Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Fourth Ventricle: An irregularly shaped cavity in the RHOMBENCEPHALON, located between the MEDULLA OBLONGATA; the PONS; and the isthmus in front, and the CEREBELLUM behind. It is continuous with the central canal of the cord below and with the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT above, and through its lateral and median apertures it communicates with the SUBARACHNOID SPACE.Cisterna Magna: One of three principal openings in the SUBARACHNOID SPACE. They are also known as cerebellomedullary cistern, and collectively as cisterns.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Shivering: Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Lateral Ventricles: Cavity in each of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES derived from the cavity of the embryonic NEURAL TUBE. They are separated from each other by the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM, and each communicates with the THIRD VENTRICLE by the foramen of Monro, through which also the choroid plexuses (CHOROID PLEXUS) of the lateral ventricles become continuous with that of the third ventricle.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Pempidine: A nicotinic antagonist most commonly used as an experimental tool. It has been used as a ganglionic blocker in the treatment of hypertension but has largely been supplanted for that purpose by more specific drugs.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Ependyma: A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Hypnosis, Anesthetic: Procedure in which an individual is induced into a trance-like state to relieve pain. This procedure is frequently performed with local but not general ANESTHESIA.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Physostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the brain ventricles, including the two lateral, the third, and the fourth ventricle. Ventricular tumors may be primary (e.g., CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS and GLIOMA, SUBEPENDYMAL), metastasize from distant organs, or occur as extensions of locally invasive tumors from adjacent brain structures.Hexamethonium Compounds: Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.Tranylcypromine: A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Third Ventricle: A narrow cleft inferior to the CORPUS CALLOSUM, within the DIENCEPHALON, between the paired thalami. Its floor is formed by the HYPOTHALAMUS, its anterior wall by the lamina terminalis, and its roof by EPENDYMA. It communicates with the FOURTH VENTRICLE by the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT, and with the LATERAL VENTRICLES by the interventricular foramina.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Histamine Agents: Drugs used for their actions on histaminergic systems. Included are drugs that act at histamine receptors, affect the life cycle of histamine, or affect the state of histaminergic cells.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Pyrogens: Substances capable of increasing BODY TEMPERATURE and cause FEVER and may be used for FEVER THERAPY. They may be of microbial origin, often POLYSACCHARIDES, and may contaminate distilled water.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Choroid Plexus: A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Phentolamine: A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: Semisynthetic derivative of ergot (Claviceps purpurea). It has complex effects on serotonergic systems including antagonism at some peripheral serotonin receptors, both agonist and antagonist actions at central nervous system serotonin receptors, and possibly effects on serotonin turnover. It is a potent hallucinogen, but the mechanisms of that effect are not well understood.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Parasympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Malaria, Cerebral: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Prostaglandins E: (11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Anterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Cerebral Ventriculography: Radiography of the ventricular system of the brain after injection of air or other contrast medium directly into the cerebral ventricles. It is used also for x-ray computed tomography of the cerebral ventricles.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Ventricular Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.Double Outlet Right Ventricle: Incomplete transposition of the great vessels in which both the AORTA and the PULMONARY ARTERY arise from the RIGHT VENTRICLE. The only outlet of the LEFT VENTRICLE is a large ventricular septal defect (VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECTS or VSD). The various subtypes are classified by the location of the septal defect, such as subaortic, subpulmonary, or noncommitted.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Endocardium: The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Ventricular Dysfunction, Right: A condition in which the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the right ventricular wall.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Transposition of Great Vessels: A congenital cardiovascular malformation in which the AORTA arises entirely from the RIGHT VENTRICLE, and the PULMONARY ARTERY arises from the LEFT VENTRICLE. Consequently, the pulmonary and the systemic circulations are parallel and not sequential, so that the venous return from the peripheral circulation is re-circulated by the right ventricle via aorta to the systemic circulation without being oxygenated in the lungs. This is a potentially lethal form of heart disease in newborns and infants.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Cerebral Aqueduct: Narrow channel in the MESENCEPHALON that connects the third and fourth CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Heart Septum: This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.Reperfusion: Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Pia Mater: The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular: Enlargement of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is often attributed to PULMONARY HYPERTENSION and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two lower chambers of the heart. Classification of ventricular septal defects is based on location of the communication, such as perimembranous, inlet, outlet (infundibular), central muscular, marginal muscular, or apical muscular defect.

Adult subventricular zone neuronal precursors continue to proliferate and migrate in the absence of the olfactory bulb. (1/1602)

Neurons continue to be born in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles of adult mice. These cells migrate as a network of chains through the SVZ and the rostral migratory stream (RMS) into the olfactory bulb (OB), where they differentiate into mature neurons. The OB is the only known target for these neuronal precursors. Here, we show that, after elimination of the OB, the SVZ and RMS persist and become dramatically larger. The proportion of dividing [bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled] or dying (pyknotic or terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end-labeled) cells in the RMS was not significantly affected at 3 d or 3 weeks after bulbectomy (OBX). However, by 3 months after OBX, the percentage of BrdU-labeled cells in the RMS decreased by half and that of dying cells doubled. Surprisingly, the rostral migration of precursors continued along the RMS after OBX. This was demonstrated by focal microinjections of BrdU and grafts of SVZ cells carrying LacZ under the control of a neuron-specific promoter gene. Results indicate that the OB is not essential for proliferation and the directional migration of SVZ precursors.  (+info)

Effect of individual or combined ablation of the nuclear groups of the lamina terminalis on water drinking in sheep. (2/1602)

The subfornical organ (SFO), organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), and median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) were ablated either individually or in various combinations, and the effects on drinking induced by either intravenous infusion of hypertonic 4 M NaCl (1.3 ml/min for 30 min) or water deprivation for 48 h were studied. Ablation of either the OVLT or SFO alone did not affect drinking in response to intravenous 4 M NaCl, although combined ablation of these two circumventricular organs substantially reduced but did not abolish such drinking. Ablation of the MnPO or MnPO and SFO together also substantially reduced, but did not abolish, drinking in response to intravenous hypertonic NaCl. Only near-total destruction of the lamina terminalis (OVLT, MnPO, and part or all of the SFO) abolished acute osmotically induced drinking. The large lesions also reduced drinking after water deprivation, whereas none of the other lesions significantly affected such drinking. None of these lesions altered feeding. The results show that all parts of the lamina terminalis play a role in the drinking induced by acute increases in plasma tonicity. The lamina terminalis appears to play a less crucial role in the drinking response after water deprivation than for the drinking response to acute intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline.  (+info)

Volumetric change of the lateral ventricles in the human brain following glucose loading. (3/1602)

Lateral ventricular volumes were monitored and quantified using accurately registered magnetic resonance images (MRIs) in six healthy individuals 30 min before and up to 4 h after ingestion of a glucose drink. The volume of the lateral ventricles increased by an average (+/- S.E.M.) of 2.4 +/- 0.4% as blood glucose levels rose from 4.8 +/- 0.2 mmol l-1 to 8.4 +/- 0.4 mmol l-1. This was followed by a peak decrease of 5.99 +/- 3.3% below initial fasting volumes as blood glucose levels fell to 5.0 +/- 0.3 mmol l-1. We suggest that the secondary volume decrease demonstrates a homeostatic process of brain volume regulation for which the mechanism remains uncertain.  (+info)

Hyaline membrane disease, alkali, and intraventricular haemorrhage. (4/1602)

The relation between intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and hyaline membrane disease (HMD) was studied in singletons that came to necropsy at Hammersmith Hospital over the years 1966-73. The incidence of IVH in singleton live births was 3-22/1000 and of HMD 4-44/1000. Although the high figures were partily due to the large number of low birthweight infants born at this hospital, the incidence of IVH in babies weighing 1001-1500 g was three times as great as that reported in the 1658 British Perinatal Mortality Survey. Most IVH deaths were in babies with HMD, but the higher frequency of IVH was not associated with any prolongation of survival time of babies who died with HMD as compared with the 1958 survey. IVH was seen frequently at gestations of up to 36 weeks in babies with HMD but was rare above 30 weeks' gestation in babies without HMD. This indicated that factors associated with HMD must cause most cases of IVH seen at gestations above 30 weeks. Comparison of clinical details in infants with HMD who died with or without IVH (at gestations of 30-37 weeks) showed no significant differences between the groups other than a high incidence of fits and greater use of alkali therapy in the babies with IVH. During the 12 hours when most alkali therapy was given, babies dying with IVD received a mean total alkali dosage of 10-21 mmol/kg and those dying without IVH 6-34 mmol/kg (P less than 0-001). There was no difference in severity of hypoxia or of metabolic acidosis between the 2 groups. Babies who died with HMD and germinal layer haemorrhage (GLH) without IVH had received significantly more alkali than those who died with HMD alone, whereas survivors of severe respiratory distress syndrome had received lower alkali doses than other groups. It is suggested that the greatly increased death rate from IVH in babies with HMD indicates some alteration of management of HMD (since 1958) as a causative factor. Liberal use of hypertonic alkali solutions is the common factor which distinguishes babies dying with GLH and IVH from other groups of babies with HMD. Although the causal nature of this association remains unproved, it seems justifiable to lrge caution in alkali usage.  (+info)

Apparent loss and hypertrophy of interneurons in a mouse model of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis: evidence for partial response to insulin-like growth factor-1 treatment. (5/1602)

The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are progressive neurodegenerative disorders with onset from infancy to adulthood that are manifested by blindness, seizures, and dementia. In NCL, lysosomes accumulate autofluorescent proteolipid in the brain and other tissues. The mnd/mnd mutant mouse was first characterized as exhibiting adult-onset upper and lower motor neuron degeneration, but closer examination revealed early, widespread pathology similar to that seen in NCL. We used the autofluorescent properties of accumulated storage material to map which CNS neuronal populations in the mnd/mnd mouse show NCL-like pathological changes. Pronounced, early accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment was found in subpopulations of GABAergic neurons, including interneurons in the cortex and hippocampus. Staining for phenotypic markers normally present in these neurons revealed progressive loss of staining in the cortex and hippocampus of mnd/mnd mice, with pronounced hypertrophy of remaining detectable interneurons. In contrast, even in aged mutant mice, many hippocampal interneurons retained staining for glutamic acid decarboxylase. Treatment with insulin-like growth factor-1 partially restored interneuronal number and reduced hypertrophy in some subregions. These results provide the first evidence for the involvement of interneurons in a mouse model of NCL. Moreover, our findings suggest that at least some populations of these neurons persist in a growth factor-responsive state.  (+info)

A quantitative MR study of the hippocampal formation, the amygdala, and the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle in healthy subjects 40 to 90 years of age. (6/1602)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several investigators have defined normal age-specific values for the medial temporal lobe structures in neurologically normal elderly subjects, but, to our knowledge, no one has reported those values for a large sample of healthy volunteers. The purpose of our study was to define normal age-specific values for the hippocampal formation, the amygdala, and the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle by age group, ranging from 40 to 90 years, in order to generate a guideline for the quantitative MR diagnosis and differential diagnosis for early Alzheimer disease. METHODS: MR-based volumetric measurements of the hippocampal formation, the amygdala, and the temporal horn, standardized by total intracranial volume, were obtained from oblique coronal and sagittal T1-weighted MR images in 619 healthy volunteers and two cadaveric specimens. RESULTS: Differences in standardized volumes of the hippocampal formation, the amygdala, and the temporal horn were significant among the 61- to 70-year-old, 71- to 80-year-old, and 81- to 90-year-old groups, and were not significant between the 40- to 50-year-old and 51- to 60-year-old groups. We found no significant differences in side or sex among the age groups for any of the structures. CONCLUSION: Differences in the mean value and in the 95% normal range of standardized volumes of the hippocampal formation, the amygdala, and the temporal horn correspond to differences in age among healthy subjects; therefore, age should be considered a factor in correlative research, especially in that involving patients in the early stages of Alzheimer disease.  (+info)

Blood pressure reduction and diabetes insipidus in transgenic rats deficient in brain angiotensinogen. (7/1602)

Angiotensin produced systemically or locally in tissues such as the brain plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure and in the development of hypertension. We have established transgenic rats [TGR(ASrAOGEN)] expressing an antisense RNA against angiotensinogen mRNA specifically in the brain. In these animals, the brain angiotensinogen level is reduced by more than 90% and the drinking response to intracerebroventricular renin infusions is decreased markedly compared with control rats. Blood pressure of transgenic rats is lowered by 8 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133 Pa) compared with control rats. Crossbreeding of TGR(ASrAOGEN) with a hypertensive transgenic rat strain exhibiting elevated angiotensin II levels in tissues results in a marked attenuation of the hypertensive phenotype. Moreover, TGR(ASrAOGEN) exhibit a diabetes insipidus-like syndrome producing an increased amount of urine with decreased osmolarity. The observed reduction in plasma vasopressin by 35% may mediate these phenotypes of TGR(ASrAOGEN). This new animal model presenting long-term and tissue-specific down-regulation of angiotensinogen corroborates the functional significance of local angiotensin production in the brain for the central regulation of blood pressure and for the pathogenesis of hypertension.  (+info)

Recovery from anterograde and retrograde amnesia after percutaneous drainage of a cystic craniopharyngioma. (8/1602)

A case is reported of a cystic craniopharyngioma involving the floor and walls of the third ventricle. Pronounced anterograde and retrograde amnesia were documented preoperatively by formal testing. Rapid improvement in both new learning capacity and remote memory occurred after percutaneous twist drill drainage of the cystic portion of the tumour. The relevance of these observations to the amnesic syndrome and its neuropathological basis is discussed.  (+info)

Lesion of the anteroventral portion of the third cerebral ventricle causes hypernatremia, adipsia, and attenuation of the pressor response to intravenous administration of angiotensin II and norepinephrine. In addition, these lesions prevent the development of several experimental models of hypertension. In this study, a lesion of the third cerebral ventricle region was made in 14 dogs. In seven dogs in which hypernatremia developed the lesions included the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis; seven animals in which the circumventricular organ was spared by the lesion remained normonatremic. Vascular responsiveness of isolated right carotid artery rings to angiotensin II and phenylephrine was assessed 3 days after lesioning the anteroventral portion of the third cerebral ventricle. In endothelium-denuded ring vessels, vasoconstrictor responses to phenylephrine were significantly decreased in animals both with and without inclusion of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis. A ...
The brain ventricular system is essential for neurogenesis and brain homeostasis. Its neuroepithelial lining effects these functions, but the underlying molecular pathways remain to be understood. We found that the K channels expressed in neuroepithelial cells determine formation of the ventricular system. The phenotype of a novel zebrafish mutant characterized by denudation of neuroepithelial lining of the ventricular system and hydrocephalus is mechanistically linked to Kcng4b, the homologue of the "silent" voltage-gated K channel alpha-subunit Kv6.4. We demonstrated that Kcng4b modulates proliferation of cells lining the ventricular system and maintains their integrity. The gain of Kcng4b function reduces brain ventricles. Electrophysiological studies supported an idea that Kcng4b mediates its effects via an antagonistic interaction with Kcnb1, the homologue of the electrically active delayed rectifier K channel subunit Kv2.1. The mutation of kcnb1 reduces the size of ventricular system and ...
One unique feature of the vertebrate brain is that it is tubular. The lumen of the tube is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and forms the brain ventricular system, a circulatory system within the brain. Ventricular abnormalities lead to devastating brain disorders such as anencephaly and hydrocephalus. The embryonic development and function of this system are poorly understood. We analyze embryonic brain ventricle development in the zebrafish, an excellent system, as imaging the brain at single cell resolution in living embryos is feasible, and as many brain ventricle mutants have been identified. Brain ventricles form over a six-hour period, during mid-somitogenesis, and require normal junctions and ion pump activity. Thus, mutants in nagie oko, which encodes a MAGUK family protein, with no clear midline and disrupted epithelial junctional protein expression fail to inflate their ventricles. In the snakehead mutant brain, the ventricles also do not inflate due to a mutation in the NaK ...
The appointment yesterday went well. Ventricle size is still enlarged and is not showing a decrease at all, but the doctors do feel that although the condition is serious it is stable (no huge spikes in the amount of fluid). The babys head size is within the normal range so the doctors feel good about a natural delivery, which is positive. The baby is doing well apart from the ventriculomegaly, so this is also positive. Current estimated weight is 8lbs 11oz! This being the case (combined with babys condition) - if Baby Pitman decides not to come by May 20th Beth will be induced. We are still delivering in Iowa City and baby will go to the NICU shortly after birth. We are still hopeful for a reduction in ventricle size after birth. Surgery is still a possibility at this point, but this wont be decided until the baby can be evaluated outside of the womb. We are hoping that this can be avoided, but of course we will do whatever is best for baby! Infant brain surgery just sounds, well, a little ...
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is bleeding inside or around the ventricles in the brain. The ventricles are the spaces in the brain that contain the cerebral spinal fluid.
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is bleeding inside or around the ventricles in the brain. The ventricles are the spaces in the brain that contain the cerebral spinal fluid.
The tumor cells invade the ventricular system.A- Septo-Striatal section, phase contrast (tissue slides, 1X); B- The same Septo-Striatal section: Ki-67 (red) ove
Since Im going to be out of town on vacation for the next several weeks traveling over to England, my fiancé, Dr. Manuel Casanova, will be providing one or two guest posts to fill the SoaC void. As a recap for those whove forgotten, or for those who didnt read his first guest post on…
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Other than trying to prevent premature birth and treating health problems that may worsen a babys condition and increase the risk of IVH, theres no specific treatment for the condition. However, giving mothers medications called corticosteroids before delivery has been shown to reduce the risk of IVH in babies.. If the IVH is severe enough that the ventricles in the brain enlarge and put the surrounding brain at risk for damage, a shunt may be required to drain the excess fluid that has built up in the ventricles. A shunt is placed by a surgical procedure, and it drains the excess fluid from the ventricles in the brain under the skin to the abdomen.. ...
Tytuł projektu: Rozbudowa i przekształcenie bibliograficznej bazy danych AGRO w bazę bibliograficzno-abstraktową z wykorzystaniem oprogramowania YADDA. Nr umowy: POIG 02.03.02-00-031/09 (okres realizacji 2009-2013 ...
One of the major risks for premature babies is Intraventricular Hemorrhage. The blood vessels in their brain are so delicate that they burst and bleeding occurs in the ventricles of the brain. This happened to Clayton on his fifth day of life. He had grades three and four bleeds (four being the worst). As the blood dissolves and breaks down in the ventricles, it starts to block the natural flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Normally the CSF flows from the ventricles down through the spinal cord and is absorbed by the body. This is a natural cycle that occurs in everyones body. Claytons body seemed to handle the bleeds well at first. His ventricles stayed a normal size for quite some time before we started to see problems. But after about a month, his ventricles started to enlarge because the CSF wasnt flowing out. The neurosurgeons started doing daily spinal taps to help move the CSF. Eventually even this stopped working. The doctors had to start drawing the CSF directly out of Claytons head ...
Neuroblasts migrate long distances in the postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ) and rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulbs. Many fundamental features of SVZ migration are still poorly understood, and we addressed several important questions using two-photon time-lapse microscopy of brain slices from postnatal and adult eGFP(+) transgenic mice. 1) Longitudinal arrays of neuroblasts, so-called chain migration, have never been dynamically visualized in situ. We found that neuroblasts expressing doublecortin-eGFP (Dcx-eGFP) and glutamic acid decarboxylase-eGFP (Gad-eGFP) remained within arrays, which maintained their shape for many hours, despite the fact that there was a wide variety of movement within arrays. 2) In the dorsal SVZ, neuroblasts migrated rostrocaudally as expected, but migration shifted to dorsoventral orientations throughout ventral regions of the lateral ventricle. 3) Whereas polarized bipolar morphology has been a gold standard for inferring migration in histologic sections,
Anatomic, velocimetric, and brain motion MRI scans were combined with a computational fluid dynamics model to investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) mixing in the third cerebral ventricle of a healthy male adult. It was found that advection dominates over diffusion in most of the third ventricle. Three zones where diffusion plays an important role in the mixing process were identified. One of these zones, consisting of recessus infundibulus, recessus opticus and the adjacent regions up to commissura anterior, is likely to exist in the general population. We hypothesize that this zone may act as a buffer to flatten concentration peaks of pituitary gland hormones released into the CSF of the third ventricle. We further hypothesize that this zone may facilitate the communication between hypothalamus and the pituitary gland through the third ventricle cerebrospinal fluid by prolonging residence times of the communicated hormones. ...
The overall objective of this Phase III clinical trial is to obtain information from a population of 500 ICH subjects with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), representative of current clinical practice and national demographics of ICH regarding the benefit (or lack thereof) of IVH clot removal on subject function as measured by modified Rankin Scale (mRS). This application requests funding for five years to initiate a Phase III randomized clinical trial (RCT) testing the benefit of clot removal for intraventricular hemorrhage. The investigators propose to compare extraventricular drainage (EVD) use plus recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA; Alteplase; Genentech, Inc., San Francisco, CA) with EVD+ placebo in the management and treatment of subjects with small intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and large intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH defined as ICH , 30 cc and obstruction of the 3rd or 4th ventricles by intraventricular blood clot ...
The overall objective of this Phase III clinical trial is to obtain information from a population of 500 ICH subjects with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), representative of current clinical practice and national demographics of ICH regarding the benefit (or lack thereof) of IVH clot removal on subject function as measured by modified Rankin Scale (mRS). This application requests funding for five years to initiate a Phase III randomized clinical trial (RCT) testing the benefit of clot removal for intraventricular hemorrhage. The investigators propose to compare extraventricular drainage (EVD) use plus recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA; Alteplase; Genentech, Inc., San Francisco, CA and Boehringer Ingelheim, Inc., Ingelheim, Germany) with EVD+ placebo in the management and treatment of subjects with small intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and large intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH defined as ICH < 30 cc and obstruction of the 3rd or 4th ventricles by intraventricular blood ...
In vivo administration of pertussis toxin is often used to study the involvement of guanine nucleotide binding proteins in signal transduction. Especially when it is administered in the brain the effect is often poor. This could be due to the fact that pertussis toxin does not reach the area of interest. To evaluate the extent to which pertussis toxin is distributed in rat brain after intraventricular injection, different techniques were used. Immunohistochemical studies with an antibody against pertussis toxin showed that immunoreactivity was limited to periventricular brain structures less than 0.5 mm from the lumen. The highest immunoreactivity was seen 16-24 h after injection. After 96 h the labeling was very weak. The proportion of guanine nucleotide binding proteins that were ADP-ribosylated by in vivo injection of pertussis toxin into the ventricles as assessed by in vitro [32P]-back-ADP-ribosylation was very low 48 h after the injection, in all regions studied. Direct injection of pertussis
Cilia free our airways of dust, mucus, and pathogens, transport egg cells through the fallopian tubes, and help sperm to move forward. The four chambers in our brain, so-called cerebral ventricles, are also lined with a layer of highly specialized cells covered with bundles of cilia on their surface. Although each one is just a few thousandths of a millimeter in size, hundreds of them beating in unison can generate powerful flows.. Gregor Eichele and Regina Faubel at the Max Planck Institute (MPI) for Biophysical Chemistry, together with Eberhard Bodenschatz and Christian Westendorf at the MPI for Dynamics and Self-Organization, have now succeeded in making the complex network of these flows visible in an isolated cerebral ventricle tissue. For their experiments, the researchers in Göttingen concentrated on the third cerebral ventricle, which is embedded in the hypothalamus. "The hypothalamus is a very important control center, regulating functions like the circulatory system, body temperature, ...
Abstract BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction is common in multiple sclerosis (MS). Correlations are reported between atrophy and neuropsychological test results. OBJECTIVE: To determ..
Chronic ventriculomegaly in the absence of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) is a known entity in adult hydrocephalus practice. The natural history and indication for treatment is, however, poorly defined. A highly heterogeneous group, some adults with ventriculomegaly are asymptomatic, while others have life-threatening deteriorations. The authors hypothesized that the various presentations can be subtyped and represent different stages of decompensation. A cluster analysis was performed on a cohort of patients with chronic ventriculomegaly with the aim of elucidating typical clinical characteristics and outcomes in chronic ventriculomegaly in adults. ...
Duncan C, Chiang V: Intraventricular hemorrhage and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, in Albright A, Pollack I, Adelson P (eds): Principles and Practice of Pediatric Neurosurgery, ed 2. New York: Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc, 2008, vol 2, pp 145- ...
The Journal of Neuroscience, November 21, 2007, 27(47):12829-12838. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 Is Required for Control of Neuroblast Migration in the Postnatal Subventricular Zone. Yuki Hirota, Toshio Ohshima, Naoko Kaneko, Makiko Ikeda, Takuji Iwasato, Ashok B. Kulkarni, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba, Hideyuki Okano, and Kazunobu Sawamoto. At the lateral wall of the lateral ventricles in the adult rodent brain, neuroblasts form an extensive network of elongated cell aggregates called chains in the subventricular zone and migrate toward the olfactory bulb. The molecular mechanisms regulating this migration of neuroblasts are essentially unknown. Here, we report a novel role for cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), a neuronal protein kinase, in this process. Using in vitro and in vivo conditional knock-out experiments, we found that Cdk5 deletion impaired the chain formation, speed, directionality, and leading process extension of the neuroblasts in a cell-autonomous manner. These findings suggest that Cdk5 ...
ZEREBROSPINALFLÜSSIGKEIT (PHYSIOLOGIE, NEUROLOGIE); FLUIDDYNAMIK; KERNSPINRESONANZ-ABBILDUNGSVERFAHREN + KERNSPINRESONANZ-TOMOGRAPHIE (MEDIZINISCHE DIAGNOSTIK); MODELLRECHNUNG UND SIMULATION IN DER PHYSIOLOGIE; CEREBROSPINAL FLUID (PHYSIOLOGY, NEUROLOGY); FLUID DYNAMICS; NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING + NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE TOMOGRAPHY (MEDICAL DIAGNOSTICS); MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND SIMULATION IN ...
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a serious complication that can occur in premature infants. Learn more about IVH and related complications.
Annually, almost 5,000 extremely low birth weight (9 ounces to about 2 lbs) infants born in the US survive with severe bleeding in the brain (intraventricular hemorrhage); this devastating complication of prematurity is associated with many problems, including mental retardation, cerebral palsy, and learning disabilities, that result in profound individual and familial consequences. In addition, lifetime care costs for these severely affected infants born in a single year exceed $3 billion. The huge individual and societal costs underscore the need for developing care strategies that may limit severe bleeding in the brain of these tiny infants. The overall goal of our research is to evaluate disturbances of brain blood flow in these tiny infants in order to predict which of them are at highest risk and to develop better intensive care techniques that will limit severe brain injury.. ...
Grading of intracranial hemorrhage in neonates is based on ultrasound imaging. It has four grades with increasing mortality and decreasing outcome.
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Learn more about Intraventricular Hemorrhage of Infancy at Reston Hospital Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
The ventricular spaces in the various subdivisions of the brain reflects the fact that the ventricles are the adult derivatives of the open space of the embryonic neural tube. The two lateral ventricles, situated within the cerebrum, are relatively large and C-shaped, and roughly wraps around the dorsal aspects of the basal ganglia. In the lateral ventricles of the embryo the successive generation of neurons gives rise to the 6-layered structure of the neocortex, constructed from the inside out during development. ...
Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a softening of white brain tissue near the ventricles. The ventricles are fluid-filled chambers in the brain.
I prepared (or cooperated in the preparation of) the Work as part of my duties as an employee, and the Work is, therefore, a "work made for hire", as defined by the United States Copyright Act of 1976, as amended ...
Longitudinal whole-brain atrophy and ventricular enlargement in nondemented Parkinsons disease. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Positive T wave overshoot as a sign of ventricular enlargement.: A consecutive series of 86 patients with an inverted T wave showing terminal positivity (oversh
Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a softening of white brain tissue near the ventricles. The ventricles are fluid-filled chambers in the brain. These are the spaces in the brain that contain the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The white matter is the inner part of the brain. It sends information between the nerve cells and the spinal cord, and from one part of the brain to another. PVL occurs because brain tissue has been injured or has died. A lack of blood flow to the brain tissue before, during, or after birth causes PVL. It is rarely possible to tell when or why this happens. PVL is sometimes linked to bleeding inside the brain (intraventricular hemorrhage). PVL can occur in babies who are born early (preterm or premature). ...
Learn more about Fetal Ventriculomegaly at TriStar Centennial Parthenon Pavilion DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
If your baby is born prematurely, there are many worries that likely go through your mind. One of the things that can happen is bleeding on the brain. Read on to learn about this and what doctors can do help your baby.
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The foramen of Monro is an opening that connects the left and right sides of the lateral ventricles in the brain. The purpose of...
... is the delivery of pain medication within the cerebrospinal fluid of the cistern (C1-2 vertebra) and intracranial ventricles.
Developed by renowned radiologists in each specialty, STATdx provides comprehensive decision support you can rely on - Intraventricular Calcification(s)
A modified echocardiographic protocol with intrinsic plausibility control to determine intraventricular asynchrony based on TDI and TSI. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Video articles in JoVE about oligonucleotides antisense include Direct Intraventricular Delivery of Drugs to the Rodent Central Nervous System.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-term perfusion of the cerebroventricular system of dogs without leakage to the peripheral circulation. AU - Nitecki, S.. AU - Karmeli, R.. AU - Harty, G. J.. AU - Kamei, C.. AU - Yaksh, T. L.. AU - Szurszewski, J. H.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Methods developed previously for studying the effect of cerebroventricular injection or ventriculocisternal perfusion of test substances are unsatisfactory because the test substance is not confined to the central compartment. Most likely the test substance enters the peripheral circulation via the arachnoid villi. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method for perfusing the cerebroventricular system of conscious dogs without passage of test substances to the peripheral circulation. With the method described, the mean (±SE) cerebroventricular pressure in conscious dogs was 7.4 ± 0.8 cmH2O (n = 16), and the mean (±SE) production of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was 25 ± 0.3 μl/min (n = 16). Endogenously occurring migrating ...
This Phase III single blind study aims to evaluate the impact of intraventricular fibrinolysis in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH) on functional outcome
CranIal Nerve V lesion The differential diagnosis of cranial nerve V lesions / causes of cranial nerve lesion are : -neoplastic infiltration of the base of the skull -cerebellopontine angle tumor -acoustic neuroma
Each lateral ventricle has three horns also called cornus. They can be referred to by their position in the ventricle, or by the lobe that they extend into. The anterior horn of lateral ventricle or frontal horn, passes forward and to the side, with a slight inclination downward, from the interventricular foramen into the frontal lobe, and curves around the front of the caudate nucleus. Its floor is formed by the upper surface of the reflected portion of the corpus callosum, the rostrum. It is bounded medially by the front part of the septum pellucidum, and laterally by the head of the caudate nucleus. Its apex reaches the posterior surface of the genu of the corpus callosum. The posterior horn of lateral ventricle or occipital horn, passes into the occipital lobe. Its direction is backward and lateralward, and then medial ward. Its roof is formed by the fibers of the corpus callosum passing to the temporal and occipital lobes. On its medial wall is a longitudinal eminence, the calcar avis ...
To test the hypothesis that acute hyotension resulting from pneumothorax would be associated with severe brain injury (grade 3 or 4 intraventricular haemorrhage), 67 very low birthweight (VLBW) infants of 32 weeks gestation or less with respiratory distress syndrom and pneumothorax were studies. Thirty six had pneumothorax associated with systemic hypotension and 31 had pneumothorax with normal blood pressure. The groups were similar in gestational age and severity of their respiratory distress syndrome. Thirty two of 36 of infants with pneumothorax associated with hypotension (89%) had grade 3 or 4 intraventricular haemorrhage. This percentage was significantly greater than the percentage for infants with pneumothorax and normal blood pressure (three of 31, 10%). The risk ratio for grade 3 or 4 intraventricular haemorrhage for infants with pneumothorax associated with hypotension was 9-8 compared with neonates with pneumothorax and normal blood pressure. These observations are consistent with ...
The ventricular system of the brain has been since its discovery divided into four, the two lateral ventricles, the third and connected by a small tube, the fourth. Herophilus placed the soul in the fourth ventricle and the animal spirits (intellectual, motor system) in the brain itself (cerebrum). Taking information available from Herophilus concerning the ventricular localization of the soul and the concepts elaborated by Galen, a doctrine emerged which explained the function of the mind. This Cell Doctrine localized the mind to the ventricular system of the brain. The two lateral ventricles were considered to represent the first cell, the third ventricle the second and the fourth ventricle the third. information was synthesized in the back part of the first cell or in the second cell to form imaginativa (imagination) and fantasia (fantasy). The second cell was also the seat of reasoning. Words used for function processing in this cell included aestimativa (judgement), cognitativa ...
BACKGROUND: The anatomical origin of the enlargement of the cerebral ventricles in schizophrenia is obscure. METHODS: In this study, the volumes of the hemispheres and lateral ventricles were assessed in MRI scans of 43 formalin-fixed brains (23 from patients and 19 comparison subjects) using a spline snake segmentation method. RESULTS: A bilateral ventricular volume increase was found in schizophrenia. Whereas enlargement of the lateral ventricle (mean: 54%) as a whole was related to age of onset and was greater in females than in males, enlargement of the temporal horn (mean: 54%) was not strongly related to age of onset or sex. Lateral ventricle volume was negatively correlated with STG, fusiform and parahippocampal volume in schizophrenia. Hemispheric volumes were unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: The differing correlates of the components of ventricular enlargement suggest a degree of selectivity of the disease process with a focus in the temporal lobe.
Background: Intraventricular hemorrhages and respiratory distress syndrome are two common diseases in preterm infants. Observation-based care, may reduce the rate of these complications through energy saving, diminishing apnea periods and cerebral blood flow changes. Aim: to evaluate the effect of behavior observation-based care training for mothers on intraventricular hemorrhages and ventilation period. Methods: In this two-group clinical trial, 70 infants with gestation age of less than 32 weeks were observed in neonate intensive care unit of Omolbanin Hospital, 2014. In the intervention group, the mothers and nurses received training in infant behavior and care program, and preterm infants behavior were observed and recorded by means of Assessment of Preterm Infants Behavior. At the end of the intervention, incidence of cerebral hemorrhage and the hours of ventilation were recorded. The data were analyzed performing independent t-test, Chi-square and Pearson correlation coefficient, using SPSS.
The right and left lateral ventricles are structures within the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid, a clear, watery fluid that provides cushioning for the brain while also helping to circulate nutrients and remove waste. Along with the structures known as the third ventricle and the fourth ventricle, the lateral ventricles
Synonyms for third ventricle in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for third ventricle. 1 word related to third ventricle: ventricle. What are synonyms for third ventricle?
ICD-10 Procedure Code - 0016077. Utilized for Bypass of a Cerebral Ventricle to Urinary Tract with Autologous Tissue Substitute during an Open Approach.. ...
Grades I and II are most common, and often there are no further complications. Grades III and IV are the most serious and may result in long-term brain injury to the infant. After a grade III or IV IVH, blood clots may form which can block the flow of cerebrospinal fluid, leading to increased fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus). There have been various therapies employed into preventing the high rates of morbidity and mortality, including diuretic therapy,[14] repeated lumbar puncture,[15] streptokinase therapy [16] and most recently combination a novel intervention called DRIFT (drainage, irrigation and fibrinolytic therapy). In 2002, a Dutch retrospective study[17] analysed cases where neonatologists had intervened and drained CSF by lumbar or ventricular punctures if ventricular width (as shown on ultrasound) exceeded the 97th centile as opposed to the 97th centile plus 4 mm.[18] Professors Whitelaws original Cochrane review[14] published in 2001 as well as evidence from previous randomised ...
During vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) development, cells of the pseudostratified epithelium undergo cytokinesis at the ventricular surface. One daughter cell migrates peripherally along radial glial cells, whose processes extend from the ventricular to the pial surface, to differentiate in the mantle layer while the other daughter cell is retained to continue proliferating at the ventricular surface, eventually forming the ventricular zone (VZ). In mammals, this VZ separates into two layers: the ependymal cells forming a single layer in contact with the lumen, and the subventricular zone.. Although cytokinesis persists throughout the adult mammalian neuraxis [1, 2], neuronal differentiation occurs only in two restricted regions of the telencephalon. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) resident in the subventricular zone chain migrate as neuroblasts over long distances along the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulbs, where they terminally differentiate into GABAergic granule neurons ...
Review question Cochrane researchers reviewed the evidence about the effect of removal of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via lumbar or ventricular puncture and draining CSF via a needle inserted into the base of the spine or into a fluid-filled cavity in the brain on improving rates of disability, death, and the need for a permanent surgical procedure in preterm infants who have had bleeding inside the cavities of the brain (intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH)).. Background Babies that are born preterm are at risk of developing IVH. IVH can cause an excess of CSF to build up on the brain. The risk of this happening might be reduced by the removal of blood in the CSF via lumbar or ventricular taps. This might reduce the need for a permanent surgical procedure called a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS). VPS is problematic as it can easily become infected and often has to be replaced or repaired, which requires an operation.. Study characteristics We searched for trials up to 24 March 2016 that compared ...
The important role of the lymphatic vascular system in pathological conditions such as inflammation and cancer has been increasingly recognized, but its potential as a pharmacological target is used badly. cell migration was reduced as likened with nontargeting siRNA-transfected control LECs. Reduction of GPR97 moved the percentage of energetic RhoA and Cdc42 and started cytoskeletal rearrangements, including F-actin redistribution, pAK4 and paxillin phosphorylation, and 1-integrin service. Our data recommend a feasible part of GPR97 in lymphatic redesigning and furthermore offer the 1st information into the natural features of GPR97. microenvironment, Panobinostat we possess lately founded a technique for the remoteness of LECs and BECs straight from the mouse intestine adopted by microarray evaluation (13). These scholarly research possess determined book mediators of lymphatic advancement, growth, and function (13, 14). They indicated that many GPCRs also, including people of the lately ...
Improving and controlling the capacity of endogenous or grafted adult neural stem cells to repair the nervous system relies on a better knowledge (...)
A case of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage with negative computed tomography angiography findings
Learn more about Intraventricular Hemorrhage symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments from experts at Boston Childrens, ranked best Childrens Hospital by US News.
Details of the image Grade IV germinal matrix haemorrahge with intraventricular extension and hydrocephalus Modality: MRI (FLAIR)
Details of the image Grade IV germinal matrix haemorrahge with intraventricular extension and hydrocephalus Modality: MRI (DWI)
I Subependymal hemorrhage into one or both germinal matrices II Germinal matrix hemorrhage with intraventricular extension, no hydrocephalus III Germinal
We present a method to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and to create a system which lacks CSF within the embryonic zebrafish brain...
Prostacyclin (PGI2) induced a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure with slight increases in heart rate and body temperature, when administered at the doses of 0.1-100 ~g into the lateral cerebral ventricle (i.c.v.) of the urethane-anaesthetised rat. When the same doses were administered intravenously, both the blood pressure and heart rate decreased. Central pretreatment wib~ sodiurn meclofenamate (1 mg/rat i.c.v.) antagonised the central hypotensive effect of PGI2 but i.c.v. pretreatrnent of the rats with indomethacin (1 mg/rat) failed to affect the PGI 2-induced hypotension. Central pretreatment with two histamine H2-receptor antagonists, cimetidine (500 ~g/rat i.c.v.) or metiamide (488 ~g/rat i.c.v.), antagonised the blood pressure lowering effect of 0.1 ~g dose of PGI2 but failed to affect the hypotension induced by higher PGI2 doses. Therefore the main central hypotensive effect of PGI2 seems not to be associated with the stimulation of histamine H2 -receptors in the brain. The ...
The ependyma is made up of ependymal cells. These are the epithelial cells that line the CSF-filled ventricles in the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord. The cells are cuboidal/columnar. Their apical surfaces are covered in a layer of cilia, which circulate CSF around the central nervous system. Their apical surfaces are also covered with microvilli, which absorb CSF. Within the brains ventricles, a population of modified ependymal cells and capillaries together form a system called the choroid plexus, which produces the CSF. ...
Subependymal cysts are secondary to brain germinal matrix hemorrhage or infarction and are associated with fetal chromosomal and metabolic conditions, as well as infections. They are found in 1-3% of neonates in the first days of life and have been d
Hi, the MRI report stats the following: Findings: There are a few scattered patchy partially confluent T2/FLAIR hyperintense foci within the deep and periventricular white matter bilaterally which ...
There is no specific treatment for IVH, except to treat any other health problems that may worsen the condition. Although care of sick and premature babies has advanced greatly, it is not possible to prevent IVH from occurring. However, giving the mother corticosteroid medications before delivery has been shown to lower the risk of IVH in the baby. These steroids are often given to women between 24 and 34 weeks gestation who are at risk of early delivery. Sometimes, surgery is necessary to stabilize the condition of the baby. This may occasionally involve placement of a catheter into the babys skull, although this is rarely necessary in babies because of the flexibility of their skull bones.. Click here to view ...
There is no specific treatment for IVH, except to treat any other health problems that may worsen the condition. Although care of sick and premature babies has advanced greatly, it is not possible to prevent IVH from occurring. However, giving the mother corticosteroid medications before delivery has been shown to lower the risk of IVH in the baby. These steroids are often given to women between 24 and 34 weeks gestation who are at risk of early delivery. Sometimes, surgery is necessary to stabilize the condition of the baby. This may occasionally involve placement of a catheter into the babys skull, although this is rarely necessary in babies because of the flexibility of their skull bones.. Click here to view ...
A ventricular assistive device (VAD) is sometimes used to help pump blood through the ventricle on one side of the heart. There can be problems with conventional VADs, however, which a new soft robotic device may be able to address.
A surgical dilator for dilation of cerebral tissue, having an outer needle, an inner needle insertable into the outer needle and an expandable sac attached to the outer needle, which permits access to a tumor, cerebral ventricle or other tissue by dilating the cerebral tissue in its path and indicates when such tumor, ventricle or other tissue has been entered by the release of fluid through the outer needle. Also, a method of verifying entry into a tumor, ventricle or other tissue and creating a bloodless opening to such tumor, ventricle or other tissue in cerebral tissue utilizing the surgical dilator.
Definition: Enlargement of the lateral ventricles (as is the third ventricle) to between 10 mm and 15 mm in width is called ventriculomegaly.The underlying pathogenesis is due to an imbalance between CSF production and absorption, resulting in accumulation of CSF within the ventricles. This may result from a number of causes such as obstruction of flow, excessive secretion (rare), or impaired absorption.. ...
Ultrasound Time of the Flight Techniques; The majority of patented methods for noninvasive monitoring of ICP are based on an assumption that changes in ICP affect the physical dimensions and/or acoustic properties of the cranial vault or intracranial structures (dura, brain tissue, brain ventricles, and/or intracranial vessels). The common drawback of all these methods is that they measure only relative changes of ICP as referenced to a baseline measurement during which absolute ICP is known, i.e. the ultrasound readouts need to be calibrated on each subject against an invasive measurement. Ultrasound time of the flight methods for non-invasive ICP monitoring have not been extensively validated and currently the majority of them do not seem to be accurate enough for a routine clinical use. Their original formulations usually do not specify locations for the transducers placement, and do not address how the intentional or accidental use of different locations and/or angles of the transducers ...
Despite the dynamic growth of the fetus and brain, the ventricular atrium is essentially stable in size throughout gestation! This makes it an age-independent measurement ...
The atrium and ventricles differ in location and function. The atria are located at the top of the heart, while the ventricles...
hemisystole definition: The contraction associated with remaining ventricle alternating with this of correct ventricle, rather than both getting together; Contraction of only 1 ventricle associated with…
Levels of β-catenin and phospho-β-catenin (p-β-catenin), and their subcellular localization.In HB1.F3, β-catenin is mainly localized in nucleus (A), and p-
Our purpose was to study the influence of the stimulation of the cerebroventricular system on some mechanisms related to hydrosaline equilibrium and blood pressure regulation. Renal function and blood pressure (group 1) as well as the baroreceptor reflex (group 2) were studied. In group 1, we measured diuresis, natriuresis, creatinine clearance, lithium clearance, and blood pressure in control rats and after stimulation of the cerebroventricular system with 1 M NaCl solution. In group 2, we evaluated the baroreceptor reflex, producing an increase of blood pressure with an injection of phenylephrine to obtain baroreceptor reflex curves--characterized by threshold, point of inflection, heart period range, gain, and systolic pressure corresponding to half the heart period range (SBP50)--in control and experimental rats injected with saline and 1 M NaCl solution, respectively. In group 1 experimental rats, we observed a significant increase in diuresis, natriuresis, blood pressure, and glomerular ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition enhances myelination in preterm newborns with intraventricular hemorrhage, but not recombinant Wnt3A. AU - Dohare, Preeti. AU - Cheng, Bokun. AU - Ahmed, Ehsan. AU - Yadala, Vivek. AU - Singla, Pranav. AU - Thomas, Sunisha. AU - Kayton, Robert. AU - Ungvari, Zoltan. AU - Ballabh, Praveen. PY - 2018/10. Y1 - 2018/10. N2 - Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in preterm infants results in reduced proliferation and maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), and survivors exhibit reduced myelination and neurological deficits. Wnt signaling regulates OPC maturation and myelination in a context dependent manner. Herein, we hypothesized that the occurrence of IVH would downregulate Wnt signaling, and that activating Wnt signaling by GSK-3β inhibition or Wnt3A recombinant human protein (rh-Wnt3A) treatment might promote maturation of OPCs, myelination of the white matter, and neurological recovery in premature rabbits with IVH. These ...
A cerebrospinal fluid shunt system comprises a brain ventricular catheter for insertion into the brain ventricle so as to drain cerebrospinal fluid from the brain ventricle. The system also comprises a sinus sagittalis catheter for insertion into the sinus sagittalis for feeding the cerebrospinal fluid into sinus sagittalis. A shunt main body is connected at one end thereof to the brain ventricle catheter and at another end thereof to the sinus sagittalis catheter. The shunt main body can provide fluidic communication between the brain ventricle catheter and the sinus sagittalis catheter. The system further comprises a tubular flow passage restricting member defined within the shunt main body. The tubular flow passage restricting member defines a resistance to flow of 8-12 mm Hg/ml/min.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ventriculosubgaleal shunt in the treatment of posthemorrhagic and postinfectious hydrocephalus of premature infants. AU - Nagy, Andrea. AU - Bognar, Laszlo. AU - Pataki, Istvan. AU - Barta, Zoltan. AU - Novak, Laszlo. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - Purpose: The aim of the study was to compare the characteristics of ventriculosubgaleal shunts during the clinical course of posthemorrhagic and postinfectious hydrocephalus in the neonatal period. Patients and methods: The study comprised 102 premature babies in whom subgaleal shunt was consecutively inserted between 2006 and 2011. Seventy-two patients had posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (mean gestational age 27.3 ± 2.1 weeks, mean birth weight 1,036.9 ± 327.7 g, mean age at insertion 51.4 ± 56.2 days) and 30 patients were operated postinfectiously (27.5 ± 2.2 weeks, 1,064.7 g ± 310.7 g, 115.9 ± 47.8 days). Results: The mean survival of subgaleal shunts was 87.9 days for the posthemorrhagic group and 75.6 days for the ...
Looking for online definition of area postrema in the Medical Dictionary? area postrema explanation free. What is area postrema? Meaning of area postrema medical term. What does area postrema mean?
The heart muscle is asymmetrical as a result of the distance blood must travel in the pulmonary and systemic circuits. Since the right side of the heart sends blood to the pulmonary circuit it is smaller than the left side which must send blood out to the whole body in the systemic circuit. In humans, the heart is about the size of a clenched fist; it is divided into four chambers: two atria and two ventricles. There is one atrium and one ventricle on the right side and one atrium and one ventricle on the left side. The atria are the chambers that receive blood, and the ventricles are the chambers that pump blood. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the superior vena cava, which drains blood from the jugular vein that comes from the brain and from the veins that come from the arms, as well as from the inferior vena cava which drains blood from the veins that come from the lower organs and the legs. In addition, the right atrium receives blood from the coronary sinus which drains ...
Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (BDR) in Japan have identified changes in the aging brain related to blood circulation. Published in the scientific journal Brain, the study found that natural age-related enlargement of the ventricles-a condition called ventriculomegaly-was associated with a lag in blood drainage from a specific deep region of the brain. The lag can be detected easily with MRI, making it a potential biomarker for predicting ventriculomegaly and the aging brain, which can then be treated quickly.. Ventriculomegaly is an abnormal condition in which fluid accumulates in the ventricles of the brain without properly draining, making them enlarged. Although ventricular enlargement within normal range is not itself considered a disease, when left unchecked it can lead to ventriculomegaly and dementia resulting from normal pressure hydrocephalus. In their study, the team found that ventriculomegaly was associated with changes in blood circulation of the ...
Hemangioblastoma (HB) in the supratentorial region of the brain is rare and only a few cases are reported on intraventricular HB. HB of the lateral ventricles is even rarer. We present a case of a 30-year-old man with generalized tonic clonic seizures. The brain computed tomography showed a 5.5 cm heterogeneous mass extending into both lateral ventricles with partial enhancement. Based on the size and imaging features, we present the fourth documented case of a large solitary intraventricular HB. Our approach to this unique case and some treatment complexities are also described.Considering the rarity of the case and the patients imaging features, the present study provides a better understanding of HB and recommends HB to be considered in the differential diagnosis of masses in the lateral ventricles. In addition, some preventable pitfalls in the treatment of such complex cases are described.
Free Online Library: Increased plasma concentrations of activin A predict intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm newborns.(Proteomics and Protein Markers) by Clinical Chemistry;
Looking for online definition of Ommaya intraventricular reservoir system in the Medical Dictionary? Ommaya intraventricular reservoir system explanation free. What is Ommaya intraventricular reservoir system? Meaning of Ommaya intraventricular reservoir system medical term. What does Ommaya intraventricular reservoir system mean?
Methods: 2-D echo images were prospectively acquired in 44 (age 48±15, 86% F) pts with PAH [RV systolic pressure (RVSP) ,36 mmHg] and in 22 age and gender-matched healthy subjects (Control). The majority (,80%) of PAH group consisted of family members of pts with familial PAH who developed RVSP ,36 mmHg and those with idiopathic PAH. Pts with significant aortic/mitral diseases, hypertension, and coronary artery disease were excluded. LV torsion and RV function were assessed by speckle tracking.. Results: Estimated PASPs (RVSP) in PAH group were 72±20 mmHg. 70 % of PAH pts had severe PAH (RVSP , 60 mmHg). Peak systolic LV torsion (6±8 vs13±6, p,0.01) was significantly reduced in PAH group compared to control group, Fig1⇓. Peak LV torsion significantly inversely correlated with estimated PASP (r=−0.43, p,0.01), RV free wall longitudinal strain (r= −0.40, p,0.01), and RV area (r= −0.6, p , 0.01).. Conclusions: ...
Infusion of synthetic ovine CRF (10 or 100 micrograms/h) into the lateral lateral cerebral ventricle for 24 h increased mean arterial blood pressure of conscious sheep. CRF infusion also increased urine output and sodium excretion. Intravenous infusi
Contributors : Tae-Yeon Eom ; Seung B Han ; Jieun Kim ; Jay Blundon ; Yong-Dong Wang ; Jing Yu ; Matthew Eicholtz ; Derek C Rose ; Kara Anderson ; Damian B Kaminski ; Stanislav S ZakharenkoSeries Type : Non-coding RNA profiling by arrayOrganism : Mus musculusProgressive ventricular enlargement is one of the most reproducible and recognizable structural abnormalities in schizophrenia, and is associ...
An intraventricular hemorrhage (or haemorrhage in British English; both abbreviated as IVH) is a bleeding into the brains ventricular system, where the cerebrospinal fluid is produced and circulates through towards the subarachnoid space. It can result from physical trauma or from hemorrhaging in stroke. ...
An accurate and reproducible method for measuring the volume of the cranial CSF spaces was developed in the MRI unit in Glasgow by Dr. B. Condon in 1986. Using this MRI method the total cranial, cortical sulcal, ventricular and posterior fossa CSF volumes could be accurately measured, whereas only ventricular CSF volume could be estimated by previous techniques. The aim of this thesis was firstly to examine the technique critically and to reduce factors that might affect the accuracy or reproducibility of CSF volume measurement; secondly, to determine the normal range of CSF volume; thirdly, to study physiological factors that might influence the cranial CSF volume; and lastly to assess the research and clinical potential of these measurements in conditions where the CSF volumes might be altered. The original technique was modified. The accuracy of the method was improved by using 0.9% sodium chloride as a calibration reference solution, rather than water, as saline was found to produce a signal ...
Jin, K., Sun, Y., Xie, L., Batteur, S., Mao, X. O., Smelick, C., Logvinova, A. and Greenberg, D. A. (2003), Neurogenesis and aging: FGF-2 and HB-EGF restore neurogenesis in hippocampus and subventricular zone of aged mice. Aging Cell, 2: 175-183. doi: 10.1046/j.1474-9728.2003.00046.x ...
Interventions to treat cerebral palsy should be initiated as soon as possible in order to restore the nervous system to the correct developmental trajectory. One drawback to this approach is that interventions have to undergo exceptionally rigorous assessment for both safety and efficacy prior to use in infants. Part of this process should involve research using animals but how good are our animal models? Part of the problem is that cerebral palsy is an umbrella term that covers a number of conditions. There are also many causal pathways to cerebral palsy, such as periventricular white matter injury in premature babies, perinatal infarcts of the middle cerebral artery or generalised anoxia at the time of birth, indeed multiple causes, including intra-uterine infection or a genetic predisposition to infarction, may need to interact to produce a clinically significant injury. In this review we consider which animal models best reproduce certain aspects of the condition, and the extent to which the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cerebral Ventricular Enlargement and Dopamine Synthesis Inhibition in Chronic Schizophrenia. AU - Nasrallah, Henry A.. AU - Kleinman, Joel. AU - Weinberger, Daniel. AU - Gillin, J. Christian. AU - Wyatt, Richard Jed. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019174030&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0019174030&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1001/archpsyc.1980.01780250113018. DO - 10.1001/archpsyc.1980.01780250113018. M3 - Letter. C2 - 6108752. AN - SCOPUS:0019174030. VL - 37. SP - 1427. JO - JAMA Psychiatry. JF - JAMA Psychiatry. SN - 2168-622X. IS - 12. ER - ...
... - Malignant meningioma· Intraventricle· Frontal horn· Third ventricle· Surgical approach.J Korean Neurosurg Soc 34 : 379-381;KISEP380 J Korean Neurosurg Soc 34Intraventricular Malignant Meningiomaand was removed a piecemealfashion using biopsy forceps
The third ventricle is one of the four ventricles in the brain that communicate with one another. As with the other ventricles of the brain, it is filled with cerebrospinal fluid, which helps to protect the brain from injury and transport nutrients and waste.
Central neurocytomas are rare brain tumors occurring in young adults and usually located in the cerebral ventricles. These neoplasms account for 0.25% to 0.5% of all intracranial tumors.6 EVNs can be called central neurocytoma-like tumors. They are more unusual tumors with biologic behavior and histopathologic characteristics similar to the neoplasms that occur in the lateral ventricles.1-3,7 EVNs seemed to exhibit a somewhat larger morphologic spectrum compared with intraventricular neurocytomas. The fourth edition of the WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system, published in 2007, listed EVN as a new entity.1 Case reports have documented involvement of the cerebral hemispheres (commonly the frontal lobe followed by the parietal lobe), thalamus, cerebellum, pons, amygdala, pineal gland, and spinal cord.2-6,8,9 EVNs generally manifest through mass effect in the form of seizures and hemiparesis. Few imaging findings have been reported, mostly in case reports. The largest series ...
Cerebral ventricle[edit]. Michaeli [7] proposed that ICP be inferred from the magnitude and shape of pulsations of the third ... including cerebral Autoregulation and Cerebral Compliance).. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography[edit]. The TCD measures the ... January 2003). "Adaptive noninvasive assessment of intracranial pressure and cerebral autoregulation". Stroke. 34 (1): 84-9. ... brain ventricles, and/or intracranial vessels). The common drawback of all these methods is that they measure only relative ...
Knock out mice with homozygous mutations have non viable offspring with enlarged cerebral ventricles. A consanginous couple has ... Post mortum showed enlarged cerebral ventricles and contracted limbs. GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000036333 - Ensembl ... Homozygous KIDINS220 loss-of-function variants in fetuses with cerebral ventriculomegaly and limb contractures. Hum Mol Genet ...
Cerebral aqueduct[edit]. The cerebral aqueduct is the part of the ventricular system which links the third ventricle (rostally ... The cerebral aqueduct is the smallest ventricle in the ventricular system. It is located between the tectum and the tegmentum, ... The principle regions of the midbrain are the tectum, the cerebral aqueduct, tegmentum, and the basis pedunculi. Rostrally the ... The tegmentum is the portion of the midbrain ventral to the cerebral aqueduct, and is much larger in size than the tectum. It ...
intracerebroventricular (into the cerebral ventricles) administration into the ventricular system of the brain. One use is as a ... "A potential application for the intracerebral injection of drugs entrapped within liposomes in the treatment of human cerebral ...
... cerebral ventricles, and spinal cord. Asymptomatic infections and calcified cysticerci probably will not require treatment. ...
CT scans have found that the cerebral ventricles expand as a function of age. More recent MRI studies have reported age-related ... Cognitive impairment has been attributed to oxidative stress, inflammatory reactions and changes in the cerebral ... and frontal cerebral cortex, decline with age. A decreased binding capacity of the 5-HT2 receptor in the frontal cortex was ... whereas white matter consists of tightly packed myelinated axons connecting the neurons of the cerebral cortex to each other ...
Ultrasonography demonstrated fetal hydrops, diaphragmatic hernia, and striking dilatation of the cerebral ventricles in both ... Progressive cerebral and brainstem atrophy was noted on serial MRIs made at 3 months and after 6 months of age. Van Hove et al ... cerebral ventricular dilation, camptodactyly, agenesis of sacrum, low-set ear. Fryns et al. (1979) reported 2 stillborn sisters ...
"Inhibition of post-partum maternal behaviour in the rat by injecting an oxytocin antagonist into the cerebral ventricles". The ...
... is a neurosurgical procedure that involves creating a hole ("stomy") within a cerebral ventricle for drainage. ... It is done by surgically penetrating the skull, dura mater, and brain such that the ventricle of the brain is accessed. When ...
1999). "Deletion including the oligophrenin-1 gene associated with enlarged cerebral ventricles, cerebellar hypoplasia, ...
Additionally, blockage of ventricles could cause buildup of cerebral spinal fluid resulting in swelling around the tumor. The ... The cysts are benign tumors that usually appear in the anterior third ventricle. The cysts occur in the epithelium putting ... has still not been resolved as neural chimeras have been shown to circulate throughout the ventricles and incorporate into all ...
Also noticed were hemorrhages in the gray matter around the third and fourth ventricles and the cerebral aqueduct. Brain ... the walls of the 3rd ventricle, the floor of the 4th ventricle, the cerebellum, and the frontal lobe. In addition to the damage ...
He described in great detail the structure of the brainstem, the cerebellum, the ventricles, and the cerebral hemispheres. The ... Herophilus not only distinguished the cerebrum and the cerebellum, but provided the first clear description of the ventricles. ... Galen further theorized that the brain functioned by movement of animal spirits through the ventricles. "Further, his studies ... Richard Caton presented his findings in 1875 about electrical phenomena of the cerebral hemispheres of rabbits and monkeys. ...
In HDLS, there is enlargement of the lateral ventricles and marked thinning or weakening of cerebral white matter. The loss of ... is a rare adult onset autosomal dominant disorder characterized by cerebral white matter degeneration with demyelination and ...
It is located in the posterior part of the third ventricle, overlying the cerebral aqueduct. Drawing of a cast of the ...
Walker and Blackfan discovered where cerebrospinal fluid originated by tracking dye injected into the cerebral ventricle of a ...
... point is a common entry point for an intraventricular catheter to drain cerebrospinal fluid from the cerebral ventricles. It is ...
... gray matter heterotopia is the presence of gray matter within the cerebral white matter or ventricles. Heterotopia within the ...
The cranial pia mater joins with the ependyma, which lines the cerebral ventricles to form choroid plexuses that produce ... Nearby, the ventricles are lined with the ependyma membrane. The CSF is only kept separate through the pia mater. Due to the ... This layer goes in between the cerebral gyri and cerebellar laminae, folding inward to create the tela chorioidea of the third ... It is absent only at the natural openings between the ventricles, the median aperture, and the lateral aperture. The pia firmly ...
The fluid-filled cerebral ventricles (lateral ventricles, third ventricle, cerebral aqueduct, fourth ventricle) are also ... Cerebral- and spinal white matter do not contain dendrites, neural cell bodies, or shorter axons,[citation needed] which can ... The total number of long range fibers within a cerebral hemisphere is 2% of the total number of cortico-cortical fibers (across ... "Cerebral Blood Flow, Blood Volume and Oxygen Utilization". Brain. 113: 27-47. doi:10.1093/brain/113.1.27. PMID 2302536. Marner ...
It involves the placement of a ventricular catheter (a tube made of silastic) into the cerebral ventricles to bypass the flow ... and lead to dilation of both lateral ventricles as well as the third ventricle. Fourth ventricle obstruction will lead to ... Hydrocephalus ex vacuo also refers to an enlargement of cerebral ventricles and subarachnoid spaces, and is usually due to ... If the foramina of the fourth ventricle or the cerebral aqueduct are blocked, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can accumulate within ...
... it extends between the layers of the tela choroidea of the third ventricle and contains the great cerebral vein and the pineal ... The superior cistern (cistern of great cerebral vein, quadrigeminal cistern, ambient cistern) is a dilation as a subarachnoid ... Other synonyms are cistern of great cerebral vein, quadrigeminal cistern, ambient cistern, Bichat's canal, and Bichat's foramen ...
"Effects of some benzodiazepines on the acetylcholine release in the anterior horn of the lateral cerebral ventricle of the cat ...
Damage to the developing oligodendrocytes near the cerebral ventricles causes cerebral palsy as well as other demyelinating ... The lateral ventricles are formed as large cavities of the telencephalic vesicle. The size of the ventricles are decreased in ... the neurons forming a germinal layer around ventricles migrate to the surface of the brain and form the cerebral cortex and ... The sign is seen on transverse sonograms of the fetal cranium obtained at the level of the ventricles. A special case is found ...
... then the cerebral aqueduct to the fourth ventricle. From the fourth ventricle, the fluid passes into the subarachnoid space ... It is present throughout the ventricular system except for the cerebral aqueduct, frontal horn of the lateral ventricle, and ... The ventricles are a series of cavities filled with CSF. The majority of CSF is produced from within the two lateral ventricles ... The CSF also serves a vital function in cerebral autoregulation of cerebral blood flow. The CSF occupies the subarachnoid space ...
The systemic heart has muscular contractile walls and consists of a single ventricle and two atria, one for each side of the ... This causes death by respiratory failure leading to cerebral anoxia. No antidote is known, but if breathing can be kept going ...
Ventricle, cerebral: One of a system of four communicating cavities within the brain that are continuous with the central canal ... They include two lateral ventricles in the cerebral hemispheres, each consisting of a triangular central body and four horns. ... The lateral ventricles communicate with the third ventricle through an opening called the interventricular foramen. The third ... In front, the third ventricle communicates with the lateral ventricles, and in back it communicates with the aqueduct of the ...
Cerebral Palsy Message Board HealthBoards , Brain & Nerves , Cerebral Palsy > Massively dilated Ventricles and severe brain ... Massively dilated Ventricles and severe brain damage My daughter Venya is 2 and half years old now. When she was just 15 days ... enlarged ventricles in head StaceySarah123. Brain & Nervous System Disorders. 1. 10-21-2008 07:14 PM. ... Brain Shunt Surgery for Hydrocephalus (Enlarged Ventricles Caused by Excess Fluid) tr3. Brain & Nervous System Disorders. 14. ...
Decreased Volume of the Cerebral Ventricles on CT Images in Gilles de la Tourettes Syndrome. Lisbeth Regeur,1,2 L. Korbo,1,2 N ... The aim of the present study was to estimate the volume of the ventricular system comprising lateral plus third ventricles in ...
1. Cerebral pouches - which brought up some very strange links - and cerebral ventricles. Are they the same? Or is the ... 1. Cerebral pouches - which brought up some very strange links - and cerebral ventricles. Are they the same? Or is the ... The cerebral ventricles, conversely, are present in the adult brain.. 2. On the Wiki page (above), about 1/3 of the way down, ... Re: Cerebral Pouches? Ventricles?. by vivian maxine on August 17th, 2016, 8:27 am ...
ventricle of cerebral hemisphere --, lateral ventricle A cavity shaped somewhat like a horseshoe in conformity with the general ... each lateral ventricle communicates with the third ventricle through the interventricular foramen of Monro, and expands from ... The large choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle invades the cella media and the inferior horn (but not the anterior and ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Ventricle_of_cerebral_hemisphere&oldid=47830" ...
... for Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Based on the 3D Quantitative Volumetric Analysis for the Cerebral Ventricle and ... Among the 3D indices, volume ratios of the total ventricle or bilateral ventricles, CSF volume of the total subarachnoid space ... The volume ratios of the ventricles and subarachnoid spaces (%) were calculated as ratios of the ventricle volumes to the ... The volumes and volume ratios of the total ventricles, bilateral ventricles and total subarachnoid space, the 4 segmented parts ...
In this work, we report on the development and application of a method used to analyze local surface change of the ventricles ... The distance between each pair of corresponding points served as an estimate of local surface change of the brain ventricle at ... The measurements of local surface change were then superimposed on the ventricle surface to produce the 3D local surface change ... 3D ultrasound (US) has been used to monitor the ventricle volume as a biomarker for ventricular dilation. However, volumetric ...
Survival and proliferation of nonneural tissues, with obstruction of cerebral ventricles, in a parkinsonian patient treated ... Survival and proliferation of nonneural tissues, with obstruction of cerebral ventricles, in a parkinsonian patient treated ... the left lateral and fourth ventricles were filled completely by this proliferated tissue. ...
Campbell, G., Milbourne, S., Salman, U. A., & Khan, M. A. (2013). Ocular silicone oil in the lateral cerebral ventricle. ... Campbell, G, Milbourne, S, Salman, UA & Khan, MA 2013, Ocular silicone oil in the lateral cerebral ventricle, Journal of ... Ocular silicone oil in the lateral cerebral ventricle. / Campbell, Garth; Milbourne, Shannon; Salman, Umber A.; Khan, Majid A. ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Ocular silicone oil in the lateral cerebral ventricle. Together they form a ...
Cerebral ventricle[edit]. Michaeli [7] proposed that ICP be inferred from the magnitude and shape of pulsations of the third ... including cerebral Autoregulation and Cerebral Compliance).. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography[edit]. The TCD measures the ... January 2003). "Adaptive noninvasive assessment of intracranial pressure and cerebral autoregulation". Stroke. 34 (1): 84-9. ... brain ventricles, and/or intracranial vessels). The common drawback of all these methods is that they measure only relative ...
Home » Middle Cerebral Artery Anatomy Of Human » Middle Cerebral Artery » Right Middle Cerebral Artery » Cerebral Ventricles ... Related Images with Cerebral Ventricles And Vessels. Diagram Of Right Hand Tendons Car Fuse Box And Wiring Diagram Images ...
Cerebral Ventricles)A series of interconnected, fluid-filled found within the . These cavities are the ventricles of the brain ... Cerebral Ventricles (see Brain Ventricles). Brain Ventricles (Cerebral Ventricles). A series of interconnected, fluid-filled ... Cerebral Ventricles (see Brain Ventricles) was last modified: June 24th, 2016 by explainingmedicine ... found within the . These cavities are the ventricles of the brain, and the fluid is . ...
Relationship between Cerebral Ventricles dilatation and Cerebrospinal Fluid oscillations. Bader Chaarani 1 , Cyrille Capel 2 , ... acquisition adult altered amplitude aqueduct arachnoid aspects axial brain cardiac cerebral cervical chronic common complex ... software space still stroke studies suffering system table third unclear underwent variation vascular ventricle ventricles ... the aqueductal and cerebral levels in 45 neurodegenerative diseases. Results show that cerebrospinal fluid flow does not depend ...
Survival and proliferation of nonneural tissues, with obstruction of cerebral ventricles, in a parkinsonian patient treated ... Survival and proliferation of nonneural tissues, with obstruction of cerebral ventricles, in a parkinsonian patient treated ...
Computational Model of the Cerebral Ventricles in Hydrocephalus Shaokoon Cheng Shaokoon Cheng ... Cheng, S., and Bilston, L. E. (March 24, 2010). "Computational Model of the Cerebral Ventricles in Hydrocephalus." ASME. J ... In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the cerebral ventricles during hydrocephalus is presented. ... This may not be adequate as the geometry of the cerebral ventricles is unique. ...
Cerebral Embolism, Rheumatic Heart Disease Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Atrial Septal Defect, Cardiomyopathy, ... 13 Possible Causes for Apical Aneurysm - Right Ventricle, Cerebral Embolism, Rheumatic Heart Disease * Atrial Septal Defect ... Differential diagnoses, possible causes and diseases for Apical Aneurysm - Right Ventricle, Cerebral Embolism, Rheumatic Heart ... ICD implantable cardioverter defibrillator; LA left atrium; LV left ventricle; RV right ventricle; SD sudden death; VT ...
Enlarged lateral ventricles (LV) and reduced cerebral cortex (Ctx) in Disc1tr transgenic (Tg) mice. WT (A) and Tg (B) brain ... Dilated lateral ventricles and reduced cerebral cortex in Disc1tr transgenic mice. Schizophrenic symptoms usually begin in late ... 3A,B). Sizes of the cerebral cortex and corpus callosum were quantified. The transgenic lateral ventricles were found to be ... Disc1tr transgenic mice display enlarged lateral ventricles, reduced cerebral cortex, partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, ...
... information resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Cerebral ventricle ...
Start Over You searched for: Subjects Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms -- surgery ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Cerebral Ventricle ... Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms -- surgery. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms -- pathology. Hydrocarbons, Iodinated -- therapeutic use ... A successful case of removal of a large brain-tumor from the left frontal region: opening and packing of the lateral ventricle ... opening and packing of the lateral ventricle with iodoform-gauze ... Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms -- pathology1. *Cerebral Ventricle ...
VENTRICULOGRAPHY FOLLOWING THE INJECTION OF AIR INTO THE CEREBRAL VENTRICLES. DANDY, WALTER E. ...
... of guanine nucleotide binding proteins that were ADP-ribosylated by in vivo injection of pertussis toxin into the ventricles as ... Limited distribution of pertussis toxin in rat brain after injection into the lateral cerebral ventricles.. *. Ingeborg van der ... Limited distribution of pertussis toxin in rat brain after injection into the lateral cerebral ventricles.}, author={Ingeborg ... of guanine nucleotide binding proteins that were ADP-ribosylated by in vivo injection of pertussis toxin into the ventricles as ...
Study vesicles to ventricles flashcards from Tiffany Pointon ... third ventricle > cerebral aquaduct > fourth ventricle > exit ... third ventricle, fourth ventricle, interventricular foramen, cerebral aqueduct, cisterna magna, interpeduncular cistern. ... 1. anterior cerebral artery: anterior two-thirds of the medial face of the cerebral hemisphere, and the orbital cortex. 2. ... vesicles to ventricles Flashcards Preview Neuro unit 1 , vesicles to ventricles , Flashcards ...
Computed tomography reveals cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle and hydrocephalus s ... A dilated fourth ventricle due to outlet obstruction is a clinical-radiologic entity with symptoms similar to those of a ... Cerebral Ventricles. Cerebral Ventriculography*. Child. Dilatation, Pathologic / radiography. Female. Humans. Hydrocephalus / ... A dilated fourth ventricle due to outlet obstruction is a clinical-radiologic entity with symptoms similar to those of a ...
78 Cerebral ventricles 943. Martin M. Mortazavi Nimer Adeeb Mohammad Jaber and R. Shane Tubbs ... 61 Cerebral veins 800. Alireza Sadighi Ulas¸ Cikla Gregory C. Kujoth and Mustafa K. Bas¸kaya ... 43 Internal carotid artery and anterior cerebral circulation 449. Paul Foreman Christoph J. Griessenauer John P. Deveikis and ...
... olfactory ventricle or rhinocele) is connected to the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle by a narrow channel and contains ... Cerebral Ventricles / pathology*. Ependyma / pathology. Nerve Fibers / ultrastructure. Olfactory Bulb / pathology*. Sheep. ... The olfactory bulb of the sheep brain is hollow, the cavity (olfactory ventricle or rhinocele) is connected to the anterior ... horn of the lateral ventricle by a narrow channel and contains cerebrospinal fluid (c.s.f.). In an apparently healthy black- ...
  • The reduction of the cerebral mantle thickness was probably caused by simple pressure atrophy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • HOE 642-treated mice exhibited improved spatial learning and memory, and less white matter injury in the CC. These findings suggest that HI-induced cerebral atrophy and CC injury contribute to the development of deficits in learning and memory, and that inhibition of NHE1 is neuroprotective in part by reducing white matter injury. (nih.gov)
  • They found that there were widespread cerebral atrophy in both patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SH) (16 weeks old) were implanted with a stainless steel guide cannula leading into the fourth cerebral ventricle (4th V). The femoral artery and vein were cannulated for arterial pressure and heart rate measurement and drug infusion, respectively. (unifesp.br)
  • To investigate whether cortical expansion in primates reflects modification of cell-cycle kinetics, we determined cell-cycle length during neurogenesis in the proliferative cerebral ventricular zone of fetal rhesus monkeys, by using cumulative S-phase labeling with bromodeoxyuridine. (pnas.org)
  • However, enlarged ventricles put increased pressure on the adjacent cortical tissue and cause myriad effects in the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1872, Crichton-Browne developed his father's phrenological theories by inviting the Scottish neurologist David Ferrier (1843-1928) to direct the asylum laboratories and to conduct studies on the cortical localization of cerebral functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The floor of the third ventricle is formed by hypothalamic structures and this can be opened surgically between the mamillary bodies and the pituitary gland in a procedure called an endoscopic third ventriculostomy. (wikipedia.org)