Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the nose. Common etiologies include trauma, neoplasms, and prior surgery, although the condition may occur spontaneously. (Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997 Apr;116(4):442-9)
One of the paired air spaces located in the body of the SPHENOID BONE behind the ETHMOID BONE in the middle of the skull. Sphenoid sinus communicates with the posterosuperior part of NASAL CAVITY on the same side.
Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the external auditory meatus or through the eustachian tube into the nasopharynx. This is usually associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE involving the TEMPORAL BONE;), NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; or other conditions, but may rarely occur spontaneously. (From Am J Otol 1995 Nov;16(6):765-71)
Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A light and spongy (pneumatized) bone that lies between the orbital part of FRONTAL BONE and the anterior of SPHENOID BONE. Ethmoid bone separates the ORBIT from the ETHMOID SINUS. It consists of a horizontal plate, a perpendicular plate, and two lateral labyrinths.
Presence of air or gas within the intracranial cavity (e.g., epidural space, subdural space, intracerebral, etc.) which may result from traumatic injuries, fistulous tract formation, erosions of the skull from NEOPLASMS or infection, NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES, and other conditions.
One of the paired, but seldom symmetrical, air spaces located between the inner and outer compact layers of the FRONTAL BONE in the forehead.

Evaluation of CSF leaks: high-resolution CT compared with contrast-enhanced CT and radionuclide cisternography. (1/124)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Radiologic evaluation of CSF leaks is a diagnostic challenge that often involves multiple imaging studies with the associated expense and patient discomfort. We evaluated the use of screening noncontrast high-resolution CT in identifying the presence and site of CSF rhinorrhea and otorrhea and compared it with contrast-enhanced CT cisternography and radionuclide cisternography. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging studies and medical records of all patients who were evaluated for CSF leak during a 7-year period. Forty-two patients with rhinorrhea and/or otorrhea underwent high-resolution CT of the face or temporal bone and then had CT cisternography and radionuclide cisternography via lumbar puncture. The results of the three studies were compared and correlated with the surgical findings in 21 patients. RESULTS: High-resolution CT showed bone defects in 30 of 42 patients (71%) with CSF leak. High-resolution, radionuclide cisternography and CT cisternography did not show bone defects or CSF leak for 12 patients (29%) who had clinical evidence of CSF leak. Among the 30 patients with bone defects, 20 (66%) had positive results of their radionuclide cisternography and/or CT cisternography. For the 21 patients who underwent surgical exploration and repair, intraoperative findings correlated with the defects revealed by high-resolution CT in all cases. High-resolution CT identified significantly more patients with CSF leak than did radionuclide cisternography and CT cisternography, with a moderate degree of agreement. CONCLUSION: Noncontrast high-resolution CT showed a defect in 70% of the patients with CSF leak. No radionuclide cisternography or CT cisternography study produced positive results without previous visualization of a defect on high-resolution CT. CT cisternography and radionuclide cisternography may be reserved for patients in whom initial high-resolution CT does not identify a bone defect or for patients with multiple fractures or postoperative defects.  (+info)

Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leakage detected by magnetic resonance cisternography--case report. (2/124)

A 49-year-old male with no history of head trauma suffered cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) discharge from the left nostril for one month. Coronal computed tomography (CT) showed lateral extension of the sphenoid sinus on both sides and CSF collection on the left side. CT cisternography could not identify the site of CSF leakage. Heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MR cisternography) in the coronal plane clearly delineated a fistulous tract through the sphenoid bone into the sphenoid sinus. Patch graft with muscle fragment completely relieved the CSF rhinorrhea. Postoperative three-dimensional CT showed the two bone defects identified during surgery. Small bony dehiscences in the sphenoid bone and lateral extension of the sphenoid sinus predisposed the present patient to CSF fistula formation. MR cisternography in the coronal and sagittal planes is superior to CT scanning or CT cisternography for detection of the site of active CSF leakage.  (+info)

CSF rhinorrhoea from unusual site : report of two cases. (3/124)

CSF rhinorrhoea is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Bone and dural defects may result from trauma or enlarging 'pitholes' or breach in lateral recess of sphenoid sinus. Unless surgically corrected, they tend to cause meningitis and rhinorrhoea. Unusually delayed rhinorrhoea is a diagnostic problem.  (+info)

A retrospective analysis of spontaneous sphenoid sinus fistula: MR and CT findings. (4/124)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The sphenoid sinus is rarely implicated as a site of spontaneous CSF fistula. We undertook this study to evaluate the potential etiopathogenesis of spontaneous CSF fistula involving the sphenoid sinus and to review the imaging findings. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings of 145 cases of CSF fistula from our departmental archives (August 1995 through August 1998). Fifteen (10%) patients had CSF fistulas involving the sphenoid sinus. Eleven (7%) patients had spontaneous CSF fistulas, whereas in four patients, the CSF fistulas in the sphenoid sinus were related to trauma. Of the 11 patients, nine underwent only plain high-resolution CT and MR cisternography. One patient additionally underwent contrast-enhanced CT cisternography, and one other patient underwent MR cisternography only. For each patient, the CSF fistula site was surgically confirmed. The MR imaging technique included T1-weighted and fast spin-echo T2-weighted 3-mm-thick coronal sequences obtained with the patient in the supine position. The plain high-resolution CT study included 3-mm-thick, and sometimes 1- to 1.5-mm-thick, coronal sections obtained with the patient in the prone position. Similar sections were obtained after injecting nonionic contrast material intrathecally via lumbar puncture for the CT cisternographic study. We evaluated each of the 11 patients for the exact site of CSF leak in the sphenoid sinus. We also determined the presence of pneumatization of lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus, orientation of the lateral wall of the sphenoid sinus, presence of arachnoid pits, presence of brain tissue herniation, and presence of empty sella in each of these patients. RESULTS: The exact sites of the CSF fistulas were documented for all 11 patients by using plain high-resolution CT, MR cisternography, or CT cisternography. In nine (82%) patients, the sites of the CSF fistulas were at the junction of the anterior portion of the lateral wall of the sphenoid sinus and the floor of the middle cranial fossa. In the remaining two (18%) patients, the sites of the CSF fistulas were along the midportion of the lateral wall of the sphenoid sinus. Of these 11 patients, one had bilateral sites of the CSF fistula at the junction of the anterior portion of the lateral wall of the sphenoid sinus with the floor of the middle cranial fossa. In nine (82%) patients, the presence of brain tissue herniation was revealed, and this finding was best shown by MR cisternography. Ten (91%) patients had extensive pneumatization of the lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus, with an equal number having outward concave orientation of the inferior portion of the lateral wall of the sphenoid sinus. In seven (63%) patients, the presence of arachnoid pits, predominantly along the anteromedial aspect of the middle cranial fossa, was shown. In seven (63%) patients, empty sella was shown. For comparison, we reviewed the CT studies of the paranasal sinuses in 100 age-matched control subjects from a normal population. Twenty-three had extensive lateral pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus along with outward concavity of the inferior portion of the lateral wall. None of these 23 patients had arachnoid pits. CONCLUSION: The sphenoid sinus, when implicated as a site of spontaneous CSF leak, yields a multitude of imaging findings. These are extensive pneumatization of the lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus, outward concave orientation of the inferior portion of the lateral wall of the sphenoid sinus, arachnoid pits, and empty sella. Considering the normative data, we speculate that this constellation of findings could play a role in the etiopathogenesis of spontaneous sphenoid sinus fistulas. Our findings also show the efficacy of noninvasive imaging techniques, such as plain high-resolution CT and MR cisternography, in the evaluation of sphenoid sinus CSF leak. Our data also suggest that spontaneous sphenoid sinus CSF leak is not an uncommon occurrenc  (+info)

Delayed cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea seven months after transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma--case report. (5/124)

A 51-year-old female had undergone transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma producing growth hormone. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage occurred during surgery. The sella turcica and sphenoid sinus were packed with abdominal fat and fibrin glue, buttressing the closure with a fragment of sphenoid bone. No CSF rhinorrhea occurred postoperatively. Severe meningitis developed 7 months later. CSF rhinorrhea occurred 10 days after readmission. Exploration through the transsphenoidal approach identified a small hole at the floor of the sella and CSF leaking into the sphenoid sinus through the hole. The CSF leakage stopped after the second surgery. Delayed CSF rhinorrhea without bromocriptine administration is very rare. The cause of delayed CSF rhinorrhea remains unclear. CSF rhinorrhea should be suspected if meningitis develops even months after transsphenoidal surgery.  (+info)

Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea associated with untreated prolactinoma--case report. (6/124)

An 80-year-old female presented with non-traumatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea due to untreated prolactinoma, with simultaneous development of bilateral leg pains and gait disturbance due to lumbar canal stenosis. Neuroimaging showed an intrasellar mass extending into the sphenoid sinus, right cavernous sinus, and suprasellar cistern. Computed tomography cisternography clearly showed the CSF pathway through the tumor. Subtotal removal of the tumor and reconstruction of the sellar floor via a transsphenoidal approach resulted in resolution of the CSF rhinorrhea. Both the invasive features and/or spontaneous shrinkage of the tumor might have created the abnormal CSF pathway. The clinical manifestation of lumbar canal stenosis might be triggered by such profound CSF leakage.  (+info)

Recovery from Duret hemorrhage: a rare complication after craniotomy--case report. (7/124)

A 44-year-old female presented with Duret hemorrhage due to transtentorial herniation by extradural hematoma as a complication after craniotomy for treatment of spontaneous middle cranial fossa cerebrospinal fluid leakage through the oval window. Brain computed tomography revealed linear hemorrhage in the midbrain and the rostral pons. She awoke after 2 weeks in a coma, despite showing ocular bobbing and bilateral intranuclear ophthalmoplegia. She was discharged from the hospital with minimal neurological defects. Duret hemorrhage is usually fatal, but this case shows that early surgical decompression is the most important factor to avoid the worst sequelae.  (+info)

Characterization of chemical meningitis after neurological surgery. (8/124)

We reviewed the records of 70 consecutive adult patients with meningitis after a neurosurgical procedure, to determine the characteristics that might help to distinguish a sterile postoperative chemical meningitis from bacterial infection. The spinal fluid profiles in bacterial and chemical meningitis are similar. The exceptions are that a spinal fluid white blood cell count > 7500/microL (7500 x 10(6)/L) and a glucose level of < 10 mg/dL were not found in any case of chemical meningitis. The clinical setting and clinical manifestations were distinct enough that no antibiotic was administered after lumbar puncture to 30 (43%) of the 70 patients with postoperative meningitis. Chemical meningitis was infrequent after surgery involving the spine and sinuses. Patients with chemical meningitis did not have purulent wound drainage or significant wound erythema or tenderness, coma, new focal neurological findings, or onset of a new seizure disorder. They rarely had temperatures > 39.4 degrees C or cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea or otorrhea.  (+info)

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea is a condition where the cerebrospinal fluid, which surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord, leaks through the nasal cavity. This occurs due to a defect or opening in the skull base or the thin bone that separates the brain from the nasal cavity, known as the cribriform plate.

CSF rhinorrhea can result from trauma, surgery, or spontaneously due to increased pressure in the brain. It is important to diagnose and treat this condition promptly because it increases the risk of meningitis, an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Treatment options include bed rest, hydration, stool softeners, and sometimes surgical repair of the defect.

The sphenoid sinuses are air-filled spaces located within the sphenoid bone, which is one of the bones that make up the skull base. These sinuses are located deep inside the skull, behind the eyes and nasal cavity. They are paired and separated by a thin bony septum, and each one opens into the corresponding nasal cavity through a small opening called the sphenoethmoidal recess. The sphenoid sinuses vary greatly in size and shape between individuals. They develop during childhood and continue to grow until early adulthood. The function of the sphenoid sinuses, like other paranasal sinuses, is not entirely clear, but they may contribute to reducing the weight of the skull, resonating voice during speech, and insulating the brain from trauma.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) otorrhea is a condition characterized by the leakage of cerebrospinal fluid from the inner ear into the external auditory canal of the ear. CSF is a clear, colorless fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. It is normally contained within the subarachnoid space, which is a space between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.

CSF otorrhea can occur as a result of a head injury, skull base fracture, or surgical procedure involving the ear or surrounding structures. It can also be caused by congenital defects or tumors in the area. CSF otorrhea is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention, as it can lead to meningitis or other complications if left untreated.

Diagnosis of CSF otorrhea typically involves a physical examination and testing of any fluid draining from the ear for beta-2 transferrin, a protein that is present in CSF but not in other bodily fluids. Imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans may also be used to help identify the underlying cause of the CSF leak. Treatment may involve bed rest, hydration, and antibiotics to prevent infection. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the site of the CSF leak.

A skull fracture is a break in one or more of the bones that form the skull. It can occur from a direct blow to the head, penetrating injuries like gunshot wounds, or from strong rotational forces during an accident. There are several types of skull fractures, including:

1. Linear Skull Fracture: This is the most common type, where there's a simple break in the bone without any splintering, depression, or displacement. It often doesn't require treatment unless it's near a sensitive area like an eye or ear.

2. Depressed Skull Fracture: In this type, a piece of the skull is pushed inward toward the brain. Surgery may be needed to relieve pressure on the brain and repair the fracture.

3. Diastatic Skull Fracture: This occurs along the suture lines (the fibrous joints between the skull bones) that haven't fused yet, often seen in infants and young children.

4. Basilar Skull Fracture: This involves fractures at the base of the skull. It can be serious due to potential injury to the cranial nerves and blood vessels located in this area.

5. Comminuted Skull Fracture: In this severe type, the bone is shattered into many pieces. These fractures usually require extensive surgical repair.

Symptoms of a skull fracture can include pain, swelling, bruising, bleeding (if there's an open wound), and in some cases, clear fluid draining from the ears or nose (cerebrospinal fluid leak). Severe fractures may cause brain injury, leading to symptoms like confusion, loss of consciousness, seizures, or neurological deficits. Immediate medical attention is necessary for any suspected skull fracture.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

The ethmoid bone is a paired, thin, and lightweight bone that forms part of the skull's anterior cranial fossa and contributes to the formation of the orbit and nasal cavity. It is located between the frontal bone above and the maxilla and palatine bones below. The ethmoid bone has several important features:

1. Cribriform plate: This is the horizontal, sieve-like portion that forms part of the anterior cranial fossa and serves as the roof of the nasal cavity. It contains small openings (foramina) through which olfactory nerves pass.
2. Perpendicular plate: The perpendicular plate is a vertical structure that projects downward from the cribriform plate, forming part of the nasal septum and separating the left and right nasal cavities.
3. Superior and middle nasal conchae: These are curved bony projections within the lateral walls of the nasal cavity that help to warm, humidify, and filter incoming air.
4. Lacrimal bone: The ethmoid bone articulates with the lacrimal bone, forming part of the medial wall of the orbit.
5. Frontal process: This is a thin, vertical plate that articulates with the frontal bone above the orbit.
6. Sphenoidal process: The sphenoidal process connects the ethmoid bone to the sphenoid bone posteriorly.

The ethmoid bone plays a crucial role in protecting the brain and providing structural support for the eyes, as well as facilitating respiration by warming, humidifying, and filtering incoming air.

Pneumocephalus is a medical condition characterized by the presence of air or gas within the intracranial cavity, specifically within the cranial vault (the space enclosed by the skull and containing the brain). This can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, neurosurgical procedures, tumors, or infection. The accumulation of air in the cranium can lead to symptoms like headache, altered mental status, nausea, vomiting, and neurological deficits. It is essential to diagnose and treat pneumocephalus promptly to prevent further complications, such as meningitis or brain abscess. Treatment options may include surgery, bed rest with head elevation, or administration of oxygen to facilitate the reabsorption of air.

A frontal sinus is a paired, air-filled paranasal sinus located in the frontal bone of the skull, above the eyes and behind the forehead. It is one of the four pairs of sinuses found in the human head. The frontal sinuses are lined with mucous membrane and are interconnected with the nasal cavity through small openings called ostia. They help to warm, humidify, and filter the air we breathe, and contribute to the resonance of our voice. Variations in size, shape, and asymmetry of frontal sinuses are common among individuals.

CSF Rhinorrhea at eMedicine Kerr, Julie T.; Chu, Felix W.K.; Bayles, Stephen W. (2005). "Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea: ... Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea (CSF rhinorrhoea) refers to the drainage of cerebrospinal fluid through the nose (rhinorrhoea ... CSF rhinorrhoea involves drainage of cerebrospinal fluid through the nose. This appears as a clear, colourless liquid. Aldroubi ... Makhmurian, Meri S. (23 September 2020). "MIN - Spontaneous cranial cerebrospinal fluid leak (CSF liquorrhea)". www.minclinic. ...
... cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea (CSF leaking from the nose) or from the ears (cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea); periorbital ... and brain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsations in the underlying leptomeningeal cystic mass. A cranial burst skull fracture, ... a craniocerebral erosion or leptomeningeal cyst due to the usual development of a cystic mass filled with cerebrospinal fluid ...
Dramatic radiographic response resulting in cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea associated with sunitinib therapy in recurrent ... "Dramatic radiographic response resulting in cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea associated with sunitinib therapy in recurrent ...
Syed, BA (2000). "Nontraumatic (spontaneous) cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea from cribriform fistula associated with primary ... Ommaya, AK (1963). "Subcutaneus reservoir and pump for sterile access to ventricular cerebrospinal fluid". Lancet. 2 (7315): ... Ommaya, AK; DiChiro, G; Baldwin, M; Pennybacker, JB (1968). "Non-traumatic cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea". J. Neurol. ... Spinal fluid driven artificial organ. United States Patent and Trademark Office. Patent number: 5385582. Jan 31, 1995 Doppman, ...
2009 Jun;25(6):663-8. Lechanoine F, Zemmoura I, Velut S. Treating Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea without Dura Repair: A Case ... Fujimura M, Onuma T, Kameyama M, Motohashi O, Kon H, Yamamoto K, Ishii K, Tominaga T. Hydrocephalus due to cerebrospinal fluid ... It leads to increased cerebrospinal fluid production, thus causing increased intracranial pressure and hydrocephalus. Choroid ... Additionally, reports of postoperative CSF rhinorrhea have been reported. McEvoy AW, Harding BN, Phipps KP, Ellison DW, Elsmore ...
... and cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea and otorrhea. Because brain injuries can be life-threatening, even people with apparently ... Symptoms of skull fracture can include: leaking cerebrospinal fluid (a clear fluid drainage from nose, mouth or ear) is ... This can include sedation, paralytics, cerebrospinal fluid diversion. Second-line alternatives include decompressive ... CT scans can show brain bleeds, fractures of the skull, fluid build up in the brain that will lead to increased cranial ...
... cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea MeSH C23.888.592.264 - cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea MeSH C23.888.592.298 - decerebrate state ...
... with associated cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. The usual surgery used to treat severe craniofacial injury occurs in three ...
... cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea MeSH C10.900.300.153 - cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea MeSH C10.900.300.175 - coma, post-head ...
Raccoon eyes - bruising around the eyes, i.e. "black eyes" Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea Cranial nerve palsy Bleeding ( ... A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak occurs in about 20% of cases and may result in fluid leaking from the nose or ear. Meningitis ... Evidence does not support the use of preventive antibiotics, regardless of the presence of a cerebrospinal fluid leak. Non- ...
... cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea MeSH C21.866.260.207 - cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea MeSH C21.866.260.222 - coma, post-head ... cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea MeSH C21.866.915.300.300 - cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea MeSH C21.866.915.300.350 - coma, post- ...
This can cause the nasal cavity to fill with cerebrospinal fluid (cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea, CSF rhinorrhea), a condition ... spinal fluid leak, and tobacco smoke. Rhinorrhea is especially common in cold weather. Cold-induced rhinorrhea occurs due to a ... Rhinorrhea, rhinorrhoea, or informally runny nose is the free discharge of a thin mucus fluid from the nose; it is a common ... The buildup of fluid is usually resolved via mucus expulsion through the nostrils. Rhinorrhea can be caused by a head injury, a ...
Demonstration of the site of a cerebrospinal fluid leak (postlumbar puncture headache, postspinal surgery headache, rhinorrhea ...
An NMR study has also found detectable levels of MSM normally present in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, suggesting that it ... Daily use at 3g decreased allergy-associated symptoms, including itchy eyes, itchy nose, watery eyes, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and ... "Dimethyl sulfone in human cerebrospinal fluid and blood plasma confirmed by one-dimensional (1)H and two-dimensional (1)H-(13)C ...
Nonsurgical Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea in Invasive Macroprolactinoma: Incidence, Radiological, and Clinicopathological ... Nonsurgical Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea in Invasive Macroprolactinoma: Incidence, Radiological, and Clinicopathological ...
Background: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea, when left untreated, can lead to meningitis and other serious complications. ... Contemporary Approach to the Diagnosis and Management of Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea Article ... and trauma involving skull base and facial fractures is most likely to cause CSF rhinorrhea. Diagnosis is aided by biochemical ... We reviewed the literature and summarized current practice regarding the diagnosis and management of CSF rhinorrhea.; Results: ...
Spontaneous Idiopathic Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea. Mikayilli, Mushfig; Hasanov, Teyyub; Otluoglu, Gulden Demirci; More ...
Return to Article Details Unusual complication of conventional septoplasty: cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea and pneumocephalus ...
Return to Article Details Endoscopic trans nasal intervention in cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea: a one and half-year pilot ...
CSF Rhinorrhea at eMedicine Kerr, Julie T.; Chu, Felix W.K.; Bayles, Stephen W. (2005). "Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea: ... Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea (CSF rhinorrhoea) refers to the drainage of cerebrospinal fluid through the nose (rhinorrhoea ... CSF rhinorrhoea involves drainage of cerebrospinal fluid through the nose. This appears as a clear, colourless liquid. Aldroubi ... Makhmurian, Meri S. (23 September 2020). "MIN - Spontaneous cranial cerebrospinal fluid leak (CSF liquorrhea)". www.minclinic. ...
Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea following rhinoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1983 Jan. 71(1):109-13. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Gustatory rhinorrhea: Parasympathetic and sympathetic cross-excitation as a result of misdirected regeneration of nerve fibers ... Guyuron B, Michelow B, Thomas T. Gustatory rhinorrhea--a complication of septoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1994 Sep. 94(3):454- ... Identification of beta-2 transferrin in the draining fluid constitutes a definitive diagnosis. Most leaks heal spontaneously. ...
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea is a curable condition. The source of the fluid leak must first be identified, usually by ... This can be progressive, especially if caused by a spinal problem like a tethered spinal cord or spinal fluid leak. Many times ...
Nontraumatic cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. Arch Neurol 1969; 21:59-65. Crossref. PubMed ... On MR imaging of the sella, an enlarged empty sella turcica filled with cerebrospinal fluid was seen. A vertical canal ...
Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea following rhinoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg 1983; 71 (1): 109-113.. 77.. Lewin ML, Argamaso RV, ...
Intermittent herniation of brain causing intermittent cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea Saifudheen, K.. *Authors reply Sen, A.; ... Cervical intradural disc herniation and cerebrospinal fluid leak Kansal, Ritesh; Mahore, Amit; Kukreja, Sanjay. *Falcine and ...
Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea: depiction with MR cisternography in dogs. Radiology 1986;160:221-22. ... Intrathecal gadolinium-enhanced MR cisternography in the evaluation of clinically suspected cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea in ... Wenzel R, Leppien A. Gadolinium-myelocisternography for cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea. Neuroradiology 2000;42:874-80. ... enhanced MR cisternography used to determine potential communication between the cerebrospinal fluid pathways and intracranial ...
"Diagnosis of Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea: Lack of Specificity of the Glucose Oxidase Test Tape." ,i>JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS,/i ... "Diagnosis of Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea: Lack of Specificity of the Glucose Oxidase Test Tape." ,i>JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS,/i ... Diagnosis of Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea: Lack of Specificity of the Glucose Oxidase Test Tape,/span>\n ,i>JOURNAL OF ... Diagnosis of Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea: Lack of Specificity of the Glucose Oxidase Test Tape. ,i>JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS,/i ...
Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea has been observed in some patients with prolactin-secreting adenomas treated with Parlodel. ... A few cases of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea have been reported in patients receiving Parlodel for treatment of large ... Careful supervision and recording of fluid intake and output is essential. Hypotension should be treated by placing the patient ... in the Trendelenburg position and administering I.V. fluids. If satisfactory relief of hypotension cannot be achieved by using ...
Pituitary adenoma presenting with Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea as the sole symptom. p. 307. ...
Nasoseptal flap closure of the eustachian tube for recalcitrant cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. The Laryngoscope Patel, V. S., ... Aberrant Venous Drainage in a Case of Spontaneous Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak. Otology & neurotology : official publication of the ... In one patient, cerebrospinal fluid diversion before DAVF was identified as the cause of her intracranial hypertension; the ... cerebrospinal fluid leakage, and cerebellar dysfunction. For this reason, it is best used selectively, when the probability of ...
Symptoms of a cerebrospinal fluid leak include clear rhinorrhea and positional headache. The diagnosis may be confirmed by ... Intracranial Injury and Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Intracranial injury and cerebrospinal fluid leaks are a major complication ... Either can result in a cerebrospinal fluid leak and potential intracranial injury or infection. ... testing the fluid for the presence of 2-transferrin, a protein highly specific for cerebrospinal fluid. A ...
Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea. Offering up-to-date, multidisciplinary coverage of this nuanced and evolving field, ...
Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea * by Sindwani, Raj * 2024 * Format: Electronic and Book ✐ Available ...
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea appears as clear drainage but may be mixed with blood, making it difficult to identify. ... Bedside glucose test strips do not accurately identify cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea and are not recommended. ... Cribriform plate fractures with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak require hospital admission with bed rest, head elevation, and ... Cribriform plate fracture may cause a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, with increased risk of meningitis or brain abscess. ...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Rhinorrhea causes, symptoms, treatment, complications. 01 March 2018. Acute Suppurative Otitis media ...
Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea FAQs by Dr. Karan Aggarwal October 15, 2022October 15, 20220 ... fluid therapy monitoring, arterial blood gas analysis etc have made heart procedures and surgeries very safe. These equipments ...
Conditions that mimic symptoms of rhinitis include nasal polyps, cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea, ciliary dyskinesia syndrome, ...
Surgical Outcomes and Postoperative Management in Spontaneous Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea. Jiang, Z. Y., Mclean, C., Perez, ...
Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrheas, CSF Rhinorrheas, Cerebrospinal Rhinorrheas, Cerebrospinal Fluid Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea ... CSF Rhinorrhea CSF Rhinorrheas Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrheas Cerebrospinal Rhinorrhea Cerebrospinal Rhinorrheas Rhinorrhea, ... Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea, Traumatic. Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrheas. Cerebrospinal Rhinorrhea. Cerebrospinal Rhinorrheas ... Cerebrospinal Fluid. Rhinorrhea, CSF. Rhinorrhea, Cerebrospinal. Rhinorrhea, Cerebrospinal Fluid. Rhinorrhea, Cerebrospinal ...
Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea Edited by Raj Sindwani Apr 2023 Rating: 0% Special Price $157.49 $209.99 ...
Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea Edited by Raj Sindwani Apr 2023 Rating: 0% Special Price $188.99 $209.99 ...
Liu P, Wu S, Li Z, Wang B. Surgical strategy for cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea repair. Neurosurgery. 2010 Jun;66(6 Suppl ...
  • The source of the fluid leak must first be identified, usually by mri, ct or a special nu. (healthtap.com)
  • Cribriform plate fracture may cause a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, with increased risk of meningitis or brain abscess. (msdmanuals.com)
  • We report a unique case of meningitis by S treptococcus oralis in a 58-year-old patient with cerebral spinal fluid leak due to right sphenoid meningoencephalocele. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There was also a right sphenoidal roof defect, and meningoencephalocele with cerebrospinal fluid leak as a result. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid leak puts patients at increased risk for meningitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our case is unique in highlighting S treptococcus oralis as the organism implicated in meningitis due to cerebrospinal fluid leak. (biomedcentral.com)
  • She had herniation of right temporal lobe through the sphenoidal roof defect with subsequent cerebrospinal fluid leak. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid leak occurs in 10-30% of skull base fractures and most often presents with rhinorrhea (80% of cases) in the setting of frontobasal fracture. (medscape.com)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak - also called rhinorrhea - can be a result of blunt head trauma . (findmeacure.com)
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (jefferson.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak" by people in this website by year, and whether "Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (jefferson.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak" by people in Profiles. (jefferson.edu)
  • The disease manifested as persistent spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea and repeated meningitis in a 66-year-old Japanese man. (medscape.com)
  • A right frontotemporal craniotomy was performed for spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea, and the defective dura mater region was patched with temporal fascia. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 , 3 ] By contrast, basal encephalocele diagnosed in adulthood is difficult to diagnose in childhood because abnormalities of the countenance are lacking, and it is incidentally found with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea in many cases. (medscape.com)
  • Methods: We reviewed the literature and summarized current practice regarding the diagnosis and management of CSF rhinorrhea. (ochsner.org)
  • Rapid method for beta2-transferrin in cerebrospinal fluid leakage using an automated immunofixation electrophoresis system. (musc.edu)
  • In the group of 34 patients affected by rhinorrhea, CSF leakage was controlled using different surgical treatments: CSF shunt placement in 16 cases, surgical repair of the sellar floor in three, and both procedures in the remaining 13. (unich.it)
  • Most posttraumatic cerebrospinal fluid fistulas are accompanied by rhinorrhea and the physician can easily diagnose a fistula (leakage) in case of a traumatic event. (rjor.ro)
  • 2] Rarely, CSF rhinorrhea or otorrhea without any cause may occur in IIH/ PTCS. (jpgo.org)
  • Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through a hole through the skull bone most commonly draining from the nose (CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA) or the ear (CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OTORRHEA). (jefferson.edu)
  • It can have devastating complications in some patients, as the communication between the nasal cavity, the cerebrospinal fluid and the central nervous system can result in severe bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea, when left untreated, can lead to meningitis and other serious complications. (ochsner.org)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid leaks place patients at increased risk for meningitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most common organism implicated in meningitis from cerebrospinal fluid leaks is Streptococcus pneumoniae [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report the rare case of a 19-year-old female patient with a penetrating head injury and 3 years long-term posttraumatic cerebrospinal fluid fistula complicated with recurrent meningitis. (rjor.ro)
  • It may be diagnosed using brain scans (prompted based on initial symptoms), and by testing to see if discharge from the nose is cerebrospinal fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 35 of the 36 patients affected by severe intracranial hypertension without rhinorrhea, improvement in adverse neurological symptoms was achieved after implanting a CSF shunt. (unich.it)
  • As per these, the patient manifests symptoms of high intracranial tension, but there is no neurodeficit, or high opening cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure on lumbar tap. (jpgo.org)
  • VALUE RFVF 10050 ='Chills' 10100 ='Fever' 10120 ='Other symptoms of body temperature' 10121 ='Feeling cold' 10122 ='Feeling hot' 10123 ='Feeling hot and cold' 10150 ='Tiredness, exhaustion' 10200 ='General weakness' 10250 ='General ill feeling' 10300 ='Fainting (syncope)' 10350 ='Symptoms of fluid abnormalities' 10351 ='Edema' 10352 ='Excessive sweating, perspiration' 10353 ='Excessive thirst' 10400 ='Weight gain' 10450 ='Weight loss' 10451 ='Recent weight loss' 10452 ='Underweight' 10460 ='Symptoms of face, not elsewhere class. (cdc.gov)
  • The patients also reported general and have T1 (hypo) and T2 (hyper) signals that are similar otolaryngologic symptoms, including anorexia, ar- than those of the cerebrospinal fluid ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea (CSF rhinorrhoea) refers to the drainage of cerebrospinal fluid through the nose (rhinorrhoea). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea appears as clear drainage but may be mixed with blood, making it difficult to identify. (msdmanuals.com)
  • On MR imaging of the sella, an enlarged empty sella turcica filled with cerebrospinal fluid was seen. (ajronline.org)
  • Diagnosis of Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea: Lack of Specificity of the Glucose Oxidase Test Tape. (stanford.edu)
  • Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the nose. (bvsalud.org)
  • Trauma, both accidental and iatrogenic, causes the majority of leaks, and trauma involving skull base and facial fractures is most likely to cause CSF rhinorrhea. (ochsner.org)
  • The brain is surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), enclosed in meningeal covering, and protected inside the skull. (medscape.com)
  • Finally, a doctor said the cerebrospinal fluid is leaking out from a crack in the skull bones and that I need surgery. (findmeacure.com)
  • 13. Liu P, Wu S, Li Z, Wang B. Surgical strategy for cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea repair. (bvsalud.org)
  • Bedside glucose test strips do not accurately identify cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea and are not recommended. (msdmanuals.com)
  • All patients underwent an ICP and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics evaluation through the use of a lumbar constant-rate infusion test. (unich.it)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea in patients with untreated pituitary adenoma: report of two cases. (unisa.it)
  • Of the five eyes in which the MH had failed to close after primary fovea-sparing surgery, two received a gas fluid exchange gas tamponade with 15% С3F8, and these patients were advised to maintain a face down position for 3 more weeks. (dntb.gov.ua)
  • This may be caused by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) draining from the brain into the nose (CSF rhinorrhea). (alberta.ca)
  • Most cases of CSF rhinorrhea that begin soon after a head injury cease spontaneously within 180 days. (findmeacure.com)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea is more common than generally thought. (unich.it)
  • [ 13 ] A minimum of 0.5 mL of fluid is necessary for electrophoresis, but difficulties in collection of this fluid have been noted, especially in intermittent, low-volume leaks. (medscape.com)
  • CT cisternography depicts the precise location of CSF rhinorrhea in most patients with active leaks. (medscape.com)
  • Closure of spontaneous sphenoid sinus cerebrospinal fluid leaks can be challenging because of the relative inaccessibility of the lateral recess and the presence of intracranial hypertension. (nih.gov)
  • Eleven patients with spontaneous, laboratory confirmed, sphenoid sinus cerebrospinal fluid leaks were included. (nih.gov)
  • 2. Prevention of intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks by lumbar cerebrospinal fluid drainage during surgery for pituitary macroadenomas. (nih.gov)
  • 3. Incidence, etiology, and management of cerebrospinal fluid leaks following trans-sphenoidal surgery. (nih.gov)
  • 14. The use of the nasoseptal flap to reduce the rate of post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leaks following endoscopic trans-sphenoidal surgery for pituitary disease. (nih.gov)
  • 15. Collagen sponge repair of small cerebrospinal fluid leaks obviates tissue grafts and cerebrospinal fluid diversion after pituitary surgery. (nih.gov)
  • 17. Endonasal endoscopic repair of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks. (nih.gov)
  • CSF leaks associated with CSF rhinorrhea can be managed endoscopically. (medscape.com)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea is a condition where the fluid that surrounds the brain leaks into the nose and sinuses. (thegrandparadise.com)
  • Significance of empty sella in cerebrospinal fluid leaks. (musc.edu)
  • 9. Management of intra-operative cerebrospinal fluid leak following endoscopic trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery. (nih.gov)
  • Cribriform plate fracture may cause a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, with increased risk of meningitis or brain abscess. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Risk factors associated with postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak after endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery. (lenus.ie)
  • The endoscopic endonasal approach for cerebrospinal fluid leak repair in the elderly. (lenus.ie)
  • Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak from the sphenoid sinus lateral recess (SSLR) is very rare. (ruralneuropractice.com)
  • More commonly or at least something I've seen in my practice, when people hold their sneeze in they actually can break the bone between their nose and their brain and they can get a brain fluid leak out of their nose because of the same reason, it's just that pressure that you build up. (thegrandparadise.com)
  • However, if one experiences runny nose that looks like a leaky faucet or drip out of only one side, this may represent a potentially more serious type of problem - a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak . (sinushealth.com)
  • If an obvious breach is noted, especially if fluid is seen in the adjacent sinuses, then a CSF leak is extremely likely. (thetraumapro.com)
  • The causes of the CSF rhinorrhea consisted of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (7), lateral rhinotomy with excision of a benign nasal tumor (3), spontaneous rhinorrhea (7), and secondary repair after intranasal ethmoidectomy (1). (elsevierpure.com)
  • Despite technical advances in the diagnosis and management of CSF rhinorrhea caused by craniofacial injury through the introduction of MRI and endoscopic extracranial surgical approaches, difficulties remain. (medscape.com)
  • 19. Endoscopic endonasal surgery for recurrent cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. (nih.gov)
  • 20. Transnasal endoscopic repair of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea: a meta-analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Endoscopic surgery treatment for sinus diseases including sinusitis, nasal polyposis, nasal bleeding and benign and malignant tumours, endoscopic cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea repair, frontal and trans-nasal transsphenoidal surgery for various skull base tumours. (trustinhospital.com)
  • Functional endoscopic sinus surgery, extended endoscopic sinus surgery, endoscopic skull base surgery, endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR), endoscopic repair of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea, septoplasty, arterial ligations for epistaxis, surgery for tumours of the nose and PNS, and coablator assisted turbinate procedures. (trustinhospital.com)
  • This test is useful in the differential diagnosis for CSF otorrhea or CSF rhinorrhea. (blallab.com)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea (CSF rhinorrhoea) refers to the drainage of cerebrospinal fluid through the nose (rhinorrhoea). (wikipedia.org)
  • 6. Surgical decisions in the management of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea. (nih.gov)
  • The anterior limit is periorbita and sphenoid bone, defined by the extent of clinoidectomy, which may incorporate air cells in communication with the paranasal sinuses and predisposes the patient to postoperative cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Long-lasting cerebrospinal fluid fistula sealing in the sphenoid sinus requires stable reconstruction of the defect in three layers or fat obliteration if the anatomy is unfavourable. (nih.gov)
  • 11. Subcranial transnasal repair of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea with free autologous grafts by the combined overlay and underlay techniques. (nih.gov)
  • The authors review here the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of CSF rhinorrhea relevant exclusively to traumatic anterior skull base injuries and attempt to identify areas in which further work is needed. (medscape.com)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea is a serious and potentially fatal condition that still presents a major challenge in terms of its diagnosis and management. (medscape.com)
  • 18. Prevention of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea after transsphenoidal surgery by collagen fleece coated with fibrin sealant without autologous tissue graft or postoperative lumbar drainage. (nih.gov)
  • CSF Rhinorrhea After Endonasal Intervention to the Skull Base (CRANIAL) - Part 2: Impact of COVID-19. (lenus.ie)
  • 4. Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea following trans-sphenoidal pituitary macroadenoma surgery: experience from 592 patients. (nih.gov)
  • Head trauma, surgery, or even birth defects can make a hole in the membranes that hold this fluid. (thegrandparadise.com)
  • It includes any mass such as, abscess, primary or metastatic tumors, hematoma, cerebral edema, communicating or obstructive hydrocephalus, idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), dural venous sinus thrombosis, and entities that result in increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production. (usask.ca)
  • It may be diagnosed using brain scans (prompted based on initial symptoms), and by testing to see if discharge from the nose is cerebrospinal fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the nose. (bvsalud.org)
  • In most patients, this is obvious because they have clear fluid leaking from ear or nose that was not present preinjury. (thetraumapro.com)
  • High-resolution CT scanning is the imaging modality of choice for identifying a skull base defect associated with CSF rhinorrhea. (medscape.com)
  • Approximately 80% of all cases of CSF rhinorrhea are caused by head injuries that are associated with cranial fractures. (medscape.com)
  • The dura is then incised parallel to the sphenoid wing lateral to the SOF, and the need for further bony removal, including clinoidectomy, is assessed after gentle elevation of the frontal lobe and release of cerebrospinal fluid through opening the optico-carotid cisterns and inspection of the pathology in relation to the clinoid. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Limited experience suggests that repair of the defect may be associated with clinical stability or improvement, resolution of the intraspinal fluid-filled collection, and resolution of CSF evidence of subarachnoid bleeding. (ajnr.org)
  • 2 , 3 , 28 - 31 , 35 , 36 A CT myelogram, dynamic CT myelogram, or digital substraction myelogram can identify a dural defect that connects the intrathecal space with the fluid-filled collection. (ajnr.org)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea is a serious and potentially fatal condition because of an increased risk of meningitis and brain abscess. (medscape.com)
  • either a lateral rhinotomy method or a midfacial degloving method can be used for en bloc tumor removal. (medscape.com)
  • Iatrogenic trauma remains the most common cause of CSF rhinorrhea. (elsevierpure.com)
  • It can often be provoked by increasing pressure to the head to push the fluid out, such as straining, heavy lifting, bearing down, or strenuous activities. (sinushealth.com)
  • This is currently single best laboratory test for identifying the presence of CSF in sinonasal fluid. (medscape.com)
  • New diagnostic methods (such as latex agglutination and polymerase chain reaction) supplement rather than supplant cerebrospinal fluid studies. (antiinfectivemeds.com)
  • CSF is clear, thin fluid that is made within the brain cavity, and it supports and provides nutrients to the brain. (sinushealth.com)
  • Multivariate logistic regression was utilized to determine the odds ratio of developing panhypopituitarism, DI, CSF rhinorrhea, and CN palsies for image-guided versus nonimage-guided cases. (thieme-connect.de)
  • In some circumstances, an air-fluid level is present in one or more of the sinuses. (medscape.com)
  • Charles Miller described cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea first in the year 1826. (ruralneuropractice.com)
  • Isolation of an anaerobic organism from the cerebrospinal fluid is rare and strongly suggests intraventricular leakage of a brain abscess or the presence of a parameningeal focus of infection. (antiinfectivemeds.com)
  • Detection of a beta-2 transferrin is diagnostic for the presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). (blallab.com)
  • 30 , 31 , 35 CSF hypovolemia (craniospinal hypotension) is a disorder that is frequently associated with dural defects, occasionally with intraspinal fluid collection of variable longitudinal extent and rarely with red blood cells (RBCs) or xanthochromia in the CSF. (ajnr.org)