Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins: Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea: Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the nose. Common etiologies include trauma, neoplasms, and prior surgery, although the condition may occur spontaneously. (Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997 Apr;116(4):442-9)Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts: Tubes inserted to create communication between a cerebral ventricle and the internal jugular vein. Their emplacement permits draining of cerebrospinal fluid for relief of hydrocephalus or other condition leading to fluid accumulation in the ventricles.Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Spinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Cerebrospinal Fluid Otorrhea: Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the external auditory meatus or through the eustachian tube into the nasopharynx. This is usually associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE involving the TEMPORAL BONE;), NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; or other conditions, but may rarely occur spontaneously. (From Am J Otol 1995 Nov;16(6):765-71)Meningitis, Bacterial: Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.Meningitis, Viral: Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Meningitis, Aseptic: A syndrome characterized by headache, neck stiffness, low grade fever, and CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis in the absence of an acute bacterial pathogen. Viral meningitis is the most frequent cause although MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; RICKETTSIA INFECTIONS; diagnostic or therapeutic procedures; NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES; septic perimeningeal foci; and other conditions may result in this syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p745)Tuberculosis, Meningeal: A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)Meningitis, Pneumococcal: An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)Choroid Plexus: A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Meningoencephalitis: An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Neurosyphilis: Infections of the central nervous system caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM which present with a variety of clinical syndromes. The initial phase of infection usually causes a mild or asymptomatic meningeal reaction. The meningovascular form may present acutely as BRAIN INFARCTION. The infection may also remain subclinical for several years. Late syndromes include general paresis; TABES DORSALIS; meningeal syphilis; syphilitic OPTIC ATROPHY; and spinal syphilis. General paresis is characterized by progressive DEMENTIA; DYSARTHRIA; TREMOR; MYOCLONUS; SEIZURES; and Argyll-Robertson pupils. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp722-8)Cisterna Magna: One of three principal openings in the SUBARACHNOID SPACE. They are also known as cerebellomedullary cistern, and collectively as cisterns.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Arachnoid: A delicate membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord. It lies between the PIA MATER and the DURA MATER. It is separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid cavity which is filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Multiple Sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Oligoclonal Bands: Multiple protein bands serving as markers of specific ANTIBODIES and detected by ELECTROPHORESIS of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID or serum. The bands are most often seen during inflammatory or immune processes and are found in most patients with MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Meningitis, Fungal: Meningitis caused by fungal agents which may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.Hydroxyindoleacetic AcidNervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt: Surgical creation of a communication between a cerebral ventricle and the peritoneum by means of a plastic tube to permit drainage of cerebrospinal fluid for relief of hydrocephalus. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pneumoencephalography: Radiographic visualization of the cerebral ventricles by injection of air or other gas.Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Nervous system infections caused by tick-borne spirochetes of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP. The disease may affect elements of the central or peripheral nervous system in isolation or in combination. Common clinical manifestations include a lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuropathy (most often a facial neuropathy), POLYRADICULOPATHY, and a mild loss of memory and other cognitive functions. Less often more extensive inflammation involving the central nervous system (encephalomyelitis) may occur. In the peripheral nervous system, B. burgdorferi infection is associated with mononeuritis multiplex and polyradiculoneuritis. (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):182-91)Central Nervous System Infections: Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.Homovanillic AcidEncephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Meningitis, Haemophilus: Infections of the nervous system caused by bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS, and marked by prominent inflammation of the MENINGES. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults.Ventriculostomy: Surgical creation of an opening in a cerebral ventricle.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Encephalitis, Viral: Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Leukocytosis: A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.Meningitis, Meningococcal: A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Meningitis, Cryptococcal: Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)Neurocysticercosis: Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Central Nervous System Viral Diseases: Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.Meningeal Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.tau Proteins: Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).Intracranial Hypotension: Reduction of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID pressure characterized clinically by HEADACHE which is maximal in an upright posture and occasionally by an abducens nerve palsy (see ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES), neck stiffness, hearing loss (see DEAFNESS); NAUSEA; and other symptoms. This condition may be spontaneous or secondary to SPINAL PUNCTURE; NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; DEHYDRATION; UREMIA; trauma (see also CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA); and other processes. Chronic hypotension may be associated with subdural hematomas (see HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL) or hygromas. (From Semin Neurol 1996 Mar;16(1):5-10; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp637-8)Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Ependyma: A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure: A form of compensated hydrocephalus characterized clinically by a slowly progressive gait disorder (see GAIT DISORDERS, NEUROLOGIC), progressive intellectual decline, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. Spinal fluid pressure tends to be in the high normal range. This condition may result from processes which interfere with the absorption of CSF including SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, chronic MENINGITIS, and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp631-3)Enterovirus InfectionsCerebral Ventriculography: Radiography of the ventricular system of the brain after injection of air or other contrast medium directly into the cerebral ventricles. It is used also for x-ray computed tomography of the cerebral ventricles.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8)Trypanosoma brucei gambiense: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Gambian or West African sleeping sickness in humans. The vector host is usually the tsetse fly (Glossina).Pseudotumor Cerebri: A condition marked by raised intracranial pressure and characterized clinically by HEADACHES; NAUSEA; PAPILLEDEMA, peripheral constriction of the visual fields, transient visual obscurations, and pulsatile TINNITUS. OBESITY is frequently associated with this condition, which primarily affects women between 20 and 44 years of age. Chronic PAPILLEDEMA may lead to optic nerve injury (see OPTIC NERVE DISEASES) and visual loss (see BLINDNESS).Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal: An opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system associated with conditions that impair cell-mediated immunity (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES; HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS; IMMUNOSUPPRESSION; and COLLAGEN DISEASES). The causative organism is JC Polyomavirus (JC VIRUS) which primarily affects oligodendrocytes, resulting in multiple areas of demyelination. Clinical manifestations include DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; visual disturbances; and other focal neurologic deficits, generally progressing to a vegetative state within 6 months. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp36-7)Subdural Effusion: Leakage and accumulation of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID in the subdural space which may be associated with an infectious process; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; INTRACRANIAL HYPOTENSION; and other conditions.Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol: Synthesized from endogenous epinephrine and norepinephrine in vivo. It is found in brain, blood, CSF, and urine, where its concentrations are used to measure catecholamine turnover.Myelography: X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Meningitis, Listeria: Inflammation of the meninges caused by LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES infection, usually occurring in individuals under the age of 3 years or over the age of 50 years. It may occur at any age in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, altered mentation, HEADACHE, meningeal signs, focal neurologic signs, and SEIZURES. (From Medicine 1998 Sep;77(5):313-36)Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Phenylacetates: Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.Syringomyelia: Longitudinal cavities in the spinal cord, most often in the cervical region, which may extend for multiple spinal levels. The cavities are lined by dense, gliogenous tissue and may be associated with SPINAL CORD NEOPLASMS; spinal cord traumatic injuries; and vascular malformations. Syringomyelia is marked clinically by pain and PARESTHESIA, muscular atrophy of the hands, and analgesia with thermoanesthesia of the hands and arms, but with the tactile sense preserved (sensory dissociation). Lower extremity spasticity and incontinence may also develop. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1269)Pneumocephalus: Presence of air or gas within the intracranial cavity (e.g., epidural space, subdural space, intracerebral, etc.) which may result from traumatic injuries, fistulous tract formation, erosions of the skull from NEOPLASMS or infection, NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES, and other conditions.Ethmoid Bone: A light and spongy (pneumatized) bone that lies between the orbital part of FRONTAL BONE and the anterior of SPHENOID BONE. Ethmoid bone separates the ORBIT from the ETHMOID SINUS. It consists of a horizontal plate, a perpendicular plate, and two lateral labyrinths.Meningeal Carcinomatosis: Primary or secondary neoplasm in the ARACHNOID or SUBARACHNOID SPACE. It appears as a diffuse fibrotic thickening of the MENINGES associated with variable degrees of inflammation.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Encephalocele: Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Meningocele: A congenital or acquired protrusion of the meninges, unaccompanied by neural tissue, through a bony defect in the skull or vertebral column.Arachnoid Cysts: Intracranial or spinal cavities containing a cerebrospinal-like fluid, the wall of which is composed of arachnoidal cells. They are most often developmental or related to trauma. Intracranial arachnoid cysts usually occur adjacent to arachnoidal cistern and may present with HYDROCEPHALUS; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and focal neurologic signs. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch44, pp105-115)Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Sphenoid Sinus: One of the paired air spaces located in the body of the SPHENOID BONE behind the ETHMOID BONE in the middle of the skull. Sphenoid sinus communicates with the posterosuperior part of NASAL CAVITY on the same side.Arachnoiditis: Acute or chronic inflammation of the arachnoid membrane of the meninges most often involving the spinal cord or base of the brain. This term generally refers to a persistent inflammatory process characterized by thickening of the ARACHNOID membrane and dural adhesions. Associated conditions include prior surgery, infections, trauma, SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, and chemical irritation. Clinical features vary with the site of inflammation, but include cranial neuropathies, radiculopathies, and myelopathies. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch48, p25)Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.Spinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.Neopterin: A pteridine derivative present in body fluids; elevated levels result from immune system activation, malignant disease, allograft rejection, and viral infections. (From Stedman, 26th ed) Neopterin also serves as a precursor in the biosynthesis of biopterin.Cerebral Aqueduct: Narrow channel in the MESENCEPHALON that connects the third and fourth CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Pia Mater: The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Intracranial Hypertension: Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Spinal Cord Ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit: A calcium-binding protein that is 92 AA long, contains 2 EF-hand domains, and is concentrated mainly in GLIAL CELLS. Elevation of S100B levels in brain tissue correlates with a role in neurological disorders.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex: An acute (or rarely chronic) inflammatory process of the brain caused by SIMPLEXVIRUS infections which may be fatal. The majority of infections are caused by human herpesvirus 1 (HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN) and less often by human herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, HUMAN). Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; HALLUCINATIONS; behavioral alterations; APHASIA; hemiparesis; and COMA. Pathologically, the condition is marked by a hemorrhagic necrosis involving the medial and inferior TEMPORAL LOBE and orbital regions of the FRONTAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp751-4)Fistula: Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Angiostrongylus cantonensis: A species of parasitic nematodes distributed throughout the Pacific islands that infests the lungs of domestic rats. Human infection, caused by consumption of raw slugs and land snails, results in eosinophilic meningitis.Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections: Bacterial infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges, including infections involving the perimeningeal spaces.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Cysticercus: The larval form of various tapeworms of the genus Taenia.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Echovirus Infections: Infectious disease processes, including meningitis, diarrhea, and respiratory disorders, caused by echoviruses.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections: Infections of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges by single celled organisms of the former subkingdom known as protozoa. The central nervous system may be the primary or secondary site of protozoal infection. These diseases may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Probenecid: The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.Phosphopyruvate Hydratase: A hydro-lyase that catalyzes the dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate to form PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE. Several different isoforms of this enzyme exist, each with its own tissue specificity.Cryptococcus: A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting: The most common clinical variant of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, characterized by recurrent acute exacerbations of neurologic dysfunction followed by partial or complete recovery. Common clinical manifestations include loss of visual (see OPTIC NEURITIS), motor, sensory, or bladder function. Acute episodes of demyelination may occur at any site in the central nervous system, and commonly involve the optic nerves, spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebellum. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp903-914)Encephalomyelitis: A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.Central Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.Glycols: A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.Central Nervous System Helminthiasis: Infections of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; or MENINGES caused by HELMINTHS (parasitic worms).Nephelometry and Turbidimetry: Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Guillain-Barre Syndrome: An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Taenia: A genus of large tapeworms.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Benzethonium: Bactericidal cationic quaternary ammonium surfactant used as a topical anti-infective agent. It is an ingredient in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, etc., and is used to disinfect apparatus, etc., in the food processing and pharmaceutical industries, in surgery, and also as a preservative. The compound is toxic orally as a result of neuromuscular blockade.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Venous Insufficiency: Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Myelitis, Transverse: Inflammation of a transverse portion of the spinal cord characterized by acute or subacute segmental demyelination or necrosis. The condition may occur sporadically, follow an infection or vaccination, or present as a paraneoplastic syndrome (see also ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED). Clinical manifestations include motor weakness, sensory loss, and incontinence. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1242-6)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Third Ventricle: A narrow cleft inferior to the CORPUS CALLOSUM, within the DIENCEPHALON, between the paired thalami. Its floor is formed by the HYPOTHALAMUS, its anterior wall by the lamina terminalis, and its roof by EPENDYMA. It communicates with the FOURTH VENTRICLE by the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT, and with the LATERAL VENTRICLES by the interventricular foramina.Cerebral Ventriculitis: Inflammation of CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Arnold-Chiari Malformation: A group of congenital malformations involving the brainstem, cerebellum, upper spinal cord, and surrounding bony structures. Type II is the most common, and features compression of the medulla and cerebellar tonsils into the upper cervical spinal canal and an associated MENINGOMYELOCELE. Type I features similar, but less severe malformations and is without an associated meningomyelocele. Type III has the features of type II with an additional herniation of the entire cerebellum through the bony defect involving the foramen magnum, forming an ENCEPHALOCELE. Type IV is a form a cerebellar hypoplasia. Clinical manifestations of types I-III include TORTICOLLIS; opisthotonus; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS; APNEA; NYSTAGMUS, CONGENITAL; swallowing difficulties; and ATAXIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p261; Davis, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp236-46)Neuroendoscopy: PROCEDURES that use NEUROENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Neuroendoscopy, generally an integration of the neuroendoscope with a computer-assisted NEURONAVIGATION system, provides guidance in NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral: Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Sphenoid Bone: An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated: An acute or subacute inflammatory process of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM characterized histologically by multiple foci of perivascular demyelination. Symptom onset usually occurs several days after an acute viral infection or immunization, but it may coincide with the onset of infection or rarely no antecedent event can be identified. Clinical manifestations include CONFUSION, somnolence, FEVER, nuchal rigidity, and involuntary movements. The illness may progress to COMA and eventually be fatal. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p921)Biuret: Used as feed supplement for sheep and cattle since it is a good non-protein nitrogen source. In strongly alkaline solution biuret gives a violet color with copper sulfate.Epidural Space: Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Encephalitis, Varicella Zoster: Inflammation of brain tissue caused by infection with the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). This condition is associated with immunocompromised states, including the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME. Pathologically, the virus tends to induce a vasculopathy and infect oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells, leading to CEREBRAL INFARCTION, multifocal regions of demyelination, and periventricular necrosis. Manifestations of varicella encephalitis usually occur 5-7 days after onset of HERPES ZOSTER and include HEADACHE; VOMITING; lethargy; focal neurologic deficits; FEVER; and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch 26, pp29-32; Hum Pathol 1996 Sep;27(9):927-38)Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Mild Cognitive Impairment: A prodromal phase of cognitive decline that may precede the emergence of ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementias. It may include impairment of cognition, such as impairments in language, visuospatial awareness, ATTENTION and MEMORY.Lupus Vasculitis, Central Nervous System: Central nervous system vasculitis that is associated with SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Clinical manifestations may include DEMENTIA; SEIZURES; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; HEMIPARESIS; BLINDNESS; DYSPHASIA; and other neurological disorders.Polyradiculoneuropathy: Diseases characterized by injury or dysfunction involving multiple peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process may primarily affect myelin or nerve axons. Two of the more common demyelinating forms are acute inflammatory polyradiculopathy (GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME) and POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY, CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING. Polyradiculoneuritis refers to inflammation of multiple peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots.Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome: A rare transmissible encephalopathy most prevalent between the ages of 50 and 70 years. Affected individuals may present with sleep disturbances, personality changes, ATAXIA; APHASIA, visual loss, weakness, muscle atrophy, MYOCLONUS, progressive dementia, and death within one year of disease onset. A familial form exhibiting autosomal dominant inheritance and a new variant CJD (potentially associated with ENCEPHALOPATHY, BOVINE SPONGIFORM) have been described. Pathological features include prominent cerebellar and cerebral cortical spongiform degeneration and the presence of PRIONS. (From N Engl J Med, 1998 Dec 31;339(27))S100 Proteins: A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Perilymph: The fluid separating the membranous labyrinth from the osseous labyrinth of the ear. It is entirely separate from the ENDOLYMPH which is contained in the membranous labyrinth. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1396, 642)Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Cataplexy: A condition characterized by transient weakness or paralysis of somatic musculature triggered by an emotional stimulus or physical exertion. Cataplexy is frequently associated with NARCOLEPSY. During a cataplectic attack, there is a marked reduction in muscle tone similar to the normal physiologic hypotonia that accompanies rapid eye movement sleep (SLEEP, REM). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p396)Quinolinic Acid: A metabolite of tryptophan with a possible role in neurodegenerative disorders. Elevated CSF levels of quinolinic acid are correlated with the severity of neuropsychological deficits in patients who have AIDS.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Taenia solium: Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects swine. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of cured or undercooked pork.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Fibrin Tissue Adhesive: An autologous or commercial tissue adhesive containing FIBRINOGEN and THROMBIN. The commercial product is a two component system from human plasma that contains more than fibrinogen and thrombin. The first component contains highly concentrated fibrinogen, FACTOR VIII, fibronectin, and traces of other plasma proteins. The second component contains thrombin, calcium chloride, and antifibrinolytic agents such as APROTININ. Mixing of the two components promotes BLOOD CLOTTING and the formation and cross-linking of fibrin. The tissue adhesive is used for tissue sealing, HEMOSTASIS, and WOUND HEALING.Meningioma: A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Papilledema: Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)Amebiasis: Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.

Early mycological treatment failure in AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. (1/1631)

Cryptococcal meningitis causes significant morbidity and mortality in persons with AIDS. Of 236 AIDS patients treated with amphotericin B plus flucytosine, 29 (12%) died within 2 weeks and 62 (26%) died before 10 weeks. Just 129 (55%) of 236 patients were alive with negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures at 10 weeks. Multivariate analyses identified that titer of cryptococcal antigen in CSF, serum albumin level, and CD4 cell count, together with dose of amphotericin B, had the strongest joint association with failure to achieve negative CSF cultures by day 14. Among patients with similar CSF cryptococcal antigen titers, CD4 cell counts, and serum albumin levels, the odds of failure at week 10 for those without negative CSF cultures by day 14 was five times that for those with negative CSF cultures by day 14 (odds ratio, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-10.9). Prognosis is dismal for patients with AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis. Multivariate analyses identified three components that, along with initial treatment, have the strongest joint association with early outcome. Clearly, more effective initial therapy and patient management strategies that address immune function and nutritional status are needed to improve outcomes of this disease.  (+info)

Assessment of complement deficiency in patients with meningococcal disease in The Netherlands. (2/1631)

The frequency of complement deficiency in 176 of 7,732 patients with meningococcal disease in the Netherlands from 1959 through 1992 was assessed. Complement deficiency was found in six patients (3%): 3 (7%) of the patients with Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C disease, 1 (2%) of the patients with N. meningitidis serogroup A disease, and 2 (33%) of the patients with infections due to uncommon serogroups and nongroupable strains of N. meningitidis. Of 91 additional patients with meningococcal infections due to uncommon serogroups, 33% also had complement deficiency. Thirty-four of the 36 complement-deficient patients with meningococcal disease who were from 33 families were 5 years of age or older. Twenty-six additional complement-deficient relatives were found. Screening individuals with meningococcal disease due to uncommon serogroups who were 5 years of age or older identified 30 of the 33 complement-deficient families. Only 27% of the complement-deficient relatives had had meningococcal disease. This risk was lower for relatives with properdin deficiency (18%) than for those deficient in the late component of complement (38%). Therefore, pedigree studies are warranted for identifying those complement-deficient persons who require vaccination for meningococcal disease.  (+info)

Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli septicemia and meningoencephalitis in a 7-day-old llama. (3/1631)

Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli were isolated from blood collected on presentation and tissues samples taken postmortem. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid collected antemortem. The importance of passive transfer of immunity, the subtlety of neurologic signs in early meningitis, and considering blood-CSF penetration in antimicrobial selection are discussed.  (+info)

Early diagnosis of central nervous system aspergillosis with combination use of cerebral diffusion-weighted echo-planar magnetic resonance image and polymerase chain reaction of cerebrospinal fluid. (4/1631)

We treated a patient diagnosed as central nervous system (CNS) aspergillosis with the combined use of cerebral diffusion-weighted echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and polymerase chain reaction of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-PCR). DWI, a cutting-edge imaging modality to reveal the earliest changes of cerebral infarction, detected cerebral fungal embolization when the conventional computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging failed to reveal it. CSF-PCR demonstrated the presence of Aspergillus-specific DNA in the specimen, when the conventional examination and culture of CSF were nonspecific or negative. These diagnostic methods could be useful in the early diagnosis of CNS aspergillosis.  (+info)

Prognostic value of cerebrospinal fluid cytology in pediatric medulloblastoma. Swiss Pediatric Oncology Group. (5/1631)

BACKGROUND: Although the demonstration of leptomeningeal dissemination is the most important predictor of poor outcome in children with medulloblastoma, there is lack of consensus on the prognostic value of a positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology (i.e., stage M1). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-six pediatric medulloblastoma patients treated in Switzerland between 1972-1991 were retrospectively studied regarding the influence of M-stage on prognosis. 39 were M0, 13 M1, 15 Mx, 17 M2, and 2 M3. RESULTS: Five- and 10-year overall survival rates were 76% and 54% for M0, 68% and 50% for Mx, 36% and 25% for M1, and 22% and 22% for M2-3 (P < 0.001), respectively. No significant survival differences were observed between M1 and M2-3 patients. Among 26 patients with only postoperative CSF cytologies, seven were positive. Their outcome was similar to that of six preoperatively staged M1 and significantly different from that of M0 patients (P = 0.001). In 14 patients both pre- and postoperative CSF cytology was performed. Total agreement was observed between the pre- and postoperative results (six positive and eight negative). Among the 19 M2-3 patients CSF cytology was positive in eight, negative in five, and unknown in six. CONCLUSIONS: A positive CSF cytology either pre- or postoperatively predicts for a poor outcome, similar to that observed in stage M2-3 patients. A postoperative cytology is likely to be concordant with cytologic results obtained preoperatively, and seems to have the same prognostic significance. A negative cytology, however, does not exclude a more advanced stage.  (+info)

Choroid plexus epithelial expression of MDR1 P glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein contribute to the blood-cerebrospinal-fluid drug-permeability barrier. (6/1631)

The blood-brain barrier and a blood-cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) barrier function together to isolate the brain from circulating drugs, toxins, and xenobiotics. The blood-CSF drug-permeability barrier is localized to the epithelium of the choroid plexus (CP). However, the molecular mechanisms regulating drug permeability across the CP epithelium are defined poorly. Herein, we describe a drug-permeability barrier in human and rodent CP mediated by epithelial-specific expression of the MDR1 (multidrug resistance) P glycoprotein (Pgp) and the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP). Noninvasive single-photon-emission computed tomography with 99mTc-sestamibi, a membrane-permeant radiopharmaceutical whose transport is mediated by both Pgp and MRP, shows a large blood-to-CSF concentration gradient across intact CP epithelium in humans in vivo. In rats, pharmacokinetic analysis with 99mTc-sestamibi determined the concentration gradient to be greater than 100-fold. In membrane fractions of isolated native CP from rat, mouse, and human, the 170-kDa Pgp and 190-kDa MRP are identified readily. Furthermore, the murine proteins are absent in CP isolated from their respective mdr1a/1b(-/-) and mrp(-/-) gene knockout littermates. As determined by immunohistochemical and drug-transport analysis of native CP and polarized epithelial cell cultures derived from neonatal rat CP, Pgp localizes subapically, conferring an apical-to-basal transepithelial permeation barrier to radiolabeled drugs. Conversely, MRP localizes basolaterally, conferring an opposing basal-to-apical drug-permeation barrier. Together, these transporters may coordinate secretion and reabsorption of natural product substrates and therapeutic drugs, including chemotherapeutic agents, antipsychotics, and HIV protease inhibitors, into and out of the central nervous system.  (+info)

Spinal reflexes and the concentrations of 5-HIAA, MHPG, and HVA in lumbar cereborspinal fluid after spinal lesions in man. (7/1631)

Descending bulbospinal pathways that employ specific neurotransmitter substances are known to be capable of modulating segmental reflex activity in the experimental animal. To determine whether this might also occur in man correlations have been sought between the activity in spinal reflex pathways and the lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), 3 methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), and homovanillic acid (HVA) in 12 patients with complete or virtually complete spinal lesions. The concentrations of 5-HIAA and MHPG in lumbar CSF ARE REDUCED AFTER COMPLETE OR VIRTUALLY COMPLETE SPINAL LESIONS IN MAN. This may occur within 18 days of the lesion. MHPG concentrations appear to be inversely related to the level of the lesion. The HVA concentration in lumbar CSF is reduced when there is obstruction of the CSF pathways. No relationship could be demonstrated between the concentrations of 5-HIAA or MHPG in lumbar CSF and the activity in the spinal monosynaptic pathway (estimated from the proportion of the motoneurone pool activated by the Achilles tendon reflex or H reflex) or the activity of a spinal inhibitory mechanism (estimated by the degree of vibratory inhibition of the monosynaptic reflex). Patients with a tonic vibration reflex (TVR) tended to have higher MHPG levels. There appeared to be an association between low CSF HVA and enhanced vibratory inhibition of the monosynaptic reflex in the nine patients whose spinal lesions were complete.  (+info)

Human herpesvirus 6 DNA in cerebrospinal fluid specimens from allogeneic bone marrow transplant patients: does it have clinical significance? (8/1631)

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 22 allogeneic bone marrow transplant patients with central nervous system (CNS) symptoms (cases) and 107 patients who were immunocompromised but did not have CNS symptoms (controls) were assayed for human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) DNA. HHV-6 DNA was detected in CSF specimens from five (23%) of 22 cases and in CSF specimens from one (0.9%) of 107 controls (P < .001, Fisher's exact test). In addition, none of the five cases with HHV-6 DNA detected in CSF samples had any other identified cause of their CNS symptoms, and none of the other 11 cases with known causes for their CNS diseases had HHV-6 DNA detected in CSF samples (P = .03, Fisher's exact test). In three cases, HHV-6 variant B was identified, and the HHV-6 variant could not be defined in the other two cases. Prophylaxis with acyclovir did not prevent the occurrence of HHV-6-associated CNS disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Four cases' conditions were improved or they were cured after treatment with either ganciclovir or foscarnet, and one case died of CNS disease despite foscarnet treatment.  (+info)

*Meningeal syphilis

... a bacterial infection can result in the cerebrospinal fluid.[6] This fluid circulates through the brain and spinal cord, and it ... When the cerebrospinal fluid is infected, the meninges become inflamed and can start to deteriorate. This inflammation of the ... Prevention of syphilis includes avoiding contact of bodily fluids with an infected person. This can be particularly difficult ...

*Neurooncology

Lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid analysis[edit]. Lumbar puncture (LP) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis are ... For certain tumors, a definitive diagnosis can be accomplished by vitreous aspirate, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology, or ... are a group of highly aggressive central nervous system tumors with a tendency to spread via cerebrospinal fluid pathways. ...

*List of regions in the human brain

Cerebrospinal fluid **Third ventricle. *Fourth ventricle. *Lateral ventricles *Angular bundle. *Anterior horn ...

*Neurohydrodynamics

... investigates the role of intracranial fluid hydrodynamics (e.g. cerebrospinal fluid, cerebral blood flow, ... Malucci, Conor; Sgouros, Spyros (December 2008). Cerebrospinal fluid disorders. [Informa Healthcare]. doi:10.3109/9781420016284 ... Marmarou was considered a world authority on fluid dynamics within the brain and spinal cord. Dr. Marmarou was the recipient of ... It combines fluid mechanics principles with neuroscience to improve neurological disorder healthcare diagnosis, monitoring and ...

*Subcommissural organ

As part of the embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (eCSF), SCO-spondin is of the uttermost importance in the development of the ... Vera A, Stanic K, Montecinos H, Torrejón M, Marcellini S, Caprile T (2013). "SCO-spondin from embryonic cerebrospinal fluid is ... The first one (formed by a very high cylindrical cells) release their secretions into the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid and ... Ependymal cells also secrete high molecular mass glycoproteins into the cerebrospinal fluid in which the bulk of them condense ...

*Spina bifida

In addition, a shunt may be surgically installed to provide a continuous drain for the excess cerebrospinal fluid produced in ... cerebrospinal fluid, and parts of the spinal cord and nerve roots. Spina bifida with Myelocele is the most severe form of ... External sac with cerebrospinal fluid (2) Spinal cord wedged between the vertebrae Physical signs of spina bifida may include: ... Cerebrospinal Fluid Research. 7 (1): S18-S18. doi:10.1186/1743-8454-7-S1-S18. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. ...

*John Pickard (professor)

Cerebrospinal Fluid Research. 7 (Suppl 1): S40. doi:10.1186/1743-8454-7-S1-S40. "John D Pickard - List of Publications". ... Registry was funded by the UK Department of Health Medical Devices Agency and contains data on over 70,000 cerebrospinal fluid ...

*CSF albumin

... is a measurement used to determine the levels of albumin in cerebrospinal fluid. A closely related test, CSF total ... "MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: CSF total protein". Seehusen DA, Reeves MM, Fomin DA (September 2003). "Cerebrospinal fluid ... "Changes with aging of steroidal levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of women". Maturitas. 33 (1): 71-80. doi:10.1016/S0378-5122( ... protein is a measurement used to determine the levels of protein in cerebrospinal fluid. It combines the albumin, IgG, and ...

*Subdural effusion

... refers to an effusion in the subdural space, usually of cerebrospinal fluid. It is sometimes treated with ...

*Lipoarabinomannan

Cerebrospinal Fluid Research. 6 (13): 13. doi:10.1186/1743-8454-6-13. PMC 2777116 . PMID 19878608. Nigou, J; et al. (1999). " ...

*CSF glucose

... or glycorrhachia is a measurement used to determine the concentration of glucose in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The ... Seehusen DA, Reeves MM, Fomin DA (September 2003). "Cerebrospinal fluid analysis". Am Fam Physician. 68 (6): 1103-8. PMID ... Lillian A. Mundt; Kristy Shanahan (2010). Graff's Textbook of Routine Urinalysis and Body Fluids. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ...

*Pandy's test

Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin are present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increase in protein ... Pandy's test (or Pandy's reaction) is done on the CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) to detect the elevated levels of proteins (mainly ... "Cerebrospinal fluid analysis". Am Fam Physician. 68: 1103-8. PMID 14524396. Diagnostic test. ... The normal CSF is clear and transparent fluid. The Pandy's reaction makes it translucent or opaque. A bluish-white streak of ...

*Midbrain

"Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier". NCBI.. *^ a b Damier, P.; Hirsch, E. C.; Agid, Y.; Graybiel, A. M. (1999-08-01). "The ... Between the peduncles is the interpeduncular fossa, which is a cistern filled with cerebrospinal fluid.[citation needed] The ... Cerebral spinal fluid originates via the choroid plexus, circulating through the ventricular system and recycled into the ... The ventricular system comprises the choroid plexus, which produces cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), the lateral, third, and fourth ...

*Domenico Cotugno

Cotugno wrote a classic monograph on sciatic neuralgia, and is also credited the discovery of the cerebrospinal fluid in 1774. ... Liquor Cotunni: The cerebrospinal fluid. De aquaeductibus auris humane internae anatomica dissertatio. 1761, Ex typographica ... Di Ieva, Antonio; Yaşargil M Gazi (Aug 2008). "Liquor cotunnii: the history of cerebrospinal fluid in Domenico Cotugno's work ... Pearce, J M S (Sep 2004). "Cotugno and cerebrospinal fluid". J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry. England. 75 (9): 1299. doi: ...

*Borrelia valaisiana

"Borrelia valaisiana in cerebrospinal fluid." Emerging infectious diseases 10.9 (2004): 1692. Schutzer, S. E.; Fraser-Liggett, C ...

*Wei Zheng (pharmacist)

The Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier. CRC Press, New York. 2005 (with Chodobski, A) Purdue University School of Health - CV of ...

*Tuberculous meningitis

Diagnosis of TB meningitis is made by analysing cerebrospinal fluid collected by lumbar puncture. When collecting CSF for ... Irani, David N. (2008). Cerebrospinal Fluid in Clinical Practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 196. ISBN 1416029087. Gram- ... "Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) collection: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-02. ... suspected TB meningitis, a minimum of 1ml of fluid should be taken (preferably 5 to 10ml). The CSF usually has a high protein, ...

*Choroid plexus

Fluid filters through these cells from blood to become cerebrospinal fluid. There is also much active transport of substances ... The blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier is a pair of barriers that separates peripheral and cerebral blood from the cerebrospinal ... The choroid plexus is a plexus of cells that produces the cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain. The choroid ... 1999). "Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier". Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects (6th ed.). ...

*Syrinx (medicine)

Cerebrospinal fluid fills the syrinx. Pressure differences along the spine cause the fluid to move within the cyst. Physicians ... A number of medical conditions can cause an obstruction in the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid, redirecting it into the ... A syrinx results when a watery, protective substance known as cerebrospinal fluid, that normally flows around the spinal cord ... A syrinx is a rare, fluid-filled neuroglial cavity within the spinal cord (syringomyelia), in the brain stem (syringobulbia), ...

*Enolase

Royds JA, Timperley WR, Taylor CB (December 1981). "Levels of enolase and other enzymes in the cerebrospinal fluid as indices ... Hay E, Royds JA, Davies-Jones GA, Lewtas NA, Timperley WR, Taylor CB (July 1984). "Cerebrospinal fluid enolase in stroke". ... Prediction by cerebrospinal fluid enzyme analysis". Archives of Neurology. 46 (7): 753-6. doi:10.1001/archneur. ... For example, higher concentrations of enolase in cerebrospinal fluid more strongly correlated to low-grade astrocytoma than did ...

*Lyme disease microbiology

Diza E, Papa A, Vezyri E, Tsounis S, Milonas I, Antoniadis A (2004). "Borrelia valaisiana in cerebrospinal fluid". Emerging ... false-negative antibody tests of blood and cerebrospinal fluid). One study shows some acute-phase seronegative Lyme patients ... It was later detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in human cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in Greece. B. valaisiana has been ... Nanagara R, Duray PH, Schumacher HR Jr (1996). "Ultrastructural demonstration of spirochetal antigens in synovial fluid and ...

*Homeostasis

Cerebrospinal fluid[edit]. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) allows for regulation of the distribution of substances between cells of ... A change in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide is detected as altered pH in the cerebrospinal fluid by central ... Sakka, L.; Coll, G.; Chazal, J. (December 2011). "Anatomy and physiology of cerebrospinal fluid". European Annals of ... Fluid balance involves keeping the fluid volume stabilized, and also keeping the levels of electrolytes in the extracellular ...

*Xanthochromia

If the cerebrospinal fluid is bloody, it is centrifuged to determine its color. Many laboratories rely on only the color of the ... After the cerebrospinal fluid is obtained, a variety of its parameters can be checked, including the presence of xanthochromia ... Cerebrospinal fluid, which fills the subarachnoid space between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain ... Heme from red blood cells that are in the cerebrospinal fluid because a blood vessel was nicked during the lumbar puncture (a " ...

*Neuroglobin

It is an intracellular hemoprotein expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system, cerebrospinal fluid, retina and ... Recent research on Neuroglobin presence confirmed that Human neuroglobin protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Neuroglobin was ... Cytoglobin Hemoprotein Hemoglobin Leghemoglobin Myoglobin Cerebrospinal fluid DellaValle B, Hempel C, Kurtzhals JA, Penkowa M ( ... "Human neuroglobin protein in cerebrospinal fluid". Proteome Science. 3 (1): 2. doi:10.1186/1477-5956-3-2. PMC 554085 . PMID ...

*Viral meningitis

Most importantly, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is collected via lumbar puncture (also known as spinal tap). This fluid, which ... Increasingly, cerebrospinal fluid PCR tests have become especially useful for diagnosing viral meningitis, with an estimated ... "Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis - American Family Physician". www.aafp.org. Retrieved 2017-03-04. "Viral Meningitis Treatment & ... cerebrospinal fluid). The new method will first be developed using CSF samples where the microorganism is known, but then will ...

*Pharmacometabolomics

"Cerebrospinal Fluid Metabolome in Mood Disorders". Scientific Reports. 2: 667. doi:10.1038/srep00667. Kaddurah-Daouk, R; ... It refers to the direct measurement of metabolites in an individual's bodily fluids, in order to predict or evaluate the ... All three approaches require the quantification of metabolites found in bodily fluids and tissue, such as blood or urine, and ... Isolated patient samples typically include blood or urine due to their minimally-invasive acquisition, however, other fluid ...

*Substance P

"Elevated cerebrospinal fluid substance p concentrations in posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression". The American ...

*CSF/serum albumin ratio

... is a test performed to compare the levels of albumin in the cerebrospinal fluid and the serum. It is ... Luque FA, Jaffe SL (2007). "Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in multiple sclerosis". Int. Rev. Neurobiol. International Review of ...
CSF cell count - MedHelps CSF cell count Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for CSF cell count. Find CSF cell count information, treatments for CSF cell count and CSF cell count symptoms.
Introduction and purpose. The cerebrospinal fluid contains many biologically active substances, which have a broad influence on different points of application in the organism. We performed the research of the influence of cerebrospinal fluid on the rats lungs (in the connection with the studies, provided in our department and devoted to influence of xenogenic cerebrospinal fluid (XCSF) on the organism of rats). Materials and methods. The investigation was performed on 84 Wistar rats of both sexes, which were divided into the experimental and control groups. The experiment was performed on impuberal (group 1), puberal (group 2) and aged rats (group 3). The duration of the experiment was 7 (for the groups 1 and 2), 30 (for all groups) and 90 days (for the groups 2 and 3). The rats of the experimental group got XCSF at the dose 0.002 ml/g three times with the interval of 2 days (for 7-day experiment) or ten times (for 30- and 90-day experiments). The control group received 0.9 % NaCl using the ...
Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging have made it possible to visualize and quantify flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. The net flow of CSF through the cerebral aqueduct was used to measure CSF production in six normal volunteers at different times during a 24-h period. CSF production varied greatly both intra- and interindividually. The average CSF production in each time interval showed a clear tendency to circadian variation, with a minimum production 30% of maximum values (12 +/- 7 ml/h) approximately 1800 h and a nightly peak production approximately 0200 h of 42 +/- 2 ml/h. The total CSF production during the whole 24-h period, calculated as an average of all measurements, was 650 ml for the whole group and 630 ml for repeated measurements in each time interval in one of the volunteers ...
Although there are many studies of the effect of epidural saline injection on reinforcement of spinal anesthesia in CSE, there is great variability in the results regarding the extent of epidural saline injection-induced spinal anesthesia because of methodologic differences among the studies, such as the use of local anesthetics for spinal anesthesia and the timing of the saline injection.2-9 Generalizing the results of these studies, the ability to increase dermatomal spread by increasing epidural volume seems to be time dependent.1-9 Beyond 20 min or after two-segment regression has begun, epidural top-up with saline does not affect sensory block extension.6,7 With regard to the increased sensory block level in CSE anesthesia, what are the implications of the saline injection-induced reduction in CSF volume in the current study? Previous studies indicated that there is a significant correlation between the lumbosacral CSF volume and sensory block spread of spinal anesthesia.10,11 Calculation ...
A Cerebral Spinal Meningitis outbreak has killed more than 156 people throughout Nigeria. Jigwa, Kano, Bauchi, Yobe, and Katsina states are currently among the worst hit. A graver report from UNICEF states that the death toll is much steeper with 9,086 cases and 562 deaths. Out of four West African countries in the midst of meningitis outbreaks (Nigeria, Niger, Burkina Faso, and Mali), Nigeria is currently reported to be the most affected. Due to Nigerias location, in sub-Saharan Africas "Meningitis Belt", seasonal epidemics expectedly occur in a cyclic pattern. Dry weather, dusty winds, cold nights, and large populations living in overcrowded conditions leave people vulnerable to respiratory infections and are among some of the reasons behind the Meningitis Belts high burden of meningococcal disease.. Cerebral Spinal Meningitis (CSM) is most often caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitides. Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the meninges, the thin covering of the brain and spinal ...
Alterations in the reduced pteridine contents in the cerebrospinal fluids of LRRK2 mutation carriers and patients with Parkinsons disease.Alterations in the reduced pteridine contents in the cerebrospinal fluids of LRRK2 mutation carriers and patients with Parkinsons disease. ...
The effect of graded change of the CSF amount on the clinical status, intracerebral pressure and brain bioelectrical activity was studied in 31 patients operated on for brain tumors of various sites. Normally, the graded change in the CSF amount made with an object of examining the biophysical characteristics of the intracranial system did not produce the impairment of the patients status. Discomfort sensation that occurred in rare cases was not a consequence of either hypo- or hypertension as such but of the absence of CNS ability to adapt rapidly to the changes of the pressure in the cranium. The graded change in the CSF amount and thus in the CSF pressure caused minimum transitory changes in the intracerebral pressure of interstitial liquid and in brain bioelectrical activity. The data obtained indicate the feasibility of studying the biophysic characteristics of the intracranial system by means of graded changes of the CSF amount in neurosurgical patients undergoing acute postoperative period.
Using rare tumor tissue specimens, researchers recently learned that an important protein that controls gene expression, known as histone H3, is mutated in up to 80% of diffuse midline gliomas. These mutations can occur in multiple genes encoding different histone protein isoforms (e.g. histone H3.3 and H3.1), and result in alteration in the amino acid sequence of the N-terminal tail of the affected histone protein (K27M and G34V). These H3 mutations also correlate with distinct tumor molecular characteristics, a more aggressive clinical course, and poorer response to conventional treatment. As a result, detection of a histone H3 mutation in brain tumor tissue through genetic sequencing or histopathologic staining is now considered diagnostic for this disease.. In contrast to midline glioma tumor tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can be easily and safely collected in the clinic, and studied in the laboratory. I previously reported the detection of tumor-related proteins in CSF from patients with ...
An accurate and reproducible method for measuring the volume of the cranial CSF spaces was developed in the MRI unit in Glasgow by Dr. B. Condon in 1986. Using this MRI method the total cranial, cortical sulcal, ventricular and posterior fossa CSF volumes could be accurately measured, whereas only ventricular CSF volume could be estimated by previous techniques. The aim of this thesis was firstly to examine the technique critically and to reduce factors that might affect the accuracy or reproducibility of CSF volume measurement; secondly, to determine the normal range of CSF volume; thirdly, to study physiological factors that might influence the cranial CSF volume; and lastly to assess the research and clinical potential of these measurements in conditions where the CSF volumes might be altered. The original technique was modified. The accuracy of the method was improved by using 0.9% sodium chloride as a calibration reference solution, rather than water, as saline was found to produce a signal ...
The Scientific World Journal is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research, reviews, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journal is divided into 81 subject areas.
CSF analysis is an important diagnostic tool in the investigation of neurological patients, but there are limitations to it. The cell count and protein level of the CSF can be thought of as a CNS analogue of the CBC and serum protein level. Abnormalities in the colour, cellularity and protein level of the CSF are strongly indicative of neurological disease and often contribute to the diagnosis, but are non-specific and only occasionally provide a definitive diagnosis by themselves. CNS diseases also do not always cause alterations in the CSF - abnormalities depend on the location and extent of the lesion. Prior treatment with corticosteroids may interfere with CSF and reduce the white blood cell count and percentage of neutrophils. CSF should ideally be processed (or preserved) within 30 minutes after collection because the cells deteriorate rapidly due to little protein content.. CSF collection should be performed prior to myelography, since contrast agents may induce meningeal irritation and ...
The Cerebral Spinal Fluid helps to remove heavy metals and toxins across the blood brain barrier and distribute nutrients. When there is less flow of Cerebral Spinal Fluid there is more of a chance the toxins will become trapped and start to "clog up" the brain with plaque and deprive the brain of essential nutrients. This important cleansing or washing effect by the Cerebral Spinal Fluid helps to make sure that these harmful toxins do not accumulate and affect our brain tissue.Inflammation in the body that is the result of certain diseases such as arthritis, osteoporosis, diabetes, heart disease and others can accumulate and "overflow" across the blood brain barrier and also affect the brain. In many cases it was noted that patients with Alzheimer and Dementia had a previous history of at least one chronic disease processes. ...
14 months from EDI. NC functioning was measured by Global Deficit Score (GDS). HIV DNA levels were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and CSF cells by droplet digital PCR; soluble inflammatory markers (sCD163, IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-α) and marker of neuronal damage (neurofilament chain [NFL]) were measured in blood plasma and CSF supernatant by immunoassays. Next generation sequencing (NGS) data by Roche 454 were successfully generated for HIV env from 8 paired blood and CSF cell pellets (3 with early and 5 with late ART). Viral compartmentalization analysis via Fst statistics was performed using NGS data and repeated using representative haplotypes to guard against possible skewing of allelic frequencies due to PCR amplification and other biases. Cross-sectional comparisons between groups (early versus later ART) were performed using non-parametric statistical analysis ...
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is commonly referred to as a spinal tap. During this procedure, a small volume of spinal fluid is collected and submitted to a laboratory for analysis of protein content, white blood cell count and determination of the types of white blood cells that are present. Spinal fluid is very sensitive for identifying disease in the central nervous system, but is not very specific to which disease is present as there is a great deal of overlap between diseases.. CSF analysis is used in conjunction with other tests, including MRI, to narrow the list of possible neurological diseases. In some cases, CSF will provide a definitive diagnosis, such as lymphoma, a type of cancer. Tests for several infectious diseases (Figure 2) can be performed on spinal fluid if needed.. In animals this procedure is performed under general anesthesia. While a person may be asked to lie still for a procedure, an animal cannot. However, since the animals are under anesthesia, there is no pain ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , SeraLab \ Human Cerebrospinal Fluid Individual Donor, not Filtered \ CSFI-123-V for more molecular products just contact us
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , SeraLab \ Human Cerebrospinal Fluid Mixed Gender Pooled, not Filtered \ CSF-123-Z for more molecular products just contact us
In January 2014 a young woman came into the Danitas Children Medical Center in Haiti where I was serving, holding a three month old baby girl with hydrocephalus (a condition where there is a buildup of cerebrospinal fluid on the brain). The young woman was referred to me because…
In normal patients, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contain circulating cells and other molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. In patients with central nervous system (CNS) and other conditions, the levels of these molecules may be altered. In several other studies at our institution, the investigators are investigating such molecules in tumor specimens as well as the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of pediatric patients with CNS tumors. However, these levels are difficult to interpret without comparing them to levels in patients without CNS tumors. The investigators propose a study to collect small amounts of blood and cerebrospinal fluid from pediatric patients without CNS tumors who are undergoing a diagnostic or therapeutic neurosurgical procedure aimed at addressing altered CSF dynamics ...
In normal patients, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contain circulating cells and other molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. In patients with central nervous system (CNS) and other conditions, the levels of these molecules may be altered. In several other studies at our institution, the investigators are investigating such molecules in tumor specimens as well as the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of pediatric patients with CNS tumors. However, these levels are difficult to interpret without comparing them to levels in patients without CNS tumors. The investigators propose a study to collect small amounts of blood and cerebrospinal fluid from pediatric patients without CNS tumors who are undergoing a diagnostic or therapeutic neurosurgical procedure aimed at addressing altered CSF dynamics ...
Advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques enable the accurate measurements of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in the human brain. In addition,
A Matlab Simulink model was developed reproducing each vessel section by a distensible compartment. Therefore the cerebral vascular tree was divided into 13 sections from carotid artery to venous sinuses and the pulsatile carotid artery and sinus pressure were inputted as Fourier series. The cross sectional area was varied according to literature data and flow resistance was implemented taking into account the rheological characteristics of blood. The Windkessel function and relaxation properties of vascular walls were integrated by a Voigt model, enabling the variation of wall properties for each section individually. Due to the distensible vessel walls each section interacts with the CSF compartment and autoregulation was implemented by a simple proportional controller. After parameterisation mean pressure and pressure amplitude in the vessel sections showed good accordance with literature values [4]. ...
Sample Processing is to collect target protein. The processing shall be done as gently as possible as protein denatures or degrades easily. It is also very important to store processed sample, especially avoiding repeated free-thaw cycles. Processed sample can be sub-packed and sealed. Expiry Time: a week at 4 degree; a month at -20 degree; two months at -80 degree. Just put sample in room until its temperature reaches room temperature before using the sample. It is forbidden to heat the sample to melt the sample.. Collect sample and then centrifuge it at 10000rpm for 10 minutes at 4 degree. Then collect supernatant and store it at -80 degree, avoiding repeated free-thaw cycles.. ...
Dear editor: We would like to present a modified method for cerebrospinal fluid collection in anesthetized rat. This method is easy and applicable in many laboratories interested by research on cellular and molecular effects of CSF on different pathways.
Dr. Singer responded: Antibiotics. The treatment is antibiotics determined initially by the most likely cause and if necessary based on the result of cerebral spinal fluid |a href="/topics/culture" track_data="{
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against partial recombinant human CSF3R. Recombinant protein corresponding to amino acids 420-543 of human CSF3R. (PAB30266) - Products - Abnova
In our laboratory, we have been developing the formation of antibodies to drugs for a number of reasons but one that has been foremost in our thinking is whether these very specific proteins that...
In the pelvis there is a large sepated cystic mass lesion seen occupying most of the pelvis and lower abdomen. This measures 14 x 9.3 x 11.1cm in size and demonstrates septation and predominantly fluid density. At its right posterolateral wall therte is also a slightly denser and minimal contrast enhancing mural nodule present. This measures approximately 17mm in size. I note the history of possible hydrosalpinx but I feel this lesion is too rounded and septated in appearance and likely represents a cystic tumour of the ovary ? right ovarian origin rather than hydrosalpinx. Suggest correlation with clinical history. I note there was a question raised previously with possible oophorectomy in the CT report in 2008. In understand the patient is to have a second gynaecological opinion tomorrow. ...
Researchers discover that an elevated volume of subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid could be associated with a higher risk of developing autism.
Stanford University Medical Centre scientists have identified certain antibodies in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of healthy people that may help prevent Alzheimers disease.
Pris: 633,-. E-bok, 2012. Leveres direkte via nedlastning . Kjøp boken Serous Cavity Fluid and Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytopathology av Syed Z. Ali, Edmund S. Cibas (ISBN 9781461417767) hos Adlibris.com. Fri frakt.
Also known as: WHO CSF, THE CSF OF, IN CSF, Csf, CsF., CsF, Cs-F, CSf, CSF., CSF+, CSF WAS, CSF The, CSF It, CSF BE, CSF, CS+F. When, CS+F, C.s.f, C.S.F. This, C.S.F. The, C.S.F. In, C.S.F. As, C.S.F., C.S.F, C. S. F., C-SF ...
You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or cited in the literature. You can manage this and all other alerts in My Account ...
csf - MedHelps csf Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for csf. Find csf information, treatments for csf and csf symptoms.
Description of disease CSF total protein. Treatment CSF total protein. Symptoms and causes CSF total protein Prophylaxis CSF total protein
腰椎穿刺需要使患者側臥,採用局部麻醉,將針頭扎入硬膜囊(脊椎附近的囊腔)以收集腦脊液(CSF)。一旦獲得腦脊液,則其「開啟壓力」可使用壓力計來衡量。該壓力通常在6和18 ...
Cerebrospinal fluid leak: Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on cerebrospinal fluid leak at PatientsLikeMe. 83 patients with cerebrospinal fluid leak experience fatigue, depressed mood, pain, anxious mood, and insomnia and use Cerebral spinal fluid leak repair, Acetaminophen (Paracetamol), Amphetamine-Dextroamphetamine, Chiropractic Therapy, and Cranial Titanium Implant to treat their cerebrospinal fluid leak and its symptoms.
Values of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the diagnosis of Central NervousSystem associated infectious diseases
By means of radial immunodiffusion, immunoglobulins A, G, M and albumin were determined in serum and unconcentrated cerebrospinal fluid from 182 controls and 141 patients. Concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of patients did not correlate, not even in those groups whose elevated immunoglobulin and albumin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid resulted from damage to the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, as in inflammatory diseases and neoplastic processes of the central nervous system or of the meninges.--Concentrations of immunoglobulins in cerebrospinal fluid should therefore be evaluated independently of the serum concentrations. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum constitute samples from two separate compartments which are capable of independent immune reactions.
The purpose of the study is to evaluate safety and the pharmacodynamic effects of BMS-241027 on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Tau, connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computerized cognitive tests in mild Alzheimers disease (AD) subjects, following 9 weekly intravenous (IV) infusions of BMS-241027.. ...
The content in this episode was vetted and approved by Mike Rubenstein.. REFERENCES. Frederiks JA and Koehler PJ. The first lumbar puncture. J Hist Neurosci. 1997;6:147-53.. Seehusen DA, Reeves MM and Fomin DA. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Am Fam Physician. 2003;68:1103-8.. Shah KH and Edlow JA. Distinguishing traumatic lumbar puncture from true subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Emerg Med. 2002;23:67-74.. Deisenhammer F, Bartos A, Egg R, Gilhus NE, Giovannoni G, Rauer S, Sellebjerg F and Force ET. Guidelines on routine cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Report from an EFNS task force. European journal of neurology : the official journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies. 2006;13:913-22.. Nagel MA, Cohrs RJ, Mahalingam R, Wellish MC, Forghani B, Schiller A, Safdieh JE, Kamenkovich E, Ostrow LW, Levy M, Greenberg B, Russman AN, Katzan I, Gardner CJ, Hausler M, Nau R, Saraya T, Wada H, Goto H, de Martino M, Ueno M, Brown WD, Terborg C and Gilden DH. The varicella zoster virus ...
Find the best csf glucose doctors in Delhi NCR. Get guidance from medical experts to select csf glucose specialist in Delhi NCR from trusted hospitals - credihealth.com
Secondary microcephaly, or also called progressive or evolving microcephaly, may be due to changes in cerebrospinal fluid volume , such as the presence of lesions or occupant substances.. - Increase in the level and volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) : abnormalities in the production, drainage or reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid can cause an accumulation of this and therefore lead to a hydrocephalus.. - Presence of occupant injuries : this type of alterations refer to the presence of intracerebral structural and vascular malformations , masses or collections. Some of the pathologies that give rise to this type of injuries are: cysts, tumors, bruises, arteriovenous malformations, etc.. - Presence of anomalous substances : this type of alterations refer to the presence of metabolic or deposit diseases such as Alexanders disease, Canavans disease, metabolopathies, etc.. Bone abnormalities. As for the cases of macrocephaly that are due to bone abnormalities, we can find:. - Macrocephaly due to ...
The objective of this work is to quantify age-related differences in the characteristics and coupling of cerebral arterial inflow and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. To this end, 3T phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging blood and CSF flow data of eleven young (24 ± 3 years) and eleven elderly subjects (70 ± 5 years) with a comparable sex-ratio were acquired. Flow waveforms and their frequency composition, transfer functions from blood to CSF flows and cross-correlations were analyzed. The magnitudes of the frequency components of CSF flow in the aqueduct differ significantly between the two age groups, as do the frequency components of the cervical spinal CSF and the arterial flows. The males aqueductal CSF stroke volumes and average flow rates are significantly higher than those of the females. Transfer functions and cross-correlations between arterial blood and CSF flow reveal significant age-dependence of phase-shift between these, as do the waveforms of arterial blood, as well as ...
Method for Inducing Experimental Pneumococcal Meningitis in Outbred Mice. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Post-cranioplasty cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamic changes. T2 - Magnetic resonance imaging quantitative analysis. AU - Dujovny, M.. AU - Fernandez, P.. AU - Alperin, N.. AU - Betz, W.. AU - Misra, Mukesh. AU - Mafee, M.. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - The syndrome of the trephined has been described in many patients with cranial defects as an indication for cranioplasty. Cerebral blood flow changes, the effect of the atmospheric pressure on the brain, as well as cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamic changes have been postulated as the possible reasons for this syndrome. Using dynamic phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging we measured arterial, venous, and cerebrospinal fluid flow into and out of the skull, before and after cranioplasty in one patient whose bone flap was removed because of osteomyelitis. We report significant changes in the oscillatory CSF flow after cranioplasty. A moderate increase in venous outflow as well as a two-fold increase in craniocaudal cerebrospinal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelin in human cerebrospinal fluid. AU - Shirakami, G.. AU - Nakao, K.. AU - Saito, Y.. AU - Magaribuchi, T.. AU - Nagata, H.. AU - Jougasaki, M.. AU - Mukoyama, M.. AU - Arai, H.. AU - Hosoda, K.. AU - Suga, S.. AU - Ogawa, Yoshihiro. AU - Mori, K.. AU - Imura, H.. PY - 1990/12/1. Y1 - 1990/12/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0025651382&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0025651382&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0025651382. VL - 11. SP - 111. EP - 116. JO - Therapeutic Research. JF - Therapeutic Research. SN - 0289-8020. IS - 12. ER - ...
Integra LifeSciences is introducing its new CSF drainage system that features a shutoff valve that activates when a preset amount of fluid enters the bag,
Market Research Place is publishing a new research study, Global Artificial Cerebrospinal Fluid (ACSF) Market Research Report 2019-2025, providing a detailed analysis of the Artificial Cerebrospinal Fluid (ACSF) market. As concluded in this latest report, the market is ted to witness fast-paced growth during the forecast period from 2019 to 2025. This ready to use report offers you a detailed insight into the market with market size, in value terms. The report highlights contemporary trends, shares, market size, competition, developments, and revenue of the global industry. In addition, it also covers market size, detailed profile of products/services, SWOT of manufacturers/providers, their strategies, and recent developments in the industry. The report helps manufacturers, companies, officials, researchers, and industry experts to identify various events in the market.. Further, the most influential factors are covered including changing Artificial Cerebrospinal Fluid (ACSF) market dynamics, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural and functional assessment of the brain in European Americans with mild-to-moderate kidney disease. T2 - Diabetes Heart Study-MIND. AU - Murea, Mariana. AU - Hsu, Fang Chi. AU - Cox, Amanda J.. AU - Hugenschmidt, Christina E.. AU - Xu, Jianzhao. AU - Adams, Jeremy N.. AU - Raffield, Laura M.. AU - Whitlow, Christopher T.. AU - Maldjian, Joseph A. AU - Bowden, Donald W.. AU - Freedman, Barry I.. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - BackgroundAdvanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with altered cerebral structure and function. Relationships between mild-to-moderate CKD and brain morphology and cognitive performance were evaluated in European Americans (EAs). MethodsA total of 478 EAs with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ,45 mL/min/1.73 m2 and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) , 300 mg/g, most with type 2 diabetes (T2D), were included. Measures of total intracranial volume (TICV), cerebrospinal fluid volume, total white matter volume (TWMV), total ...
The invention provides a medical device having two elongate catheters, a pump, and a refrigeration system. Each catheter has a proximal end, a distal end, a lumen therebetween and communicating with a distal port. The proximal ends of the catheters are connected to the pump and the refrigeration system. The distal ends are adapted for insertion into the subarachnoid space. The cerebral spinal fluid is aspirated from the first catheter to the pump, cooled to below body temperature, and returned to the second catheter. The flow rate of the cerebral spinal fluid is adjusted according the CSF pressure and temperature. Also described are methods of using the devices in treating patients suffering from neurologic complications that arise as a result of inadequate cerebral perfusion, such as cardiac arrest, cardiac failure, low cardiac output states, stroke, head injury, cerebral aneurysm surgery, open and closed cardiac surgery and aortic surgery.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Sequencing DNA from cerebrospinal fluid may be a more effective method of detecting and characterizing genomic alterations in brain tumor metastases than sequencing DNA from plasma, according to research published in the journal Nature Communications. The aim of the research, conducted by the Institute of Oncology in Barcelona, Spain, was to determine whether analyzing ctDNA from cerebrospinal fluid would be more useful in detecting and accurately characterizing and monitoring metastases in the brain. To do this, the researchers obtained tumor samples and sequenced tumor DNA from 12 patients - four with glioblastomas, six with brain metastases from breast cancer and two with brain metastases from lung cancer. The researchers found that ctDNA from cerebrospinal fluid was more representative of brain tumor genomic alterations than ctDNA from plasma, and putative actionable gene mutations and copy-number alterations. The researchers also found that ctDNA from cerebrospinal fluid may complement the ...
Viral meningitides correspond to a relatively common and self-limited type of CNS infection clinically diagnosed based on the cerebrospinal fluid analysis and proportionally more frequent in young children than adults. Enteroviruses represent now...
FreeBookSummary.com ✅. Biology 136 Final Exam 13-7 1) Which of the following is NOT TRUE for the normal cerebrospinal fluid b) no blood but nutrients for brain tissue c) blood does not normally cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) 13-74_2) A cerebral vascular accident is also referred to as a (CVA) = Stroke _____3)(T/F)
Special Note 1.2: Processing and handling of CSF for analysis - please remember endotoxin is ubiquitous and can change expression of all mediators being assayed. Endotoxin free precautions should be taken for handling of all procedures (sterile precautions and using endotoxin free solutions should suffice ...
Calmodulin-like skin protein is downregulated in human cerebrospinal fluids of Alzheimer fs disease patients with apolipoprotein E4; a pilot study using postmortem samples. Neurological Research. 2017 Sep;39(9):767-772. doi: 10.1080/01616412.2017.1335458. Epub 2017 Jun 7 ...
Blockage of CSF flow in the spinal canal can cause an increase in CSF volume, backjets and turbulance in the cisterns that may play a role in Alzheimers, Parkinsons and multiple sclerosis, as well as other neurodegenerative diseases.
The aim of this study is to investigate the long-term effects of the initial spinal cord (SC) involvement in MS patients. In this retrospective, single-center study, 824 patients with definite MS were screened. A total of 348 patients were excluded for ambiguous documentation of the initial relapse, pediatric onset, diagnosis of primary progressive disease, irregular assessments or visits causing doubt on the onset of progression time, and clinical follow-up duration less than 12 months. Eventually, 476 MS patients were included. Data regarding the demographics, initial symptoms, the degree of recovery from the initial relapse, neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, long-term disability, and progression were collected from the medical registry. The mean duration of follow-up was 7.49 ± 5.30 years. The percentage of patients entering the progressive disease course was 23.3 in the whole group. A total of 157 patients (33.0%) had SC involvement during the first clinical relapse. These ...
http://www.isnvd.org/files/ISNVD%20Abstract%20Book.pdf page 56 of isnvd abstracts 2012 Evaluation of Cerebrospinal Fluid Flow in Multiple Sclerosis with Phase Contrast MRI DISCUSSION CSF dynamics are direct consequence of the arterial pulsations that enter the cranium, and the main intracranial properties that determine ...
Jarvis JN, Bicanic T, Loyse A, Namarika D, Jackson A, Nussbaum JC, Longley N, Muzoora C, Phulusa J, Taseera K, Kanyembe C, Wilson D, Hosseinipour MC, Brouwer AE, Limmathurotsakul D, White N, van der Horst C, Wood R, Meintjes G, Bradley J, Jaffar S, Harrison T. Determinants of mortality in a combined cohort of 501 patients with HIV-associated Cryptococcal meningitis: implications for improving outcomes. (Clin Infect Dis., 2014).. ...
The the best point about this system is that it is in charge in typically the production, circulation, and reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This kind of fluid provides essential nourishment for the key nervous system, hence helping it to maintain a constant balance even when other conditions of the body are changing. The Cerebral Spinal Fluid is usually contained in the dura and very information rich, of which it tells a lot about the health of someone. CraniSacral therapy has the following help to your body, It is a natural healing process and is frequently used as a preventive health measure for its ability to bolster resistance to disease and is useful for a broad range of medical issues which might be associated with pain and dysfunction. These dysfunction includes: Migraines and headaches, chronic pain, motor coordination impairments, colic, Autism, Central Anxious System disorders and much more. CarnioSacral Therapy can be applied in all ages from newborns to adults. The the ...
Influx of nonactivated T lymphocytes into the cerebrospinal fluid during relapse of multiple sclerosis.: T lymphocytes were analyzed in the cerebrospinal fluid
Combine solutions A and B in a 1:1 ratio. Equal volumes of each solution are required to end up with a multivalent physiological ion solution of aCSF.. Recomended Storage Conditions: The aCSF solution may be stored at 4 degrees Celsius for up to 4 weeks. If the solution becomes cloudy, or there is indication of precipitation, discard and make a fresh batch. To preserve the pH and quality of the aCSF solution, we recommend making a fresh batch of the mixed solution (A and B) as needed. Solution A is a mixture of salts, and solution B is a mixture of buffers. When separate, solutions A and B may be stored at 4 degrees Celsius for longer periods. When mixed together, the solution is more prone to microbiological growth, thus it is recommended to store solutions A and B separately, and mix as needed.. ...
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-contacting neurons are sensory-type cells sending ciliated dendritic process into the CSF. Some of the prosencephalic CSF-contacting neurons of higher vertebrates were...
Your brain and spinal cord are bathed in a clear, circulating fluid, called cerebral spinal fluid, or CSF, which transports nutrients to brain cells,...
Brain is developed into 5 components and lumen of spinal cord is continuous with brain vesicles allowing free cerebral spinal fluid flow. 8th ...
Methylcobalamin, an active coenzyme form of vitamin B-12, is essential for cell growth and replication. It is more concentrated than other forms of B-12 in the cerebral spinal fluid where it can be used by the central nervous system. It donates methyl groups to the myelin sheath that insulates certain nerve fibers. It may also play a role in maintaining a healthy sleep-wake cycle, as well as norma... [Read More ...
Abcams Prealbumin ELISA Kit suitable for Cell culture supernatant, Saliva, Milk, Urine, Serum, Plasma, Cerebral Spinal Fluid in human. Reliably quantify 0.1…
Genome-wide association reveals genetic effects on human Abeta42 and tau protein levels in cerebrospinal fluids: a case control study ...
A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture is a laboratory test to look for bacteria, fungi, and viruses in the fluid that moves in the space around the spinal cord. CSF protects the brain and spinal cord from injury.
Dan-solo (dotoole at NOSPAM!tcd.ie) wrote: , ,In article ,7t9fd4$4cq at news.acns.nwu.edu,, MJ Lee ,mjlee at nwu.edu, wrote: , , , ,Can blood cells pass through BBB and enter the cerebrospinal fluid? , ,thanks! , , , . , Blood resident lymphocytes can break through the BBB during a Multiple , Sclerosis relapse, where they are directed to inflammation sites by IL-10. , I dont think this normally ever happens though. As far as I know, , macrophages can do the same thing. Id imagine that any oxygen required by , the neuron is provided via the astrocyte, as there are no RBCs in CSF. But there are RBCs in the brain capillary bed. Kal ...
The current treatment for Alzheimers disease (AD) is purely symptomatic, but medications interfering with underlying pathophysiological processes are being developed. To evaluate a possible disease-modifying effect, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomark
Ovoid lesion extending medially from the soft tissues overlying the fracture site, with attenuation measurements consistent with fluid density.
An investigation into methods for determining the total protein content of cerebrospinal fluid: implications for universal guidelines ...
While humans sleep, huge waves of the cerebrospinal fluid that envelops the brain rhythmically flow in and out of the organ, according to a new study published today (October 31) in Science. The authors show that these CSF dynamics are connected...
Ryberg, H.; Söderling, A-Sofi.; Davidsson, P.; Blennow, K.; Caidahl, K.; Persson, L.I., 2004: Cerebrospinal fluid levels of free 3-nitrotyrosine are not elevated in the majority of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or Alzheimer's disease
The AlphaLISA® immunoassay kit for human Aβ40 enables the detection and quantitation of human Aβ40 in human cerebrospinal fluid and cell culture supernatants using a homogeneous AlphaLISA assay (no wash steps). The assay shows negligible cross-reactivity with other forms of Amyloid beta (i.e. Aβ1-38 and Aβ1-42).
Preparation of brain slices. Postnatal day 11-14 wild-type C57BL/6 mice were decapitated, and the brains were quickly removed and immersed in oxygenated ice-cold cutting solution containing the following (in mm): 110 sucrose, 3 KCl, 7 MgCl2, 1.25 NaH2PO3, 0.5 CaCl2, 28 NaHCO3, 5 dextrose, 0.6 ascorbate, and 0.1 kynurenate. Thin (200 μm) coronal brain slices containing MS/DB were obtained using a vibroslicer (World Precision Instruments, Sarasota, FL). Slices were incubated at room temperature in artificial CSF (aCSF) for at least 60 min before being used for recording. The aCSF contained the following (in mm): 125 NaCl, 2.5 KCl, 2.0 CaCl2, 1.0 MgCl2, 1.25 NaH2PO3, 26 NaHCO3, and 10 glucose. The slices were then placed in a custom-made recording chamber, stabilized by an overlaying platinum ring strung by a plastic mesh, and perfused continuously with aCSF at a rate of 1 ml/min. All solutions used for cutting, incubating, and perfusing the slices were bubbled with 5% CO2/95% O2. Slices were ...
CSF1 (Human) ELISpot Kit is a sandwich enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative measurement of Human CSF1. (KA3940) - Products - Abnova
The CSF circulation comprises not only a directed flow of CSF, but in addition a pulsatile to and fro movement throughout the entire brain with local fl..
Your account has been temporarily locked Your account has been temporarily locked due to incorrect sign in attempts and will be automatically unlocked in 30 mins. For immediate assistance, contact Customer Service: 800-638-3030 (within USA), 301-223-2300 (international) [email protected] ...
Eesti Teadusinfosüsteem koondab informatsiooni teadus- ja arendusasutuste, teadlaste, teadusprojektide ning erinevate teadustegevuste tulemuste kohta.
Neuroinfections presents 35 subjects, each with a different neurologic infectious or inflammatory disorder. A short vignette provides salient clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory studies, spinal fluid and imaging findings for each patient. A highly focused discussion leads the reader to the final diagnosis. Important features of the history, neurologic examination, findings on CSF and imaging are emphasized.
Neuroinfections presents 35 subjects, each with a different neurologic infectious or inflammatory disorder. A short vignette provides salient clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory studies, spinal fluid and imaging findings for each patient. A highly focused discussion leads the reader to the final diagnosis. Important features of the history, neurologic examination, findings on CSF and imaging are emphasized.
One of the blood vessels running into the brain has a weak spot. Weak spots in vessels under pressure form a bleb - like the bike tyres. Because the area is weak, it swells and then can burst or leak. When that bleeding happens the blood will track into the brain and cause a stroke, or it will flow into the space around the brain. This space is a layer filled with fluid called cerebrospinal fluid (I know big words again, its not my fault! Really, thats what its called! We will call it CSF!) that provides a cushion for the brain. So the blood can flow into the CSF area and coat the brain ...
Im still moving. Being on Amtrak for nearly four days has set up a current in my cerebrospinal fluid that has me lurching westward even when Im sitting still. I suppose Ill get over it eventually. Meanwhile Im dosing myself with simple molecules like CH3(CH2)OH. There are some perks to train rides: Thats a moonrise…
Synonyms for blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. 1 word related to blood-brain barrier: barrier. What are synonyms for blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier?
Title: ABC Transporters and the Blood-Brain Barrier. VOLUME: 10 ISSUE: 12. Author(s):David J. Begley. Affiliation:Centre for Neuroscience Research, Kings College London, Hodgkin Building, Guys Campus, London SE1 1UL,UK.. Keywords:abc transporters, blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Abstract: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) form a very effective barrier to the free diffusion of many polar solutes into the brain. Many metabolites that are polar have their brain entry facilitated by specific inwardly-directed transport mechanisms. In general the more lipid soluble a molecule or drug is, the more readily it will tend to partition into brain tissue. However, a very significant number of lipid soluble molecules, among them many useful therapeutic drugs have lower brain permeability than would be predicted from a determination of their lipid solubility. These molecules are substrates for the ABC efflux transporters which are present ...
Recent years have seen a rapid increase in the use of wireless telephones, yet little systematic data exist on the actual use of such devices in the general population. Mobile and cordless telephones emit radiofrequency fields (RF) raising concern about possible adverse health effects. As children and teenagers might be more vulnerable and have longer expected lifetime exposures to RF from these devices than adults, who started to use them later in life, they are a group of special concern. The aims of papers I and II in this thesis were to increase our knowledge of use of wireless telephones in the age group of 7-19 years, to study what factors could explain such use; and furthermore, whether the use among the 15-19 year group was associated with self-reported health symptoms and well-being. For collection of data a posted questionnaire was used. Among the 7-14 group (n=1423) nearly all had access to a mobile telephone, a cordless telephone or both, although the percentage of regular users was ...
A spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak (SCSFL) is a medical condition in which the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) held in and around the human brain and spinal cord leaks out of the surrounding protective dural sac, for no apparent reason. The dura, a tough, inflexible tissue, is the outermost of the three layers of the meninges, the system of membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. A spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak is one of several types of cerebrospinal fluid leaks and occurs due to the presence of one or more holes in the dura. A spontaneous CSF leak, as opposed to traumatically caused CSF leaks, arises idiopathically. A loss of CSF greater than its rate of production leads to a decreased volume inside the skull known as intracranial hypotension. Any CSF leak is most often characterized by orthostatic headaches - headaches that worsen in a vertical position and improve when lying down. Other symptoms can include neck pain or stiffness, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, fatigue, and a ...
Objective: Correlate imaging and survival in a retrospective series of patients with leptomeningeal metastasis (LM). Methods: 240 patients with LM (125 solid tumour patients with positive CSF cytology; 40 solid tumour patients with negative CSF cytology and MRI consistent with LM; 50 lymphoma and 25 leukaemia patients with positive CSF flow cytometry), all considered for treatment, underwent prior to treatment neuraxis MRI and radio-isotope CSF flow studies. Results: Survival was significantly shortened in patients with large volume MRI-defined disease and in patients with CSF flow obstruction irrespective of primary tumour histology. Additionally, cause of death differed wherein patients with large volume of disease or obstructed CSF flow more often died of progressive LM disease. Conclusions: Neuraxis imaging utilizing brain and spine MRI as well as radio-isotope CSF flow studies has prognostic significance and is predictive of median overall survival in this large cohort of patients all ...
ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) carries a high morbidity and mortality, however, its diagnosis can be difficult due to low concentration of bacteria in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Although increased CSF protein, decreased CSF glucose; cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis with mononuclear cells predominance are commonly used to diagnose TB infection, they show inconsistent results. Objectives: To analyze the relationship between several characteristics of the CSF and TB meningitis. Methods: This is an observational research, with a cross sectional design, 27 patients with TB meningitis and or meningoencephalitis with Thwaites diagnostic score ≤ 4 obtained from mecidal records. The definitive diagnosis of TB meningitis was made using the Ziehl Neelsen (ZN) staining and or culture TB, or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with the target in IS6110, Ziehl-Neelsen staining (ZN) culture method. Characteristics of CSF including increased CSF protein, decreased CSF glucose, cerebrospinal ...
PATEL, V B; BURGER, I and CONNOLLY, C. Temporal evolution of cerebrospinal fluid following initiation of treatment for tuberculous meningitis. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j. [online]. 2008, vol.98, n.8, pp.610-613. ISSN 2078-5135.. OBJECTIVE: Clinicians often perform follow-up lumbar punctures (LPs) on patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) to document changes occurring in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Normalisation of the CSF then serves as indirect confirmation of the diagnosis. However, changes occurring in CSF following the initiation of anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment are not well described. We undertook a retrospective study to determine the temporal evolution of CSF in patients with TBM on anti-TB treatment in an attempt to provide a more rational basis for the interpretation of repeat LPs. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with TBM at King George V Hospital in Durban from 1994 to 2003 were identified. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological data were recorded. We examined the change in ...
Aspirus Network serves people through Aspirus Wausau Hospital, more than 30 primary and specialty clinics, an affiliated hospital and physician network, and regional home health and hospice services.
1. One- and two-dimensional (correlated shift spectroscopy) high resolution proton n.m.r. spectra of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are reported. The merits of water suppression by freeze drying or irradiation, and spectral simplification by spin-echo methods, are discussed. 2. Well-resolved resonances for a range of low molecular weight metabolites such as lactate, 3-d-hydroxybutyrate, alanine, acetate, citrate, glucose, valine and formate were observed. Resonances for glutamine were observed only from freeze dried samples. Concentrations determined by n.m.r. were in reasonable agreement with those from conventional methods. 3. The n.m.r. spectra of CSF were related to the clinical conditions of the subjects. No resonances for citrate were present in spectra of CSF from subjects (three infants) with bacterial meningitis; high lactate and lowered glucose levels were observed. Strong resonances for glucose and glycine were observed for mildly diabetic subjects. Both the aromatic and the ...
Huntingtons disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, caused by a CAG-repeat expansion in the HTT-gene. Today there are no disease-modifying therapies (DMTs), but several promising clinical trials are underway, including therapies that reduce mutant huntingtin expression.. Reliable biomarkers could empower such trials and guide the timing for initiation of future DMTs.. Neurofilament light (NFL) and tau, which are cerebrospinal fluid markers of neuronal death, have been implicated as markers of disease progression. Increased levels of the inflammatory marker YKL-40 have also been reported in HD.. The aim was to validate and compare the above biomarker candidates by targeted analyses, while explorative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to identify new candidates. Clinically well-characterized HD patients, premanifest gene expansion carriers (pGECs), and controls were enrolled from Uppsala University Hospital in Sweden.. In contrast to tau, NFL ...
With colleagues Mark Mintun, M.D., professor of radiology, and David Holtzman, M.D., the Andrew B. and Gretchen P. Jones Professor and head of the Department of Neurology, Fagan studied a group of 24 people that included individuals diagnosed with very mild and mild Alzheimer s disease, and cognitively normal subjects. As expected, in patients with cognitive impairments, believed to be attributable to Alzheimer s disease, researchers found low CSF levels of amyloid beta 42 (A-beta 42), the principal ingredient of the brain plaques that are characteristic of Alzheimer s disease. In the same individuals, brain scans with a new imaging agent that reveals the presence of amyloid plaques in the brain were positive. What scientists didn t anticipate was that three cognitively normal subjects would have both low CSF levels of A-beta 42 and positive results from the brain scans. Fagan stressed that although this aspect of their findings was very intriguing, it doesn t prove that the three normal ...
Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is one of the manifestations of Lyme disease. Although it is known that immune reaction of LNB patients is dominated by Th1 and Th2 responses and patients have elevated numbers of B cells in their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), not all the cells involved in inflammation and cytokine secretion have been characterized. The current diagnostics of LNB is based on intrathecal production of antibodies. In recent years, the measurement of chemokine CXCL13 concentration from the CSF has been introduced as a new promising diagnostic tool for LNB to complement the antibody-based diagnostic methods. A few other cytokines have also been analyzed as possible diagnostic markers. However, multiplex analyses simultaneously evaluating the concentrations of a large number of different cytokines in the CSF of LNB patients have been lacking thus far. Extensive cytokine profiling CSF samples of LNB patients would also help in understanding the complex immunopathogenesis of LNB. CSF samples were
Define cerebral aqueduct. cerebral aqueduct synonyms, cerebral aqueduct pronunciation, cerebral aqueduct translation, English dictionary definition of cerebral aqueduct. Noun 1. cerebral aqueduct - a canal connecting the third and fourth ventricles aqueductus cerebri, Sylvian aqueduct duct, epithelial duct, canal, channel -...
To the Editor: Lyme borreliosis is the most common tickborne human disease in the Northern Hemisphere. The incidence of the disease in not the same throughout Europe; in southern Europe, the incidence ranges from 43% in Croatia to 1.1% in Greece. Suspected borreliosis cases have been reported in Greece, none were confirmed. Ixodes ricinus, the principal tick vector of Borrelia burgdorferi in Europe, is found in northern Greece. A low prevalence of B. burgdorferi antibodies was found in healthy persons in Greece (1,2); a frequency of 7.3% was found in arthritis patients (1), while a frequency of 16.9% was found in patients with neurologic disorders (A. Papa, unpub. data).. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used to detect B. burgdorferi DNA in humans and to determine genospecies (3). Isolates found in the United States have constituted a homogeneous group. In Europe, five different genospecies from the original B. burgdorferi, now called burgdorferi sensu lato complex, have been described: ...
An 18-year-old woman presented with a progressively worsening headache, photophobia feverishness and vomiting. Three weeks previously she had returned to the UK from a trip to Peru. At presentation, she had clinical signs of meningism. On admission, blood tests showed a mild lymphopenia, with a normal C reactive protein and white cell count. Chest X-ray and CT of the head were normal. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microscopy was normal. CSF protein and glucose were in the normal range. MRI of the head and cerebral angiography were also normal. Subsequent molecular testing of CSF detected enterovirus RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. The patients clinical syndrome correlated with her virological diagnosis and no other cause of her symptoms was found. Her symptoms were self-limiting and improved with supportive management. This case illustrates an important example of viral central nervous system infection presenting clinically as meningitis but with normal CSF microscopy.. ...
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is caused by tuberculosis infection of of the meninges, which are the membrane systems that encircle the brain, with a high morbidity and mortality rate. It is challenging to diagnose TBM among other types of meningitis, such as viral meningitis, bacterial meningitis and cryptococcal meningitis. We aimed to identify metabolites that are differentially expressed between TBM and the other types of meningitis by a global metabolomics analysis. The cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from 50 patients with TBM, 17 with viral meningitis, 17 with bacterial meningitis, and 16 with cryptococcal meningitis were analyzed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in cerebrospinal fluid of children with bacterial meningitis. AU - Tang, Ren Bin. AU - Lee, Bor Huey. AU - Chung, Ruey Lung. AU - Chen, Shu Jen. AU - Wong, Tai-Tong. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. N2 - Certain cytokines may contribute to the sequence of events that lead to meningeal inflammation in bacterial meningitis. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children with bacterial meningitis and aseptic meningitis of different etiologies. We determined the concentrations of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) in the CSF of 171 specimens of 144 patients whose cases were classified as follow: bacterial meningitis (n=23), aseptic meningitis (n=26) and non-meningitis (n=95). The detectable IL-1β concentration (≥20 pg/ml) in the bacterial meningitis, aseptic meningitis and non-meningitis groups were observed with 78.3%, 3.8%, and 8.4%, respectively. ...
CNS infection is a life-threatening condition in developing countries and Streptococcus pneumoniae has been reported as the most common cause of bacterial meningitis; however, there is limited data on pneumococcal meningitis in Indonesia. This cross-sectional study aimed to isolate and identity S. pneumoniae strains from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens collected as part of routine testing from patients with clinically diagnosed central nervous system infection at a national referral hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia in 2017. S. pneumoniae isolation and identification were performed using conventional culture and molecular tools. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns were monitored through minimum inhibitory concentration testing. From 147 CSF specimens, one S. pneumoniae strain was identified from a patient with bacterial meningitis symptoms. The isolate was serotype 6B (ST5661) and susceptible to 18 antimicrobial agents tested, including penicillin, tetracycline, and the macrolide group. Our data
Abstract. Cryptococcal meningitis may have long-term morbidity and requires a permanent cerebrospinal fluid shunt. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors and create a predictive model for permanent shunt treatment in cryptococcal meningitis patients. This was a retrospective analytical study conducted at Khon Kaen University. The study period was from January 2005 to December 2015. We enrolled all adult patients diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. Risk factors predictive for permanent shunting treatment were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. There were 341 patients diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. Of those, 64 patients (18.7%) were treated with permanent shunts. There were three independent factors associated with permanent shunt treatment. The presence of hydrocephalus had the highest adjusted odds ratio at 56.77. The resulting predictive model for permanent shunt treatment (y) is (−3.85) + (4.04 × hydrocephalus) + (2.13 × initial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea: diagnosis and managementCerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea: diagnosis and management

ABUABARA, Allan. Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea: diagnosis and management. Med. oral patol. oral cir.bucal (Internet) [online ... A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhoea occurs when there is a fistula between the dura and the skull base and discharge of CSF ... A spinal fluid leak from the intracranial space to the nasal respiratory tract is potentially very serious because of the risk ...
more infohttp://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S1698-69462007000500014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Fibrin sealant for control of cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea<...Fibrin sealant for control of cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea<...

Fraioli, R. E., Hirsch, B. E., & Kassam, A. B. (2008). Fibrin sealant for control of cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea. American ... Fraioli, Rebecca E. ; Hirsch, Barry E. ; Kassam, Amin B. / Fibrin sealant for control of cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea. In: ... Fraioli, RE, Hirsch, BE & Kassam, AB 2008, Fibrin sealant for control of cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea, American Journal of ... Fibrin sealant for control of cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea. / Fraioli, Rebecca E.; Hirsch, Barry E.; Kassam, Amin B. ...
more infohttps://einstein.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/fibrin-sealant-for-control-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-otorrhea-2

Cerebrospinal Fluid Protein Increased & Intracerebral Hematoma<...Cerebrospinal Fluid Protein Increased & Intracerebral Hematoma<...

Cerebrospinal Fluid Protein Increased & Intracerebral Hematoma Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Cerebral Hemorrhage & ... 136 Possible Causes for Cerebrospinal Fluid Protein Increased, Intracerebral Hematoma * Cerebral Hemorrhage ... Differential diagnoses, possible causes and diseases for Cerebrospinal Fluid Protein Increased, Intracerebral Hematoma listed ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies disclosed mononuclear pleocytosis with elevated protein levels.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] ...
more infohttps://www.symptoma.com/en/ddx/cerebrospinal-fluid-protein-increased+intracerebral-hematoma

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: a Case Study - RedorbitProgressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: a Case Study - Redorbit

Polymerase chain reaction testing for JC virus using blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid ... Lumbar puncture reveal cloudy cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with a significantly elevated protein level of 275 mg/dL (normal values ...
more infohttp://www.redorbit.com/news/health/972551/progressive_multifocal_leukoencephalopathy_a_case_study/

Update on the pathophysiology and management of syringomyelia unrelated to Chiari malformation | Neurología (English Edition)Update on the pathophysiology and management of syringomyelia unrelated to Chiari malformation | Neurología (English Edition)

Arachnolysis or cerebrospinal fluid diversion for adult-onset syringomyelia? A systematic review of the literature. ... Syringopleural shunt as a rescue procedure in patients with syringomyelia refractory to restoration of cerebrospinal fluid flow ... Cardiac-gated phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging of cerebrospinal fluid flow in the diagnosis of idiopathic ... Syringomyelia is frequently defined as the development of an expansive, fluid-filled cyst within the spinal cord. Although this ...
more infohttps://www.elsevier.es/en-revista-neurologia-english-edition--495-articulo-update-on-pathophysiology-management-syringomyelia-S2173580818301561

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension: improving recognition and treatment strategies in the local setting | HKMJSpontaneous intracranial hypotension: improving recognition and treatment strategies in the local setting | HKMJ

Spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid leaks: a review. Neurosurg Focus 2000;9:e8. CrossRef ... A novel technique of multiple-site epidural blood patch administration for the treatment of cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia. J ... 2. Schievink WI, Gordon OK, Tourje J. Connective tissue disorders with spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid leaks and ... Spinal MRI was unremarkable and MRI cisternography/myelography was negative for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. ...
more infohttp://www.hkmj.org/abstracts/v20n6/537.htm

Sabinet | Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis still occurring in South Africa : clinicians need to remain vigilant :...Sabinet | Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis still occurring in South Africa : clinicians need to remain vigilant :...

This showed high signal on T2 and fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) in the posterosuperior putamina, seen to a ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microscopy and chemistry results were normal. An electroencephalogram (EEG) was initially slow with ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microscopy and chemistry results were normal. An electroencephalogram (EEG) was initially slow with ... This showed high signal on T2 and fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) in the posterosuperior putamina, seen to a ...
more infohttp://journals.co.za/content/m_samj/106/5/EJC188184

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaCerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

... and viruses in the fluid that moves in the space around the spinal cord. CSF protects the brain and spinal cord from ... A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture is a laboratory test to look for bacteria, fungi, ... A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture is a laboratory test to look for bacteria, fungi, and viruses in the fluid that moves in ... Cerebrospinal fluid evaluation. In: OConnell TX, ed. Instant Work-Ups: A Clinical Guide to Medicine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003769.htm

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Analysis: MedlinePlus Medical TestCerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Analysis: MedlinePlus Medical Test

A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is a group of tests that help diagnose diseases and conditions affecting the brain and ... What is a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis?. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless liquid found in your brain and ... medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/cerebrospinal-fluid-csf-analysis/ Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Analysis. ... www.nationalmssociety.org/Symptoms-Diagnosis/Diagnosing-Tools/Cerebrospinal-Fluid-(CSF). *Rammohan KW. Cerebrospinal fluid in ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/cerebrospinal-fluid-csf-analysis/

Definition of Cerebrospinal fluidDefinition of Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced and absorbed and that flows in the ventricles within the ... Medical Definition of Cerebrospinal fluid. *Medical Author: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR ... This can also occur if the CSF pathways are obstructed, causing the fluid to accumulate. The CSF obtained during a lumbar ...
more infohttps://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=7529

Cerebrospinal fluid | anatomy | Britannica.comCerebrospinal fluid | anatomy | Britannica.com

Formed primarily in the ventricles of the brain, the cerebrospinal fluid supports the brain and provides lubrication between ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), clear, colourless liquid that fills and surrounds the brain and the spinal cord and provides a ... www.britannica.com/science/cerebrospinal-fluid", "title": "Cerebrospinal fluid", "documentGroup": "TOPIC PAGINATED MEDIUM" ," ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), clear, colourless liquid that fills and surrounds the brain and the spinal cord and provides a ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/cerebrospinal-fluid

CEREBRAL OEDEMA (EXCESS CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) | The BMJCEREBRAL OEDEMA (EXCESS CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) | The BMJ

CEREBRAL OEDEMA (EXCESS CEREBROSPINAL FLUID). Br Med J 1918; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.2992.499 (Published 04 May ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/1/2992/499

Cerebrospinal fluid | Define Cerebrospinal fluid at Dictionary.comCerebrospinal fluid | Define Cerebrospinal fluid at Dictionary.com

... the fluid in the ventricles of the brain, between the arachnoid and pia mater, and surrounding the spinal cord. See more. ... Origin of cerebrospinal fluid. First recorded in 1895-1900. Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged ... The clear fluid that fills the cavities of the brain and covers the surfaces of the brain and spinal cord. It lubricates the ... The serumlike fluid that circulates through the ventricles of the brain, the cavity of the spinal cord, and the subarachnoid ...
more infohttps://www.dictionary.com/browse/cerebrospinal-fluid

Neurobiology of Cerebrospinal Fluid 1 | SpringerLinkNeurobiology of Cerebrospinal Fluid 1 | SpringerLink

Cerebrospinal Fluid γ-Aminobutyric Acid Correlation with Cerebrospinal Fluid and Blood Constituents and Alterations in ... Cerebro- spinal fluid (CSF) bathes the brain and spinal cord, is in dynamic equilibrium with its extracellular fluid, and tends ... Cerebrospinal Fluid Amine Metabolites and the Probenecid Test Michael H. Ebert, Ronald Kartzinel, Rex W. Cowdry, Frederick K. ... Cerebrospinal Fluid Pituitary Hormone Concentrations in Patients with Pituitary Tumors Kalmon D. Post, Bruce J. Biller, Ivor M ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-1-4684-1039-6

Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunting | SpringerLinkCerebrospinal Fluid Shunting | SpringerLink

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting has significantly improved the lives of patients with hydrocephalus. It was a major advance ... Whitehead W.E. (2019) Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunting. In: Limbrick Jr. D., Leonard J. (eds) Cerebrospinal Fluid Disorders. ... Treatment of cerebrospinal fluid shunt infections: a decision analysis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002;21:632-6.CrossRefGoogle ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting has significantly improved the lives of patients with hydrocephalus. It was a major advance ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-97928-1_16

THE POSSIBLE FUNCTIONS OF CEREBRO-SPINAL FLUID | The BMJTHE POSSIBLE FUNCTIONS OF CEREBRO-SPINAL FLUID | The BMJ

THE POSSIBLE FUNCTIONS OF CEREBRO-SPINAL FLUID Br Med J 1916; 2 :745 ... THE POSSIBLE FUNCTIONS OF CEREBRO-SPINAL FLUID. Br Med J 1916; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.2917.745 (Published 25 ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/2/2917/745.1

Imhotep and the Discovery of Cerebrospinal FluidImhotep and the Discovery of Cerebrospinal Fluid

"The Egyptian physician Imhotep is the most likely to be the first one to discover intracranial cerebrospinal fluid in vivo in ... L. Herbowski, "The maze of the cerebrospinal fluid discovery," Anatomy Research International, vol. 2013, Article ID 596027, 8 ... There is, however, an unfortunate assumption regarding the Egyptian origin of the discovery of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It is ... The Maze of the Cerebrospinal Fluid Discovery, Leszek Herbowski Anatomy Research International Review Article (8 pages), ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ari/2014/256105/

Cerebrospinal fluid total… - Göteborgs universitet 
							
							
						
					
				
			Cerebrospinal fluid total… - Göteborgs universitet

biomarkers, cerebrospinal fluid, Huntington disease, pilot projects, tau proteins Ämneskategorier. Neurologi, Klinisk ... Cerebrospinal fluid total tau concentration predicts clinical phenotype in Huntingtons disease. Artikel i vetenskaplig ... Our goal was to study whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau is a biomarker of disease progression in HD. After informed consent ... We quantified Tau protein, a marker of neuronal death, in cerebrospinal fluid and found it was increased in patients with ...
more infohttps://gu.se/forskning/publikation/?tipFriend=true&tipUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fgu.se%2Fforskning%2Fpublikation%2F%3FpublicationId%3D244343&publicationId=244343

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) | Definition | AIDSinfoCerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) | Definition | AIDSinfo

... nutrient-rich fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acts as a cushion, protecting the brain ... Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Cerebrospinal Fluid Speaker A clear, nutrient-rich fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acts as a cushion, protecting the brain and spinal cord from injury. ...
more infohttps://aidsinfo.nih.gov/understanding-hiv-aids/glossary/125/cerebrospinal-fluid

012229: Albumin, Cerebrospinal Fluid | LabCorp012229: Albumin, Cerebrospinal Fluid | LabCorp

The first tube of a routinely obtained three-tube set of cerebrospinal fluid should be used. ... Albumin, Cerebrospinal Fluid. 1746-7. 012230. Albumin, CSF. mg/dL. 1746-7. ...
more infohttps://www.labcorp.com/test-menu/18916/albumin-cerebrospinal-fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid neuro… - Göteborgs universitet 
							
							
						
					
				
			Cerebrospinal fluid neuro… - Göteborgs universitet

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light chain (NfL) is a promising marker of axonal damage in MS. Objective To ... Cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light chain tracks cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis. Artikel i vetenskaplig ... Multiple sclerosis, Neurofilament light chain, Cerebrospinal fluid, Cognitive impairment, Information, information-processing ...
more infohttps://www.gu.se/forskning/publikation?publicationId=283360

TB Meningitis | Tuberculosis | Cerebrospinal FluidTB Meningitis | Tuberculosis | Cerebrospinal Fluid

Characteristics of cerebrospinal fluid in tuberculous meningitis. J Clin Microbiol 2004. Adrados M. 12 Rook GA. Freedman VH. the ... Cerebrospinal fluid drug concentrations and the treatment of tuberculous meningitis. Laheij RJ. Geyik MF. Thorax 1998. 3: 39-44 ... Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of ethionamide in children with tuberculous meningitis. Outcome of tuberculous meningitis at ... Predominance of Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid of children with tuberculous meningitis: reversal after ...
more infohttps://www.scribd.com/document/269501061/TB-Meningitis

Cerebrospinal fluid - definition of cerebrospinal fluid by The Free DictionaryCerebrospinal fluid - definition of cerebrospinal fluid by The Free Dictionary

cerebrospinal fluid synonyms, cerebrospinal fluid pronunciation, cerebrospinal fluid translation, English dictionary definition ... of cerebrospinal fluid. n. The serumlike fluid that circulates through the ventricles of the brain, the cavity of the spinal ... cerebrospinal fluid leak, Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis, Blood brain barrier. cerebrospinal fluid. n.. The serumlike fluid that ... Keywords: Cerebrospinal fluid leak, Endoscopic repair.. Endoscopic repair of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea in a developing ...
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/cerebrospinal+fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid pressure and glaucomatous optic disc cupping.  - PubMed - NCBICerebrospinal fluid pressure and glaucomatous optic disc cupping. - PubMed - NCBI

Cerebrospinal fluid pressure and glaucomatous optic disc cupping.. Berdahl JP, Ethier CR, Allingham RR. ... Cerebrospinal fluid pressure and glaucomatous optic disc cupping. [Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2009] ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19444463

Autism linked to increased cerebrospinal fluid in infants - UPI.comAutism linked to increased cerebrospinal fluid in infants - UPI.com

Researchers have found a link between increased levels of cerebrospinal fluid in the brains of infants and a higher risk for ... Autism linked to increased cerebrospinal fluid in infants. A new study shows increased levels of cerebrospinal fluid in 70 ... Cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, is the protective layer of fluid that provides cushion between the brain and skull. Scientists ... "That theres an alteration in the distribution of cerebrospinal fluid that we can see on MRIs as early as six months is a major ...
more infohttps://www.upi.com/Health_News/2017/03/06/Autism-linked-to-increased-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-infants/4301488805865/
  • They are one of the types of brain cells, regulating the amount of interstitial fluid and ensure the existence of neurons in the brain. (symptoma.com)
  • That there's an alteration in the distribution of cerebrospinal fluid that we can see on MRIs as early as six months is a major finding. (upi.com)
  • In a study that appeared on Monday in Biological Psychiatry , scientists from the Universities of California and North Carolina , with several other universities in the United States and Canada , report a strong correlation between abnormal distribution of cerebrospinal fluid in infants and later development of autistic symptoms. (wikinews.org)
  • The examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is crucial for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis, which causes significant morbidity and mortality in infants. (aappublications.org)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid levels of Aβ42 are strongly associated with the diagnosis of AD and cortical Aβ accumulation independent of APOE genotype. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Ultimately, cerebrospinal volume was able to provide an early diagnosis of probably ASD in high-risk children with 70% accuracy. (wikinews.org)
  • We and others have demonstrated that a decrease in DJ-1 and/or a-synuclein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a potential index for Parkinson disease diagnosis, but not for PD severity. (docme.ru)
  • Conventional laboratory diagnosis of EV meningitis relies on virus isolation from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in cell culture, followed by neutralization typing. (asm.org)
  • and in the conclusions the author writes " The Egyptian physician Imhotep is the most likely to be the first one to discover intracranial cerebrospinal fluid in vivo in 3000 B.C. The description of the discovery was found in The Papyrus of Smith of 1600 B.C. " [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A spinal fluid leak from the intracranial space to the nasal respiratory tract is potentially very serious because of the risk of an ascending infection which could produce fulminant meningitis. (isciii.es)
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Tau Levels in Frontotemporal Dementia Marcel M. Verbeek,1,2 Yolande A. Pijnenburg,3 Niki S. Schoonenboom,3 Berry P. H. Kremer,1 and Philip Scheltens3 Fig. Differential effects of 1Hz and sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in Huntington's disease (HD) patients with chorea. (docme.ru)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 68 patients presenting with aseptic meningitis during a summer outbreak in Switzerland were examined in parallel with cell culture and commercial RT-PCR. (asm.org)
  • When an individual suffers a head injury, the fluid acts as a cushion, dulling the force by distributing its impact. (britannica.com)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acts as a cushion, protecting the brain and spinal cord from injury. (nih.gov)
  • A clear bodily fluid in the form of a very pure saline solution with microglia that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (between the skull and the cerebral cortex), and which acts as a cushion or buffer for the cortex. (wordnik.com)
  • Correlation of cerebrospinal fluid levels. (mendeley.com)
  • Children with higher than usual volumes of cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space - the area just around the brain - were more likely to be diagnosed with autism later in life, with a strong correlation in the high-risk group. (wikinews.org)
  • Researchers were able to access CSF samples from the deprenyl and tocopherol antioxidative therapy of Parkinsonism (DATATOP) study, which is the largest cohort assembled to date with longitudinal collection of biological fluids and clinical data from PD patients. (elsevier.com)
  • It is a double-blinded, placebo controlled investigation, initiated over 20 years ago, where both collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and extensive clinical assessment of Parkinson s patients were performed at baseline and then again when patients reached the endpoint, i.e. needing levodopa therapy to overcome motor disability. (michaeljfox.org)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate real-time PCR in the detection of HSV-2 and VZV DNA from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for etiological diagnoses in clinically well-characterized cases of primary and recurrent aseptic meningitis. (asm.org)
  • March 6 (UPI) -- Researchers at the University of North Carolina have found a link between increased levels of cerebrospinal fluid in the brains of infants and a higher risk for autism spectrum disorder. (upi.com)
  • A research team at Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, is developing a new method to differentiate patients with Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson disease by analyzing a cerebrospinal fluid sample. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid sTREM2 levels are associated with gray matter volume increases and reduced diffusivity in early Alzheimer's disease. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A soluble fragment (sTREM2) is often found abnormally increased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • They detected significant changes in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma in those with cognitive decline and Alzheimer's. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Data from 304 PD patients followed for up to 8 years indicate that patients with higher cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) α-synuclein levels experienced faster cognitive decline in the following months, although no associations were found between α-synuclein levels and motor changes. (elsevier.com)
  • Several studies suggest that the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele modulates cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of β-amyloid 42 (Aβ42). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Automatic Extra-Axial Cerebrospinal Fluid (Auto EACSF) is an open-source, interactive tool for automatic computation of brain extra-axial cerebrospinal fluid (EA-CSF) in magnetic resonance image (MRI) scans of infants. (nitrc.org)
  • A new study shows increased levels of cerebrospinal fluid in 70 percent of babies at risk of developing autism. (upi.com)
  • The patient who responded well to treatment had very low to undetectable levels of cerebrospinal fluid TGF-β, while those patients who did not respond to treatment had much higher levels of TGF-β. (news-medical.net)
  • A young woman with Kearns-Sayre syndrome and progressive central nervous system deterioration over 15 years had decreased plasma and cerebrospinal fluid folate levels while receiving phenytoin for a seizure disorder. (umich.edu)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid levels of Aβ42 and total and phosphorylated tau in relation to the APOE ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism in different diagnostic groups and in cases with or without cortical uptake of [18F]flutemetamol. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid tau levels in frontotemporal dementia. (docme.ru)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) , clear, colourless liquid that fills and surrounds the brain and the spinal cord and provides a mechanical barrier against shock. (britannica.com)
  • Anti-rotavirus antibody in cerebrospinal fluid. (bmj.com)
  • The clear fluid that fills the cavities of the brain and spinal cord, serving to lubricate the tissues and to absorb shock. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear, colorless fluid found in the subarachnoid spaces in the cranial cavity, where it functions as a shock absorber for the delicate tissues of the brain, according to Fluids and Barriers of the CNS. (reference.com)
  • One benefit, according to About.com, is that the layer of fluid surrounding the brain is able to absorb shock and provide extra padding that helps protect the easily damaged tissues of the central nervous system. (reference.com)
  • While studies have shown that cerebrospinal fluid, once thought to act solely as a cushioner and shock absorber for the brain, can influence the way neurons grow, Shen speculated that the large amount of fluid may itself be a symptom: "We believe that extra-axial CSF is an early sign that CSF is not filtering and draining when it should. (wikinews.org)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light chain (NfL) is a promising marker of axonal damage in MS. Objective To retrospectively examine the relationship between CSF NfL and CI in MS patients. (gu.se)
  • 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 However, this distinction is not always easy in daily practice, especially in cases of viral meningitis with predominance of neutrophils in first cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection. (scielo.br)
  • The application of molecular diagnostics techniques, such as PCR, has led to the development of automated instruments that can identify a single infectious agent or multiple pathogens from a cerebrospinal fluid sample in less than 2 hr. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Your cerebrospinal fluid will be collected through a procedure called a spinal tap, also known as a lumbar puncture. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid diversion is a procedure that is used to drain fluid from the brain and spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • We suggest a novel approach directed for the elimination of pathogenic agents from the CNS and, in parallel, its enrichment with an array of neuroprotective substances, using a "cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) exchange" procedure, in which endogenous (pathogenic) CSF is removed and replaced by artificial CSF (aCSF) enriched with secretions of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). (mdpi.com)
  • Delayed cerebrospinal fluid leaks may occur as a consequence of septal surgery. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency and the causes of the intra- and postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks and to discuss the sella closure methods. (mdpi.com)
  • HSV was previously detected by isolation from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of between 0.5 and 3% of patients with aseptic meningitis. (asm.org)
  • During an 18 month period (1942-1943) there were 72 cases of lymphocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid caused by a variety of etiological agents. (annals.org)
  • The affinity proteomic translation of profiles discovered by profiling human body fluids and tissue provides a powerful strategy to suggest additional candidates to studies of neurological disorders. (diva-portal.org)