Radiography of the ventricular system of the brain after injection of air or other contrast medium directly into the cerebral ventricles. It is used also for x-ray computed tomography of the cerebral ventricles.
Imaging of a ventricle of the heart after the injection of a radioactive contrast medium. The technique is less invasive than cardiac catheterization and is used to assess ventricular function.
Radionuclide ventriculography where a bolus of radionuclide is injected and data are recorded from one pass through the heart ventricle. Left and right ventricular function can be analyzed independently during this technique. First-pass ventriculography is preferred over GATED BLOOD-POOL IMAGING for assessing right ventricular function.
Radionuclide ventriculography where scintigraphic data is acquired during repeated cardiac cycles at specific times in the cycle, using an electrocardiographic synchronizer or gating device. Analysis of right ventricular function is difficult with this technique; that is best evaluated by first-pass ventriculography (VENTRICULOGRAPHY, FIRST-PASS).
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
Radiography of the heart and great vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
Motion pictures of the passage of contrast medium through blood vessels.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
A localized bulging or dilatation in the muscle wall of a heart (MYOCARDIUM), usually in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood-filled aneurysms are dangerous because they may burst. Fibrous aneurysms interfere with the heart function through the loss of contractility. True aneurysm is bound by the vessel wall or cardiac wall. False aneurysms are HEMATOMA caused by myocardial rupture.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular and cerebral circulation, brain, thyroid, and joints.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
The measurement of visualization by radiation of any organ after a radionuclide has been injected into its blood supply. It is used to diagnose heart, liver, lung, and other diseases and to measure the function of those organs, except renography, for which RADIOISOTOPE RENOGRAPHY is available.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
A transient left ventricular apical dysfunction or ballooning accompanied by electrocardiographic (ECG) T wave inversions. This abnormality is associated with high levels of CATECHOLAMINES, either administered or endogenously secreted from a tumor or during extreme stress.
A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A radiopaque medium used for urography, angiography, venography, and myelography. It is highly viscous and binds to plasma proteins.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.
A partial adrenergic agonist with functional beta 1-receptor specificity and inotropic effect. It is effective in the treatment of acute CARDIAC FAILURE, postmyocardial infarction low-output syndrome, SHOCK, and reducing ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION in the SHY-RAGER SYNDROME.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
A radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in scintigraphy or tomography of the heart to evaluate the extent of the necrotic myocardial process. It has also been used in noninvasive tests for the distribution of organ involvement in different types of amyloidosis and for the evaluation of muscle necrosis in the extremities.
A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.
A non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiological procedures.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.
A contrast medium in diagnostic radiology with properties similar to those of diatrizoic acid. It is used primarily as its sodium and meglumine (IOTHALAMATE MEGLUMINE) salts.
A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
Veins draining the cerebrum.

Large empty sella with an intrasellar herniation of an elongated third ventricle. Case report. (1/112)

A 73-year-old female presented with a large empty sella with herniation of an elongated third ventricle concomitant with herniation of the surrounding subarachnoid space into the sella, manifesting as visual impairment and amenorrhea without galactorrhea. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography cisternography clearly showed the large empty sella, without evidence of either hydrocephalus or benign intracranial hypertension, which is extremely rare.  (+info)

Midline cerebellar cystic schwannoma : a case report. (2/112)

An extremely unusual case of a cystic schwannoma in the region of the inferior vermis and posterior to the fourth ventricle in a fifteen year old boy is reported. The cystic tumour caused partial obstruction to the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid from fourth ventricle and resulted in development of supratentorial hydrocephalus. On investigations, the schwannoma simulated a Dandy-Walker cyst. The boy presented with symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. On surgery, the lesion was not arising from any cranial nerve, nor was it attached to brain parenchyma, blood vessel or to the dura. The possible histogenesis of the cystic schwannoma in a rare location is discussed.  (+info)

Initial loss of consciousness and risk of delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. (3/112)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a major cause of death and disability in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We studied the prognostic value for DCI of 2 factors: the duration of unconsciousness after the hemorrhage and the presence of risk factors for atherosclerosis. METHODS: In 125 consecutive patients admitted within 4 days after hemorrhage, we assessed the presence and duration of unconsciousness after the hemorrhage, the neurological condition on admission, the amount of subarachnoid blood, the size of the ventricles, and a history of smoking, hypertension, stroke, or myocardial infarction. The relationship between these variables and the development of DCI was analyzed by means of the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: The univariate hazard ratio (HR) for the development of DCI in patients who had lost consciousness for >1 hour was 6.0 (95% CI 3.0 to 12.0) compared with patients who had no loss or a <1-hour loss of consciousness. The presence of any risk factor for atherosclerosis yielded an HR of 1.4 (95% CI 0.6 to 3.5). The HR for unconsciousness remained essentially the same after adjustment for other risk factors for DCI. The HR for a poor World Federation of Neurological Surgeons score (grade IV or V) on admission was 2.9 (95% CI 1.5 to 5. 5); that for a large amount of subarachnoid blood on CT was 3.4 (95% CI 1.6 to 7.3). CONCLUSIONS: The duration of unconsciousness after subarachnoid hemorrhage is a strong predictor for the occurrence of DCI. This observation may contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of DCI and increased attention for patients at risk.  (+info)

Prediction of effectiveness of shunting in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus by cerebral blood flow measurement and computed tomography cisternography. (4/112)

Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and computed tomography (CT) cisternography were performed in 37 patients with a tentative diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) to predict their surgical outcome. The mean CBF of the whole brain was measured quantitatively by single photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime before surgery. The results of CT cisternography were classified into four patterns: type I, no ventricular stasis at 24 hours; type II, no ventricular stasis with delayed clearance of cerebral blush; type III, persistent ventricular stasis with prominent cerebral blush; type IV, persistent ventricular stasis with diminished cerebral blush and/or asymmetrical filling of the sylvian fissures. The mean CBF was significantly lower than that of age-matched controls (p < 0.005). Patients with a favorable outcome had a significantly higher mean CBF than patients with an unfavorable outcome (p < 0.005). Patients with the type I pattern did not respond to shunting. Some patients with type II and III patterns responded to shunting but improvement was unsatisfactory. Patients with type IV pattern responded well to shunting, and those with a mean CBF of 35 ml/100 g/min or over achieved a favorable outcome. The combination of CBF measurement and CT cisternography can improve the prediction of surgical outcome in patients with suspected NPH.  (+info)

Treatment of intraventricular hemorrhage with urokinase : effects on 30-Day survival. (5/112)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) remains associated with high morbidity and mortality. Therapy with external ventricular drainage alone has not modified outcome in these patients. METHODS: Twelve pilot IVH patients who required external ventricular drainage were prospectively treated with intraventricular urokinase followed by the randomized, double-blinded allocation of 8 patients to either treatment or placebo. Observed 30-day mortality was compared with predicted 30-day mortality obtained by use of a previously validated method. RESULTS: Twenty patients were enrolled; admission Glasgow Coma Scale score in 11 patients was +info)

The adult radiographic shuntogram. (6/112)

We describe the adult radiographic shuntogram, a simple method to evaluate the function and patency of a ventriculoperitoneal or ventriculoatrial shunt. The procedure involves placing contrast material into the valve of a shunt system and following the flow for appropriate clearing of contrast agent from the shunt tubing. Twenty-three studies were obtained in 15 patients in whom shunt malfunction was suspected. The method can be used to establish valve malfunction, ventricular or distal catheter obstruction, and peritoneal encystment.  (+info)

Radiological abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy with clinicopathological correlations. (7/112)

In 73 patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy submitted to an unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy the radiographs were studied to see if there were any correlation with the pathology subsequently found and with the outcome of the operation. A small middle cranial fossa, focal calcification, and temporal horn displacement are often better indices of the underlying pathology than temporal horn dilatation alone. In a small number of cases, however, radiological changes were seen on the side opposite to an unilateral EEG focus, thus suggesting bilateral disease.  (+info)

Effect of intracranial pressure of meglumine iothalamate ventriculography. (8/112)

Intraventricular pressure was studied in 12 patients undergoing ventriculography with a water soluble positive contrast medium. Isovolumetric instillation of meglumine iothalamate into the lateral ventricles and the anterior part of the third ventricle caused only a small increase in ventricular fluid pressure (1.3 +/- 0.3 mmHg), but the pressure increased markedly (46.3 +/- 3.7 mmHg; P less than 0.001) when the contrast medium entered the posterior end of the third ventricle, aqueduct of Sylvius,, and fourth ventricle. This sharp increase in intracranial pressure could not be attributed solely to the postural changes or to alterations in arterial blood pressure. Possible mechanisms are discussed.  (+info)

Cerebral ventriculography is a medical imaging technique that involves the injection of a contrast material into the cerebral ventricles, which are fluid-filled spaces within the brain. The purpose of this procedure is to produce detailed images of the ventricular system and the surrounding structures in order to diagnose and evaluate various neurological conditions, such as hydrocephalus (excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles), tumors, or other abnormalities that may be causing obstruction or compression of the ventricular system.

The procedure typically involves inserting a thin, flexible tube called a catheter into the lateral ventricle of the brain through a small hole drilled in the skull. The contrast material is then injected through the catheter and X-ray images are taken as the contrast material flows through the ventricular system. These images can help to identify any abnormalities or blockages that may be present.

Cerebral ventriculography has largely been replaced by non-invasive imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which provide similar information without the need for invasive procedures. However, cerebral ventriculography may still be used in certain cases where these other methods are not sufficient to make a definitive diagnosis.

Radionuclide ventriculography (RVG), also known as multiple-gated acquisition scan (MUGA) or nuclear ventriculography, is a non-invasive diagnostic test used to evaluate the function and pumping efficiency of the heart's lower chambers (ventricles). The test involves the use of radioactive tracers (radionuclides) that are injected into the patient's bloodstream. A specialized camera then captures images of the distribution of the radionuclide within the heart, which allows for the measurement of ventricular volumes and ejection fraction (EF), an important indicator of cardiac function.

During the test, the patient lies on a table while the camera takes pictures of their heart as it beats. The images are captured in "gates" or intervals, corresponding to different phases of the cardiac cycle. This allows for the calculation of ventricular volumes and EF at each phase of the cycle, providing detailed information about the heart's pumping ability.

RVG is commonly used to assess patients with known or suspected heart disease, including those who have had a heart attack, heart failure, valvular heart disease, or cardiomyopathy. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and to evaluate changes in cardiac function over time.

First-pass ventriculography is a type of cardiac diagnostic procedure that involves the injection of a contrast material into the heart's chamber (left ventricle) during cardiac catheterization. The term "first-pass" refers to the initial circulation of the contrast agent through the heart and great vessels, allowing for real-time imaging of the left ventricular chamber as it contracts and relaxes. This procedure is used to assess the size, shape, and function of the left ventricle, including its wall motion abnormalities, ejection fraction, and overall contractility. The information obtained from first-pass ventriculography can help in the diagnosis and management of various cardiovascular conditions such as heart failure, valvular heart disease, and myocardial ischemia or infarction.

Gated Blood-Pool Imaging (GBPI) is a type of nuclear medicine test that uses radioactive material and a specialized camera to create detailed images of the heart and its function. In this procedure, a small amount of radioactive tracer is injected into the patient's bloodstream, which then accumulates in the heart muscle and the blood pool within the heart chambers.

The term "gated" refers to the use of an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal to synchronize the image acquisition with the heart's contractions. This allows for the visualization of the heart's motion during different phases of the cardiac cycle, providing valuable information about the size, shape, and contraction of the heart chambers, as well as the movement of the walls of the heart.

GBPI is often used to assess patients with known or suspected heart disease, such as valvular abnormalities, cardiomyopathies, or congenital heart defects. It can help diagnose and evaluate the severity of these conditions, guide treatment decisions, and monitor the effectiveness of therapy.

Cerebral arteries refer to the blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the brain. These arteries branch off from the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries, which combine to form the basilar artery. The major cerebral arteries include:

1. Anterior cerebral artery (ACA): This artery supplies blood to the frontal lobes of the brain, including the motor and sensory cortices responsible for movement and sensation in the lower limbs.
2. Middle cerebral artery (MCA): The MCA is the largest of the cerebral arteries and supplies blood to the lateral surface of the brain, including the temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. It is responsible for providing blood to areas involved in motor function, sensory perception, speech, memory, and vision.
3. Posterior cerebral artery (PCA): The PCA supplies blood to the occipital lobe, which is responsible for visual processing, as well as parts of the temporal and parietal lobes.
4. Anterior communicating artery (ACoA) and posterior communicating arteries (PComAs): These are small arteries that connect the major cerebral arteries, forming an important circulatory network called the Circle of Willis. The ACoA connects the two ACAs, while the PComAs connect the ICA with the PCA and the basilar artery.

These cerebral arteries play a crucial role in maintaining proper brain function by delivering oxygenated blood to various regions of the brain. Any damage or obstruction to these arteries can lead to serious neurological conditions, such as strokes or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs).

Stroke volume is a term used in cardiovascular physiology and medicine. It refers to the amount of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle of the heart during each contraction (systole). Specifically, it is the difference between the volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of diastole (when the ventricle is filled with blood) and the volume at the end of systole (when the ventricle has contracted and ejected its contents into the aorta).

Stroke volume is an important measure of heart function, as it reflects the ability of the heart to pump blood effectively to the rest of the body. A low stroke volume may indicate that the heart is not pumping efficiently, while a high stroke volume may suggest that the heart is working too hard. Stroke volume can be affected by various factors, including heart disease, high blood pressure, and physical fitness level.

The formula for calculating stroke volume is:

Stroke Volume = End-Diastolic Volume - End-Systolic Volume

Where end-diastolic volume (EDV) is the volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of diastole, and end-systolic volume (ESV) is the volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of systole.

Angiocardiography is a medical procedure used to examine the heart and blood vessels, particularly the chambers of the heart and the valves between them. It involves injecting a contrast agent into the bloodstream and taking X-ray images as the agent flows through the heart. This allows doctors to visualize any abnormalities such as blockages, narrowing, or leakage in the heart valves or blood vessels.

There are different types of angiocardiography, including:

* Left heart catheterization (LHC): A thin tube called a catheter is inserted into a vein in the arm or groin and threaded through to the left side of the heart to measure pressure and oxygen levels.
* Right heart catheterization (RHC): Similar to LHC, but the catheter is threaded through to the right side of the heart to measure pressure and oxygen levels there.
* Selective angiocardiography: A catheter is used to inject the contrast agent into specific blood vessels or chambers of the heart to get a more detailed view.

Angiocardiography can help diagnose and evaluate various heart conditions, including congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, and valvular heart disease. It is an invasive procedure that carries some risks, such as bleeding, infection, and damage to blood vessels or heart tissue. However, it can provide valuable information for diagnosing and treating heart conditions.

The heart ventricles are the two lower chambers of the heart that receive blood from the atria and pump it to the lungs or the rest of the body. The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs, while the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. Both ventricles have thick, muscular walls to generate the pressure necessary to pump blood through the circulatory system.

Cineangiography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the blood flow in the heart and cardiovascular system. It involves the injection of a contrast agent into the bloodstream while X-ray images are taken in quick succession, creating a movie-like sequence that shows the movement of the contrast through the blood vessels and chambers of the heart. This technique is often used to diagnose and evaluate various heart conditions, such as coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, and congenital heart defects.

The procedure typically involves threading a catheter through a blood vessel in the arm or leg and guiding it to the heart. Once in place, the contrast agent is injected, and X-ray images are taken using a specialized X-ray machine called a fluoroscope. The images captured during cineangiography can help doctors identify areas of narrowing or blockage in the coronary arteries, abnormalities in heart valves, and other cardiovascular problems.

Cineangiography is an invasive procedure that carries some risks, such as bleeding, infection, and reactions to the contrast agent. However, it can provide valuable information for diagnosing and treating heart conditions, and may be recommended when other diagnostic tests have been inconclusive.

Cerebral infarction, also known as a "stroke" or "brain attack," is the sudden death of brain cells caused by the interruption of their blood supply. It is most commonly caused by a blockage in one of the blood vessels supplying the brain (an ischemic stroke), but can also result from a hemorrhage in or around the brain (a hemorrhagic stroke).

Ischemic strokes occur when a blood clot or other particle blocks a cerebral artery, cutting off blood flow to a part of the brain. The lack of oxygen and nutrients causes nearby brain cells to die. Hemorrhagic strokes occur when a weakened blood vessel ruptures, causing bleeding within or around the brain. This bleeding can put pressure on surrounding brain tissues, leading to cell death.

Symptoms of cerebral infarction depend on the location and extent of the affected brain tissue but may include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; loss of balance or coordination; and severe headache with no known cause. Immediate medical attention is crucial for proper diagnosis and treatment to minimize potential long-term damage or disability.

A heart aneurysm, also known as a ventricular aneurysm, is a localized bulging or ballooning of the heart muscle in the left ventricle, which is the main pumping chamber of the heart. This condition typically occurs following a myocardial infarction (heart attack), where blood flow to a portion of the heart muscle is blocked, leading to tissue death and weakness in the heart wall. As a result, the weakened area may stretch and form a sac-like bulge or aneurysm.

Heart aneurysms can vary in size and may cause complications such as blood clots, arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats), or heart failure. In some cases, they may be asymptomatic and discovered during routine imaging tests. The diagnosis of a heart aneurysm is typically made through echocardiography, cardiac MRI, or cardiac CT scans. Treatment options depend on the size, location, and symptoms of the aneurysm and may include medications, surgical repair, or implantation of a device to support heart function.

Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m is a radioactive pharmaceutical preparation used in medical diagnostic imaging. It is a technetium-99m radiopharmaceutical, where technetium-99m is a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99, which emits gamma rays and has a half-life of 6 hours. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m is used as a contrast agent in various diagnostic procedures, such as imaging of the thyroid, salivary glands, or the brain, to evaluate conditions like inflammation, tumors, or abnormalities in blood flow. It is typically administered intravenously, and its short half-life ensures that the radiation exposure is limited.

Left ventricular function refers to the ability of the left ventricle (the heart's lower-left chamber) to contract and relax, thereby filling with and ejecting blood. The left ventricle is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. Its function is evaluated by measuring several parameters, including:

1. Ejection fraction (EF): This is the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle with each heartbeat. A normal ejection fraction ranges from 55% to 70%.
2. Stroke volume (SV): The amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in one contraction. A typical SV is about 70 mL/beat.
3. Cardiac output (CO): The total volume of blood that the left ventricle pumps per minute, calculated as the product of stroke volume and heart rate. Normal CO ranges from 4 to 8 L/minute.

Assessment of left ventricular function is crucial in diagnosing and monitoring various cardiovascular conditions such as heart failure, coronary artery disease, valvular heart diseases, and cardiomyopathies.

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and maintain balance and posture. According to the Mayo Clinic, CP is caused by abnormal brain development or damage to the developing brain that affects a child's ability to control movement.

The symptoms of cerebral palsy can vary in severity and may include:

* Spasticity (stiff or tight muscles)
* Rigidity (resistance to passive movement)
* Poor coordination and balance
* Weakness or paralysis
* Tremors or involuntary movements
* Abnormal gait or difficulty walking
* Difficulty with fine motor skills, such as writing or using utensils
* Speech and language difficulties
* Vision, hearing, or swallowing problems

It's important to note that cerebral palsy is not a progressive condition, meaning that it does not worsen over time. However, the symptoms may change over time, and some individuals with CP may experience additional medical conditions as they age.

Cerebral palsy is usually caused by brain damage that occurs before or during birth, but it can also be caused by brain injuries that occur in the first few years of life. Some possible causes of cerebral palsy include:

* Infections during pregnancy
* Lack of oxygen to the brain during delivery
* Traumatic head injury during birth
* Brain bleeding or stroke in the newborn period
* Genetic disorders
* Maternal illness or infection during pregnancy

There is no cure for cerebral palsy, but early intervention and treatment can help improve outcomes and quality of life. Treatment may include physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, medications to manage symptoms, surgery, and assistive devices such as braces or wheelchairs.

Radionuclide angiography (RNA) is a type of nuclear medicine imaging procedure used to evaluate the heart's function, specifically the pumping ability of the lower chambers of the heart (the ventricles). It involves the use of radioactive material (radionuclide or radiopharmaceutical) that is injected into the patient's bloodstream. A special camera then captures images of the distribution and accumulation of this radioactive material within the heart, providing information about blood flow, ventricular function, and any potential abnormalities in the heart muscle.

During a RNA procedure, the radiopharmaceutical is usually injected into a vein in the patient's arm. As the tracer circulates through the bloodstream, it accumulates in the heart tissue. The gamma camera captures images of the distribution and accumulation of the radionuclide within the heart at different time points. These images are then used to assess various aspects of heart function, such as ejection fraction (the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the ventricles with each beat), wall motion abnormalities, and any potential areas of reduced blood flow or damage in the heart muscle.

Radionuclide angiography can be used to diagnose and monitor various cardiac conditions, including coronary artery disease, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and valvular heart disease. It is a non-invasive procedure that does not require catheterization or the use of contrast agents, making it a safer alternative for patients with kidney problems or allergies to contrast materials. However, as with any medical procedure involving radiation exposure, the benefits of RNA must be weighed against the potential risks.

Cerebrovascular circulation refers to the network of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood and nutrients to the brain tissue, and remove waste products. It includes the internal carotid arteries, vertebral arteries, circle of Willis, and the intracranial arteries that branch off from them.

The internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries merge to form the circle of Willis, a polygonal network of vessels located at the base of the brain. The anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, posterior cerebral artery, and communicating arteries are the major vessels that branch off from the circle of Willis and supply blood to different regions of the brain.

Interruptions or abnormalities in the cerebrovascular circulation can lead to various neurological conditions such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and vascular dementia.

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as Takotsubo syndrome or stress-induced cardiomyopathy, is a temporary heart condition usually triggered by emotional or physical stress. It's named after the Japanese word for "octopus pot" because of the shape of the left ventricle during the contraction phase, which resembles this pot.

In Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, a part of the heart muscle becomes weakened and doesn't pump well, often following a surge of stress hormones. The condition can be misdiagnosed as a heart attack because it has similar symptoms and test results. However, unlike a heart attack, there's no evidence of blocked heart arteries in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

The symptoms of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy include chest pain, shortness of breath, irregular heartbeat, and sometimes fluid retention. Treatment typically includes medication to manage symptoms and support the heart while it recovers. Most people with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy make a full recovery within a few weeks. However, in rare cases, complications such as heart failure or arrhythmias can occur.

Left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) is a condition characterized by the impaired ability of the left ventricle of the heart to pump blood efficiently during contraction. The left ventricle is one of the four chambers of the heart and is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.

LVD can be caused by various underlying conditions, such as coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, or hypertension. These conditions can lead to structural changes in the left ventricle, including remodeling, hypertrophy, and dilation, which ultimately impair its contractile function.

The severity of LVD is often assessed by measuring the ejection fraction (EF), which is the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle during each contraction. A normal EF ranges from 55% to 70%, while an EF below 40% is indicative of LVD.

LVD can lead to various symptoms, such as shortness of breath, fatigue, fluid retention, and decreased exercise tolerance. It can also increase the risk of complications, such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiac arrest. Treatment for LVD typically involves managing the underlying cause, along with medications to improve contractility, reduce fluid buildup, and control heart rate. In severe cases, devices such as implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) or left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) may be required.

The Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) is one of the main blood vessels that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. It arises from the internal carotid artery and divides into several branches, which supply the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere, including the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes.

The MCA is responsible for providing blood flow to critical areas of the brain, such as the primary motor and sensory cortices, Broca's area (associated with speech production), Wernicke's area (associated with language comprehension), and the visual association cortex.

Damage to the MCA or its branches can result in a variety of neurological deficits, depending on the specific location and extent of the injury. These may include weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, sensory loss, language impairment, and visual field cuts.

Technetium is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical element with the symbol Tc and atomic number 43. However, in the field of nuclear medicine, which is a branch of medicine that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose or treat diseases, Technetium-99m (a radioisotope of technetium) is commonly used for various diagnostic procedures.

Technetium-99m is a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99, and it emits gamma rays that can be detected outside the body to create images of internal organs or tissues. It has a short half-life of about 6 hours, which makes it ideal for diagnostic imaging since it decays quickly and reduces the patient's exposure to radiation.

Technetium-99m is used in a variety of medical procedures, such as bone scans, lung scans, heart scans, liver-spleen scans, brain scans, and kidney scans, among others. It can be attached to different pharmaceuticals or molecules that target specific organs or tissues, allowing healthcare professionals to assess their function or identify any abnormalities.

In medical terms, the heart is a muscular organ located in the thoracic cavity that functions as a pump to circulate blood throughout the body. It's responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. The human heart is divided into four chambers: two atria on the top and two ventricles on the bottom. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs, while the left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it out to the rest of the body. The heart's rhythmic contractions and relaxations are regulated by a complex electrical conduction system.

Iothalamate Meglumine is not a medical condition, but rather a diagnostic contrast agent used in various imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams. Iothalamate Meglumine is a type of radiocontrast medium that contains iodine atoms which help to enhance the visibility of internal structures during these imaging tests.

The medical definition of Iothalamate Meglumine is:

A radiocontrast agent used in diagnostic imaging, specifically in CT scans and MR urography exams. It contains iodine atoms that help to improve the contrast and visibility of internal structures such as the urinary tract. Iothalamate Meglumine is typically administered intravenously or instilled directly into the bladder.

It's important to note that while Iothalamate Meglumine is generally considered safe, it can cause allergic reactions or kidney damage in some individuals, particularly those with pre-existing kidney disease or diabetes. Therefore, it's essential to inform your healthcare provider of any medical conditions or allergies before undergoing an imaging exam that involves the use of this contrast agent.

Myocardial infarction (MI), also known as a heart attack, is a medical condition characterized by the death of a segment of heart muscle (myocardium) due to the interruption of its blood supply. This interruption is most commonly caused by the blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot formed on the top of an atherosclerotic plaque, which is a buildup of cholesterol and other substances in the inner lining of the artery.

The lack of oxygen and nutrients supply to the heart muscle tissue results in damage or death of the cardiac cells, causing the affected area to become necrotic. The extent and severity of the MI depend on the size of the affected area, the duration of the occlusion, and the presence of collateral circulation.

Symptoms of a myocardial infarction may include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, nausea, lightheadedness, and sweating. Immediate medical attention is necessary to restore blood flow to the affected area and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. Treatment options for MI include medications, such as thrombolytics, antiplatelet agents, and pain relievers, as well as procedures such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is a medical procedure that records the electrical activity of the heart. It provides a graphic representation of the electrical changes that occur during each heartbeat. The resulting tracing, called an electrocardiogram, can reveal information about the heart's rate and rhythm, as well as any damage to its cells or abnormalities in its conduction system.

During an ECG, small electrodes are placed on the skin of the chest, arms, and legs. These electrodes detect the electrical signals produced by the heart and transmit them to a machine that amplifies and records them. The procedure is non-invasive, painless, and quick, usually taking only a few minutes.

ECGs are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various heart conditions, including arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, heart attacks, and electrolyte imbalances. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of certain medications or treatments.

Diatrizoate is a type of contrast medium that is used during X-ray examinations, such as CT scans and urography, to help improve the visibility of internal body structures. It is a type of iodinated compound, which means it contains iodine atoms. Diatrizoate works by blocking the absorption of X-rays, causing the areas where it is injected or introduced to appear white on X-ray images. This can help doctors to diagnose a variety of medical conditions, including problems with the urinary system and digestive tract.

Like all medications and contrast agents, diatrizoate can have side effects, including allergic reactions, kidney damage, and thyroid problems. It is important for patients to discuss any potential risks and benefits of using this agent with their healthcare provider before undergoing an X-ray examination.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Prenalterol" is not a recognized term in medical literature or pharmacology. It's possible that there may be a spelling error or a mix-up with the name of a medication. If you meant to ask about "Prenalterol," that is also not a commonly used drug, and I could not find a specific medical definition for it.

However, if you are referring to "Alprenolol," which is a beta-blocker used to treat various conditions like high blood pressure, angina, or irregular heartbeats, then here's the definition:

Alprenolol: A non-selective beta-blocker with additional mild intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA). It is used in the management of hypertension, angina pectoris, and various types of arrhythmias. Alprenolol works by blocking the action of certain hormones such as adrenaline and noradrenaline on the heart and blood vessels, which leads to a decrease in heart rate, heart contractility, and lowering of blood pressure.

Echocardiography is a medical procedure that uses sound waves to produce detailed images of the heart's structure, function, and motion. It is a non-invasive test that can help diagnose various heart conditions, such as valve problems, heart muscle damage, blood clots, and congenital heart defects.

During an echocardiogram, a transducer (a device that sends and receives sound waves) is placed on the chest or passed through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart. The sound waves produced by the transducer bounce off the heart structures and return to the transducer, which then converts them into electrical signals that are processed to create images of the heart.

There are several types of echocardiograms, including:

* Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE): This is the most common type of echocardiogram and involves placing the transducer on the chest.
* Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE): This type of echocardiogram involves passing a specialized transducer through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart from a closer proximity.
* Stress echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram is performed during exercise or medication-induced stress to assess how the heart functions under stress.
* Doppler echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram uses sound waves to measure blood flow and velocity in the heart and blood vessels.

Echocardiography is a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing various heart conditions, as it provides detailed information about the structure and function of the heart. It is generally safe, non-invasive, and painless, making it a popular choice for doctors and patients alike.

Technetium Tc 99m Pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PYP) is a radiopharmaceutical agent used in nuclear medicine imaging, specifically myocardial perfusion imaging. It is a complex of technetium-99m, a metastable isotope of technetium, with pyrophosphate, a molecule that accumulates in damaged heart muscle tissue.

When injected into the patient's bloodstream, Tc-99m PYP is taken up by the heart muscle in proportion to its blood flow and the degree of damage or scarring (fibrosis). This allows for the detection and evaluation of conditions such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiomyopathy, and heart transplant rejection.

The imaging procedure involves the injection of Tc-99m PYP, followed by the acquisition of images using a gamma camera, which detects the gamma rays emitted by the technetium-99m isotope. The resulting images provide information about the distribution and extent of heart muscle damage, helping physicians to make informed decisions regarding diagnosis and treatment planning.

Thallium is a chemical element with the symbol Tl and atomic number 81. It is a soft, malleable, silver-like metal that is highly toxic. In the context of medicine, thallium may be used as a component in medical imaging tests, such as thallium stress tests, which are used to evaluate blood flow to the heart and detect coronary artery disease. Thallium-201 is a radioactive isotope of thallium that is used as a radiopharmaceutical in these tests. When administered to a patient, it is taken up by heart muscle tissue in proportion to its blood flow, allowing doctors to identify areas of the heart that may not be receiving enough oxygen-rich blood. However, due to concerns about its potential toxicity and the availability of safer alternatives, thallium stress tests are less commonly used today than they were in the past.

Iopamidol is a non-ionic, low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM) used in diagnostic imaging procedures such as X-rays, CT scans, and angiography. It is a type of radiocontrast agent that contains iodine atoms, which absorb X-rays and make the internal structures of the body visible on X-ray images. Iopamidol has a low osmolarity, which means it has fewer particles per unit volume compared to high-osmolar contrast media (HOCM). This makes it safer and more comfortable for patients as it reduces the risk of adverse reactions such as pain, vasodilation, and kidney damage. Iopamidol is elimated from the body primarily through the kidneys and excreted in the urine.

Cerebral angiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the blood vessels in the brain after injecting a contrast dye into them. This procedure helps doctors to diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the blood vessels in the brain, such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and stenosis (narrowing of the blood vessels).

During the procedure, a catheter is inserted into an artery in the leg and threaded through the body to the blood vessels in the neck or brain. The contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken to visualize the blood flow through the brain's blood vessels.

Cerebral angiography provides detailed images of the blood vessels in the brain, allowing doctors to identify any abnormalities or blockages that may be causing symptoms or increasing the risk of stroke. Based on the results of the cerebral angiography, doctors can develop a treatment plan to address these issues and prevent further complications.

Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) infarction is a type of ischemic stroke that occurs when there is an obstruction in the blood supply to the middle cerebral artery, which is one of the major blood vessels that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. The MCA supplies blood to a large portion of the brain, including the motor and sensory cortex, parts of the temporal and parietal lobes, and the basal ganglia.

An infarction is the death of tissue due to the lack of blood supply, which can lead to damage or loss of function in the affected areas of the brain. Symptoms of MCA infarction may include weakness or numbness on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, and altered levels of consciousness.

MCA infarctions can be caused by various factors, including embolism (a blood clot that travels to the brain from another part of the body), thrombosis (a blood clot that forms in the MCA itself), or stenosis (narrowing of the artery due to atherosclerosis or other conditions). Treatment for MCA infarction may include medications to dissolve blood clots, surgery to remove the obstruction, or rehabilitation to help regain lost function.

Cardiac volume refers to the amount of blood contained within the heart chambers at any given point in time. It is a measure of the volume of blood that is being moved by the heart during each cardiac cycle, which includes both systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) phases.

There are several types of cardiac volumes that are commonly measured or estimated using medical imaging techniques such as echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These include:

1. End-diastolic volume (EDV): This is the volume of blood in the heart chambers at the end of diastole, when the heart chambers are fully filled with blood.
2. End-systolic volume (ESV): This is the volume of blood in the heart chambers at the end of systole, when the heart chambers have contracted and ejected most of the blood.
3. Stroke volume (SV): This is the difference between the EDV and ESV, and represents the amount of blood that is pumped out of the heart with each beat.
4. Cardiac output (CO): This is the product of the stroke volume and heart rate, and represents the total amount of blood that is pumped by the heart in one minute.

Abnormalities in cardiac volumes can indicate various heart conditions such as heart failure, valvular heart disease, or cardiomyopathy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Iothalamic Acid" doesn't appear to be a recognized term in medical or physiological literature. It's possible there may be a spelling error or it could be a highly specialized or obscure term used only in specific research contexts.

If you meant "Iothalamate," that is a compound used as a contrast agent in medical imaging, specifically in radiology for procedures like intravenous pyelograms (IVPs) and computed tomography (CT) scans. Iothalamate is not typically referred to as an acid, though.

Please double-check the term you're looking for, and if there's any chance you meant "Iothalamate," let me know so I can provide a more accurate response!

Cerebral malaria is a severe form of malaria that affects the brain. It is caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasites, which are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. In cerebral malaria, the parasites infect and destroy red blood cells, leading to their accumulation in small blood vessels in the brain. This can cause swelling of the brain, impaired consciousness, seizures, coma, and even death if left untreated.

The medical definition of cerebral malaria is:

A severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasites that affects the brain and results in altered mental status, seizures, coma, or other neurological symptoms. It is characterized by the sequestration of infected red blood cells in the cerebral microvasculature, leading to inflammation, endothelial activation, and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Cerebral malaria can cause long-term neurological deficits or death if not promptly diagnosed and treated with appropriate antimalarial therapy.

Coronary artery disease, often simply referred to as coronary disease, is a condition in which the blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of fatty deposits called plaques. This can lead to chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or in severe cases, a heart attack.

The medical definition of coronary artery disease is:

A condition characterized by the accumulation of atheromatous plaques in the walls of the coronary arteries, leading to decreased blood flow and oxygen supply to the myocardium (heart muscle). This can result in symptoms such as angina pectoris, shortness of breath, or arrhythmias, and may ultimately lead to myocardial infarction (heart attack) or heart failure.

Risk factors for coronary artery disease include age, smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, and a family history of the condition. Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet, and managing stress can help reduce the risk of developing coronary artery disease. Medical treatments may include medications to control blood pressure, cholesterol levels, or irregular heart rhythms, as well as procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Emission-Computed Tomography, Single-Photon (SPECT) is a type of nuclear medicine imaging procedure that generates detailed, three-dimensional images of the distribution of radioactive pharmaceuticals within the body. It uses gamma rays emitted by a radiopharmaceutical that is introduced into the patient's body, and a specialized gamma camera to detect these gamma rays and create tomographic images. The data obtained from the SPECT imaging can be used to diagnose various medical conditions, evaluate organ function, and guide treatment decisions. It is commonly used to image the heart, brain, and bones, among other organs and systems.

Cardiac catheterization is a medical procedure used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions. In this procedure, a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and threaded up to the heart. The catheter can be used to perform various diagnostic tests, such as measuring the pressure inside the heart chambers and assessing the function of the heart valves.

Cardiac catheterization can also be used to treat certain cardiovascular conditions, such as narrowed or blocked arteries. In these cases, a balloon or stent may be inserted through the catheter to open up the blood vessel and improve blood flow. This procedure is known as angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Cardiac catheterization is typically performed in a hospital cardiac catheterization laboratory by a team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, radiologists, and nurses. The procedure may be done under local anesthesia with sedation or general anesthesia, depending on the individual patient's needs and preferences.

Overall, cardiac catheterization is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of various heart conditions, and it can help improve symptoms, reduce complications, and prolong life for many patients.

Coronary angiography is a medical procedure that uses X-ray imaging to visualize the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle. During the procedure, a thin, flexible catheter is inserted into an artery in the arm or groin and threaded through the blood vessels to the heart. A contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken as the dye flows through the coronary arteries. These images can help doctors diagnose and treat various heart conditions, such as blockages or narrowing of the arteries, that can lead to chest pain or heart attacks. It is also known as coronary arteriography or cardiac catheterization.

Cerebral veins are the blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the brain to the dural venous sinuses, which are located between the layers of tissue covering the brain. The largest cerebral vein is the superior sagittal sinus, which runs along the top of the brain. Other major cerebral veins include the straight sinus, transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, and cavernous sinus. These veins receive blood from smaller veins called venules that drain the surface and deep structures of the brain. The cerebral veins play an important role in maintaining normal circulation and pressure within the brain.

Dandy, W. E. (July 1918). "Ventriculography Following the Injection of Air into the Cerebral Ventricles". Annals of Surgery. 68 ... Originally described by Walter Dandy in 1918 as a way to perform ventriculography via occipital approach. It is located 2 ...
... may refer to: Cerebral ventriculography Cardiac ventriculography This disambiguation page lists articles ... associated with the title Ventriculography. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly ...
Walter Freeman also attended the Congress where he presented his research findings on cerebral ventriculography. Freeman, who ... Doby, T. Cerebral Angiography and Egas Moniz. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1992;359(2):364.[permanent dead link] El-Hai, ... He also opined that the mutilation of an organ could not improve its function and that such cerebral wounds as were occasioned ... He operated on six chronic patients under his care at the Swiss Préfargier Asylum, removing sections of their cerebral cortex. ...
... by Achille Mario Dogliotti for cerebral ventriculography, performed with a transorbital puncture. The needle was introduced ...
... cerebral angiography MeSH E01.370.376.560.190 - cerebral ventriculography MeSH E01.370.376.560.260 - echoencephalography MeSH ... cerebral angiography MeSH E01.370.350.700.560.190 - cerebral ventriculography MeSH E01.370.350.700.560.260 - ... ventriculography, first-pass MeSH E01.370.370.380.950 - valsalva maneuver MeSH E01.370.370.475 - laser-doppler flowmetry MeSH ... radionuclide ventriculography MeSH E01.370.350.710.715.710.350 - gated blood-pool imaging MeSH E01.370.350.710.715.710.950 - ...
... air ventriculography, myelography etc. was established in 1954 Child guidance clinic in 1950 Rural mental health clinic at ... use of Lithium in 1952 and chlorpromazine in 1953 A very modern radiology department with facility for sophisticated cerebral ...
Angiography Aortography Cerebral angiography Coronary angiography Lymphangiography Pulmonary angiography Ventriculography Chest ...
He also refined the techniques of ventriculography, reviewed the surgical treatment of cerebral aneurysms, experimented with ...
... is indicated for angiography throughout the cardiovascular system, including cerebral and peripheral arteriography, ... cisternography and ventriculography. Isovue-M 200 (lopamidol Injection) is indicated for thoraco-lumbar myelography in children ... coronary arteriography and ventriculography, pediatric angiocardiography, selective visceral arteriography and aortography, ...
Uptake of SPECT agent is nearly 100% complete within 30 to 60 seconds, reflecting cerebral blood flow (CBF) at the time of ... In 1918, the American neurosurgeon Walter Dandy introduced the technique of ventriculography. X-ray images of the ventricular ... SPECT provides a "snapshot" of cerebral blood flow since scans can be acquired after seizure termination (so long as the ... In 1927, Egas Moniz introduced cerebral angiography, whereby both normal and abnormal blood vessels in and around the brain ...
As a result, cerebral angiography remains an essential part of the neurosurgeon's diagnostic imaging armamentarium and, ... Though not usually a painful procedure, ventriculography carried significant risks to the patient under investigation, such as ... Dandy also observed that air introduced into the subarachnoid space via lumbar spinal puncture could enter the cerebral ... In 1918 the American neurosurgeon Walter Dandy introduced the technique of ventriculography whereby images of the ventricular ...
... described in detail the cerebral scleroses, during whose research he performed many cerebral transplants (brain grafts) between ... He also contributed novel techniques for neurological diagnosis: he refined iodine-contrasted ventriculography, called ... living rabbits; and histologically reclassified the cerebral tumors and the inflammations of the innermost brain envelope ( ...
in phase contrast MRA studies have quantified cerebral blood flow (CBF) in vivo and suggests that CBF is abnormally elevated in ... Dandy had required ventriculography, but Smith replaced this with computed tomography. In a 2001 paper, Digre and Corbett ... An MR venogram is also performed in most cases to exclude the possibility of venous sinus stenosis/obstruction or cerebral ... These stenoses can be more adequately identified and assessed with catheter cerebral venography and manometry. Buckling of the ...
Ventriculography and pneumoencephalography allowed neurosurgeons to accurately identify the location and size of tumors and ... "cerebral ventriculoscopy"), in 1925 sectioning the trigeminal nerve at the brainstem to treat trigeminal neuralgia, in 1928 ... In 1918, the year that he finished his residency, he published the paper on air ventriculography. The importance of this ... In 1918 and 1919 Dandy published his landmark papers on air ventriculography and the associated technique of ...
Throughout the 1960s, '70s, and '80s, Zimmer published numerous articles around the cerebral venous system and other aspects of ... Technique for Pneumoencephalographic Detail During Ventriculography". Investigative Radiology. 4 (6): 414. doi:10.1097/00004424 ...
In cardiac ventriculography, a radionuclide, usually 99mTc, is injected, and the heart is imaged to evaluate the flow through ... the drug is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and flow through the vessels in the brain for cerebral blood-flow imaging. ... and to perform ventriculography. A pyrophosphate ion with 99mTc adheres to calcium deposits in damaged heart muscle, making it ... 3 is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and flow through the vessels in the brain for cerebral blood flow imaging. Other ...
Dandy, W. E. (July 1918). "Ventriculography Following the Injection of Air into the Cerebral Ventricles". Annals of Surgery. 68 ... Originally described by Walter Dandy in 1918 as a way to perform ventriculography via occipital approach. It is located 2 ...
E5.629.937.180 Cerebral Ventriculography E1.370.376.560.190 E1.370.350.578.937.190 E1.370.376.537.750.190 E5.629.937.190 ... E5.242.373 Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Familial C10.228.140.300.275.311 C14.907.253.329.311 Cerebral Angiography E1.370. ...
E5.629.937.180 Cerebral Ventriculography E1.370.376.560.190 E1.370.350.578.937.190 E1.370.376.537.750.190 E5.629.937.190 ... E5.242.373 Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Familial C10.228.140.300.275.311 C14.907.253.329.311 Cerebral Angiography E1.370. ...
E5.629.937.180 Cerebral Ventriculography E1.370.376.560.190 E1.370.350.578.937.190 E1.370.376.537.750.190 E5.629.937.190 ... E5.242.373 Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Familial C10.228.140.300.275.311 C14.907.253.329.311 Cerebral Angiography E1.370. ...
E5.629.937.180 Cerebral Ventriculography E1.370.376.560.190 E1.370.350.578.937.190 E1.370.376.537.750.190 E5.629.937.190 ... E5.242.373 Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Familial C10.228.140.300.275.311 C14.907.253.329.311 Cerebral Angiography E1.370. ...
E5.629.937.180 Cerebral Ventriculography E1.370.376.560.190 E1.370.350.578.937.190 E1.370.376.537.750.190 E5.629.937.190 ... E5.242.373 Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Familial C10.228.140.300.275.311 C14.907.253.329.311 Cerebral Angiography E1.370. ...
E5.629.937.180 Cerebral Ventriculography E1.370.376.560.190 E1.370.350.578.937.190 E1.370.376.537.750.190 E5.629.937.190 ... E5.242.373 Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Familial C10.228.140.300.275.311 C14.907.253.329.311 Cerebral Angiography E1.370. ...
E5.629.937.180 Cerebral Ventriculography E1.370.376.560.190 E1.370.350.578.937.190 E1.370.376.537.750.190 E5.629.937.190 ... E5.242.373 Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Familial C10.228.140.300.275.311 C14.907.253.329.311 Cerebral Angiography E1.370. ...
E5.629.937.180 Cerebral Ventriculography E1.370.376.560.190 E1.370.350.578.937.190 E1.370.376.537.750.190 E5.629.937.190 ... E5.242.373 Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Familial C10.228.140.300.275.311 C14.907.253.329.311 Cerebral Angiography E1.370. ...
E5.629.937.180 Cerebral Ventriculography E1.370.376.560.190 E1.370.350.578.937.190 E1.370.376.537.750.190 E5.629.937.190 ... E5.242.373 Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Familial C10.228.140.300.275.311 C14.907.253.329.311 Cerebral Angiography E1.370. ...
Ventriculography, Cerebral use Cerebral Ventriculography Ventriculography, Equilibrium Radionuclide use Gated Blood-Pool ... Ventriculography, Gated Radionuclide use Gated Blood-Pool Imaging Ventriculography, Radionuclide use Radionuclide ...
Ventriculography, Cerebral use Cerebral Ventriculography Ventriculography, Equilibrium Radionuclide use Gated Blood-Pool ... Ventriculography, Gated Radionuclide use Gated Blood-Pool Imaging Ventriculography, Radionuclide use Radionuclide ...
Ventriculography, Cerebral use Cerebral Ventriculography. Ventriculography, Equilibrium Radionuclide use Gated Blood-Pool ...
Ventriculography, Cerebral use Cerebral Ventriculography Ventriculography, Equilibrium Radionuclide use Gated Blood-Pool ... Ventriculography, Gated Radionuclide use Gated Blood-Pool Imaging Ventriculography, Radionuclide use Radionuclide ...
Radionuclide ventriculography and/or cisternography have been used postnatally to demonstrate the intracranial extension of an ... Angiography remains the criterion standard for depicting vascular anomalies; however, cerebral angiography is rarely used in ...
After the establishment of ECMO, transthoracic echocardiography and left ventriculography revealed massive pericardial effusion ... increasing the intracranial pressure and reducing cerebral perfusion levels. CASE PRESENTATION: A 65-year-old man was ...
Left ventriculography a. Rao, lao, andlao cranial views. B. She may be necessary. 28,24 under normal conditions, the ... abnormal indices of cerebral blood flow from the umbilical artery. Box 20-13 criteria for these tumors and are at increased ...
Ventriculography is used to visualize ventricular wall motion and ventricular outflow tracts, including subvalvular, valvular, ... focal interruption of cerebral blood flow that causes neurologic deficit. Strokes can be Ischemic (80%), typically resulting ... focal interruption of cerebral blood flow that causes neurologic deficit. Strokes can be Ischemic (80%), typically resulting ...
Optimization of methodology and characterization of cerebral transport kinetics. Seidemo, A., 2023 Apr 4, Lund: Lund University ... First-Pass Ventriculography 79% * Pulmonary Atresia With Ventricular Septal Defect 74% * Angiography 73% ...
Adverse cerebral outcomes after coronary bypass surgery. Multicenter Study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group and the ... Echocardiography or ventriculography (to assess LV function). * Coronary angiography (to define the extent and location of CAD) ... major adverse cardiac and cerebral event; PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention; STEMI = ST-segment elevation myocardial ... major adverse cardiac and cerebral event; PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention; STEMI = ST-segment elevation myocardial ...
Ventriculography, & Angiography - 1 Heart Catheterization, Ventriculography, & Angiography - 10 Heart Catheterization, ... Nasal Tip Belly Button Piercing BICAP Cautery Biceps Tendon Repair Bifrontal Cranioplasty Bilateral Carotid Cerebral Angiogram ... Ventriculography, & Angiography - 11 Heart Catheterization, Ventriculography, & Angiography - 12 Heart Catheterization, ... Ventriculography, & Angiography - 2 Heart Catheterization, Ventriculography, & Angiography - 3 Heart Catheterization, ...
Cerebral angiography. WL 141. WL 141.5.C48. Cerebral ventriculography. WL 141. WL 141.5.M2. Magnetic resonance imaging. WL 141 ...
... and cerebral atrophy, but the frequency and the spectrum of neurologic features of this condition are poorly defined. We report ... Cerebral Ventriculography Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is anecdotally associated with macrocephaly, hydrocephalus, basilar invagination, and cerebral ...
Angiocardiography, cerebral arteriography, or visceral arteriography (320 mg Iodine/mL): The recommended dosage is 1 to 2 mL/kg ... Angiocardiography (left ventriculography and selective coronary arteriography), peripheral arteriography, visceral ... Nervous System: cerebral vascular disorder, convulsions, hypoesthesia, stupor, confusion. Peripheral Vascular Disorders: ... Cerebral arteriography was evaluated in two randomized, double-blind clinical trials in 51 adult patients given VISIPAQUE 320 ...
E5.629.937.180 Cerebral Ventriculography E1.370.376.560.190 E1.370.350.578.937.190 E1.370.376.537.750.190 E5.629.937.190 ... E5.242.373 Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Familial C10.228.140.300.275.311 C14.907.253.329.311 Cerebral Angiography E1.370. ...
Fluoroscopic cerebral ventriculography (procedure) {419157006 , SNOMED-CT } Fluoroscopy of programmable cerebrospinal fluid ... Ventriculography of brain (procedure) {171549002 , SNOMED-CT } Parent/Child (Relationship Type) Cerebrospinal fluid flow ... Contrast ventriculography of brain (procedure) {268434001 , SNOMED-CT } External drainage of ventricle of brain using ... imaging, ventriculography (procedure) {82831001 , SNOMED-CT } Computed tomography of ventricle of brain (procedure) {719893002 ...
CEREBRAL 1977-89; was VENTRICULOGRAPHY 1963-76. Online Note. use CEREBRAL VENTRICULOGRAPHY to search VENTRICULOGRAPHY, CEREBRAL ... CEREBRAL VENTRICULOGR. Entry Term(s). Ventriculography, Cerebral See Also. Cerebral Ventricles. Public MeSH Note. 90; was ... It is used also for x-ray computed tomography of the cerebral ventricles.. Terms. Cerebral Ventriculography Preferred Term Term ... 90; was VENTRICULOGRAPHY, CEREBRAL 1977-89; was VENTRICULOGRAPHY 1963-76. Date Established. 1977/01/01. Date of Entry. 1976/04/ ...
CEREBRAL 1977-89; was VENTRICULOGRAPHY 1963-76. Online Note. use CEREBRAL VENTRICULOGRAPHY to search VENTRICULOGRAPHY, CEREBRAL ... CEREBRAL VENTRICULOGR. Entry Term(s). Ventriculography, Cerebral See Also. Cerebral Ventricles. Public MeSH Note. 90; was ... It is used also for x-ray computed tomography of the cerebral ventricles.. Terms. Cerebral Ventriculography Preferred Term Term ... 90; was VENTRICULOGRAPHY, CEREBRAL 1977-89; was VENTRICULOGRAPHY 1963-76. Date Established. 1977/01/01. Date of Entry. 1976/04/ ...
Cerebral Ventriculography MeSH DeCS ID:. 2881 Unique ID:. D002831 NLM Classification:. WL 307 ...
Cerebral angiography WL 141.5.C48 Cerebral ventriculography WL 141.5.M2 Magnetic resonance imaging ...
CEREBRAL x PARALYSIS, CEREBRAL SPASTIC INFANTILE CEREBRAL VENTRICLES see also VENTRICULOGRAPHY x RHOMBOID FOSSA X RHOMBOEDAL ... CEREBRAL see CEREBRAL PALSY PALUDRINE see CHLOROGUANIDE PAMAQUINE see ANTIMALARIALS PANCOAST SYNDROME xx LUNGS, neoplasms ... hemorrhaae see CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE radiography see also VENTRICULOGRAPHY x ENCEPHALOGRAPHY BRAIN STEM see also DIENCEPHALON see ... VENTRICULOGRAPHY xx BRAIN, radiography xx CEREBRAL VENTRICLES VENULES see VEINS VERATRUM ALKALOIDS xx ALKALOIDS VERDOPEROXIDASE ...
E5.629.937.180 Cerebral Ventriculography E1.370.376.560.190 E1.370.350.578.937.190 E1.370.376.537.750.190 E5.629.937.190 ... E5.242.373 Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Familial C10.228.140.300.275.311 C14.907.253.329.311 Cerebral Angiography E1.370. ...
E5.629.937.180 Cerebral Ventriculography E1.370.376.560.190 E1.370.350.578.937.190 E1.370.376.537.750.190 E5.629.937.190 ... E5.242.373 Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Familial C10.228.140.300.275.311 C14.907.253.329.311 Cerebral Angiography E1.370. ...
E5.629.937.180 Cerebral Ventriculography E1.370.376.560.190 E1.370.350.578.937.190 E1.370.376.537.750.190 E5.629.937.190 ... E5.242.373 Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Familial C10.228.140.300.275.311 C14.907.253.329.311 Cerebral Angiography E1.370. ...
E5.629.937.180 Cerebral Ventriculography E1.370.376.560.190 E1.370.350.578.937.190 E1.370.376.537.750.190 E5.629.937.190 ... E5.242.373 Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Familial C10.228.140.300.275.311 C14.907.253.329.311 Cerebral Angiography E1.370. ...
E5.629.937.180 Cerebral Ventriculography E1.370.376.560.190 E1.370.350.578.937.190 E1.370.376.537.750.190 E5.629.937.190 ... E5.242.373 Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Familial C10.228.140.300.275.311 C14.907.253.329.311 Cerebral Angiography E1.370. ...
E5.629.937.180 Cerebral Ventriculography E1.370.376.560.190 E1.370.350.578.937.190 E1.370.376.537.750.190 E5.629.937.190 ... E5.242.373 Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Familial C10.228.140.300.275.311 C14.907.253.329.311 Cerebral Angiography E1.370. ...
Isquemia Encefálica , Procedimentos Endovasculares , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Angiografia Cerebral , ... The department from its inception performed all diagnostic Neuro-Radiological procedures, angiography, ventriculography, pneumo ... In 1976 transfemoral cerebral angiography was started by Dr S K Pandya. In 1978 he started performing interventional procedures ... Procedural success (modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction ≥2b) observed in AC and PC was 92.9% and 84%, respectively (P ...
None of the patients without passage through the stenotic aortic valve nor any of the controls had any evidence of new cerebral ... Thirty-two patients without AS who underwent coronary angiography and ventriculography served as controls. ... manifested new focal diffusion abnormalities consistent with acute cerebral embolic events after the procedure, but only three ...
Cerebral edema. Postmarketing Reports. Cardiac disorders: cardiac arrest, ventricular fibrillation, atrial fibrillation, ... Coronary Arteriography & Left Ventriculography. 370 mg/mL, intra-arterial single injection dose ... Nervous system disorders: cerebral ischemia/infarction, paralysis, paresis, transient cortical blindness, aphasia, coma, ... Intrathecal administration, even if inadvertent, can cause death, convulsions, cerebral hemorrhage, coma, paralysis, ...
Cerebral gliomas, their appearance in CT and rational therapy].. Kvícala V. Cesk Radiol; 1982 Jul; 36(4):219-24. PubMed ID: ... Pantopaque ventriculography: demonstration and assessment of lesions of the third ventricle and posterior fossa.. Lang EK; ... 1. [Neuroradiology in cerebral gliomas].. Bernasconi V; Farabola M; Zavanone ML. Minerva Med; 1984 May; 75(21):1293-303. PubMed ... 6. [Computed tomography and/or ventriculography? (authors transl)].. Wende S; Kishikawa T; Hüwel N; Kazner E; Grumme T; ...
It is inferred from these observations that strokes in the presence of cerebral tumours may be caused by rapid fluctuations in ... PMID- 14068768 TI - LEFT VENTRICULOGRAPHY FOLLOWING MITRAL VALVE REPLACEMENT. A CASE REPORT. PMID- 14068767 TI - COMBINED ... PMID- 14069442 TI - CEREBRAL COMPLICATIONS IN NITROGLYCERINE TREATMENT OF ANGINA PECTORIS. PMID- 14069443 TI - INFLUENCE OF ... It is suggested that these hormones decrease the cerebral edema and thus produce the remissions. PMID- 14069610 TI - THE OCULAR ...
... no 4-vessel cerebral angiogram,noun,E0669323,4-vessel cerebral angiography,noun,E0669322,no venogram,noun,E0069626,venography, ... radionuclide ventriculography,noun,E0710011,no excretory urogram,noun,E0714974,excretory urography,noun,E0227571,no zymogram, ... no four-vessel cerebral arteriogram,noun,E0669324,four-vessel cerebral arteriography,noun,E0669325,no phlebogram,noun,E0069651, ... no 4-vessel cerebral arteriogram,noun,E0669324,4-vessel cerebral arteriography,noun,E0669325,no apex cardiogram,noun,E0069221, ...
Cerebral angiography may be useful in the evaluation of vasculitis resulting from cisternal NCC. Narrowing, occlusion, and the ... Radiographs have been used as part of the evaluation during ventriculography for the diagnosis of intraventricular ... In the first subtype, NCC is located in the gyri of the cerebral convexities; in this subtype, the appearance and presentation ... Parenchymal cysts are usually found in the cerebral cortex, including the cortical-subcortical junction. The white matter is ...
  • Originally described by Walter Dandy in 1918 as a way to perform ventriculography via occipital approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1976 transfemoral cerebral angiography was started by Dr S K Pandya. (bvsalud.org)
  • Thirty-two patients without AS who underwent coronary angiography and ventriculography served as controls. (medscape.com)
  • however, cerebral angiography is rarely used in the evaluation of an encephalocele. (medscape.com)
  • Angiocardiography (left ventriculography and selective coronary arteriography), peripheral arteriography, visceral arteriography, and cerebral arteriography (320 mg Iodine/mL). (nih.gov)
  • Of the 101 AS patients who had retrograde catheterization of the aortic valve, 22% manifested new focal diffusion abnormalities consistent with acute cerebral embolic events after the procedure, but only three of these patients (3%) had clinically apparent neurologic deficits. (medscape.com)

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