Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)

Spinal reflexes and the concentrations of 5-HIAA, MHPG, and HVA in lumbar cereborspinal fluid after spinal lesions in man. (1/259)

Descending bulbospinal pathways that employ specific neurotransmitter substances are known to be capable of modulating segmental reflex activity in the experimental animal. To determine whether this might also occur in man correlations have been sought between the activity in spinal reflex pathways and the lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), 3 methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), and homovanillic acid (HVA) in 12 patients with complete or virtually complete spinal lesions. The concentrations of 5-HIAA and MHPG in lumbar CSF ARE REDUCED AFTER COMPLETE OR VIRTUALLY COMPLETE SPINAL LESIONS IN MAN. This may occur within 18 days of the lesion. MHPG concentrations appear to be inversely related to the level of the lesion. The HVA concentration in lumbar CSF is reduced when there is obstruction of the CSF pathways. No relationship could be demonstrated between the concentrations of 5-HIAA or MHPG in lumbar CSF and the activity in the spinal monosynaptic pathway (estimated from the proportion of the motoneurone pool activated by the Achilles tendon reflex or H reflex) or the activity of a spinal inhibitory mechanism (estimated by the degree of vibratory inhibition of the monosynaptic reflex). Patients with a tonic vibration reflex (TVR) tended to have higher MHPG levels. There appeared to be an association between low CSF HVA and enhanced vibratory inhibition of the monosynaptic reflex in the nine patients whose spinal lesions were complete.  (+info)

'Oblongata' crises in tabes dorsalis. (2/259)

A patient in the pre-ataxic stage of tabes dorsalis suffered from gastric crises, but in addition had numerous episodes of apnoea and coma which in the older literature have been described as 'oblongata crises'--the presumption being that the crises are due to a brain stem disturbance.  (+info)

Endogenous proteins controlling amyloid beta-peptide polymerization. Possible implications for beta-amyloid formation in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues. (3/259)

We report that certain plasma proteins, at physiological concentrations, are potent inhibitors of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) polymerization. These proteins are also present in cerebrospinal fluid, but at low concentrations having little or no effect on Abeta. Thirteen proteins representing more than 90% of the protein content in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid were studied. Quantitatively, albumin was the most important protein, representing 60% of the total amyloid inhibitory activity, followed by alpha1-antitrypsin and immunoglobulins A and G. Albumin suppressed amyloid formation by binding to the oligomeric or polymeric Abeta, blocking a further addition of peptide. This effect was also observed when the incorporation of labeled Abeta into genuine beta-amyloid in tissue section was studied. The Abeta and the anti-diabetic drug tolbutamide apparently bind to the same site on albumin. Tolbutamide displaces Abeta from albumin, increasing its free concentration and enhancing amyloid formation. The present results suggest that several endogenous proteins are negative regulators of amyloid formation. Plasma contains at least 300 times more amyloid inhibitory activity than cerebrospinal fluid. These findings may provide one explanation as to why beta-amyloid deposits are not found in peripheral tissues but are only found in the central nervous system. Moreover, the data suggest that some drugs that display an affinity for albumin may enhance beta-amyloid formation and promote the development of Alzheimer's disease.  (+info)

Quinupristin/dalfopristin attenuates the inflammatory response and reduces the concentration of neuron-specific enolase in the cerebrospinal fluid of rabbits with experimental Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis. (4/259)

The inflammatory response following initiation of antibiotic therapy and parameters of neuronal damage were compared during intravenous treatment with quinupristin/dalfopristin (100 mg/kg as either a short or a continuous infusion) and ceftriaxone (10 mg/kg/h) in a rabbit model of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis. With both modes of administration, quinupristin/dalfopristin was less bactericidal than ceftriaxone. However, the concentration of proinflammatory cell wall components (lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and teichoic acid (TA)) and the activity of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were significantly lower in the two quinupristin/dalfopristin groups than in ceftriaxone-treated rabbits. The median LTA/TA concentrations (25th/75th percentiles) were as follows: (i) 14 h after infection: 133 (72/155) ng/mL for continuous infusion of quinupristin/dalfopristin and 193 (91/308) ng/mL for short duration infusion, compared with 455 (274/2042) ng/mL for ceftriaxone (P = 0.002 and 0.02 respectively); (ii) 17 h after infection: 116 (60/368) ng/mL for continuous infusion of quinupristin/dalfopristin and 117 (41/247) ng/mL for short duration infusion, compared with 694 (156/2173) ng/mL for ceftriaxone (P = 0.04 and 0.03 respectively). Fourteen hours after infection the median TNF activity (25th/75th percentiles) was 0.2 (0.1/1.9) U/mL for continuous infusion of quinupristin/dalfopristin and 0.1 (0.01/3.5) U/mL for short duration infusion, compared with 30 (4.6/180) U/mL for ceftriaxone (P = 0.02 for each comparison); 17 h after infection the TNF activity was 2.8 (0.2/11) U/mL (continuous infusion of quinupristin/dalfopristin) and 0.1 (0.04/6.1) U/mL (short duration infusion), compared with 48.6 (18/169) U/mL for ceftriaxone (P = 0.002 and 0.001). The concentration of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) 24 h after infection was significantly lower in animals treated with quinupristin/dalfopristin: 4.6 (3.3/5.7) microg/L (continuous infusion) and 3.6 (2.9/4.7) microg/L (short duration infusion) than in those treated with ceftriaxone (17.7 (8.8/78.2) microg/L) (P = 0.03 and 0.009 respectively). In conclusion, antibiotic treatment with quinupristin/dalfopristin attenuated the inflammatory response within the subarachnoid space after initiation of antibiotic therapy. The concentration of NSE in the CSF, taken as a measure of neuronal damage, was lower in quinupristin/dalfopristin-treated rabbits than in ceftriaxone-treated rabbits.  (+info)

A 20-year epidemiological study of pneumococcal meningitis. (5/259)

We conducted a retrospective analysis of 55 community-acquired Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis illnesses in Huntington, West Virginia, from 1978 to 1997. Fourteen (36.8%) of 38 adults and 2 (11.8%) of 17 children died. Serotypes 6, 23, 3, and 18 accounted for 20 (41.7%) of 48 strains available for serotyping. Of 40 strains available for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, 1 serotype 19 and 1 serotype 23 strain showed intermediate resistance and a second serotype 23 strain showed high resistance to penicillin; all three patients survived. The case-fatality rates among adults who received penicillin alone, gentamicin in combination, or vancomycin and cephalosporin together were 57.1%, 55.5%, and 60%, respectively, and among those who received chloramphenicol or a third-generation cephalosporin, they were 11.1% or nil, respectively. No child died who received chloramphenicol or vancomycin. Two (33%) of 6 children died who received a third-generation cephalosporin; both were critically ill when initially treated. No child and one adult had received pneumococcal vaccine prior to becoming ill.  (+info)

High sensitivity and specificity of serum procalcitonin levels in adults with bacterial meningitis. (6/259)

It was shown in children that serum procalcitonin was the best marker to use to differentiate bacterial from viral meningitis. To evaluate procalcitonin in the diagnosis of acute bacterial and viral meningitis, we conducted a prospective study including adult patients who were suspected of having meningitis and who were admitted to an emergency department. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum levels of procalcitonin were measured in 105 consecutive patients. The diagnosis of meningitis was based on clinical findings, gram staining, culture, and chemical analysis of CSF. Twenty-three patients had bacterial meningitis, 57 had viral meningitis, and 25 did not have meningitis. Bacteriologic and chemical analysis of CSF did not allow correct differentiation of viral from bacterial meningitis. On the other hand, a serum procalcitonin level >0.2 ng/mL had a sensitivity and specificity of up to 100% in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Serum procalcitonin levels seem to be the best marker in differentiating between bacterial and viral meningitis in adults.  (+info)

HLA-DPB1*0501-associated opticospinal multiple sclerosis: clinical, neuroimaging and immunogenetic studies. (7/259)

In order to clarify the relationship between the clinical phenotype and the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) in multiple sclerosis in Asians, 93 Japanese patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis underwent clinical MRI and HLA-DPB1 gene typing studies. According to a neurological examination, 29 patients were classified as opticospinal multiple sclerosis, 17 as spinal multiple sclerosis and 47 as Western type multiple sclerosis showing the involvement of multiple sites in the CNS including either the cerebrum, cerebellum or brainstem. The opticospinal multiple sclerosis showed a significantly higher age of onset, higher expanded disability status scale scores and higher CSF cell counts and protein content than the Western type multiple sclerosis. On brain and spinal cord MRI, the opticospinal multiple sclerosis showed a significantly lower number of brain lesions, but a higher frequency of gadolinium-enhancement of the optic nerve and a higher frequency of spinal cord atrophy than in Western type multiple sclerosis. The frequency of the HLA-DPB1*0501 allele was found to be significantly greater in opticospinal multiple sclerosis (93%) than in healthy controls (63%, corrected P value = 0.0091 and relative risk = 7.9), but not in Western type multiple sclerosis (66%) or spinal multiple sclerosis (82%). The marked differences in the clinical and MRI findings as well as in the immunogenetic backgrounds between the opticospinal multiple sclerosis and Western-type multiple sclerosis together suggest that HLA-DPB1*0501-associated opticospinal multiple sclerosis is a distinct subtype of multiple sclerosis.  (+info)

Peptide mapping of proteins in cerebrospinal fluid utilizing a rapid preparative two-dimensional electrophoretic procedure and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. (8/259)

A quick two-step procedure involving liquid phase isoelectric focusing in the Rotofor cell in combination with electroelution in the Mini whole cell gel eluter has been used for purification of proteins from human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Fractions, each highly enriched in a single protein band and virtually free of other proteins, were selected for characterization by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS). Six CSF proteins, transferrin, alpha1-acid-glycoprotein, Zn-alpha2-glycoprotein, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein E and beta-trace were identified by MALDI-TOFMS analysis of the tryptic digests. These results demonstrate that the combination of liquid phase IEF and electroelution is a rapid preparative two-dimensional separation which can provide single proteins of high purity, in yields sufficient for characterization by MALDI-TOFMS. Characterization of such brain-specific proteins in CSF will be useful in the investigation of the pathophysiology of different brain disorders.  (+info)

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins refer to the proteins present in the cerebrospinal fluid, which is a clear, colorless fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. The protein concentration in the CSF is much lower than that in the blood, and it contains a specific set of proteins that are produced by the brain, spinal cord, and associated tissues.

The normal range for CSF protein levels is typically between 15-45 mg/dL, although this can vary slightly depending on the laboratory's reference range. An elevation in CSF protein levels may indicate the presence of neurological disorders such as meningitis, encephalitis, multiple sclerosis, or Guillain-Barre syndrome. Additionally, certain conditions such as spinal cord injury, brain tumors, or neurodegenerative diseases can also cause an increase in CSF protein levels.

Therefore, measuring CSF protein levels is an important diagnostic tool for neurologists to evaluate various neurological disorders and monitor disease progression. However, it's essential to interpret the results of CSF protein tests in conjunction with other clinical findings and laboratory test results to make an accurate diagnosis.

Quantification of mutant huntingtin protein in cerebrospinal fluid from Huntingtons disease patients J Clin Invest. 2015 May; ... Background: Quantification of disease-associated proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been critical for the study and ... treatment of several neurodegenerative disorders; however, mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT), the cause of Huntingtons disease ...
Protein concentration was determined with Bio-Rad protein assay. The product was boiled for 5 min in 1 x SDS sample buffer (50 ... Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels of Kininogen-1 Indicate Early Cognitive Impairment in Parkinsons Disease. by Jaime , Posted on ... Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels of Kininogen-1 Indicate Early Cognitive Impairment in Parkinsons Disease. Background: Cognitive ... Protein concentration was determined with Bio-Rad protein assay. The product was boiled for 5 min in 1 x SDS sample buffer (50 ...
The purpose of this study was to evaluate HMGB1 concentration in cerebrospinal fluid and determine the correlation with ... An inflammatory marker, HMGB1 protein, was found to be strongly involved in long term repair and defense programs in cerebral ... Evaluation of HMGB1 protein in cerebrospinal fluid to predict treatment outcome in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. poster ... The purpose of this study was to evaluate HMGB1 concentration in cerebrospinal fluid and determine the correlation with ...
Abnormal cerebrospinal fluid protein indices in schizophrenia. In: Biological psychiatry. 1985 ; Vol. 20, No. 10. pp. 1039-1046 ... Abnormal cerebrospinal fluid protein indices in schizophrenia. Darrell G. Kirch, Charles A. Kaufmann, Nicholas M. Papadopoulos ... Abnormal cerebrospinal fluid protein indices in schizophrenia. Biological psychiatry. 1985 Oct;20(10):1039-1046. doi: 10.1016/ ... Abnormal cerebrospinal fluid protein indices in schizophrenia. / Kirch, Darrell G.; Kaufmann, Charles A.; Papadopoulos, ...
"Ultrasensitive stain for proteins in polyacrylamide gels shows regional variation in cerebrospinal fluid proteins". Science. ... The amount of cerebrospinal fluid varies by size and species. In humans and other mammals, cerebrospinal fluid turns over at a ... Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) - interactive tool Cerebrospinal fluid - course material in neuropathology ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found within the tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord of ...
In this review, we consider the capabilities and limitations of fluid biomarkers collected from cerebrospinal fluid, blood, and ... and olfactory fluid samples. Shifts in CSF levels of amyloid beta and tau, two proteins central to Alzheimers pathology, can ... which enables diagnosis using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, oral, ocular, ... Markers from body fluids could help clinicians diagnose Alzheimers disease before cognitive decline appears. After numerous ...
Protein fibril length in cerebrospinal fluid is increased in Alzheimers disease Nirmalraj P. N., Schneider T., Lüder  ... Alzheimers disease (AD) associated proteins exist in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This paper evidences that protein aggregate ... Protein fibril length in cerebrospinal fluid is increased in Alzheimers disease Nirmalraj P. N., Schneider T., Lüder L., & ... CSF fibril length is inversely correlated with CSF amyloid beta (Aβ) 42/40 ratio and CSF p-tau protein levels (obtained from ...
Hypothesis: cerebrospinal fluid protein markers suggest a pathway toward symptomatic resilience to AD pathology. ... Dive into the research topics of Hypothesis: cerebrospinal fluid protein markers suggest a pathway toward symptomatic ...
include cerebral edema; abnormality of cerebrospinal fluid proteins; convulsive seizures, particularly in patients with EEG ...
"Study of Estimation of Cerebrospinal Fluid C-Reactive Protein in Diagnosis of Acute Meningitis." * Dr. Keshav Bansal Senior ... 2021). "Study of Estimation of Cerebrospinal Fluid C-Reactive Protein in Diagnosis of Acute Meningitis.". Pediatric Review: ... Cerebrospinal fluid C-reactive protein in meningitis. Indian Pediatr. 1995 Jun;32(6):687-8. ... C-reactive protein in spinal fluid of children with meningitis. J Pediatr. 1981 Sep;99(3):365-9. doi: 10.1016/s0022-3476(81) ...
People with untreated type 2 diabetes developed Alzheimers disease 1.6x faster and had more tau protein in cerebrospinal fluid ... People with untreated type 2 diabetes developed Alzheimers disease 1.6x faster and had more tau protein in cerebrospinal fluid ... CSF). alzheimers blood sugar diabetes neurons protein dornsife.usc.edu submitted over 4 years. ago by rhonda ...
... altered cerebrospinal fluid proteins; cerebral edema; intensification and prolongation of the action of central nervous system ...
tau Proteins / cerebrospinal fluid Substances * Amyloid beta-Peptides * Biomarkers * Membrane Glycoproteins * Receptors, ... resulting from shedding of the TREM2 ectodomain can be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and is a surrogate measure of ...
... from cerebrospinal fluid involves low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 at the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. ... from cerebrospinal fluid involves low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 at the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. ... from cerebrospinal fluid involves low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 at the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. ... from cerebrospinal fluid involves low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 at the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. ...
Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed only protein elevation. Serologic test results for equine encephalitis virus, dengue, ...
... abnormal protein or white blood cell count in the cerebrospinal fluid; or reactive venereal disease research laboratory test in ... abnormal protein or white blood cell count in the cerebrospinal fluid; reactive venereal disease research laboratory test in ... abnormal protein or white blood cell count in the cerebrospinal fluid; reactive venereal disease research laboratory test in ... or cerebrospinal fluid analysis (3). Rates of congenital syphilis mirror rates of primary and secondary syphilis among women of ...
Elevated cerebrospinal fluid protein without elevated cell count. This may take up to 10 days from onset of symptoms to develop ... Cerebrospinal fluid analysis-Your doctor also may remove and have analyzed a small sample of the cerebrospinal fluid that ... since the fluid in people with GBS contains more protein than usual but very few immune cells (measured by white blood cells). ... Certain proteins or peptides in viruses and bacteria may be the same as those found in myelin, and the production of antibodies ...
... altered cerebrospinal fluid proteins; cerebral edema; intensification and prolongation of the action of central nervous system ...
Cerebrospinal fluid contained 4 leukocytes/mm3, 70 mg glucose/dL, and 43 mg protein/dL; bacterial cultures were negative. Serum ... The cerebrospinal fluid protein level and Campylobacter spp. and anti-GQ1b IgG ganglioside antibody test results did not ...
include cerebral edema; abnormality of cerebrospinal fluid proteins; convulsive seizures, particularly in patients with EEG ... An open airway and adequate fluid intake should be maintained. Body temperature should be regulated. Hypothermia is expected, ... Standard measures (oxygen, intravenous fluids, corticosteroids) should be used to manage circulatory shock or metabolic ...
10] The cerebrospinal fluid shows pleocytosis and increased protein. Nerve conduction studies and biopsy findings are ... Although its clinical and cerebrospinal fluid patterns are fairly typical, the clinician must be careful not to ascribe ... CSF shows pleocytosis and elevated protein level. It typically presents with a cauda equina-like picture, and EMG shows ...
The 14-3-3 protein was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The patient died within 5 months of presentation. [46] ... Jelic et al found a positive correlation between levels of tau protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the EEG alpha/delta ... Jelic V, Blomberg M, Dierks T. EEG slowing and cerebrospinal fluid tau levels in patients with cognitive decline. Neuroreport. ... PCR testing for the herpes virus from spinal fluid being the most sensitive and specific test for the diagnosis of HSE) at ...
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination for cell count, glucose, and protein. *CT scan of the head ... It is done to collect a sample of spinal fluid for examination. More than one sample may be needed to make the diagnosis. ... Hydrocephalus (buildup of fluid inside the skull that leads to brain swelling) ...
Cerebrospinal fluid levels of brain specific proteins in optic neuritis. Mult Scler. 2004 Jun. 10 (3):261-5. [QxMD MEDLINE Link ... Abnormal intrathecal IgG synthesis, reflected as the presence of oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is found ... a water channel protein that is abundant on astrocytic membranes and proximate to the blood-brain barrier. Patients who are ...
Researchers conducted cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteome profiling and identified CSF proteins.. 17 Jul 2023 ... New proteomic insights: cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers show promise in detecting dementia with Lewy bodies ... remains a crucial technology for manufacturing large and complex proteins. This eukaryotic expression system offers inherent ... safety, ease of scale-up, flexible product design, and versatility for a broad range of proteins. ...
Proteome analysis of cerebrospinal fluid proteins in Alzheimer patients. Pia Davidsson, Ann Brinkmalm-Westman, Carol L Nilsson ... Cerebrospinal fluid amyloid precursor protein as a potential biomarker of fatigue in multiple sclerosis: A pilot study ... Cerebrospinal Fluid Panel of Synaptic Proteins in Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy and Alzheimers Disease ... Identification of novel N-terminal fragments of amyloid precursor protein in cerebrospinal fluid. ...
A rogue protein has been identified in multiple sclerosis, which attacks the bodys central nervous system. Reporting for the ... Detection of Protein Aggregates in Brain and Cerebrospinal Fluid Derived from Multiple Sclerosis Patients. Frontiers in ... The antibodies were then used to investigate whether rogue proteins existed in the brain tissue and spinal fluid of patients ... to fight against these rogue proteins. They discovered that these antibodies were able to recognise rogue proteins in ...
Also, spinal taps can show whether amyloid and tau proteins are present in cerebrospinal fluid. ... A note of caution: While amyloid and tau proteins in the brain are a signature characteristic of Alzheimers, not all people ... PET scans (not covered by Medicare) can demonstrate the buildup of amyloid proteins - a marker of Alzheimers. ... with these proteins develop cognitive impairment.. Several experts recommend that people concerned about their Alzheimers risk ...
Thompson EJ, Keir G. Laboratory investigation of cerebrospinal fluid proteins. Ann Clin Biochem. (1990) 27:425-35. doi: 10.1177 ... Neurofilament protein detected in the serum or cerebrospinal fluid appears to be a good marker for the extent of active ... Cerebrospinal fluid B cells and disease progression in multiple sclerosis - a longitudinal study. PLoS ONE (2017) 12:e0182462. ... Bielekova B, Komori M, Xu Q, Reich DS, Wu T. Cerebrospinal fluid Il12p40, CXCL13 and Il-8 as a combinatorial biomarker of ...

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