Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts
Successful treatment of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii ventriculitis with intrathecal and intravenous colistin. (1/10)Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) nosocomial infections, especially those due to multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains, are increasingly detected. We report a case of a 42-year-old male patient affected by low-grade ependymoma who developed AB-MDR post-neurosurgical ventriculitis. Initially, because of in vitro susceptibility, we used a combination of intravenous colistin and tigecycline. This treatment resulted in the improvement of the patient's initial condition. However, soon after, the infection relapsed; tigecycline was stopped and treatment with intrathecal colistin was initiated. Cure was achieved by continuing this treatment for approximately three weeks, without adverse effects. (+info)
Intrathecal colistin for treatment of multidrug resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa after neurosurgical ventriculitis. (2/10)Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts significantly improve the quality of life in patients with acute hydrocephalus. However, infections associated with a CSF shunt constitute a severe complication with high morbidity and mortality. We describe a case of CFS shunt infection cured with intrathecal colistin. (+info)
Neuroendoscopic surgery for unilateral hydrocephalus due to inflammatory obstruction of the Monro foramen. (3/10)(+info)
Neurosurgical gram-negative bacillary ventriculitis and meningitis: a retrospective study evaluating the efficacy of intraventricular gentamicin therapy in 31 consecutive cases. (4/10)(+info)
Diffusion MRI findings of cytomegalovirus-associated ventriculitis: a case report. (5/10)(+info)
External ventricular drain infections: successful implementation of strategies to reduce infection rate. (6/10)INTRODUCTION: External ventricular drain (EVD) infections can cause serious complications. We performed an audit of EVD infections within our neurosurgical unit. Through this study, we aimed to reduce the incidence of external ventricular drain-related infection, including ventriculities in neurosurgical patients. METHODS: We conducted an audit of the EVD infections in our institution observed over a one-and-a-half year period. This was conducted in three phases. A baseline EVD infection rate was determined for Phase I, from January to June 2007. We introduced the following measures to reduce EVD infection rate in Phase II, from July to December 2007: (1) For Neurosurgery doctors: performing proper surgical techniques to minimise intra-operative infections; educating junior doctors on proper CSF sampling from the EVD; and minimising the number of days the EVD is maintained in situ; (2) For Neurosurgery nurse clinicians: developing Standard Operating Procedures on nursing management of EVDs; conducting EVD care workshops for nurses working in neurosurgical wards; and competency skill checks on the management of EVDs for nurses working in the neurosurgical wards. Silver-coated EVDs were introduced in Phase III of the study from January to June 2008. RESULTS: The EVD infection rate decreased from a baseline of 6.1% to 3.8% in Phase II; a further reduction from 3.8% to 0% was achieved during Phase III. CONCLUSION: Good teamwork among doctors and nurses is essential for reducing EVD infection rate. We managed to reduce EVD infections substantially and would continue to strive to remain infection-free in the future. (+info)
Impact of an educational intervention implanted in a neurological intensive care unit on rates of infection related to external ventricular drains. (7/10)(+info)
Metal external ventricular drainage catheters in the treatment of persistent ventriculitis - an old story made new: technical note and preliminary results. (8/10)(+info)
The symptoms of cerebral ventriculitis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the location of the inflammation. Common symptoms include fever, headache, confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness. In severe cases, the condition can lead to brain damage, hydrocephalus (an accumulation of CSF in the brain), and even death.
The diagnosis of cerebral ventriculitis is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Laboratory tests may include blood cultures, electrolyte panels, and liver function tests to assess the overall health of the patient. Imaging studies can help to identify any abnormalities in the brain, such as abscesses or inflammation in the ventricles.
Treatment of cerebral ventriculitis typically involves the use of antibiotics to clear the infection. In severe cases, surgical drainage of the abscess may be necessary. Supportive care, such as intravenous fluids and monitoring of vital signs, is also important to ensure the patient's overall health and stability.
Prognosis for cerebral ventriculitis depends on the severity of the infection and the promptness and effectiveness of treatment. In general, early diagnosis and treatment can improve the chances of a successful outcome. However, the condition can be life-threatening, especially if it is not recognized and treated promptly.
Prevention of cerebral ventriculitis involves good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and properly sterilizing medical equipment. Vaccination against common infections, such as meningitis, can also help to prevent the development of cerebral ventriculitis.
Overall, cerebral ventriculitis is a serious condition that requires prompt recognition and treatment to improve outcomes for affected individuals. With appropriate care and supportive measures, many people with this condition are able to recover fully or partially. However, in severe cases or those that are not treated promptly, the condition can be life-threatening.
Encephalitis can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, headache, confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness. In severe cases, encephalitis can lead to brain damage, coma, and even death.
The diagnosis of encephalitis is based on a combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include blood tests to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens specific to the causative agent, as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis to look for inflammatory markers and/or bacteria or viruses in the CSF. Imaging studies, such as CT or MRI scans, may be used to visualize the brain and identify any areas of damage or inflammation.
Treatment of encephalitis typically involves supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and medication to manage fever and pain. Antiviral or antibacterial drugs may be used to target the specific causative agent, if identified. In severe cases, hospitalization in an intensive care unit (ICU) may be necessary to monitor and manage the patient's condition.
Prevention of encephalitis includes vaccination against certain viruses that can cause the condition, such as herpes simplex virus and Japanese encephalitis virus. Additionally, avoiding exposure to mosquitoes and other insects that can transmit viruses or bacteria that cause encephalitis, as well as practicing good hygiene and sanitation, can help reduce the risk of infection.
Overall, encephalitis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment. With appropriate care, many patients with encephalitis can recover fully or partially, but some may experience long-term neurological complications or disability.
There are several types of hydrocephalus, including:
1. Aqueductal stenosis: This occurs when the aqueduct that connects the third and fourth ventricles becomes narrowed or blocked, leading to an accumulation of CSF in the brain.
2. Choroid plexus papilloma: This is a benign tumor that grows on the surface of the choroid plexus, which is a layer of tissue that produces CSF.
3. Hydrocephalus ex vacuo: This occurs when there is a decrease in the volume of brain tissue due to injury or disease, leading to an accumulation of CSF.
4. Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH): This is a type of hydrocephalus that occurs in adults and is characterized by an enlarged ventricle, gait disturbances, and cognitive decline, despite normal pressure levels.
5. Symptomatic hydrocephalus: This type of hydrocephalus is caused by other conditions such as brain tumors, cysts, or injuries.
Symptoms of hydrocephalus can include headache, nausea, vomiting, seizures, and difficulty walking or speaking. Treatment options for hydrocephalus depend on the underlying cause and may include medication, surgery, or a shunt to drain excess CSF. In some cases, hydrocephalus can be managed with lifestyle modifications such as regular exercise and a balanced diet.
Prognosis for hydrocephalus varies depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. However, with timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment, many people with hydrocephalus can lead active and fulfilling lives.
Symptoms of meningitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, nausea and vomiting, and sensitivity to light. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures, brain damage, and even death.
There are several types of meningitis, including:
1. Viral meningitis: This is the most common form of the infection and is usually caused by enteroviruses or herpesviruses. It is typically less severe than bacterial meningitis and resolves on its own with supportive care.
2. Bacterial meningitis: This is a more serious form of the infection and can be caused by a variety of bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae. It requires prompt antibiotic treatment to prevent long-term complications and death.
3. Fungal meningitis: This type of meningitis is more common in people with weakened immune systems and is caused by fungi that are commonly found in the environment. It can be treated with antifungal medications.
4. Parasitic meningitis: This type of meningitis is rare and is caused by parasites that are typically found in tropical regions. It can be treated with antiparasitic medications.
Diagnosis of meningitis is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include blood cultures, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. Imaging studies, such as CT or MRI scans, may be used to rule out other conditions and to evaluate the extent of brain damage.
Treatment of meningitis depends on the cause of the infection and may include antibiotics, antiviral medications, antifungal medications, or supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Supportive care may include intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and pain management. In severe cases, meningitis may require hospitalization in an intensive care unit (ICU) and may result in long-term consequences such as hearing loss, learning disabilities, or cognitive impairment.
Prevention of meningitis includes vaccination against the bacteria or viruses that can cause the infection, good hygiene practices, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick. Vaccines are available for certain types of meningitis, such as the meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). Good hygiene practices include washing hands frequently, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding sharing food, drinks, or personal items.
In conclusion, meningitis is a serious and potentially life-threatening infection that can affect people of all ages. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term consequences and improve outcomes. Prevention includes vaccination, good hygiene practices, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
A type of meningitis caused by a fungal infection. Fungal meningitis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that can occur when fungi enter the bloodstream and spread to the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meninges).
The most common types of fungi that cause fungal meningitis are Aspergillus, Candida, and Cryptococcus. These fungi can be found in soil, decaying organic matter, and contaminated food. People with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or taking immunosuppressive drugs, are at a higher risk of developing fungal meningitis.
Symptoms of fungal meningitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, sensitivity to light, and confusion. If left untreated, fungal meningitis can lead to serious complications such as brain damage, hearing loss, and seizures. Treatment typically involves the use of antifungal medications, and in severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or relieve pressure on the brain.
Preventive measures for fungal meningitis include avoiding exposure to fungal sources, practicing good hygiene, and taking antifungal medications as prescribed by a healthcare professional. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical in preventing serious complications and improving outcomes for patients with fungal meningitis.
The symptoms of a brain abscess can vary depending on the location and size of the abscess, but may include:
* Confusion or disorientation
* Weakness or numbness in the arms or legs
* Vision problems
* Speech difficulties
If a brain abscess is suspected, a doctor will typically perform a physical examination and order imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, as well as surgery to drain the abscess and remove any infected tissue. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the patient.
With prompt and appropriate treatment, most people with a brain abscess can recover fully or almost fully, but in some cases, the condition can result in long-term complications such as memory loss, cognitive impairment, or personality changes. In rare instances, a brain abscess can be fatal if not treated promptly and properly.
Symptoms of bacterial meningitis may include sudden onset of fever, headache, stiff neck, nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light. In severe cases, the infection can cause seizures, coma, and even death.
Bacterial meningitis can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection, and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients with bacterial meningitis. The disease is more common in certain groups, such as infants, young children, and people with weakened immune systems, and it can be more severe in these populations.
Prevention of bacterial meningitis includes vaccination against the bacteria that most commonly cause the disease, good hand hygiene, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
Treatment involves administration of anti-TB drugs, usually in combination with supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications such as seizures and brain damage. Treatment can take several months and must be completed even if symptoms improve before finishing treatment.
Prevention is difficult because TB bacteria are often resistant to standard antibiotics, so it's important for individuals with HIV or other conditions that weaken the immune system to avoid exposure to TB bacteria whenever possible and receive regular screening tests.
External ventricular drain
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
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- 3. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of tubercular ventriculitis: an under-recognized complication of tubercular meningitis. (nih.gov)
- 5. [The duration of antibiotic therapy in bacterial meningitis with pyogenic ventriculitis]. (nih.gov)
- 14. The first report of human meningitis and pyogenic ventriculitis caused by Streptococcus suis: A case report. (nih.gov)
- 16. Pyogenic Ventriculitis and Meningitis Caused by Streptococcus Acidominimus in Humans: A Case Report. (nih.gov)
- Ventriculitis or ependymitis is defined as ventricular ependyma infection related to meningitis, cerebral abscess rupture into ventricular. (radrounds.com)
- 12. Primary bacterial ventriculitis in adults, an emergent diagnosis challenge: report of a meningoccal case and review of the literature. (nih.gov)
- 9. Diagnosis and treatment of severe neurosurgical patients with pyogenic ventriculitis caused by gram-negative bacteria. (nih.gov)
- 4. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging diagnostic relevance in pyogenic ventriculitis with an atypical presentation: a case report. (nih.gov)
- In contrast, the term noncystic PVL is often used to denote the microscopic focal necrotic component of PVL plus a component of diffuse gliosis in cerebral white matter. (medscape.com)
- Successful Whole Genome Sequencing-guided Treatment of Mycoplasma hominis Ventriculitis in a Preterm Infant. (nih.gov)
- Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots. (bvsalud.org)