Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the brain ventricles, including the two lateral, the third, and the fourth ventricle. Ventricular tumors may be primary (e.g., CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS and GLIOMA, SUBEPENDYMAL), metastasize from distant organs, or occur as extensions of locally invasive tumors from adjacent brain structures.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Fourth Ventricle: An irregularly shaped cavity in the RHOMBENCEPHALON, located between the MEDULLA OBLONGATA; the PONS; and the isthmus in front, and the CEREBELLUM behind. It is continuous with the central canal of the cord below and with the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT above, and through its lateral and median apertures it communicates with the SUBARACHNOID SPACE.Cisterna Magna: One of three principal openings in the SUBARACHNOID SPACE. They are also known as cerebellomedullary cistern, and collectively as cisterns.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Shivering: Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Lateral Ventricles: Cavity in each of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES derived from the cavity of the embryonic NEURAL TUBE. They are separated from each other by the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM, and each communicates with the THIRD VENTRICLE by the foramen of Monro, through which also the choroid plexuses (CHOROID PLEXUS) of the lateral ventricles become continuous with that of the third ventricle.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Pempidine: A nicotinic antagonist most commonly used as an experimental tool. It has been used as a ganglionic blocker in the treatment of hypertension but has largely been supplanted for that purpose by more specific drugs.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Ependyma: A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Hypnosis, Anesthetic: Procedure in which an individual is induced into a trance-like state to relieve pain. This procedure is frequently performed with local but not general ANESTHESIA.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Physostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.Hexamethonium Compounds: Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Tranylcypromine: A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)Third Ventricle: A narrow cleft inferior to the CORPUS CALLOSUM, within the DIENCEPHALON, between the paired thalami. Its floor is formed by the HYPOTHALAMUS, its anterior wall by the lamina terminalis, and its roof by EPENDYMA. It communicates with the FOURTH VENTRICLE by the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT, and with the LATERAL VENTRICLES by the interventricular foramina.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Histamine Agents: Drugs used for their actions on histaminergic systems. Included are drugs that act at histamine receptors, affect the life cycle of histamine, or affect the state of histaminergic cells.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Pyrogens: Substances capable of increasing BODY TEMPERATURE and cause FEVER and may be used for FEVER THERAPY. They may be of microbial origin, often POLYSACCHARIDES, and may contaminate distilled water.Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Choroid Plexus: A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Phentolamine: A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: Semisynthetic derivative of ergot (Claviceps purpurea). It has complex effects on serotonergic systems including antagonism at some peripheral serotonin receptors, both agonist and antagonist actions at central nervous system serotonin receptors, and possibly effects on serotonin turnover. It is a potent hallucinogen, but the mechanisms of that effect are not well understood.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Vitreous Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage into the VITREOUS BODY.Neuroendoscopy: PROCEDURES that use NEUROENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Neuroendoscopy, generally an integration of the neuroendoscope with a computer-assisted NEURONAVIGATION system, provides guidance in NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES.Colloid Cysts: Benign, congenital, neuroepithelial cysts that are typically filled with a viscous mucus. They usually arise in the anterior portion of the THIRD VENTRICLE between the fornices.Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Ventriculostomy: Surgical creation of an opening in a cerebral ventricle.Neurocytoma: A benign brain tumor composed of neural elements which most often arise from the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM and the walls of the lateral ventricles. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy evaluations may reveal expression of neuron specific enolase and synaptophysin and cells containing microtubuli, neurosecretory granules, and presynaptic vesicles. (From Acta Med Port 1994 Feb;7(2):113-9)Pineal Gland: A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other BIOGENIC AMINES and NEUROPEPTIDES.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.

Intraventricular meningiomas: MR imaging and MR spectroscopic findings in two cases. (1/146)

CT, MR imaging, MR spectroscopy, and angiography were performed in two men (ages 21 and 48, respectively) with intraventricular meningioma. In both cases, CT and MR imaging showed large tumors located in the trigone of the right lateral ventricle that enhanced intensely after contrast administration. MR spectroscopy was helpful in supporting a preoperative diagnosis of meningioma in both cases.  (+info)

Pineoblastoma showing unusual ventricular extension in a young adult--case report. (2/146)

A 19-year-old male presented with a 4-week history of headache. Neurological examination showed bilateral papilledema. Computed tomography revealed a pineal region mass with remarkable obstructive hydrocephalus. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a pineal region tumor continuously invading through the tectum into the cerebral aqueduct and the fourth ventricle with the preservation of the adjacent structures. The tumor appeared an iso- to hypointense mass on T1-weighted images, a heterogeneous iso- to hyperintense mass on T2-weighted images, and a heterogeneously enhanced mass after administration of contrast medium. Histological examination after endoscopic biopsy confirmed that the tumor was a pineoblastoma. Radiotherapy was given to the whole brain and the spinal cord, and magnetic resonance imaging showed complete remission of the tumor. Pineoblastomas are highly malignant tumors with seeding potential through the neighboring ventricle or along the meninges, and this type of tumor becomes larger with local extension. We found no previous reports of the continuous extension into the fourth ventricle. The present case showed ventricular extension with minimal mass effect to adjacent structures, and did not disturb ventricular configuration. According to the unusual finding of ventricular extension, this rare case of pineoblastoma requires adjuvant chemotherapy.  (+info)

Colloid cysts of the third ventricle: are MR imaging patterns predictive of difficulty with percutaneous treatment? (3/146)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Colloid cysts of the third ventricle are rare benign brain tumors. The purpose of this study was to correlate their patterns on MR images with the probability of success of percutaneous treatment. METHODS: Nineteen patients underwent endoscopic treatment for colloid cysts of the third ventricle. The cases were divided into two groups based on difficulty of the aspiration procedure. We reviewed CT scans and MR images and divided cysts into groups based on their signal intensity on the MR images and their density on CT scans. Intensity and density were correlated with difficulty of aspiration during the endoscopic procedure. RESULTS: The aspiration procedure was difficult in 63% of the cases. Eighty-nine percent of hyperdense cysts on unenhanced axial CT scans were categorized as difficult, and 75% of hypodense cysts were categorized as easy. On T2-weighted MR sequences, 100% of low-signal cyst contents were difficult and nearly 63% of high-signal lesions were easy. There was a significant correlation between the T2-weighted sequences and the CT scans regarding the difficulty of the aspiration procedure. CONCLUSION: T2-weighted MR sequences are useful for predicting difficulty of aspiration during stereotactic or endoscopic procedures. A T2-weighted low-signal cyst is correlated with high-viscosity intracystic contents.  (+info)

Isolated dilation of the trigono-inferior horn--four case reports. (4/146)

Four patients presented with isolated dilation of the trigono-inferior horn associated with either mass lesion at the trigone of the lateral ventricle or with shunt over-drainage. We investigated clinical symptoms, course, and neuroradiological findings of these cases. The pressure of the isolated ventricle was measured or estimated at surgery in all cases. The common symptoms were recent memory disturbance and contralateral homonymous hemianopia. Contralateral hemiparesis was observed occasionally. Rapid deterioration of the isolation caused uncal herniation in one case. Comma-shaped dilation of the inferior horn was observed in all cases. Midline shift was not conspicuous except in one case. Intraventricular pressure at surgery was 18 cmH2O, 35 cmH2O, 3 cmH2O, and within normal range. These cases had very similar clinical symptoms and neuroradiological findings. The pathophysiology of isolation suggested three types of isolation (high-, normal-, and low-pressure isolation), depending on the pressure of the isolated ventricle. The isolation of trigono-inferior horn is an important clinical entity as it may cause uncal herniation in patients with high-pressure lesions.  (+info)

Malignant spread of haemangioblastoma: report on two cases. (5/146)

Two cases are described in which, after successful removal of a cerebellar haemangioblastoma followed by several years of freedom from symptoms, there developed a progressive spinal cord compression, leading to death. At necropsy the spinal cords in both cases and the brainstem in one case, were irregularly plastered with haemangioblastoma. Although there was no doubt that malignant spread had occurred from one or more primary tumours, the histology of the tumour tissue was in no way different from that of conventional haemangioblastoma.  (+info)

Increased conspicuity of intraventricular lesions revealed by three-dimensional constructive interference in steady state sequences. (6/146)

We describe our preliminary experience with the three-dimensional constructive interference in steady state (3D-CISS) sequence for the evaluation of intraventricular lesions. Cyst walls, extent and margins of tumors, and intratumoral cystic structures were clearly depicted on 3D-CISS images. The 3D-CISS sequence can offer additional information to conventional MR studies to define intraventricular lesions better.  (+info)

Ependymoma with extensive lipidization mimicking adipose tissue: a report of five cases. (7/146)

Lipomatous ependymoma is a recently described entity and only 3 cases of this variant have been reported in the literature. We report 5 cases of this rare variant of ependymoma. Patients age ranged from 4 years to 45 years and, interestingly, all of them were males. Two tumors were supratentorial in location, 2 in the fourth ventricle and 1 was intramedullary. Microscopically all of them showed the classical histology of ependymoma along with lipomatous differentiation. The lipomatous component was composed of cells with a large clear vacuole pushing the nucleus to the periphery and giving a signet ring cell appearance. This component demonstrated positivity for GFAP and S-100 protein thereby confirming its glial lineage. Three of the 5 tumors were high grade (WHO-grade III), had a high MIB-1 labelling index (MIB-1 LI) and showed recurrence on follow-up. However, 2 were low grade (WHO grade II) and patients are free of disease till the last follow up.  (+info)

Intraventricular cryptococcal granuloma. (8/146)

A case is reported of a cryptococcal granuloma occurring within the lateral ventricle. The findings on angiography and brain-scanning led to a preoperative diagnosis of intraventricular meningioma. There are no previous reports of an isotope brain-scan in this condition and angiography usually shows an avascular swelling.  (+info)

  • There was a decrease inside the volume of vasogenic edema and mass result as well as a lower during the shift in the midline towards the correct likewise as a lower Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries from the mass was observed around the left lateral ventricle. (micrornamimics.com)
  • Cerebellum Cancer, also known as cerebellar neoplasms , is related to cerebellar medulloblastoma and medulloblastoma , and has symptoms including cerebellar ataxia An important gene associated with Cerebellum Cancer is SERPINA3 (Serpin Family A Member 3), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Neuroscience and Neural Stem Cell Differentiation Pathways and Lineage-specific Markers . (malacards.org)
  • In the setting of this unmet need, we propose to create a basket protocol that will evaluate the efficacy of the PD-1 inhibitor, nivolumab, in patients with refractory rare central nervous system neoplasms. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Extraventricular neurocytoma (EVN) is rare entity with similar biologic behavior and histopathologic characteristics to neurocytomas that occur in the lateral ventricles, according to the 2007 World Health Organization classification. (ajnr.org)
  • At the time of autopsy, the right parietal lobe was incised sterilely to reveal a 3.5 cm gray-white, hemorrhagic abscess cavity with shaggy walls in the right cerebral deep white-matter and right basal ganglia (Figure 2 ). (upmc.edu)
  • The salient clinical and pathological features are reported of Aspergillus cerebral aneurysms in four young women who had undergone intra-abdominal surgery under spinal anaesthesia and developed clinical features of meningitis 7-16 days postoperatively. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2 EVNs have been reported in a variety of locations outside of the supratentorial ventricular system but seem to arise most frequently within the cerebral hemispheres. (ajnr.org)
  • 2) Are her findings due to a small lesion or a large infarct as seen in the typical ACA (anterior cerebral artery) and MCA (middle cerebral artery) distributions? (hawaii.edu)
  • CSF bathes the entire CNS, both internally (the ventricles and central canal) and externally (the subarachnoid space). (vin.com)