapid i.v. infusion of hypertonic saline (0.51 M) and after satiation of thirst by drinking water. The correlation of regional cerebral blood flow with the change in the plasma Na concentration showed a significant group of cerebral activations in the anterior cingulate region and also a site in the middle temporal gyrus and in the periaqueductal gray. Strongest deactivations occurred in the parahippocampal and frontal gyri. The data are consistent with an important role of the anterior cingulate in the genesis of thirst.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Temporal lobe seizure interhemispheric propagation time depends on nonepileptic cortical cerebral blood flow. AU - Weinand, M. E.. AU - Labiner, D. M.. AU - Ahern, G. L.. PY - 2001/3/24. Y1 - 2001/3/24. N2 - In some patients with epilepsy, activation of eloquent cortex using various forms of environmental stimulation and mental activity may induce seizures. The increased neuronal activity resulting from cortical stimulation may be associated with increased regional cerebral blood flow. The vascular steal theory of temporal lobe epilepsy suggests that as nonepileptogenic cortical cerebral blood flow (CBFn) increases, temporal lobe epileptogenicity increases as a result, in part, of decreasing interhemispheric propagation time (IHPT). Recently, IHPT has been shown to be a quantitative electrocorticographic measure of temporal lobe epileptogenicity. In the current study, long-term combined subdural-EEG and surface cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF) monitoring was performed to test ...
article{3b545620-2f5d-4405-9964-2753884aaa8d, abstract = {The effect of moderate hypoglycaemia (venous blood glucose 2.0 +/- 0.2 mmol/l; mean +/- SD) on regional cerebral blood flow and cerebral volume was studied in a group of ten right-handed patients with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (age 26.0 +/- 2.4 years, duration 18.4 +/- 3.8 years) using an intravenous Xenon 133 single photon emission computed tomography technique. After 10 min of hypoglycaemia, global cerebral blood flow had increased to 55.8 +/- 4.5 ml.100 g-1.min-1 compared to the initial normoglycaemic flow of 49.5 +/- 3.7 ml.100 g-1.min-1 (p < 0.01). A further increase in global cerebral blood flow to 59.5 +/- 4.5 ml.100 g-1.min-1 (p < 0.05) occurred 15 min after normalization of the blood glucose level. The global cerebral blood flow change from before hypoglycaemia to after recovery was inversely related to the initial glucose level. No change in the relative distribution of the regional cerebral blood flow ...
Recently, short-term visual deprivation has been shown to affect a variety of non-visual processes and regional cortical activity (Sathian & Zangaladze, 2001). Surprisingly, very little is known about how such visual deprivation impacts regional cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) or its adaptation with the underlying neuronal activity (i.e., neurovascular coupling). The current study sought to investigate the effects of short-term (two-hour) visual deprivation on regional CBFv and neurovascular coupling. CBFv (transcranial Doppler ultrasound) was measured concurrently in the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Neurovascular coupling was assessed using established methods, consisting of two minutes of baseline (eyes closed and reading), five cycles of 40 seconds reading - 20 seconds eyes-closed (primary protocol), and five cycles of 40 seconds eyes-moving - 20 seconds eyes-closed (secondary protocol). Neurovascular coupling, using both protocols, was collected ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lack of effect of antenatal indomethacin on fetal cerebral blood flow. AU - Parilla, B. V.. AU - Tamura, R. K.. AU - Cohen, L. S.. AU - Clark, E.. AU - Hess, L. W.. AU - Rightmire, D. A.. AU - Saade, G.. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate fetal cerebral blood flow and the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage in patients undergoing tocolysis with either indomethacin or magnesium sulfate at ,30 weeks gestation. STUDY DESIGN: Consenting patients at ,30 weeks gestation with preterm labor were randomized to receive indomethacin or magnesium sulfate tocolysis. Magnesium sulfate was administered intravenously with an 8 gm loading dose given over the first hour, 4 gm over the second hour, and then a maintenance infusion of 2.5 gm per hour. The infusion was continued for approximately 12 hours after the cessation of uterine contractions. Patients randomized to receive indomethacin were given an initial dose of 50 to 100 mg orally or per ...
J. M. Whitley, D. S. Prough, A. K. Lamb, D. D. Deal, D. S. DeWitt; REGIONAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW FOLLOWING RESUSCITATION FROM HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK IN DOGS WITH A SUBDURAL MASS. Anesthesiology 1988;69(3A):A539. Download citation file:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of psychotherapy on regional cerebral blood flow during trauma imagery in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder: a randomized clinical trial. AU - Lindauer, R.J.L.. AU - Booij, J.. AU - Habraken, J.B.A.. AU - van Meijel, E.P.M.. AU - Uylings, H.B.M.. AU - Olff, M.. AU - Carlier, I.V.E.. AU - den Heeten, G.J.. AU - Eck-Smit, B.L.F.. AU - Gersons, B.P.R.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. U2 - 10.1017/S0033291707001432. DO - 10.1017/S0033291707001432. M3 - Article. C2 - 17803835. VL - 38. SP - 543. EP - 554. JO - Psychological Medicine. JF - Psychological Medicine. SN - 0033-2917. IS - 4. ER - ...
Chi, O.Z., C. Hunter, X. Liu, S.K. Chokshi and H.R. Weiss. Effects of fentanyl pretreatment on regional cerebral blood flow in focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Pharmacol. 85:153-157, 2010.. Chi, O.Z., C. Hunter, X. Liu and H.R. Weiss. The effects of isoflurane pretreatment on cerebral blood flow, capillary permeability, and oxygen consumption in focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Anesth. Analg. 110:1412-1418, 2010.. Liu, X., C. Hunter, H.R. Weiss and O.Z. Chi. Effects of blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors on blood-brain barrier disruption in focal cerebral ischemia. Neurol. Sci. 31:699-703, 2010.. Chi, O.Z., C. Hunter, X. Liu, Y. Chi and H.R. Weiss. Effects of GABAA receptor blockade on regional cerebral blood flow and blood-brain barrier disruption in focal cerebral ischemia. J. Neurol. Sci. 301:66-70, 2011.. Chi, O.Z., C. Hunter, X. Liu and H.R. Weiss. The effects of dexmedetomidine on regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption during severe hemorrhagic hypotension in rats. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cerebral blood flow autoregulation is impaired in schizophrenia. T2 - A pilot study. AU - Ku, Hsiao Lun. AU - Wang, Jiunn Kae. AU - Lee, Hsin-Chien. AU - Lane, Timothy Joseph. AU - Liu, I-Chao. AU - Chen, Yung Chan. AU - Lee, Yao Tung. AU - Lin, I Cheng. AU - Lin, Chia Pei. AU - Hu, Chaur-Jong. AU - Chi, Nai-Fang. PY - 2017/10. Y1 - 2017/10. N2 - Patients with schizophrenia have a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases and higher mortality from them than does the general population; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Impaired cerebral autoregulation is associated with cerebrovascular diseases and their mortality. Increased or decreased cerebral blood flow in different brain regions has been reported in patients with schizophrenia, which implies impaired cerebral autoregulation. This study investigated the cerebral autoregulation in 21 patients with schizophrenia and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. None of the participants had a history of cardiovascular ...
Changes in cerebral blood flow are an essential feature of Alzheimers disease and have been linked to apolipoprotein E-genotype and cerebral amyloid-deposition. These factors could be interdependent or influence cerebral blood flow via different mechanisms. We examined apolipoprotein E-genotype, amyloid beta-deposition, and cerebral blood flow in amnestic mild cognitive impairment using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling MRI in 27 cognitively normal elderly and 16 amnestic mild cognitive impairment participants. Subjects underwent Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography and apolipoprotein E-genotyping. Global cerebral blood flow was lower in apolipoprotein E ɛ4-allele carriers (apolipoprotein E4+) than in apolipoprotein E4- across all subjects (including cognitively normal participants) and within the group of cognitively normal elderly. Global cerebral blood flow was lower in subjects with mild cognitive impairment compared with cognitively normal. Subjects with ...
Progressive loss of brain tissue is seen in some patients with schizophrenia and might be caused by increased levels of glutamate and resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) alterations. Animal studies suggest that normalization of glutamate levels decreases rCBF and prevents structural changes in hippocampus. However, the relationship between glutamate and rCBF in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of humans has not been studied in the absence of antipsychotics and illness chronicity. Ketamine is a non-competitive N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor antagonist that transiently induces schizophrenia-like symptoms and neurobiological disturbances in healthy volunteers (HV). Here, we used S-ketamine challenge to assess if glutamate levels were associated with rCBF in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in 25 male HV. Second, we explored if S-ketamine changed neural activity as reflected by rCBF alterations in thalamus and accumbens that are connected with ACC. Glutamatergic metabolites were measured in ACC with magnetic
Definition of Cerebrovascular circulation with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
This study sought to determine the degree of agreement between asymmetries of neuropsychological functioning and nine methods of quantifying asymmetries of regional cerebral blood flow.. The regional cerebral blood flow methods combined three markers of cerebral blood flow asymmetry (percent hemispheric difference, maximum percent probe-pair asymmetry, and number of probe-pair asymmetries) with three indexes of regional cerebral blood flow (fast compartment flow, initial slope index, and initial slope). Eleven patients with left hemispheric ischemic strokes and 13 with right hemispheric ischemic strokes were studied with the xenon-133 inhalation technique and neuropsychological tests.. Blind clinical judgments of neuropsychological asymmetry significantly correlated with all nine methods of cerebral blood flow asymmetry determination; correlations ranged from -0.42 to -0.77. Clinical judgment of asymmetry of neuropsychological functioning accurately predicted the hemisphere of lower flow in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Frontotemporal cerebral blood flow change during executive and declarative memory tasks in schizophrenia. T2 - A positron emission tomography study. AU - Ragland, John D. AU - Gur, Ruben C.. AU - Glahn, David C.. AU - Censits, David M.. AU - Smith, Robin J.. AU - Lazarev, Mark G.. AU - Alavi, Abass. AU - Gur, Raquel E.. PY - 1998/7. Y1 - 1998/7. N2 - Schizophrenia affects prefrontal and temporal-limbic networks. These regions were examined by contrasting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during executive (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test [WCST]), and declarative memory tasks (Paired Associate Recognition Test [PART]). The tasks, and a resting baseline, were administered to 15 patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy controls during 10 min positron emission tomography 15O-water measures of rCBF. Patients were worse on both tasks. Controls activated inferior frontal, occipitotemporal, and temporal pole regions for both tasks. Similar results were obtained for controls matched to ...
Hypoxia increases cerebral blood flow (CBF), but it is unknown whether this increase is uniform across all brain regions. We used H215O positron emission tomography imaging to measure absolute blood flow in 50 regions of interest across the human brain (n = 5) during normoxia and moderate hypoxia. PCO2 was kept constant (44 Torr) throughout the study to avoid decreases in CBF associated with the hypocapnia that normally occurs with hypoxia. Breathing was controlled by mechanical ventilation. During hypoxia (inspired PO2 = 70 Torr), mean end-tidal PO2 fell to 45 ᠶ.3 Torr (means ᠓D). Mean global CBF increased from normoxic levels of 0.39 ᠰ.13 to 0.45 ᠰ.13 ml/g during hypoxia. Increases in regional CBF were not uniform and ranged from 9.9 ᠸ.6% in the occipital lobe to 28.9 ᠱ0.3% in the nucleus accumbens. Regions of interest that were better perfused during normoxia generally showed a greater regional CBF response. Phylogenetically older regions of the brain tended to show larger ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Different cerebral hemodynamic responses between sexes and various vessels in orthostatic stress tests. AU - Wang, Yuh Jen. AU - Chao, A. Ching. AU - Chung, Chih Ping. AU - Huang, Ying Ju. AU - Hu, Han Hwa. PY - 2010/9/1. Y1 - 2010/9/1. N2 - Objective: The argument about why the head-up tilt table test (HUT) does not include the posterior cerebral circulation, which is mainly responsible for syncope, as a monitor target has not been resolved. It is also unclear whether there is a sex difference in cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes. We hypothesized that orthostatic CBF changes more in the posterior circulation than in the anterior circulation and is different between sexes. Methods: Thirty healthy volunteers (13 female and 17 male) were recruited for the HUT. The blood pressure (BP), middle cerebral artery flow velocity (MCAFV), and posterior cerebral artery flow velocity (PCAFV) were monitored simultaneously. Static cerebral autoregulation (CA) was calculated. Results: The female ...
Although it is now well documented (6, 8) that pial as well as intracerebral vessels are amply supplied with sympathetic adrenergic nerves which, as shown for pial arteries, fulfill ultra-structural...
Four major, interdependent mechanisms are involved in the control of cerebral blood flow: metabolic coupling: neural control, involving both extrinsic and intrinsic neural pathways: Pco2 and autoregulation. Although this division may be somewhat artificial and these control mechanisms probably operate in concert, it is useful to consider each separately. Metabolic Control Local cerebral blood flow (CBF) is regionally heterogeneous. The varied pattern of CBF is neither random nor related to the anatomic organization of the cerebral vasculature or to known differences in the innervation patterns of the cerebral vessels. Neuronal activity is the principal energy-consuming process in the brain. Local cerebral blood flow adjusts to the level of energy generation; therefore, it is the activity in the neuronal circuits that is the major determinant of variations and regional patterns of cerebral blood flow. Normally there is exquisite coupling between the regional cerebral metabolic demand for oxygen ...
Oak Za Chi, Hwu Meei Wei, Dorene A. OHara, Arabinda K. Sinha, Harvey R. Weiss; Effects of Pentobarbital and Isoflurane on Regional Cerebral Oxygen Extraction and Consumption with Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Rats. Anesthesiology 1993;79(2):299-305. Download citation file:. ...
Background and aims: Aging brain has been demonstrated to be the main risk factor for dementia and Alzheimers disease (AD). Recent findings provide clear evidence that the structural and functional integrity of the brain depends on the delicate balance between substrate delivery through blood flow and energy demands imposed by neural activity. Imaging studies of aging have in general shown reductions of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen (CMRO2) in healthy elderly adults. Based on the existing evidence, we hypothesized the CBF and CMRO2 in healthy young subjects will be higher than CBF and CMRO2 in elderly adults which itself should be higher than AD patients. Therefore, we designed the present studies specifically to reveal the role of defective cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow in normal aging. ...
This study investigated whether the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) would alter blood flow and oxygen balance in the ischemic cerebrocortex of isoflurane-anesthetized Long-Evans rats.. Fifteen minutes after middle cerebral artery occlusion, L-NAME (1.5 mg/min per kilogram) was infused intravenously to the L-NAME group (n = 14), and normal saline was given to the control group (n = 14) for 45 minutes. In each group, regional cerebral blood flow was determined with [14C]iodoantipyrine, and arterial and venous oxygen saturations were determined by microspectrophotometry.. In both groups regional cerebral blood flow of the ischemic cortex was significantly lower than that of the contralateral cortex ([mean +/- SD] 55 +/- 13 versus 110 +/- 29 mL/min per 100 g in the control group and 35 +/- 13 versus 90 +/- 24 mL/min per 100 g in the L-NAME group). Compared with the blood flow in the ischemic cortex of the control group, L-NAME significantly reduced ischemic ...
The results of studies utilizing the nitrous oxide technic for measuring cerebral blood flow have been reviewed and divided into three groups: (1) those in which cerebral blood flow and metabolism were normal, (2) those in which cerebral blood flow was increased, and (3) those in which cerebral blood flow and metabolism were decreased. The factors which apparently regulate and control cerebral blood flow and metabolism are reviewed and discussed.. ...
3) with the assumption that the large and small vessel Hcts are equal.12. Strictly, recirculation effects should be recognized and removed from the curves. In reality, unless there is significant BBB permeability or areas of very low flow, recirculation effects may be ignored and actually lead to improved estimates of plasma volume that are less sensitive to contrast agent delivery rates (ie, CBF). In low-flow regions, if the tracer does not complete its first passage within the time given for the measurement (usually about 25-30 seconds), it will be undercounted and vp will be underestimated. Because of this result, some authors writing about ischemia have used the term perfused CBV.13 This may account for the discrepancies seen in between PWI and C15O PET estimates of CBV in ischemia.14 In fact, in the extreme, one would prefer to image as late after injection as possible; when the contrast agent concentration is changing slowly, it more closely approximates a steady-state or blood pool ...
The Windkessel properties of the vasculature are known to play a significant role in buffering arterial pulsations, but their potential importance in dampening low-frequency fluctuations in cerebral blood flow has not been clearly examined. In this study, we quantitatively assessed the contribution of arterial Windkessel (peripheral compliance and resistance) in the dynamic cerebral blood flow response to relatively large and acute changes in blood pressure. Middle cerebral artery flow velocity (MCA(V); transcranial Doppler) and arterial blood pressure were recorded from 14 healthy subjects. Low-pass-filtered pressure-flow responses (,0.15 Hz) during transient hypertension (intravenous phenylephrine) and hypotension (intravenous sodium nitroprusside) were fitted to a two-element Windkessel model. The Windkessel model was found to provide a superior goodness of fit to the MCA(V) responses during both hypertension and hypotension (R² = 0.89 ± 0.03 and 0.85 ± 0.05, respectively), with a ...
Several techniques have been proposed to estimate relative changes in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) by exploiting combined BOLD fMRI and cerebral blood flow data in conjunction with hypercapnic or hyperoxic respiratory challenges. More recently, methods based on respiratory challenges that include both hypercapnia and hyperoxia have been developed to assess absolute CMRO2, an important parameter for understanding brain energetics. In this paper, we empirically optimize a previously presented original calibration model relating BOLD and blood flow signals specifically for the estimation of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and absolute CMRO2.To do so, we have created a set of synthetic BOLD signals using a detailed BOLD signal model to reproduce experiments incorporating hypercapnic and hyperoxic respiratory challenges at 3 T. A wide range of physiological conditions was simulated by varying input parameter values (baseline cerebral blood volume (CBV0), baseline cerebral ...
We used H(2)15O positron emission tomography (PET) to measure age-related changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during a verbal recognition memory task. Twelve young adults (20 to 29 years) and 12 older adults (62 to 79 years) participated. Separate PET scans were conducted during Encoding, Baseline, and Retrieval conditions. Each of the conditions involved viewing a series of 64 words and making a two-choice response manually. The complete reaction time (RT) distributions in each task condition were characterized in terms of an ex-Gaussian model (convolution of exponential and Gaussian functions). Parameter estimates were obtained for the mean of the exponential component (tau), representing a task-specific decision process and the mean of the Gaussian component (mu) representing residual sensory coding and response processes. Independently of age group, both tau and mu were higher in the Encoding and Retrieval conditions than in the Baseline condition, and tau was higher during ...
All inhaled anesthetics increase cerebral blood flow and decrease cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2). Nitrous oxide, however, will increase CMRO2. Nitrous oxide, as well as inhaled anesthetics, causes cerebral vasodilation. However, if the patients blood pressure drops, the increase in cerebral blood flow will be attenuated or abolished because volatile anesthetics inhibit autoregulation. Isoflurane causes the least cerebral vasodilation, maintaining autoregulation better than other volatile anesthetics. Isoflurane also has no effect on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production and decreases resistance to CSF absorption. Desflurane increases CSF production without significantly effecting CSF reabsorption. ...
To test the hypothesis that craving for alcohol in the alcohol-dependent individual is mediated by a limbic circuit involving the caudate nuclei, regional cerebral blood flow was measured with [99mTc]HMPAO SPECT during control and craving conditions in 9 alcohol-dependent subjects. In all subjects, blood flow in the head of the right caudate nucleus increased during the craving condition, and these blood flow increases were strongly correlated with the experimentally induced increases in craving for alcohol. These new findings suggest a functional role for the limbic striatum in the mediation of craving and impaired control over alcohol consumption.
Dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI (DSC-MRI) is the current standard for the measurement of Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) and Cerebral Blood Volume (CBV), but it is not suitable for the measurement of Extraction Flow (EF) and may not allow for absolute quantification. The objective of this study was to …
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Author(s): Moore S, Hallsworth K, Jakovljevic D, Blamire A, He J, Ford G, Rochester L, Trenell M. Publication type: Conference Proceedings (inc. Abstract). Publication status: Published. Conference Name: UK Stroke Forum 2014. Year of Conference: 2014. Pages: 32-32. Print publication date: 01/11/2014. Online publication date: 01/12/2014. ISSN: 1747-4930. Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijs.12374_12. DOI: 10.1111/ijs.12374_12. Notes: 072. Series Title: International Journal of Stroke. ...
We have previously reported focal abnormalities of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in a group of 33 patients with major depression. This report, on an extended sample of 40 patients who demonstrated identical regional deficits to those previously described, examines the relationships between depressive symptoms and patterns of rCBF. Patients symptom ratings were subjected to factor analysis, producing a three-factor solution. The scores for these three factors, which corresponded to recognizable dimensions of depressive illness, were then correlated with rCBF. The first factor had high loadings for anxiety and correlated positively with rCBF in the posterior cingulate cortex and inferior parietal lobule bilaterally. The second factor had high loadings for psychomotor retardation and depressed mood and correlated negatively with rCBF in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left angular gyrus. The third factor had a high loading for cognitive performance and correlated positi
The aim of the study is to determine if regional cerebral blood flow, measured by dynamic arterial spin labeling (dASL), can be a biomarker for stage of Alzheimers disease. The study is designed to be conducted in 2 parts in participants with mild to moderate Alzheimers disease, and participants with normal cognition. Various imaging studies will be done using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) along with neurocognitive assessments. Participants who meet the study-entry criteria will have up to 8 study visits. Repeat imaging studies may be required if the initial data are incomplete or un-interpretable. The maximum number of PET scans during the study will be limited to four ...
The aim of the study is to determine if regional cerebral blood flow, measured by dynamic arterial spin labeling (dASL), can be a biomarker for stage of Alzheimers disease. The study is designed to be conducted in 2 parts in participants with mild to moderate Alzheimers disease, and participants with normal cognition. Various imaging studies will be done using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) along with neurocognitive assessments. Participants who meet the study-entry criteria will have up to 8 study visits. Repeat imaging studies may be required if the initial data are incomplete or un-interpretable. The maximum number of PET scans during the study will be limited to four ...
Modulation of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system results in changes in memory performance, including working memory (WM), in animals and in patients with Alzheimer disease. To identify associated changes in the functional brain response, we studied performance measures and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using positron emission tomography (PET) in healthy subjects during performance of a WM task. Eight control subjects received an infusion of saline throughout the study and 13 experimental subjects received a saline infusion for the first 2 scans followed by a continuous infusion of physostigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, for the subsequent 8 scans. rCBF was measured using H215O and PET in a sequence of 10 PET scans that alternated between rest and task scans. During task scans, subjects performed the WM task for faces. Physostigmine both improved WM efficiency, as indicated by faster reaction times, and reduced WM task-related activity in anterior and posterior regions of ...
Though genetic and environmental determinants of systemic haemodynamic have been reported, surprisingly little is known about their influences on cerebral haemodynamics. We assessed the potential geographical effect on cerebral haemodynamics by comparing the individual differences in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv), vasomotor tone (critical closing pressure- CrCP), vascular bed resistance (resistance-area product- RAP) and cerebral autoregulation (CA) mechanism on healthy subjects and acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) patients from two countries. Participants were pooled from databases in Leicester, United Kingdom (LEI) and São Paulo, Brazil (SP) research centres. Stroke patients admitted within 48 h of ischaemic stroke onset, as well as age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled. Beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) and bilateral mean CBFv were recorded during 5 min baseline. CrCP and RAP were calculated. CA was quantified using transfer function analysis (TFA) of spontaneous oscillations in arterial BP
Though genetic and environmental determinants of systemic haemodynamic have been reported, surprisingly little is known about their influences on cerebral haemodynamics. We assessed the potential geographical effect on cerebral haemodynamics by comparing the individual differences in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv), vasomotor tone (critical closing pressure- CrCP), vascular bed resistance (resistance-area product- RAP) and cerebral autoregulation (CA) mechanism on healthy subjects and acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) patients from two countries. Participants were pooled from databases in Leicester, United Kingdom (LEI) and São Paulo, Brazil (SP) research centres. Stroke patients admitted within 48 h of ischaemic stroke onset, as well as age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled. Beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) and bilateral mean CBFv were recorded during 5 min baseline. CrCP and RAP were calculated. CA was quantified using transfer function analysis (TFA) of spontaneous oscillations in arterial BP
The goal of this study was to determine if regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF)in the left and right hemithalami or the left and right heads of the cau
TY - JOUR. T1 - Opioids and the prostanoid system in the control of cerebral blood flow in hypotensive piglets. AU - Armstead, W. M.. AU - Mirro, R.. AU - Busija, D. W.. AU - Leffler, Charles. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - The interaction between opioid and prostanoid mechanisms in the control of cerebral hemodynamics was investigated in the conscious hypotensive piglet. Radiomicrospheres were used to determine regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in piglets pretreated with the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, or its vehicle, saline, during normotension, hypotension, and after the administration of indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, during hypotension. Hemorrhage (30 ml/kg) decreased systemic arterial pressure from 68 ± 12 to 40 ± 10 mm Hg but did not decrease blood flow to any brain region. Indomethacin treatment (5 mg/kg) of hypotensive piglets decreased blood flow to all brain regions within 20 min; this decrease blood flow to all brain regions within 20 rebral vascular ...
Continuous recording of mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MCBFV) by Doppler ultrasound allows detection of low-frequency (LF) oscillations, which reflect sympathetic activity in the cerebral circulation. To establish whether the sympathetic drive to the cerebral circulation is altered in patients with compensated cirrhosis, and, if so, where alterations take place, LF oscillations of MCBFV, heart rate (RR interval) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) were analysed in 10 patients with cirrhosis and 10 control subjects during supine rest and on stimulation of carotid baroreceptors using a neck chamber applying sinusoidal suction. Bivariate analysis was used to study the relationship between pairs of oscillations. In the case of a significant association, the delay in the appearance of the oscillation in MCBFV, SAP and RR was calculated. Baroreceptor stimulation induced significant increases in SAP LF and RR LF power in both groups, while MCBFV LF power increased only in controls. During ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - White matter lesions after occlusion of the bilateral carotid arteries in the rat -temporal profile of cerebral blood flow (CBF), oligodendroglia and myelin. AU - Tomimoto, Hidekazu. AU - Akiguchi, Ichiro. AU - Wakita, Hideaki. AU - Kimura, Jun. PY - 1997/12/1. Y1 - 1997/12/1. N2 - In the present investigation, we examined cerebral blood flow (CBF), numerical density of oligodendroRlia and extent of white matter lesions after bilateral libation of common carotid arteries in Wistar rats, Doppler flow meter re\ealed a reduction of CBF to 30-40, of that before operation after 1 and 3 days, however recovered to ,10 60 ‰, after 7 and 14 days, Semiquantitative evaluation with immuohistochemistry for transferrin showed a numerical decrease of oligodendroglia in the medial corpus callosum after 14 and !i() clays, Tissue rarefaction promptly occurred in the optic nerve and optic tract after ,, days, whereas it was- delayed to 7 clays after operation and increased in intensity ...
In the article, cerebral perfusion pressure, or CPP, is the net pressure gradient which affects cerebral blood flow to the brain, known as brain perfusion.
Standard techniques of cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurement provide information on both global and regional flow in patients with cerebral ischaemia or infarction. Recent availability of positron emission tomography (PET), recording oxygen and glucose metabolism, as well as blood flow and blood volume, gives a more detailed and accurate understanding of pathophysiological changes after stroke.. Changes in cerebral infarction. NON-ISCHAEMIC HEMISPHERE. Mild reduction in global CBF - perhaps due to transneuronal depression of metabolism in the unaffected hemisphere - diaschisis.. In the normal brain, cerebral blood flow to a particular part varies depending on the metabolic requirements, i.e. the supply of 02 and glucose is coupled to the tissue needs. After infarction, between areas of reduced flow and areas of luxury perfusion, lie areas of relative luxury perfusion where reduced flow exceeds the tissue requirements, i.e. uncoupling of flow and metabolism has occurred.. Studies with SPECT ...
The effects of positioning of head of bed positioning on blood flow reaching the brain can now be monitored non-invasively and continuously using a new device designed by University of Pennsylvania.
This study was performed to investigate the regulatory mechanism of cerebral blood flow of adenosine A $_{2B}$ receptor agonist in the rats, and to define whether its mechanism is mediated by adenylate cyclase, guanylate cyclase and potassium channel. In pentobarbital-anesthetized, pancuronium-par...
Mounting evidence indicates that regular engagement in aerobic exercise improves executive functioning and cerebrovascular health in older adulthood. Recent evidence also points toward some similar benefits in young adults, despite presumed optimal brain health in that population. The present study sought to clarify which specific cognitive functions are linked to regular exercise in young adults (18-30 years), and to gain insight into the possible mechanisms underlying such links. To this end, the current study examined performance on a wide variety of executive function tasks in relation to aerobic fitness, self-reported habitual physical activity, and cerebrovascular health (as measured by resting cerebral blood flow, which was indexed by blood flow velocity through the middle cerebral artery; and cerebrovascular reactivity to carbon dioxide - the most potent regulatory stimulus of the cerebrovasculature). Multiple regression analyses revealed that more frequent physical activity, but not ...
Cerebral blood flow and metabolism have been evaluated during exercise to elicit robust activation compared with during anaesthesia. It is demonstrated that physical exercise requires an approximately 20 % increase in cerebral blood flow and metabolic rate for oxygen. This reflects that low intensity exercise is associated with increasing cerebral oxygenation, while cerebral oxygenation decreases during maximal exercise, since marked hyperventilation reduces arterial carbon dioxide tension and therefore cerebral blood flow at the same time as the metabolic rate for oxygen is elevated ...
Type 2 diabetes exerts complex effects on cerebral microvasculature that may alter cerebral blood flow regulation. We found a decrease of mean BFV and an increase of CVR in type 2 diabetic patients during baseline, hypocapnia, and hypercapnia. Baseline mean BFV was negatively associated with periventricular WMH grade and volume on T2-weighted images and with A1C and inflammation markers. WMHs were also linked with uncontrolled diabetes, elevated CVR, and impaired CO2 reactivity. The relationship between WMH, uncontrolled diabetes and reduced BFV is of clinical relevance as a potential mechanism for cerebrovascular disease in elderly with type 2 diabetes.. Aging is associated with brain atrophy, changes in frontal subcortical white matter, and executive cognitive dysfunction (9). The CO2 reactivity diminishes with age, uncontrolled diabetes, and risk factors for atherosclerosis (22). In community-living elderly people, blood flow in the WMHs was lower compared with normal-appearing white matter ...
article{a42a0f99-94fd-4913-b3c1-936a0a2ea31b, abstract = {Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied in patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) before and after 14 months of tacrine treatment. The treated group was compared with an identical reference group of untreated AD patients. At baseline the two groups showed an identical rCBF and mean hemispheric blood flow. After 14 months the tacrine-treated patients showed a stable rCBF level and a significant increase in rCBF in the central-parietal regions, compared to the untreated reference group, who showed typical AD reductions in rCBF in these regions. Clinical outcome: 7 of 9 patients in the tacrine group were clinically unchanged or slightly improved during the study time. In the untreated group 8 of 11 patients had deteriorated in clinical assessments and none had improved. Long-term tacrine treatment in Alzheimers disease may delay the progression of symptoms.}, author = {Minthon, Lennart and Nilsson, Karin and Edvinsson, Lars and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phenylephrine increases cerebral blood flow during low-flow hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in baboons. AU - Schwariz, Arthur E.. AU - Minanov, Oktavijan. AU - Stone, J. Gilbert. AU - Adams, David C.. AU - Sandhu, Aqeel A.. AU - Pearson, Mark E.. AU - Kwiatkowski, Pawel. AU - Young, William L.. AU - Michler, Robert E.. PY - 1996/8/23. Y1 - 1996/8/23. N2 - Background: Although low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has become a preferred technique for the surgical repair of complex cardiac lesions in children, the relative hypotension and decrease in cerebral blood flow (CBF) associated with low flow may contribute to the occurrence of postoperative neurologic injury. Therefore, it was determined whether phenylephrine administered to increase arterial blood pressure during low-flow CPB increases CBF. Methods: Cardiopulmonary bypass was initiated in seven baboons during fentanyl, midazolam, and isoflurane anesthesia. Animals were cooled at a pump flow rate of 2.5 1 · min -1 · m ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cognitive function and dynamic cerebral blood flow regulation in multiple concussions. AU - Kumazaki, Akira. AU - Ogoh, Shigehiko. AU - Hirasawa, Ai. AU - Sakai, Sadayoshi. AU - Hirose, Norikazu. PY - 2018/3. Y1 - 2018/3. N2 - Background: Concussion causes acute, short-term brain dysfunctions. However, the impact of repetitive concussion history on brain function remains unclear. Objectives: The present study examined the effect of a history of multiple concussions on the cognitive functions and dynamic cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation in collegiate rugby football players. Methods: Nine male rugby football players with a history of≤1 concussion and nine players with a history of multiple concussions (≤ 4 concussions) participated in this study. Reaction time and working memory were assessed using a neurocognitive assessment device (CogSport; CogState Ltd., Melbourne, Australia). Arterial blood pressure and middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv) were measured ...
This study was performed to determine whether stimulation of the carotid chemoreceptors increases total or regional cerebral blood flow and whether activation of arterial chemoreceptors contributes to cerebral vasodilation during systemic hypoxemia. In anesthetized and ventilated dogs, carotid chemoreceptors were stimulated with nicotine or hypoxic and hypercapnic blood. To measure total and regional cerebral blood flow, we used labeled 15-mu microspheres. Stimulation of chemoreceptors did not increase cerebral blood flow or produce significant redistribution of cerebral blood flow, even though the chemoreflex was intact in these animals (as manifested by vasoconstriction in muscle, kidney, and small bowel) and the cerebral vessels dilated in response to systemic hypercapnia. In other studies in anesthetized, ventilated dogs and rhesus monkeys, cerebral vasodilator responses to systemic hypoxemia were observed before and after denervation of carotid and aortic chemoreceptors. Systemic hypoxemia ...
Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) had reduced regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the posterior parietotemporal region compared with controls, as determined with technetium-99m hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime and single photon emission tomography. Central cholinergic stimulation with physostigmine produced a focal increase in rCBF in the posterior parietotemporal region in the patients with AD but not in controls.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Low Cerebral Oxygen Consumption and Blood Flow in Patients With Cirrhosis and an Acute Episode of Hepatic Encephalopathy. AU - Iversen, Peter. AU - Sørensen, Michael. AU - Bak, Lasse Kristoffer. AU - Waagepetersen, Helle Sønderby. AU - Vafaee, Manouchehr Seyedi. AU - Borghammer, Per. AU - Mouridsen, Kim. AU - Jensen, Svend Borup. AU - Vilstrup, Hendrik. AU - Schousboe, Arne. AU - Ott, Peter. AU - Gjedde, Albert. AU - Keiding, Susanne. PY - 2009/3. Y1 - 2009/3. N2 - Background & Aims: It is unclear whether patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE) have disturbed brain oxygen metabolism and blood flow. Methods: We measured cerebral oxygen metabolism rate (CMRO2) by using 15O-oxygen positron emission tomography (PET); and cerebral blood flow (CBF) by using 15O-water PET in 6 patients with liver cirrhosis and an acute episode of overt HE, 6 cirrhotic patients without HE, and 7 healthy subjects. Results: Neither whole-brain CMRO2 nor CBF differed significantly between cirrhotic ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Blood vessels are usually conspicuous on dynamic CT perfusion images. The presence of large vessels may lead to overestimation of the quantitative value of cerebral blood flow (CBF). We evaluated the efficacy of the vascular-pixel elimination (VPE) method in quantitative CT perfusion imaging, in comparison with positron emission tomography (PET).. METHODS: Five healthy volunteers underwent CT perfusion and PET studies. A four-channel multi-detector row CT scanner was used. Dynamic cine scanning was performed after bolus injection of an intravenous contrast agent. CT-CBF was calculated by the central volume principle and deconvolution method. PET was performed after infusion of 15O-labeled water. PET-CBF was calculated by using a nonlinear least squares method. Average CBF values of the whole section, gray matter, and white matter with both CT and PET were compared after image registration. The comparison was performed with and without VPE. In the VPE method, the vascular ...
Hyperventilation is frequently used to prevent or postpone the development of cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension in patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). The influence of such therapy on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) remains, however, unknown. In this study the CBF-distribution pattern was determined within the first 12 hours after development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) stage 4 before and during hyperventilation. Ten consecutive patients (median age 48 [range 33-57] years) with FHF and 9 healthy controls (median age 54 [24-58] years) had rCBF determined by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using intravenous injection of 133Xenon. For determination of high resolution CBF pattern, the patients were also studied with 99mTc-hexa-methylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) in the hyperventilation condition. There was no significant difference in the rCBF distribution pattern during normoventilation as compared with hyperventilation. The anterior to posterior (AP) ...
The distribution of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was examined in conscious, voluntarily diving rats using the brain blood flow tracer N-[14C]isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine and quantitative autoradiography. A detailed examination of the regional distribution of cerebral blood flow revealed that almost all brain regions were hyperperfused during diving. During diving, rCBF increased by an average of 1.7-fold in 29 of the 33 brain regions examined, despite a 69.2 % decrease in cardiac output. Only some regions of the basal ganglia (caudate-putamen and globus pallidus) and limbic areas (hippocampus and amygdala) did not increase rCBF significantly during diving. We determined that the increase in rCBF during diving is primarily due to a corresponding 20.9 % decrease in cerebrovascular resistance. A significant increase in perfusion pressure during diving also potentially contributed to the increase in rCBF. Because some brain regions did not increase flow significantly during diving, these ...
The first five chapters of the thesis review the literature on intracranial pressure, the cerebral circulation and their interrelation and set the scene for the experimental work which is described in chapters 6 to 11. Intracranial pressure is now measured routinely in many clinical centres but a great deal of caution is required in interpreting the results, particularly with respect to the method of measurement, the history of any raised pressure and the values of other physiological variables such as blood pressure and cerebral blood flow. The cerebral circulation itself displays a remarkable tendency to remain constant, the fundamental concept being that there exists a basic control mechanism which acts to maintain cerebral blood flow in order to meet the metabolic requirements of the brain. The methods used to measure cerebral blood flow in the work described are metabolically inert gas clearance techniques based on the Pick principle. Hemisphere blood flow in baboons was measured by the ...
Measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), analysis ofcerebrospinal fluid, auditory brain stem responses (ABR) andoculomotor tests
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Perfusion-weighted imaging is used to select patients with acute ischemic stroke for intervention, but knowledge of cerebral perfusion can also inform the understanding of ischemic injury. Arterial spin labeling allows repeated measurement of absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) without the need for exogenous contrast. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between dynamic CBF and tissue outcome in the month after stroke onset. METHODS: Patients with nonlacunar ischemic stroke underwent ≤5 repeated magnetic resonance imaging scans at presentation, 2 hours, 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month. Imaging included vessel-encoded pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling using multiple postlabeling delays to quantify CBF in gray matter regions of interest. Receiver-operator characteristic curves were used to predict tissue outcome using CBF. Repeatability was assessed in 6 healthy volunteers and compared with contralateral regions of patients. Diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted
Clinical studies consistently report structural impairments (i.e.: ventricular enlargement, decreased volume of anterior cingulate cortex or hippocampus) and functional abnormalities including changes in regional cerebral blood flow in individuals suffering from schizophrenia, which can be evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. The aim of this study was to assess cerebral blood perfusion in several schizophrenia-related brain regions using Arterial Spin Labelling MRI (ASL MRI, 9.4 T Bruker BioSpec 94/30USR scanner) in rats. In this study, prenatal exposure to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM, 22 mg/kg) at gestational day (GD) 17 and the perinatal treatment with Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, 5 mg/kg) from GD15 to postnatal day 9 elicited behavioral deficits consistent with schizophrenia-like phenotype, which is in agreement with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. In MAM exposed rats a significant enlargement of lateral ventricles and perfusion changes ...
Maintaining a constant cerebral blood flow during a change in cerebral perfusion pressure is known as autoregulation. The integrity of this phenomenon is considered to be important in preventing cerebral lesions in preterm infants. A study was carried out using Doppler ultrasound measurements of cerebral blood flow velocities (CBFV) as an indicator of alterations in cerebral haemodynamics. CBFV were recorded on a beat to beat basis over 60 second epochs, during which time the cerebral perfusion pressure was changed by rapidly altering the infants posture from horizontal to either 20 degrees head up or head down. An informative response in CBFV was considered to be either (a) a uniphasic, immediate, passive alteration in velocity occurring with the change in posture and without a subsequent change or (b) a biphasic response of an initial change in CBFV followed within 20 seconds by a second response. This latter response is considered to be consistent with autoregulatory activity. A total of 501 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of amphetamine on cerebral blood flow and capillary perfusion. AU - Russo, Karen E.. AU - Hall, Wyatt. AU - Chi, Oak Z.. AU - Sinha, Arabinda K.. AU - Weiss, Harvey R.. PY - 1991/2/22. Y1 - 1991/2/22. N2 - The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebral regional microvascular and vascular responses to amphetamine sulfate at a dose (5 mg/kg) known to affect neuronal function. Cerebral blood flow (14C-iodoantipyrine method) and percent of perfused capillaries (fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran and alkaline phosphatase staining method) were determined during control and after intravenous administration of amphetamine in conscious Long-Evans rats. Amphetamine caused an increase in blood pressure (34%) and heart rate (31%). There was a significant increase in averaged cerebral blood flow from 98 ±8to 166±9 ml/min/100 g after amphetamine. This flow increase was significant in the cortex, basal ganglia, pons and medulla, however the increase was not significant in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow during cortical motor activation. AU - Hallett, M.. AU - Zeffiro, T.. AU - Dubinsky, R. M.. AU - Bierner, S. M.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Regions of cerebral cortex activated in normal subjects making simple, repetitive, voluntary wrist movements were studied with positron emission tomography (PET). The regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose utilization was studied with 2 [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), and regional cerebral blood flow was studied with 15O-labeled water. No significant activation was found with the cerebral metabolic rate studies. Studies of regional cerebral blood flow showed significant activation of the contralateral sensorimotor cortex region of 42%, of the ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex region of 19%, and of the medial frontal cortex of 30% compared with the resting state. Increases in blood flow in the contralateral ...
Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a method by which relative cerebral blood flow (CBF) of the cortex can be measured. Although the method is easy to employ, LDF only measures relative CBF, while absolute CBF cannot be quantified. LDF is useful for investigating CBF changes in a number of different applications including neurovascular and stroke research. This chapter will prepare the reader for rodent experiments using LDF with two preparations. The closed skull preparation can be used to monitor CBF with an intact skull, but in adult rats, thinning of the skull is required to obtain an accurate cortical CBF signal. The open skull preparation requires a craniotomy to expose the surface of the brain and the LDF probe is held close to the surface to measure cerebral perfusion. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a method by which relative cerebral blood flow (CBF) of the cortex can be measured. Although the method is easy to employ, LDF only measures relative CBF, while absolute CBF cannot be quantified. LDF is useful for investigating CBF changes in a number of different applications including neurovascular and stroke research. This chapter will prepare the reader for rodent experiments using LDF with two preparations. The closed skull preparation can be used to monitor CBF with an intact skull, but in adult rats, thinning of the skull is required to obtain an accurate cortical CBF signal. The open skull preparation requires a craniotomy to expose the surface of the brain and the LDF probe is held close to the surface to measure cerebral perfusion.
1. The effects of insulin hypoglycaemia on cerebral blood flow and metabolism have been examined in unanaesthetized, unrestrained calves between 1 and 26 days after birth. 2. Cerebral blood flow was measured with an inert gas technique using molecular hydrogen, and cerebral metabolism was quantified by determination of arterio-cerebral venous (A--V) concentration differences for oxygen, glucose, lactate, pyruvate, acetoacetate, beta-D-hydroxybutyrate and ammonia. 3. During normoglycaemia the mean (A--V) difference for glucose was close to one sixth that of oxygen, on a molar basis. A small net loss of pyruvate from the brain was found, but there was no significant (A--V) difference for lactate. Arterial concentrations of acetoacetate and beta-D-hydroxybutyrate were low, and no utilization of ketone bodies by the brain was demonstrated. 4. Moderate hypoglycaemia (arterial plasma glucose concentration 1--2 m-mole/l.) had no measurable effect on either cerebral blood flow or metabolism. 5. During ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Cerebral hemodynamic changes after wartime traumatic brain injury. AU - Razumovsky, Alexander. AU - Tigno, Teodoro. AU - Hochheimer, Sven M.. AU - Stephens, Fred L.. AU - Bell, Randy. AU - Vo, Alexander H.. AU - Severson, Meryl A.. AU - Marshall, Scott A.. AU - Oppenheimer, Stephen M.. AU - Ecker, Robert. AU - Armonda, Rocco A.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with the severest casualties from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). From October 1, 2008, the U.S. Army Medical Department initiated a transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound service for TBI; included patients were retrospectively evaluated for TCD-determined incidence of post-traumatic cerebral vasospasm and intracranial hypertension after wartime TBI. Ninety patients were investigated with daily TCD studies and a comprehensive TCD protocol, and published diagnostic criteria for vasospasm and increased intracranial pressure (ICP) were applied. TCD signs ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Validation of the CBF, CBV, and MTT Values by Perfusion MRI in Chronic Occlusive Cerebrovascular Disease. T2 - A Comparison with 15O-PET. AU - Kaneko, Koichiro. AU - Kuwabara, Yasuo. AU - Mihara, Futoshi. AU - Yoshiura, Takashi. AU - Nakagawa, Makoto. AU - Tanaka, Atsuo. AU - Sasaki, Masayuki. AU - Koga, Hirofumi. AU - Hayashi, Kazutaka. AU - Honda, Hiroshi. PY - 2004/5. Y1 - 2004/5. N2 - Rationale and Objectives. To evaluate the reliability of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time (MTT) values obtained by deconvolution algorithm perfusion-weighted MR imaging (D-PWI), we compared these values with those obtained by first-moment algorithm perfusion-weighted MR imaging (F-PWI) and 15O-PET. Subjects and Methods. Six healthy volunteers and eleven patients with chronic occlusive cerebrovascular disease were studied with both perfusion-weighted MR imaging and 15O-PET, and region-of-interest analyses were performed. Normalization factors for CBF ...
OBJECT Current clinical neuromonitoring techniques lack adequate surveillance of cerebral perfusion. In this article, a novel thermal diffusion (TD) microprobe is evaluated for the continuous and quantitative assessment of intraparenchymal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). METHODS To characterize the temporal resolution of this new technique, rCBF measured using the TD microprobe (TD-rCBF) was compared with rCBF levels measured by laser Doppler (LD) flowmetry during standardized variations of CBF in a sheep model. For validation of absolute values, the microprobe was implanted subcortically (20 mm below the level of dura) into 16 brain-injured patients, and TD-rCBF was compared with simultaneous rCBF measurements obtained using stable xenon-enhanced computerized tomography scanning (sXe-rCBF). The two techniques were compared using linear regression analysis as well as the Bland and Altman method. Stable TD-rCBF measurements could be obtained throughout all 3- to 5-hour sheep experiments. During
Joseph M. Messick, Brian Casement, Frank W. Sharbrough, Leslie N. Milde, John D. Michenfelder, Thoralf M. Sundt; Correlation of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF) with EEG Changes During Isoflurane Anesthesia for Carotid Endarterectomy: Critical rCBF. Anesthesiology 1987; 66:344-349 doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/00000542-198703000-00014. Download citation file:. ...
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Cerebral blood flow measurements in subarachnoid haemorrhage with an intravenous isotope technique: methodological studies : the significance of cerebral blood flow determinations in the timing of surgery of arterial aneurysm ...
Abstract. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) induces acute changes in the cerebral microcirculation. Recent findings ex vivo suggest neurovascular coupling (NVC), the process that increases cerebral blood flow upon neuronal activity, is also impaired after SAH. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether this occurs also in vivo. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to either sham surgery or SAH by filament perforation. Twenty-four hours later NVC was tested by forepaw stimulation and CO2 reactivity by inhalation of 10% CO2. Vessel diameter was assessed in vivo by two-photon microscopy. NVC was also investigated ex vivo using brain slices. Cerebral arterioles of sham-operated mice dilated to 130% of baseline upon CO2 inhalation or forepaw stimulation and cerebral blood flow (CBF) increased. Following SAH, however, CO2 reactivity was completely lost and the majority of cerebral arterioles showed paradoxical constriction in vivo and ex vivo resulting in a reduced CBF response. As previous results ...
Functional neuroimaging studies have pointed to a possible role of cerebral circuits involving the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices, the striatum, and thalamus in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of 16 drug-free Brazilian patients with OCD and 17 healthy subjects matched for age, gender, handedness and level of education was measured with [99m-Tc] HMPAO single photon emission computed tomography. Analysis of covariance identified four regions of interest with significantly higher rCBF: the right superior and inferior frontal cortex and the right and left thalamus. Positive correlations between symptom severity measured by Clinical Global Impression scores and rCBF were found in the right and left inferior frontal lobes and in the right basal ganglia. Compulsive behavior was inversely correlated with rCBF in the right thalamus, and duration of illness correlated positively with rCBF in the right and left superior frontal ...
The effects of off-resonance radio-frequency irradiation on the intensity of the MR signal from water protons in the cat brain are asymmetric around the chemical shift of the water signal. This asymmetry, which could arise from a shift in the magnetization transfer spectrum approximately 1.5 ppm upfield from the solvent water signal, must be taken into account to compensate for magnetization transfer effects inherent in arterial spin tagging approaches that use a single radio-frequency coil. Two approaches that either correct for, or circumvent, the apparent upfield shift of the magnetization transfer spectrum are presented, and a perfusion image of the cat brain, using flow-induced adiabatic inversion of arterial water protons, is presented. Other problems in obtaining quantitative cerebral blood flow values using the arterial spin tagging approach are discussed.
Objective Psychological trauma leads to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in susceptible subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) between two groups of subjects exposed to different types of traumatic stressor either developing or not PTSD. Method Twenty subjects developing (S) and 27 not developing (NS) PTSD after being exposed to either earlier person-under-the-train accident (NA) or being assaulted in the underground enviroment (A) were included in the study. 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT was performed and the uptake in 29 regions of the brain (VOIs), bilaterally, was assessed. rCBF distribution was compared, using analysis of variance (ANOVA), between groups (S/NS) and type (A/NA) during a situation involving an auditory evoked re-experiencing of the traumatic event. Discriminant analysis was applied to test the concordance between clinical diagnosis and SPECT findings. Results In the general analyses significant differences were found ...
Principal Investigator:Kudo Kohsuke, Project Period (FY):2014-04-01 - 2017-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:Radiation science
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long term evaluation of brain perfusion with magnetic resonance in high flow extracranial-intracranial saphenous graft bypass. AU - Bozzao, Alessandro. AU - Fasoli, Fabrizio. AU - Finocchi, Vanina. AU - Santoro, Giuseppe. AU - Romano, Andrea. AU - Fantozzi, Luigi Maria. PY - 2007/1. Y1 - 2007/1. N2 - Assessment was made of the cerebral vascular haemodynamic parameters in patients with a high-flow extra-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass performed for therapeutic occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Sixteen patients with ICA occlusion and EC-IC bypass (time interval from surgery 1-6 years) underwent MRI. Perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (PW-MRI) sequences were performed without the use of an arterial input function. The relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), mean transit time (MTT) and relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were evaluated in all patients at the level of the basal ganglia, centrum semiovale and cortex in both hemispheres. Statistically significant ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Brain Blood Flow Modulates the Neurotoxic Action of Hyperbaric Oxygen via Neuronal and Endothelial Nitric Oxide. AU - Moskvin, A. N.. AU - Zhilyaev, S. Yu. AU - Sharapov, O. I.. AU - Platonova, T. F.. AU - Gutsaeva, Diana Raisovna. AU - Kostkin, V. B.. AU - Demchenko, I. T.. PY - 2003/11/1. Y1 - 2003/11/1. N2 - Studies on conscious rats with inhibition of NO synthase were used to assess the dynamics of brain blood flow and EEG traces during hyperbaric oxygenation at 4 or 5 atm. Oxygen at a pressure of 4 atm induced cerebral vasoconstriction in intact animals and decreased blood flow by 11-18% (p , 0.05) during 60-min exposure to hyperbaric oxygenation. Paroxysmal EEG activity and oxygen convulsions did not occur in rats at 4 atm of O2. At 5 atm, convulsive activity appeared on the EEG at 41 ± 1.9 min, and blood flow decreased significantly during the first 20 min; blood flow increased by 23 ± 9%, as compared with controls, (p , 0.01) before the appearance of convulsions on the ...
Cardiovascular health; cerebral blood flow regulation; cerebrovascular function Dr. Philip Ainslies research is focused on the integrated mechanisms that regulate human cerebral blood flow in health and disease, the influence of environmental stress, and the effects of exercise training on cerebrovascular function.. Dr. Philip Ainslie is a Professor in the School of Health and Exercise Sciences at UBC Okanagan, the Co-Director of the Centre for Heart, Lung & Vascular Health, and an ICORD Investigator. His Ph.D. (in exercise physiology & metabolism) was a collaborative project between the Liverpool John Moores University, University of Manchester and University of Oxford. Following completion of a post-doctoral research fellowship at the University of Calgary he began a faculty position in 2005, as Lecturer and Principal Investigator in the Department of Physiology at the University of Otago, New Zealand. Here, he established his independent research program, focusing on the integrative ...
Free Online Library: Effect of backrest position on intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure in individuals with brain injury: a systematic review. by Journal of Neuroscience Nursing; Health care industry Brain injuries Care and treatment Primary care nursing Methods Primary nursing
Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) is a non-invasive, non-contrast, perfusion imaging technique which is inherently SNR limited. It is, therefore, important to carefully design scan protocols to ensure accurate measurements. Many pseudo-continuous ASL (PCASL) protocol designs have been proposed for measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF), but it has not yet been demonstrated which design offers the most accurate and repeatable CBF measurements. In this study, a wide range of literature PCASL protocols were first optimized for CBF accuracy and then compared using Monte Carlo simulations and in vivo experiments. The protocols included single-delay, sequential and time-encoded multi-timepoint protocols, and several novel protocol designs, which are hybrids of time-encoded and sequential multi-timepoint protocols. It was found that several multi-timepoint protocols produced more confident, accurate, and repeatable CBF estimates than the single-delay protocol, while also generating maps of arterial transit time. Of
TY - JOUR. T1 - When the air hits your brain. T2 - Cerebral autoregulation of brain oxygenation during aerobic exercise allows transient hyperoxygenation: Case report. AU - Bollo, Robert J.. AU - Williams, Susan C.. AU - Peskin, Charles. AU - Samadani, Uzma. PY - 2010/8. Y1 - 2010/8. N2 - OBJECTIVE: Cerebral autoregulation maintains a relatively stable cerebral blood flow over a range of perfusion pressures. During exercise, regional cerebral blood flow may be elevated in particular areas of the brain. This case report presents the impact of aerobic exercise on intracranially measured pressure and brain tissue oxygenation in an adult human. CLINCIAL PRESENTATION: A 30-year-old man with idiopathic intracranial hypertension treated with cerebrospinal fluid diversion was monitored with a Licox intracranial brain oxygen and pressure monitor (Integra NeuroSciences Corporation, Plainsboro, New Jersey) for refractory nonpostural headaches exacerbated after exercise. He performed trials of running and ...
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygenation (COx) are generally well-preserved in COPD. It is unknown whether prevalent cardiovascular co-morbidities, such as heart failure, may impair CBF and COx responses to exertion. Eighteen males with moderate-to-severe COPD (8 with and 10 without overlapping heart failure) underwent a progressive exercise test with pre-frontal CBF and COx measurements (indocyanine green and near-infrared spectroscopy). Mean arterial pressure and cardiac output were lower from rest to exercise in overlap. Only COPD patients demonstrated an increase in arterialized PCO2 towards the end of progressive exercise. CBF index was consistently higher and increased further by similar to 40% during exercise in COPD whereas a similar to 10% reduction was observed in overlap. COx was lower in overlap despite preserved arterial oxygenation. In conclusion, heart failure introduces pronounced negative effects on CBF and COx in COPD which may be associated with clinically relevant outcomes, ...
The mechanism of action of vinpocetine is composed of several elements: it improves cerebral blood flow and metabolism, has a beneficial effect on the rheological properties of blood. The neuroprotective action is realized by reducing the adverse cytotoxic effect of excitatory amino acids. Improves the exchange of serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain, it stimulates the noradrenergic neurotransmitter systems and has an antioxidant effect. It improves the microcirculation in the brain by inhibiting platelet aggregation, reducing the pathologically increased blood viscosity, increase the deformability of red blood cells and the inhibition of the reuptake of adenoeina; promotes oxygen transfer into the cells by reducing the affinity of erythrocytes thereto. Selectively increases cerebral blood flow by reducing the cerebral vascular resistance without a significant impact on system performance circulatory (blood pressure (BP), cardiac output, heart rate, total peripheral vascular resistance); It ...
| Arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI, which measures cerebral blood flow, could act as a biomarker in Alzheimers disease. Abstract | GE Healthcare ($GE) company Clarient Diagnostic Services...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dynamic pressure - Flow relationship of the cerebral circulation during acute increase in arterial pressure. AU - Zhang, Rong. AU - Behbehani, Khosrow. AU - Levine, Benjamin D.. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - The physiological mechanism(s) for the regulation of the dynamic pressure-flow relationship of the cerebral circulation are not well understood. We studied the effects of acute cerebral vasoconstriction on the transfer function between spontaneous changes in blood pressure (BP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) in 13 healthy subjects (30 ± 7 years). CBFV was measured in the middle cerebral artery using transcranial Doppler. BP was increased stepwise with phenylephrine infusion at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 μg kg-1 min-1. Phenylephrine increased BP by 11, 23 and 37% from baseline, while CBFV increased (11%) only with the highest increase in BP. Cerebrovascular resistance index (BP/CBFV) increased progressively by 6, 17 and 23%, demonstrating effective steady-state autoregulation. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelial influences on cerebrovascular tone. AU - Andresen, Jon. AU - Shafi, Nadeem. AU - Bryan, Robert M.. PY - 2006/1/1. Y1 - 2006/1/1. N2 - The cerebrovascular endothelium exerts a profound influence on cerebral vessels and cerebral blood flow. This review summarizes current knowledge of various dilator and constrictor mechanisms intrinsic to the cerebrovascular endothelium. The endothelium contributes to the resting tone of cerebral arteries and arterioles by tonically releasing nitric oxide (NO • ). Dilations can occur by stimulated release of NO • , endothelium-derived hyperpolarization factor, or prostanoids. During pathological conditions, the dilator influence of the endothelium can turn to that of constriction by a variety of mechanisms, including decreased NO • bioavailability and release of endothelin-1. The endothelium may participate in neurovascular coupling by conducting local dilations to upstream arteries. Further study of the cerebrovascular ...
FIG. 1. Regional cerebral blood flow changes during hypoglycemia illustrating greater synaptic activity in bilateral dorsal midline thalamus on day 2, following ∼24 h of interval interprandial hypoglycemia, compared with day 1. These are combined subtraction images from all PET scans from all nine subjects superimposed on the combined MR image. The color scales show changes relative to mean global blood flow. A maximum of 12% is used for all scales. However, the maximum change for day 2 was 18% compared with 10% on day 1. A: Mid-sagittal slices. B: Coronal slices at the level of the paraventricular nuclei (y = −19) with the left of the brain on the left (33). ...
... cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases, and that "More comprehensive laws were associated with larger changes in risk."[67] ... "Circulation. 126 (18): 2177-83. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.121301. PMC 3501404. PMID 23109514.. ... "Association between smoke-free legislation and hospitalizations for cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases: a meta ...
... gaseous messengers in cerebrovascular circulation". J. Appl. Physiol. 100 (3): 1065-76. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00793.2005. ...
Moyamoya disease is an extremely rare cerebrovascular condition that limits blood circulation to the brain, consequently ... If sufficient circulation is restored within a short period of time, symptoms may be transient. However, if a significant ...
... blood circulation MeSH G09.330.582.163.159 - cerebrovascular circulation MeSH G09.330.582.163.248 - collateral circulation MeSH ... pulmonary circulation MeSH G09.330.582.163.780 - regional blood flow MeSH G09.330.582.163.812 - renal circulation MeSH G09.330. ... splanchnic circulation MeSH G09.330.582.163.881.552 - liver circulation MeSH G09.330.582.400 - hemodynamic processes MeSH ... pulmonary circulation MeSH G09.772.770.755 - respiration MeSH G09.772.770.755.700 - respiratory mechanics MeSH G09.772.770.755. ...
Frijns CJ, Kappelle LJ (Aug 2002). "Inflammatory cell adhesion molecules in ischemic cerebrovascular disease". Stroke: A ... Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 33 (8): 2115-22. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000021902.33129.69. PMID 12154274. Annels NE, Mansfield D ...
... cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases: a meta-analysis". Circulation. 126 (18): 2177-83. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA. ... cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases, and that "More comprehensive laws were associated with larger changes in risk." The ...
"Computer Modeling of Anterior Circulation Stroke: Proof of Concept in Cerebrovascular Occlusion". Frontiers in Neurology. 5: ... Leptomeningeal circulation has been observed in mice and rats during experiments to assess changes associated with disease and ... The leptomeningeal collateral circulation (also known as leptomeningeal anastomoses or pial collaterals) is a network of small ... The Human Brain Circulation: Functional Changes in Disease. Vascular Biomedicine. Humana Press. pp. 237-246. doi:10.1007/978-1- ...
San Francisco is a collective of faculty and staff investigating matters related to cerebral circulation, particularly ... The Center for Cerebrovascular Research was established at the University of California San Francisco in 2000.[citation needed ... The Center for Cerebrovascular Research at the University of California, ... cerebrovascular disease resulting from narrowing of major blood vessels in the brain and vascular malformation of the brain. ...
Newer methods allow development of cerebrovascular organoids, and micro pumps to provide circulation through them are being ...
A Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 31 (11): 2648-52. doi:10.1161/01.STR.31.11.2648. PMID 11062289. Dragon-Durey MA, Rougier N, ... "Frequencies of certain complement protein alleles and serum levels of anti-heat-shock protein antibodies in cerebrovascular ...
... disease includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation. ... The incidence of cerebrovascular disease increases as an individual ages. Causes of acquired cerebrovascular disease include ... Other symptoms of cerebrovascular disease include migraines, seizures, epilepsy, or cognitive decline. However, cerebrovascular ... Cerebrovascular diseases can also present less commonly with headache or seizures. Any of these diseases can result in vascular ...
... system 747.81 Congenital anomalies of cerebrovascular system 747.82 Spinal vessel anomaly 747.83 Persistent fetal circulation ...
Once in the arterial circulation, a clot can travel to the brain, block a vessel there, and cause a stroke (cerebrovascular ... A paradoxical embolism refers to an embolus which is carried from the venous side of circulation to the arterial side, or vice ...
Posterior Circulation: Large Artery Occlusive Disease and Embolism", Primer on Cerebrovascular Diseases (Second Edition), San ...
They are effective in the arterial circulation where anticoagulants have little effect.[citation needed] They are widely used ... in primary and secondary prevention of thrombotic cerebrovascular or cardiovascular disease. Antiplatelet therapy with one or ...
... a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cerebrovascular diseases.. This category reflects the organization of International ... Pages in category "Cerebrovascular diseases". The following 25 pages are in this category, out of 25 total. This list may not ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Cerebrovascular_diseases&oldid=893176734" ...
Her main research interests are cryptogenic stroke, heart-brain interactions (cerebrovascular disease), and precision medicine ... Circulation, Neurology, European Journal of Neurology, Journal of the Neurological Sciences, Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ... Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, European Neurology, International Journal of Stroke Research, JAMA Neurology, ...
2 (3). Streeten, D.H.P. (1987). Orthostatic Disorders of the Circulation. New York: Plenum Medical. p. 116. Kario, K.; Eguchi, ... Increased occurrence of silent cerebrovascular ischemia Systolic orthostatic hypertension increases stroke risk. There is not ... Circulation Journal. 73 (6): 1002-1007. PMID 19430163. Yatsuya, H.; Folsom, A. R.; Alonso, A.; Gottesman, R. F.; Rose, K. M.; ... Japanese Circulation Journal. 52 (12): 1408-1414. PMID 2977192. Takada, Y.; Shimizu, H.; Kazatani, Y.; Azechi, H.; Hiwada, K.; ...
Zimmet JM, Hare JM (October 2006). "Nitroso-redox interactions in the cardiovascular system". Circulation. 114 (14): 1531-44. ... "The potential for xanthine oxidase inhibition in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease". ...
The Dutch TIA Trial Study Group". Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 23 (9): 1220-4. doi:10.1161/01.STR.23.9.1220. PMID ... Cerebrovascular Diseases. 16 (3): 280-5. doi:10.1159/000071128. PMID 12865617. Vermeer, SE; Koudstaal, PJ; Oudkerk, M; Hofman, ... CHS Collaborative Research Group". Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 28 (6): 1158-64. doi:10.1161/01.STR.28.6.1158. ... Relationship with index-stroke subtype, vascular risk factors, and mortality". Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 25 ( ...
Lassen, N. A. (June 1984). "Cerebral Blood Flow and Blood Volume Tomography by SPECT in Cerebrovascular Disease". Clinical ... thereby predicting cerebral circulation. Leenders, K. L.; Perani, D.; Lammertsma, A. A.; Heather, J. D.; Buckingham, P.; Jones ... It is a new method for studying hemodynamic changes in brain pathophysiology, including clinical studies of cerebrovascular ... Both cerebral blood volume and cerebral blood flow depend on several important parameters, including cerebrovascular resistance ...
An intracranial aneurysm, also known as a brain aneurysm, is a cerebrovascular disorder in which weakness in the wall of a ... These cells initially invade the subarachnoid space from the circulation in order to phagocytose the hemorrhaged red blood ... Aneurysms in the posterior circulation (basilar artery, vertebral arteries and posterior communicating artery) have a higher ... and passed through blood vessels into the cerebral circulation and the aneurysm. Coils are pushed into the aneurysm, or ...
Caro CG (1978). The Mechanics of The Circulation. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-263323-1. .. ... and a heightened risk of cerebrovascular disease.[50] Within both high and low blood pressure groups, a greater degree of ... The Framingham Heart Study". Circulation. 96 (1): 308-15. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.96.1.308. PMID 9236450.. ... Freis ED (April 1976). "Salt, volume and the prevention of hypertension". Circulation. 53 (4): 589-95. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.53.4. ...
Li P, Qiu T, Qin C (19 January 2015). "NADPH oxidase p22phox C242T polymorphism and ischemic cerebrovascular disease: an ... Circulation. 97 (2): 135-7. doi:10.1161/01.cir.97.2.135. PMID 9445163. Gardemann A, Mages P, Katz N, Tillmanns H, Haberbosch W ... hypertension atherosclerosis or diabetes and its complications and ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. The results from these ...
Ross IB, Luzardo GD (February 2006). "Direct access to the carotid circulation by cut down for endovascular neuro-interventions ... Harrigan, Mark R.; Deveikis, John P. (April 20, 2009). Handbook of Cerebrovascular Disease and Neurointerventional Technique. ... "Direct carotid puncture for the endovascular treatment of anterior circulation aneurysms". AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 27 (7): 1502- ...
published in Circulation found no significant difference in the incidence of cognitive dysfunction 3 months after either OPCAB ... It is unclear how increases in bypass time would result in such increases if pre-existing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular ... Samuels MA (June 2006). "Can cognition survive heart surgery?". Circulation. 113 (24): 2784-6. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA. ... Circulation. 113 (24): 2790-5. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.587931. PMID 16769915. Van Dijk D, Jansen E, Hijman R, Nierich A ...
CBF is equal to the cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) divided by the cerebrovascular resistance (CVR): CBF = CPP / CVR Control ... The following description is based on idealized human cerebral circulation. The pattern of circulation and its nomenclature ... Cerebral circulation is the movement of blood through a network of cerebral arteries and veins supplying the brain. The rate of ... They are part of the Circle of Willis, which provides backup circulation to the brain. In case one of the supply arteries is ...
Toole, J. F. (1990). Cerebrovascular disorders. New York: Raven Press. *^ McDonald, D. A. (1974). Blood flow in arteries pp. ... of the entire pulsatile energy within the system of pressure/flow oscillations in the peripheral circulation. It could be ... Njemanze, P. C., Beck, O. J., Gomez, C. R., & Horenstein, S. (1991). "Fourier analysis of the cerebrovascular system". Stroke. ... ischemic cerebrovascular disease, subarachnoid hemorrhage, arteriovenous malformations, and cerebral circulatory arrest. The ...
Circulation. 74 (6): 1399-1495. doi:10.1161/01.cir.74.6.1399. PMID 3536154. Lorenz MW, Markus HS, Bots ML, Rosvall M, Sitzer M ... Cerebrovascular Diseases. 34 (4): 290-296. doi:10.1159/000343145. ISSN 1421-9786. PMC 3760791. PMID 23128470. Dalla Pozza, ... Circulation Journal. 69 (8): 903-907. doi:10.1253/circj.69.903. ISSN 1346-9843. PMID 16041157. Touboul, P.-J.; Hennerici, M. G ... Circulation. 115 (4): 459-67. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.628875. PMID 17242284. Costanzo P, Perrone-Filardi P, Vassallo E, ...
Differences in mean blood pressure drive the flow of blood around the circulation. The rate of mean blood flow depends on both ... "Long-term Blood Pressure Fluctuation and Cerebrovascular Disease in an Elderly Cohort". Archives of Neurology. 67 (5): 564-69. ... The blood pressure in the circulation is principally due to the pumping action of the heart. However, blood pressure is also ... Mean blood pressure drops over the whole circulation, although most of the fall occurs along the small arteries and arterioles ...
"Cerebrovascular Division, Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitari del Sagrat Cor, Universitat de Barcelona, CIBER de ... a journal of cerebral circulation. 37 (10): 2644-7. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000241106.81293.2b. PMID 16946150.. ... "Cerebrovascular Disease Service, Palmer 127, West Campus, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Caplan LR. Diakses tanggal 2011 ... "Diabetes mellitus and cerebrovascular disease". Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical ...
The brain stem is involved in maintaining basic life functions such as breathing, swallowing, and circulation; the basal ...
... and this type of stroke is therefore called a posterior circulation infarct. Problems may include difficulty speaking or ... "A career in cerebrovascular disease: a personal account". Stroke. 32 (11): 2719-24. doi:10.1161/hs1101.098765. PMID 11692045 ...
... , also known as brain aneurysm, is a cerebrovascular disorder in which weakness in the wall of a cerebral ... Aneurysms in the posterior circulation (basilar artery, vertebral arteries and posterior communicating artery) have a higher ... These cells initially invade the subarachnoid space from the circulation in order to phagocytose the hemorrhaged red blood ... and passed through blood vessels into the cerebral circulation and the aneurysm. Coils are pushed into the aneurysm, or ...
... cerebrovascular accident, transient ischemic attack, or coronary artery bypass). ... Circulation. 104 (19): 2280-2288. doi:10.1161/hc4401.100078.. ... with established ischaemic heart disease and/or cerebrovascular ...
"Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 46 (7): 2032-60. doi:10.1161/STR.0000000000000069. PMC 4462131. PMID 26022637.. ... It accounts for 20% of all cases of cerebrovascular disease in the United States, behind cerebral thrombosis (40%) and cerebral ... "Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 46 (7): 2032-60. doi:10.1161/str.0000000000000069. PMC 4462131. PMID 26022637.. .mw- ... "Circulation. 127 (1): e6-e245. doi:10.1161/CIR.0b013e31828124ad. PMC 5408511. PMID 23239837.. ...
Instruction in ankle pumping helps to return blood in the legs to the systemic circulation.[34] To further control the postural ...
Walter Dandy - description of the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain, surgical treatment of hydrocephalus, the ... and cerebrovascular system.[1] Neurosurgery is often colloquially referred to as "brain surgery" though neurosurgeons often ... Repair of craniofacial disorders and disturbance of cerebrospinal fluid circulation is done by neurosurgeons who also ...
The systemic circulation is the circulation of the blood to all parts of the body except the lungs) ... ಮಸ್ತಿಷ್ಕದ ಅಪಘಾತಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಈ ರಕ್ಷಣೋಪಾಯಗಳ (ರಕ್ತದ ಪೂರೈಕೆ) ವೈಫಲ್ಯದ ಫಲಿತಾಂಶವನ್ನು ಸಾಮಾನ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಪಾರ್ಶ್ವವಾಯು (cerebrovascular accidents, ... Blood/Systemic_Circulation.php. *↑ The gut-brain connection;Anthony L.Komaroff Editor in Chief, Harvard Health Letter Updated: ... Anterior cerebral circulation). *ಮುಂಭಾಗದ ಮೆದುಳಿನ ಪರಿಚಲನೆಯು ಮೆದುಳಿನ ಮುಂಭಾಗದ ಭಾಗಕ್ಕೆ ರಕ್ತ ಪೂರೈಕೆಯು ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆ. ಇದು ಕೆಳಗಿನ ...
Nitrogenous waste products accumulate in the systemic circulation (hence the older term "portosystemic encephalopathy"). The ... "The neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with hepatic cirrhosis and an extensive portal collateral circulation". Q. J. Med. 25 ... incapable of metabolising the waste products or because portal venous blood bypasses the liver through collateral circulation ...
Circulation. 106 (17): 2194-9. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000035653.72855.BF. PMID 12390947.. ... Cerebrovascular disease. *Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). *Diabetes mellitus. *Emphysema. *Hepatic disease ...
It increases the blood flow through, for example, the pulmonary, coronary, retinal and choroid circulation. Inhaled PGI2 causes ... or a history of cerebrovascular events (e.g. stroke) within 3 months. ...
I60-I69) Cerebrovascular diseases[edit]. *(I60) Subarachnoid hemorrhage *(I60.0) Subarachnoid haemorrhage from carotid siphon ... 1.5 (I26-I28) Pulmonary heart disease and diseases of pulmonary circulation. *1.6 (I30-I52) Other forms of heart disease *1.6.1 ... I69) Sequelae of cerebrovascular disease. (I70-I79) Diseases of arteries, arterioles and capillaries[edit]. *(I70) ... I26-I28) Pulmonary heart disease and diseases of pulmonary circulation[edit]. *(I26) Pulmonary embolism ...
The goal of treatment of severe hypertension in pregnancy is to prevent cardiovascular, kidney, and cerebrovascular ... between maternal and fetal circulations.[15] Abnormal development of the placenta leads to poor placental perfusion. The ... that fetal cells such as fetal erythroblasts as well as cell-free fetal DNA are increased in the maternal circulation in women ... is a disease process by which a placental lesion such as hypoxia allows increased fetal material into the maternal circulation ...
Studies of the Circulation with Radioactive Microspheres., Wagner et al, Invest. Radiol., 1969. 4(6): p. 374-386. ... cerebrovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, and many other conditions. ...
Un accident vascular cerebral (AVC) o accident cerebrovascular, popularment anomenat atac de feridura (o en tal "s'ha ferit"), ... Gorelick PB «Alcohol and stroke». Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation, 18, 1, 1987, pàg. 268-71. PMID: 3810763. ... La paraula accident cerebrovascular s'ha utilitzat com a sinònim d'apoplèctic ja el 1599,[54] i és una traducció bastant ... Tutorials interactius de salut a Medline Plus: "Accidente cerebrovascular" Amb gràfics animats i enregistrament d'àudio per ...
The leading hypotheses are some form of epileptic event, a problem with blood circulation around, to or from the brain, or some ... secondary to some form of cerebrovascular disease. Those who argue against a vascular cause point to evidence that those ... cerebral blood circulation, in patients with TGA. A history of migraine is a statistically significant risk factor identified ... Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Lesions and Cerebrovascular Disease". Stroke. 39 (8): 2219-25. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.508655. ...
"Circulation. 117 (21): 2814-7. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.761643. PMID 18506020.. *^ a b Busmer L (2011). "Postural ... Low PA, Novak V, Spies JM, Novak P, Petty GW (1999). "Cerebrovascular Regulation in the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia ... "Circulation. 111 (21): 2734-40. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.104.497594. PMID 15911704.. *^ Low, Phillip A. "A Study of ... "Circulation. 127 (23): 2336-42. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.144501. PMC 3756553. PMID 23753844.. ...
The Whitehall Study.». Circulation, 82(6), 1990, pàg. 1925-1931. *↑ Cole C, Hill G, Farzad E, Bouchard A, Moher D, Rody K, Shea ... MAP i malaltia cerebrovascular i un 13% MAP, coronariopatia i malaltia cerebrovascular. ... Surgical treatment of peripheral circulation disorders)» (en alemany). Helvetica Chirurgica Acta, 21, 5/6, 1954, pàg. 499-533. ... infart de miocardi o accident cerebrovascular previs,[18][19] o amb antecedents familiars de malaltia vascular.[20][21] ...
"Circulation. 112 (21): 3314-9. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.558239. PMID 16286583.. *^ O'Leary R, McKinlay J (2011). " ... "Cerebrovascular Diseases. 42 (3-4): 263-71. doi:10.1159/000446251. PMID 27173669.. ... "anterior circulation"), who constitute about 20 percent of all people with aneurysmal SAH.[46][47] This trial, the ... location of an aneurysm in the posterior circulation; and higher age.[61] Factors that carry a worse prognosis during the ...
"Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 40 (11): 3518-3525. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.551382. PMID 19745176.. ... Ferro, JM; Dávalos, A (2006). "Other neuroprotective therapies on trial in acute stroke". Cerebrovascular Diseases. 21 Suppl 2 ... "Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 40 (11): 3518-25. doi:10.1161/strokeaha.109.551382. PMID 19745176.. ...
Cerebrovascular diseases including stroke. Ischaemic stroke. Brain. *Anterior cerebral artery syndrome. *Middle cerebral artery ...
Circulation 115 (12): 1634-1642. PMID 17325246. doi:10.1161/circulationaha.106.181424.. *^ Mukherjee D, Nissen SE, Topol EJ ( ... Chen LC, Ashcroft DM (2006). "Do selective COX-2 inhibitors increase the risk of cerebrovascular events? A meta-analysis of ...
... also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), cerebrovascular insult (CVI), or brain attack), ରୋଗ ହୁଏ ଯେତେବେଳେ ମସ୍ତିଷ୍କ‌କୁ ... "Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 18 (1): 268-71. doi:10.1161/01.STR.18.1.268. PMID 3810763.. ...
Cerebrovascular diseases (G45-G46 and I60-I69, 430-438). Brain ischemia/. cerebral infarction. (ischemic stroke/TIA). ... Persistent fetal circulation. Haemorrhagic and. hematologic disease. *Vitamin K deficiency bleeding. *HDN *ABO ...
This topic will review the major clinical syndromes associated with posterior circulation ischemia related to stenosis or ... Twenty percent of ischemic events in the brain involve posterior circulation (vertebrobasilar) structures. ... Posterior circulation cerebrovascular syndromes. Author. Louis R Caplan, MD. Louis R Caplan, MD ... Symptoms and signs of posterior circulation ischemia in the new England medical center posterior circulation registry. Arch ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
"Cerebrovascular Circulation" by people in this website by year, and whether "Cerebrovascular Circulation" was a major or minor ... "Cerebrovascular Circulation" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Cerebrovascular Circulation" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Cerebrovascular Circulation". ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Circulation.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person ... In the fetus with HLHS but not SVrp, there is a steady decline in cerebrovascular resistance throughout gestation which may ... Abstract 17236: Comparative Analysis of Cerebrovascular Resistance in the Fetus with Single Ventricle Type of Congenital Heart ... Abstract 17236: Comparative Analysis of Cerebrovascular Resistance in the Fetus with Single Ventricle Type of Congenital Heart ...
Abstract 033: Cardio-Cerebro-Vascular Diseases: Prevention in Metabolic Syndrome Patients. Günter Siegel, Eugeny Ermilov ... Your Name) thought you would like to see the Circulation Research web site. ... Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Circulation Research. ... MS is associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes and cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases (CCVD) (Figure). ...
Definition of Cerebrovascular circulation with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more ... cerebrovascular. cerebrovascular accident. cerebrovascular accident prevention. cerebrovascular circulation (current term). ... Cerebrovascular Circulation Images Lexicographical Neighbors of Cerebrovascular Circulation. cerebrospinal rhinorrhoea. ... Medical Definition of Cerebrovascular circulation. 1. The circulation of blood through the vessels of the brain. (12 Dec 1998) ...
Cerebrovascular geometry in the anterior circulation: an analysis of diameter, length and the vessel taper ... Cerebrovascular geometry in the anterior circulation: an analysis of diameter, length and the vessel taper ... The anterior cerebral circulation, particularly the carotid ophthalmic segment and the carotid siphon, is a frequent site for ... Knowledge of the cerebrovascular dimensions is integral to the performance of neurovascular procedures. These procedures may ...
Collateral circulation: treatment target for ischemic stroke Collateral circulation: treatment target for ischemic stroke / 国际脑 ... Full text: Available Index: WPRIM (Western Pacific) Language: Chinese Journal: International Journal of Cerebrovascular ... Full text: Available Index: WPRIM (Western Pacific) Language: Chinese Journal: International Journal of Cerebrovascular ... Good collateral circulation is beneficial to improve the success rate of ischemic stroke reperfusion, and is associated with ...
Clinical Analysis of Cerebral Aneurysms of Posterior Circulation / 대한뇌혈관외과학회지 Hong-Ju MOON; Dong-Jun LIM; Sung-Kon HA; Taek- ... One hundred and one patients with posterior circulation aneurysms were selected for study inclusion. The factors that might ... We sought to examine the diverse factors associated with aneurysms of the posterior circulation. In addition, the results of ... Endovascular therapy should be considered the primary treatment modality in patients with posterior circulation aneurysms. ...
Cerebrovascular Circulation. Academic Appointments. * Associate Professor - Med Center Line, Neurology & Neurological Sciences ... Clinical and Radiographic Natural History of Cervical Artery Dissections JOURNAL OF STROKE & CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES Schwartz ... Cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular autoregulation in a swine model of pediatric cardiac arrest and hypothermia CRITICAL ... She also studies methods of non-invasive measurement of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and cerebrovascular autoregulation ...
Cerebrovascular Circulation * Contrast Media * Female * Humans * Iohexol * Logistic Models * Male * Middle Aged ...
The Cerebrovascular Research Laboratory, a component of the Anesthesiology Research laboratory, has ongoing projects which ... Pathophysiology of the cerebral circulation in stroke, obstructive sleep apnea, and vascular cognitive impairment ... See a list of faculty who are a part of the Cerebrovascular Research Lab. ...
Cerebrovascular Circulation * Contrast Media / administration & dosage * Female * Humans * Image Processing, Computer-Assisted ...
Baker ABIannone A Cerebrovascular disease, I: the large arteries of the circle of Willis. Neurology.1959;9:321-332.PubMedGoogle ... Posterior Circulation Disease: Clinical Findings, Diagnosis, and Management. Cambridge, England: Blackwell Science Ltd; 1996: ... The middle posterior circulation territory includes the BA up to its superior cerebellar artery branches and the anteroinferior ... Glass TAHennessey PMPazdera L et al Outcome at 30 days in the New England Medical Center Posterior Circulation Registry. Arch ...
The Effects of Reduced Cerebrovascular Circulation on the Auditory Brain Stem Response (ABR). Mills, Janice A.; Ryals, Brenda M ...
The right hemisphere has no cerebrovascular reactivity and the left is normally reactive. The authors studied the asymmetry of ... Vasoreactive effects on intracranial pressure had a major influence on the circulation in both hemispheres, provoking ... examined the steal phenomenon using a new mathematical model of cerebral blood flow and the cerebrospinal fluid circulation. In ... A model of the cerebral and cerebrospinal fluid circulations to examine asymmetry in cerebrovascular reactivity. ...
... and the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can facilitate management of cerebral pathologies. For this reason, various... ... Critical closing pressure in cerebrovascular circulation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1999;66:606-11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Computer simulation of cerebrovascular circulation: assessment of intracranial hemodynamics during induction of anesthesia. J ... Assessment of critical closing pressure in the cerebral circulation as a measure of cerebrovascular tone. Acta Neurochir Wien. ...
Serial publications: Circulation, monthly; Circulation Research, monthly; Stroke--A Journal of Cerebrovascular Circulation, ... Current Contents of Cerebrovascular Disease--Stroke, quarterly; Recurring Bibliography of Hypertension, bimonthly--published in ...
cerebrovascular circulation. sitting. Additional relevant MeSH terms: Ischemia. Brain Ischemia. Cerebral Infarction. Pathologic ... Cerebrovascular Disorders. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. Vascular Diseases. ... Patients with history of cerebrovascular disease, coronary occlusive disease and/or obesity (body mass index , 30) were ...
... Congress Chairperson:Takeshi Kimura, M.D., Ph.D.( ... Cerebrovascular circulation/stroke. 29. Congenital heart disease/Kawasakis disease. 30. Coronary circulation/chronic coronary ... Copyright © 2019 - The 84th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Japanese Circulation Society. All Rights Reserved. ...
Instead, it actually measures changes in cerebrovascular circulation.. Helping to regulate that circulation are specialized ...
Diabetes adversely affects cerebrovascular arterial circulation. The risk of stroke is increased by 150-400% for patients with ...
Increase Blood Circulation Care Cerebrovascular Disease Low Level Laser Therapy Device Adantages: Portable wearable design , ... Professional Laser Hair Regrowth Personal Beauty Machine Improve Blood Circulation 1. 650nm wavelength laser for hair regrowth ...
Next message: Cerebrovascular Circulation Modelling Software? * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ author ] ...
Cerebrovascular Circulation*. Glaucoma / physiopathology*. Glaucoma, Open-Angle / physiopathology. Homeostasis*. Humans. Middle ... CBFV in NPG and POAG indicates impaired cerebral autoregulation and might contribute to an increased risk of cerebrovascular ...
Cerebrovascular Circulation. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Kinetics. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. Phosphates / ...
Kim Y, Bogert LWJ, Immink RV et al (2011) Effects of aging on the cerebrovascular orthostatic response. Neurobiol Aging 32:344- ... Houtman S, Colier WNJM, Hopman MTE, Oeseburg B (1999) Reproducibility of the alterations in circulation and cerebral ... Smielewski P, Kirkpatrick PJ, Minhas P et al (1995) Can cerebrovascular reactivity be measured with near-infrared spectroscopy ... Volunteers were excluded from participation when having a history of stroke, cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases, ...
Circulation Supplement 58(2): II-205. A long-term decline in death rates from cerebrovascular diseases in the USA accelerated ... Soltero I.; Liu K.; Cooper R.; Stamler J.; Garside D., 1978: Trends in mortality from cerebro vascular diseases in the usa 1960 ... If the 1960 rates had persisted in 1975, 87,600 more lives would have been lost to cerebrovascular diseases. Although there ...
Process and equipment for diagnosing circulation (cerebrovascular) disorders. US5676140 *. 26 Jul 1995. 14 Oct 1997. Nihon ... Shimada et al., "Effects of multiple scattering and peripheral circulation on arterial oxygen saturation measured with a pulse- ... Shimada et al., Effects of multiple scattering and peripheral circulation on arterial oxygen saturation measured with a pulse ...
  • The evaluation and management of acute ischemic stroke (including stroke involving the posterior circulation) are discussed separately. (uptodate.com)
  • Limited reliability of computed tomographic perfusion acute infarct volume measurements compared with diffusion-weighted imaging in anterior circulation stroke. (umassmed.edu)
  • Good collateral circulation is beneficial to improve the success rate of ischemic stroke reperfusion , and is associated with good outcome. (bvsalud.org)
  • Dr. Karen G. Hirsch cares for critically ill patients with neurologic disorders in the intensive care unit and for patients with cerebrovascular disease in the inpatient stroke unit. (stanford.edu)
  • Conclusions: CCCI is the result of atherosclerosis, and Cerebrovascular function was damaged obviously, the risk of stroke is increasing. (hanspub.org)
  • Citicoline is used for Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia , head trauma , cerebrovascular disease such as stroke , age-related memory loss, Parkinson's disease, attention deficit-hyperactive disorder ( ADHD ), and glaucoma . (rxlist.com)
  • There is some evidence that taking citicoline by mouth or injecting citicoline into the vein or muscle might improve memory and behavior in patients with long-term cerebrovascular diseases, such as stroke. (rxlist.com)
  • This is what happens with a stroke or CVA (cerebrovascular accident). (emedicinehealth.com)
  • 1 Early recognition of posterior circulation stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) may prevent disability and save lives, but it remains more difficult to recognise and treat effectively than other stroke types. (bmj.com)
  • 3 Preceding posterior circulation TIA or other transient brainstem symptoms, particularly if recurrent, signal a high risk of impending ischaemic stroke and should prompt specialist urgent referral for further management. (bmj.com)
  • 4 New acute treatment options and stroke prevention strategies specific to the posterior circulation are important areas of active research. (bmj.com)
  • This review aims to demonstrate the importance and challenges of recognising and treating posterior circulation stroke, including the key differences between posterior and anterior circulation stroke. (bmj.com)
  • We searched PubMed up to November 2013 with the terms "posterior circulation," "stroke," "ischaemic," and "vertebrobasilar," targeting full text English language studies published since 1990. (bmj.com)
  • Another initiative focuses on the mechanisms controlling cerebral circulation and disease states such as stroke and neuronal damage found in Alzheimer's disease. (mcw.edu)
  • Stem cells exert therapeutic effects against ischemic stroke via transplantation of exogenous stem cells or stimulation of endogenous stem cells within the neurogenic niches of subventricular zone and subgranular zone, or recruited from the bone marrow through peripheral circulation. (omicsonline.org)
  • Therapies that attempt to optimize leptomeningeal collateral circulation appear to improve outcomes following acute ischaemic stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • Twenty percent of ischemic events in the brain involve posterior circulation (vertebrobasilar) structures. (uptodate.com)
  • This topic will review the major clinical syndromes associated with posterior circulation ischemia related to stenosis or occlusion of the large aortic arch, neck, and intracranial arteries. (uptodate.com)
  • The most common causes of posterior circulation large artery ischemia are atherosclerosis, embolism, and dissection. (uptodate.com)
  • About one-third of posterior circulation strokes are caused by occlusive disease within the large neck and intracranial arteries, which are the vertebral arteries in the neck and the intracranial vertebral, basilar, and posterior cerebral arteries [ 1-4 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • The proximal portion of the vertebral artery in the neck is the most common location of atherosclerotic occlusive disease within the posterior circulation [ 1-5 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • Because of a greater variation in the anatomy and perhaps an influence based on the completeness of the circle of Willis, the posterior circulation measurements and the anterior cerebral artery are not included in this study and can be a focus of a separate analysis. (bmj.com)
  • We sought to examine the diverse factors associated with aneurysms of the posterior circulation. (bvsalud.org)
  • One hundred and one patients with posterior circulation aneurysms were selected for study inclusion. (bvsalud.org)
  • Considering the very high mortality rate in patients with rebleeding, early management may help improve the prognosis of patients with posterior circulation aneurysms . (bvsalud.org)
  • Endovascular therapy should be considered the primary treatment modality in patients with posterior circulation aneurysms . (bvsalud.org)
  • Balance and coordination are controlled by the cerebellum, or the base of the brain, and its blood supply comes from the vertebral arteries located in the bony canals in the back of the vertebral column (referred to as the posterior circulation). (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Posterior circulation. (bmj.com)
  • About 20-25% (range 17-40%) of the 150 000 ischaemic strokes in the United Kingdom each year affect posterior circulation brain structures (including the brainstem, cerebellum, midbrain, thalamuses, and areas of temporal and occipital cortex), which are supplied by the vertebrobasilar arterial system. (bmj.com)
  • 2 The annual adjusted incidence of posterior circulation infarction was estimated at 18 per 100 000 person years (95% confidence interval 10/100 000 to 26/100 000) in an Australian study. (bmj.com)
  • We herein showcase a confirmed case of the Percheron infarction at the admission day, in which the patient advanced into severe multiple posterior circulation infarcts, along with petechial hemorrhage within the infarcts, even given the right therapy without delay. (medworm.com)
  • CONCLUSION: Enhanced transmission of oscillations in MAP onto CBFV in NPG and POAG indicates impaired cerebral autoregulation and might contribute to an increased risk of cerebrovascular disorders in these diseases. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A long-term decline in death rates from cerebrovascular diseases in the USA accelerated in 1969, with a further increase in the rate of decline after 1972. (eurekamag.com)
  • If the 1960 rates had persisted in 1975, 87,600 more lives would have been lost to cerebrovascular diseases. (eurekamag.com)
  • Long-term blood circulation problems in the brain (cerebrovascular diseases). (rxlist.com)
  • Cerebrovascular diseases: epidemiology, pathophysiology and main clinical features. (univr.it)
  • Pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases. (univr.it)
  • Researchers in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania found that, across a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, cerebrovascular disease affecting circulation. (scienceblog.com)
  • Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) increases the risk of morbidity and premature mortality due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. (bmj.com)
  • Although several factors may contribute to CAA in humans, the neuronal origin of transgenic APP, high levels of Aβ in cerebrospinal fluid, and regional localization of CAA in APP23 mice suggest transport and drainage pathways rather than local production or blood uptake of Aβ as a primary mechanism underlying cerebrovascular amyloid formation. (pnas.org)
  • A model of the cerebral and cerebrospinal fluid circulations to examine asymmetry in cerebrovascular reactivity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The right hemisphere has no cerebrovascular reactivity and the left is normally reactive. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This review presents model-derived indices that describe cerebrovascular phenomena, the nature of which is both physiological (carbon dioxide reactivity and arterial hypotension) and pathological (cerebral artery stenosis, intracranial hypertension, and cerebral vasospasm). (springer.com)
  • CO 2 cerebrovascular reactivity as a function of perfusion pressure-a modeling study. (springer.com)
  • She also studies methods of non-invasive measurement of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and cerebrovascular autoregulation and how these parameters might be targeted to improve outcome in patients with neurologic injury. (stanford.edu)
  • Cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation is the physiologic mechanism that holds cerebral blood flow (CBF) relatively constant across changes in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). (elsevier.com)
  • David TP, Alexander J, Lesh M. Electrocardiographic changes associated with acute cerebrovascular disease: a clinical review. (medigraphic.com)
  • As is the case for the more common cerebrovascular accident affecting cerebral circulation, an acute onset is a clue to the diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • The authors examined the steal phenomenon using a new mathematical model of cerebral blood flow and the cerebrospinal fluid circulation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Understanding the dynamic relationship between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can facilitate management of cerebral pathologies. (springer.com)
  • Preserving cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients during surgery and anesthesia may be challenging as it requires good control over both circulation and ventilation, and CBF is not easily monitored. (physiology.org)
  • All patients with multiphase CT angiography confirmed the presence of anterior circulation large vessel occlusion/s in the intracranial internal carotid artery and/or middle cerebral artery (M1 or M2) and with admission brain CTP analyzed by RAPID software were included into the analysis. (medworm.com)
  • Diagram of the ventral aspect of the brainstem with the basal arteries attached showing the division of the vertebrobasilar circulation into proximal, middle, and distal territories. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Objective: To study the Cerebrovascular Function in patients with chronic cerebral circulation insufficiency (CCCI). (hanspub.org)
  • People with narrowing of the main arteries in the neck (carotid arteries), causing poor blood circulation to the brain (cerebrovascular insufficiency). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The risk for ischemic vascular events involving cerebrovascular circulation and the abdominal arteries is increased. (nih.gov)
  • The carotid arteries provide the majority of the blood supply to these parts of the brain (known as the anterior circulation). (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Although studies in the coronary circulation have the greatest clinical relevance, it is interesting that measures of endothelial function in peripheral arteries also have predictive value for coronary heart disease. (bmj.com)
  • 2012 ). However, regional differences in response to hypocapnia and hypotension have been reported between the intracranial and extracranial arteries as well as between anterior and posterior cerebral circulation (Lewis et al. (physiology.org)
  • The leptomeningeal collateral circulation (also known as leptomeningeal anastomoses or pial collaterals) is a network of small blood vessels in the brain that connects branches of the middle, anterior and posterior cerebral arteries (MCA, ACA, and PCA), with variation in its precise anatomy between individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anterior cerebral circulation, particularly the carotid ophthalmic segment and the carotid siphon, is a frequent site for endovascular interventions. (bmj.com)
  • The Guide to Peripheral and Cerebrovascular Intervention brings together experts in the field of endovascular therapy to cover topics such as the basics of vascular anatomy, the pearls of appropriate case selection, and the fundamental equipment and pharmacotherapy for successful procedures. (nih.gov)
  • The CCCI patients' cerebrovascular hemodynamic synthesized score (CVHS), flow velocity and flow rate are significantly lower than the control group, but the Rv, Wv and Zcv, significantly higher than the control group, the difference was statistically significant. (hanspub.org)
  • The permissive role of endothelial NO in CO-induced cerebrovascular dilation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The clinical relevance of endothelial dysfunction for cardiovascular disease events is strongly supported by studies in the human coronary circulation showing that impaired endothelium dependent vasodilation in response to acetylcholine or shear stress predicts clinical outcome. (bmj.com)
  • In the past few years, interest in peripheral vascular and cerebrovascular intervention has blossomed. (nih.gov)
  • The morphologic appearance of the intra-arterial and intravenous circulation can now be visualized by using intravascular sonography, which has become a commonly used diagnostic technique for randomized clinical trials assessing coronary plaque progression and regression. (ajnr.org)
  • Intravascular sonography has been used to assess the outcomes of different percutaneous interventions, including angioplasty and stent implantation, and to provide detailed characterization of atherosclerotic lesions, aneurysms, and dissections within the cerebrovascular circulation. (ajnr.org)
  • Currently there are 3 types of sonography used to assess the extracranial and the intracranial circulation: 1) transcranial Doppler, 2) B-mode sonography, and 3) intravascular sonography ( Table ). (ajnr.org)
  • In the fetus with HLHS but not SVrp, there is a steady decline in cerebrovascular resistance throughout gestation which may reflect developmental changes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Based on these signals, physiological parameters like cerebrovascular resistance, compliances of cerebrovascular bed, and CSF space could then be estimated. (springer.com)
  • There is anatomical variation in collateral circulation from person to person, and as we age, collateral vessels decrease in diameter and number. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background A study was undertaken to determine the typical length, diameter and taper of vessels in the anterior cerebral circulation. (bmj.com)
  • The goal of the study was to generate measurements for the anterior circulation only. (bmj.com)
  • The anterior spinal artery is a single long anastomotic channel that lies at the mouth of the anterior central sulcus and supplies the circulation to the anterior two thirds of the spinal cord, shown below. (medscape.com)
  • The circulation to the spinal cord has unique features related to the rich anastomotic anatomy of the cord that result in relative rarity of spinal cord infarction in comparison to cerebral infarction, as described in the images below. (medscape.com)
  • The circulation of blood through the vessels of the BRAIN. (umassmed.edu)
  • Vasoreactive effects on intracranial pressure had a major influence on the circulation in both hemispheres, provoking additional changes in blood flow on the nonregulating side. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These results suggest transport and drainage pathways rather than local production or blood uptake of Aβ as a primary mechanism underlying cerebrovascular amyloid formation in these mice. (pnas.org)
  • These can seriously undermine the pumping action of the heart and result in inefficient blood circulation around the body. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Inside the lung tissues, they move along and within the airways to bronchus-associated lymphoid tissues and lung-draining mediastinal lymph nodes before they enter the blood circulation from where they reach the CNS. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Various secondary model-based indices describing cerebrovascular dynamics have been introduced, like the cerebral arterial time constant or critical closing pressure. (springer.com)
  • Fig 1 Anatomy of the vertebral and basilar arterial circulation and circle of Willis. (bmj.com)
  • APP23 mice on an App -null background developed a similar degree of both plaques and CAA, providing further evidence that a neuronal source of APP/Aβ is sufficient to induce cerebrovascular amyloid and associated neurodegeneration. (pnas.org)
  • Computer simulation of cerebrovascular circulation: assessment of intracranial hemodynamics during induction of anesthesia. (springer.com)
  • Continued assessment of this diagnostic technique in both the intracranial and extracranial circulation will lead to increased use in clinical practice with the intent to improve outcomes. (ajnr.org)
  • Time-dependent action of carbon monoxide on the newborn cerebrovascular circulation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The Center for Cerebrovascular Research (CCR) is a core group of faculty and staff pursuing integrative and interdisciplinary studies of cerebrovascular disease, utilizing the tools of cell biology, animal models, human genetics, epidemiology and treatment outcomes research. (ucsf.edu)
  • Cerebrovascular Circulation" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • In a neurointensive environment, real-time monitoring of a patient with these indices may be able to provide a detection of the onset of a cerebrovascular phenomenon, which could have otherwise been missed. (springer.com)
  • Principles of anatomy of the cerebral circulation. (univr.it)