Veins draining the cerebrum.
Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).
Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the CRANIAL SINUSES, large endothelium-lined venous channels situated within the SKULL. Intracranial sinuses, also called cranial venous sinuses, include the superior sagittal, cavernous, lateral, petrous sinuses, and many others. Cranial sinus thrombosis can lead to severe HEADACHE; SEIZURE; and other neurological defects.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
Arteries which supply the dura mater.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the SUPERIOR SAGITTAL SINUS or the inferior sagittal sinus. Sagittal sinus thrombosis can result from infections, hematological disorders, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES. Clinical features are primarily related to the increased intracranial pressure causing HEADACHE; NAUSEA; and VOMITING. Severe cases can evolve to SEIZURES or COMA.
The long large endothelium-lined venous channel on the top outer surface of the brain. It receives blood from a vein in the nasal cavity, runs backwards, and gradually increases in size as blood drains from veins of the brain and the DURA MATER. Near the lower back of the CRANIUM, the superior sagittal sinus deviates to one side (usually the right) and continues on as one of the TRANSVERSE SINUSES.
Congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities involving ARTERIES; VEINS; or venous sinuses in the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and MENINGES.
One of the paired air spaces located in the body of the SPHENOID BONE behind the ETHMOID BONE in the middle of the skull. Sphenoid sinus communicates with the posterosuperior part of NASAL CAVITY on the same side.
The vein which drains the foot and leg.
An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.
Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.
Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.
The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)
The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)
Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Veins which drain the liver.
The vein formed by the union of the anterior and posterior tibial veins; it courses through the popliteal space and becomes the femoral vein.

The trigeminovascular system in humans: pathophysiologic implications for primary headache syndromes of the neural influences on the cerebral circulation. (1/468)

Primary headache syndromes, such as cluster headache and migraine, are widely described as vascular headaches, although considerable clinical evidence suggests that both are primarily driven from the brain. The shared anatomical and physiologic substrate for both of these clinical problems is the neural innervation of the cranial circulation. Functional imaging with positron emission tomography has shed light on the genesis of both syndromes, documenting activation in the midbrain and pons in migraine and in the hypothalamic gray in cluster headache. These areas are involved in the pain process in a permissive or triggering manner rather than as a response to first-division nociceptive pain impulses. In a positron emission tomography study in cluster headache, however, activation in the region of the major basal arteries was observed. This is likely to result from vasodilation of these vessels during the acute pain attack as opposed to the rest state in cluster headache, and represents the first convincing activation of neural vasodilator mechanisms in humans. The observation of vasodilation was also made in an experimental trigeminal pain study, which concluded that the observed dilation of these vessels in trigeminal pain is not inherent to a specific headache syndrome, but rather is a feature of the trigeminal neural innervation of the cranial circulation. Clinical and animal data suggest that the observed vasodilation is, in part, an effect of a trigeminoparasympathetic reflex. The data presented here review these developments in the physiology of the trigeminovascular system, which demand renewed consideration of the neural influences at work in many primary headaches and, thus, further consideration of the physiology of the neural innervation of the cranial circulation. We take the view that the known physiologic and pathophysiologic mechanisms of the systems involved dictate that these disorders should be collectively regarded as neurovascular headaches to emphasize the interaction between nerves and vessels, which is the underlying characteristic of these syndromes. Moreover, the syndromes can be understood only by a detailed study of the cerebrovascular physiologic mechanisms that underpin their expression.  (+info)

Cortical lesions in multiple sclerosis. (2/468)

Although previous studies have shown that the lesions of multiple sclerosis may involve the cerebral cortex, there is little published research on the prevalence and distribution of such lesions. Using neuropathological techniques and MRI, a series of studies has been undertaken in order to assess this, in particular to identify their relationship to cortical veins. A serial MRI study showed that the use of gadolinium proffered an increase in cortical lesion detection of 140% and showed that 26% of active lesions arose within or adjacent to the cortex. In a post-mortem study, MRI under-reported lesions subsequently analysed neuropathologically, particularly those arising within the cortex. In a further 12 cases examined, 478 cortical lesions were identified, of which 372 also involved the subcortical white matter. Seven different lesion types were identified; the majority arose within the territory of the principal cortical veins, whilst the remaining quarter arose within the territory of the small branch or superficial veins. Small cortical lesions are common in multiple sclerosis and are under-reported by MRI. Investigation of the cortical venous supply shows how such lesions may arise, and why the majority also involve the underlying white matter.  (+info)

Nitric oxide is the predominant mediator for neurogenic vasodilation in porcine pial veins. (3/468)

The innervation pattern and the vasomotor response of the potential transmitters in the porcine pial veins were investigated morphologically and pharmacologically. The porcine pial veins were more densely innervated by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)- and neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive (I) fibers than were calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-I, choline acetyltransferase-I, Substance P (SP)-I, and NADPH diaphorase fibers. Serotonin (5-HT)-I fibers, which were not detected in normal control pial veins, were observed in isolated pial veins after incubation with 5-HT (1 microM). 5-HT-I fibers, however, were not observed when incubation with 5-HT was performed in the presence of guanethidine (1 microM), suggesting that 5-HT was taken up into the sympathetic nerves. In vitro tissue bath studies demonstrated that porcine pial veins in the presence of active muscle tone relaxed on applications of exogenous 5-HT, CGRP, SP, VIP, and sodium nitroprusside, whereas exogenous norepinephrine and neuropeptide Y induced only constrictions. Transmural nerve stimulation (TNS) did not elicit any response in pial veins in the absence of active muscle tone. However, in the presence of active muscle tone, pial veins relaxed exclusively on TNS. This tetrodotoxin-sensitive relaxation was not affected by receptor antagonists for VIP, CGRP, 5-HT, or SP but was blocked by L-glutamine (1 mM) and abolished by Nomega-nitro-L-arginine (10 microM) and Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10 microM). The inhibition by L-glutamine, Nomega-nitro-L-arginine, and Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester was reversed by L-arginine and L-citrulline but not by their D-enantiomers. These results demonstrate that the vasomotor effect of all potential transmitters except 5-HT in the pial veins examined resembles that in cerebral arteries. Although porcine pial veins receive vasodilator and constrictor nerves, a lack of constriction on TNS suggests that the dilator nerves that release nitric oxide may play a predominant role in regulating porcine pial venous tone.  (+info)

Cerebral veins: comparative study of CT venography with intraarterial digital subtraction angiography. (4/468)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our objective was to compare the reliability of CT venography with intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in imaging cerebral venous anatomy and pathology. METHODS: In 25 consecutive patients, 426 venous structures were determined as present, partially present, or absent by three observers evaluating CT multiplanar reformatted (MPR) and maximum intensity projection (MIP) images. These results were compared with the results from intraarterial DSA and, in a second step, with the results of an intraobserver consensus. In addition, pathologic conditions were described. RESULTS: Using DSA as the standard of reference, MPR images had an overall sensitivity of 95% (specificity, 19%) and MIP images a sensitivity of 80% (specificity, 44%) in depicting the cerebral venous anatomy. On the basis of an intraobserver consensus including DSA, MPR, and MIP images (415 vessels present), the sensitivity/specificity was 95%/91% for MPR, 90%/100% for DSA, and 79%/91% for MIP images. MPR images were superior to DSA images in showing the cavernous sinus, the inferior sagittal sinus, and the basal vein of Rosenthal. Venous occlusive diseases were correctly recognized on both MPR and MIP images. Only DSA images provided reliable information of invasion of a sinus by an adjacent meningioma. CONCLUSION: CT venography proved to be a reliable method to depict the cerebral venous structures. MPR images were superior to MIP images.  (+info)

Cerebellar infarct caused by spontaneous thrombosis of a developmental venous anomaly of the posterior fossa. (5/468)

Spontaneous thrombosis of a posterior fossa developmental venous anomaly (DVA) caused a nonhemorrhagic cerebellar infarct in a 31-year-old man who also harbored a midbrain cavernous angioma. DVA thrombosis was well depicted on CT and MR studies and was proved at angiography by the demonstration of an endoluminal clot.  (+info)

Frontal bone windows for transcranial color-coded duplex sonography. (6/468)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The use of the conventional temporal bone window for transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCS) often results in difficulties in obtaining angle-corrected flow velocity measurements of the A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery, the posterior communicating artery, and the midline venous vasculature because of the unfavorable insonation angle. The same applies to B-mode imaging of the frontal parenchyma. However, transorbital TCCS raises problems with the insonation of the orbital lens. To overcome these drawbacks, we studied the feasibility of frontal bone windows for TCCS examinations. METHODS: In 75 healthy volunteers (mean age, 45.3+/-17.0 years; age range, 17 to 77 years), the circle of Willis and the venous midline vasculature were insonated through a lateral and paramedian frontal bone window. Insonation quality of parenchymal structures (B-mode) was graded on a 3-point scale depending on the visibility of typical parenchymal landmarks. In a similar manner, the quality of the color-/Doppler-mode imaging of the arteries of the circle of Willis and the internal cerebral veins was assessed. In 15 patients (mean age, 62.7+/-13.7 years; age range, 33 to 83 years), the color-/Doppler-mode imaging quality of the intracranial vessels before and after application of an ultrasound contrast-enhancing agent was compared. RESULTS: B-mode insonation quality was optimal to fair in 73.3% of cases using the lateral and in 52.0% of cases using the paramedian frontal bone window, with defined parenchymal structures used as reference. Insonation quality decreased in those older than 60 years. In those younger than 60 years, angle-corrected flow velocity measurements of the A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery and the internal cerebral vein were possible in 73.6% and 60.0%, respectively. Contrast enhancement resulted in a highly significant improvement in the imaging quality of the intracranial vessels. CONCLUSIONS: The transfrontal bone windows offer new possibilities for TCCS examinations, although the insonation quality is inferior to the conventional temporal bone window in terms of failure of an acoustic window. This can be compensated for by application of an ultrasound contrast-enhancing agent.  (+info)

Color Doppler study of the venous circulation in the fetal brain and hemodynamic study of the cerebral transverse sinus. (7/468)

OBJECTIVES: To describe the venous circulation in the fetal brain; to describe the normal blood flow velocity waveform in the transverse sinus and to establish normal reference ranges for the second half of gestation. POPULATION: A total of 126 pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies at 20-42 weeks of gestation. METHODS: A combination of color-coded Doppler and two-dimensional real-time ultrasound was used to identify the main venous systems in the fetal brain. Blood flow velocity waveforms of the transverse sinus were obtained from a transverse plane of the head at the level of the cerebellum. RESULTS: A waveform could be obtained in the cerebral transverse sinus in 98% of the cases. The waveform obtained was triphasic with a forward systolic component, a forward early diastolic component and a lower forward component in late diastole. Reverse flow during atrial contraction was seen before 28 weeks and the diastolic flow increased with gestation thereafter. Pulsatility and resistance indices decreased and flow velocities increased in the transverse sinus throughout gestation. CONCLUSION: The venous circulation of the fetal brain can be identified by color Doppler. The gestational age-related decrease in resistance and increase in flow velocities suggest that hemodynamic studies of the cerebral transverse sinus might have clinical implications in studying compromised fetuses.  (+info)

Successful radiosurgical treatment of arteriovenous malformation accompanied by venous malformation. (8/468)

We present a patient with a rare cerebrovascular malformation consisting of a typical arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with a nidus and a venous malformation (VM) in a single lesion. The AVM component was successfully obliterated by radiosurgery, whereas the VM was completely preserved. Radiosurgery can be an effective treatment technique for treating this type of malformation because it allows targeted obliteration of the AVM yet carries a low risk of damaging the venous drainage toward and away from the VM.  (+info)

Cerebral veins are the blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the brain to the dural venous sinuses, which are located between the layers of tissue covering the brain. The largest cerebral vein is the superior sagittal sinus, which runs along the top of the brain. Other major cerebral veins include the straight sinus, transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, and cavernous sinus. These veins receive blood from smaller veins called venules that drain the surface and deep structures of the brain. The cerebral veins play an important role in maintaining normal circulation and pressure within the brain.

Intracranial thrombosis refers to the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) within the intracranial vessels, which supply blood to the brain. This condition can occur in any of the cerebral arteries or veins and can lead to serious complications such as ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or venous sinus thrombosis.

The formation of an intracranial thrombus can be caused by various factors, including atherosclerosis, cardiac embolism, vasculitis, sickle cell disease, hypercoagulable states, and head trauma. Symptoms may vary depending on the location and extent of the thrombosis but often include sudden onset of headache, weakness or numbness in the face or limbs, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision changes, and loss of balance or coordination.

Diagnosis of intracranial thrombosis typically involves imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) angiography, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), or digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Treatment options may include anticoagulation therapy, thrombolysis, endovascular intervention, or surgical intervention, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.

Cranial sinuses are a part of the venous system in the human head. They are air-filled spaces located within the skull and are named according to their location. The cranial sinuses include:

1. Superior sagittal sinus: It runs along the top of the brain, inside the skull, and drains blood from the scalp and the veins of the brain.
2. Inferior sagittal sinus: It runs along the bottom of the brain and drains into the straight sinus.
3. Straight sinus: It is located at the back of the brain and receives blood from the inferior sagittal sinus and great cerebral vein.
4. Occipital sinuses: They are located at the back of the head and drain blood from the scalp and skull.
5. Cavernous sinuses: They are located on each side of the brain, near the temple, and receive blood from the eye and surrounding areas.
6. Sphenoparietal sinus: It is a small sinus that drains blood from the front part of the brain into the cavernous sinus.
7. Petrosquamosal sinuses: They are located near the ear and drain blood from the scalp and skull.

The cranial sinuses play an essential role in draining blood from the brain and protecting it from injury.

Intracranial sinus thrombosis is a medical condition characterized by the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) within the intracranial venous sinuses, which are responsible for draining blood from the brain. The condition can lead to various neurological symptoms and complications, such as increased intracranial pressure, headaches, seizures, visual disturbances, and altered consciousness. Intracranial sinus thrombosis may result from various factors, including hypercoagulable states, infections, trauma, and malignancies. Immediate medical attention is necessary for proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent potential long-term neurological damage or even death.

Veins are blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart. They have a lower pressure than arteries and contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Veins have a thin, flexible wall with a larger lumen compared to arteries, allowing them to accommodate more blood volume. The color of veins is often blue or green due to the absorption characteristics of light and the reduced oxygen content in the blood they carry.

Meningeal arteries refer to the branches of the major cerebral arteries that supply blood to the meninges, which are the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. These arteries include:

1. The middle meningeal artery, a branch of the maxillary artery, which supplies the dura mater in the cranial cavity.
2. The anterior and posterior meningeal arteries, branches of the internal carotid and vertebral arteries, respectively, that supply blood to the dura mater in the anterior and posterior cranial fossae.
3. The vasorum nervorum, small arteries that arise from the spinal branch of the ascending cervical artery and supply the spinal meninges.

These arteries play a crucial role in maintaining the health and integrity of the meninges and the central nervous system they protect.

Cerebral arteries refer to the blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the brain. These arteries branch off from the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries, which combine to form the basilar artery. The major cerebral arteries include:

1. Anterior cerebral artery (ACA): This artery supplies blood to the frontal lobes of the brain, including the motor and sensory cortices responsible for movement and sensation in the lower limbs.
2. Middle cerebral artery (MCA): The MCA is the largest of the cerebral arteries and supplies blood to the lateral surface of the brain, including the temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. It is responsible for providing blood to areas involved in motor function, sensory perception, speech, memory, and vision.
3. Posterior cerebral artery (PCA): The PCA supplies blood to the occipital lobe, which is responsible for visual processing, as well as parts of the temporal and parietal lobes.
4. Anterior communicating artery (ACoA) and posterior communicating arteries (PComAs): These are small arteries that connect the major cerebral arteries, forming an important circulatory network called the Circle of Willis. The ACoA connects the two ACAs, while the PComAs connect the ICA with the PCA and the basilar artery.

These cerebral arteries play a crucial role in maintaining proper brain function by delivering oxygenated blood to various regions of the brain. Any damage or obstruction to these arteries can lead to serious neurological conditions, such as strokes or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs).

Cerebral angiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the blood vessels in the brain after injecting a contrast dye into them. This procedure helps doctors to diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the blood vessels in the brain, such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and stenosis (narrowing of the blood vessels).

During the procedure, a catheter is inserted into an artery in the leg and threaded through the body to the blood vessels in the neck or brain. The contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken to visualize the blood flow through the brain's blood vessels.

Cerebral angiography provides detailed images of the blood vessels in the brain, allowing doctors to identify any abnormalities or blockages that may be causing symptoms or increasing the risk of stroke. Based on the results of the cerebral angiography, doctors can develop a treatment plan to address these issues and prevent further complications.

Dura Mater is the thickest and outermost of the three membranes (meninges) that cover the brain and spinal cord. It provides protection and support to these delicate structures. The other two layers are called the Arachnoid Mater and the Pia Mater, which are thinner and more delicate than the Dura Mater. Together, these three layers form a protective barrier around the central nervous system.

Cerebrovascular circulation refers to the network of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood and nutrients to the brain tissue, and remove waste products. It includes the internal carotid arteries, vertebral arteries, circle of Willis, and the intracranial arteries that branch off from them.

The internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries merge to form the circle of Willis, a polygonal network of vessels located at the base of the brain. The anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, posterior cerebral artery, and communicating arteries are the major vessels that branch off from the circle of Willis and supply blood to different regions of the brain.

Interruptions or abnormalities in the cerebrovascular circulation can lead to various neurological conditions such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and vascular dementia.

Sagittal sinus thrombosis is a medical condition that refers to the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in the sagittal sinus, which is a venous structure located in the brain. The sagittal sinus runs along the midline of the brain and receives blood from the superficial veins of the brain.

Sagittal sinus thrombosis can occur as a result of various conditions, such as head trauma, infection, cancer, or certain medical disorders that cause hypercoagulability (an increased tendency to form blood clots). The formation of a blood clot in the sagittal sinus can obstruct the flow of blood from the brain, leading to symptoms such as headache, seizures, altered consciousness, and focal neurological deficits.

Diagnosis of sagittal sinus thrombosis typically involves imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, which can show the presence of a blood clot in the sagittal sinus. Treatment may involve administering anticoagulant medications to prevent further growth of the blood clot and reduce the risk of complications such as pulmonary embolism or cerebral infarction. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove the blood clot or alleviate pressure on the brain.

The Superior Sagittal Sinus is a medical term that refers to a venous sinus (a channel for blood flow) located in the superior part (highest portion) of the sagittal suture, which is the line along the top of the skull where the two parietal bones join in the middle. It runs from front to back, starting at the frontal bone and ending at the occipital bone, and it receives blood from veins that drain the cerebral hemispheres (the right and left halves of the brain).

The Superior Sagittal Sinus is an important structure in the circulatory system of the brain as it plays a critical role in draining venous blood from the cranial cavity. It also contains valveless venous channels that allow for the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between the intracranial and extracranial compartments.

It is worth noting that any damage to this structure, such as through trauma or infection, can lead to serious neurological complications, including increased intracranial pressure, seizures, and even death.

Central nervous system (CNS) vascular malformations are abnormal tangles or masses of blood vessels in the brain or spinal cord. These malformations can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (develop later in life). They can vary in size, location, and symptoms, which may include headaches, seizures, weakness, numbness, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, and vision problems.

There are several types of CNS vascular malformations, including:

1. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs): These are tangles of arteries and veins with a direct connection between them, bypassing the capillary network. AVMs can cause bleeding in the brain or spinal cord, leading to stroke or neurological deficits.
2. Cavernous malformations: These are clusters of dilated, thin-walled blood vessels that form a sac-like structure. They can rupture and bleed, causing symptoms such as seizures, headaches, or neurological deficits.
3. Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs): These are benign vascular malformations characterized by an abnormal pattern of veins that drain blood from the brain. DVAs are usually asymptomatic but can be associated with other vascular malformations.
4. Capillary telangiectasias: These are small clusters of dilated capillaries in the brain or spinal cord. They are usually asymptomatic and found incidentally during imaging studies.
5. Moyamoya disease: This is a rare, progressive cerebrovascular disorder characterized by the narrowing or blockage of the internal carotid arteries and their branches. This can lead to decreased blood flow to the brain, causing symptoms such as headaches, seizures, and strokes.

The diagnosis of CNS vascular malformations typically involves imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans, and sometimes angiography. Treatment options may include observation, medication, surgery, or endovascular procedures, depending on the type, location, and severity of the malformation.

The sphenoid sinuses are air-filled spaces located within the sphenoid bone, which is one of the bones that make up the skull base. These sinuses are located deep inside the skull, behind the eyes and nasal cavity. They are paired and separated by a thin bony septum, and each one opens into the corresponding nasal cavity through a small opening called the sphenoethmoidal recess. The sphenoid sinuses vary greatly in size and shape between individuals. They develop during childhood and continue to grow until early adulthood. The function of the sphenoid sinuses, like other paranasal sinuses, is not entirely clear, but they may contribute to reducing the weight of the skull, resonating voice during speech, and insulating the brain from trauma.

The saphenous vein is a term used in anatomical description to refer to the great or small saphenous veins, which are superficial veins located in the lower extremities of the human body.

The great saphenous vein (GSV) is the longest vein in the body and originates from the medial aspect of the foot, ascending along the medial side of the leg and thigh, and drains into the femoral vein at the saphenofemoral junction, located in the upper third of the thigh.

The small saphenous vein (SSV) is a shorter vein that originates from the lateral aspect of the foot, ascends along the posterior calf, and drains into the popliteal vein at the saphenopopliteal junction, located in the popliteal fossa.

These veins are often used as conduits for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery due to their consistent anatomy and length.

The cavernous sinus is a venous structure located in the middle cranial fossa, which is a depression in the skull that houses several important nerves and blood vessels. The cavernous sinus is situated on either side of the sphenoid bone, near the base of the skull, and it contains several important structures:

* The internal carotid artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to the brain
* The abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI), which controls lateral movement of the eye
* The oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III), which controls most of the muscles that move the eye
* The trochlear nerve (cranial nerve IV), which controls one of the muscles that moves the eye
* The ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), which transmit sensory information from the face and head

The cavernous sinus is an important structure because it serves as a conduit for several critical nerves and blood vessels. However, it is also vulnerable to various pathological conditions such as thrombosis (blood clots), infection, tumors, or aneurysms, which can lead to serious neurological deficits or even death.

1. Intracranial Embolism: This is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot or other particle (embolus) formed elsewhere in the body, travels through the bloodstream and lodges itself in the intracranial blood vessels, blocking the flow of blood to a part of the brain. This can lead to various neurological symptoms such as weakness, numbness, speech difficulties, or even loss of consciousness, depending on the severity and location of the blockage.

2. Intracranial Thrombosis: This is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) forms within the intracranial blood vessels. The clot can partially or completely obstruct the flow of blood, leading to various symptoms such as headache, confusion, seizures, or neurological deficits, depending on the severity and location of the thrombosis. Intracranial thrombosis can occur due to various factors including atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, and other medical conditions that increase the risk of blood clot formation.

Venous thrombosis is a medical condition characterized by the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in the deep veins, often in the legs (deep vein thrombosis or DVT), but it can also occur in other parts of the body such as the arms, pelvis, or lungs (pulmonary embolism).

The formation of a venous thrombus can be caused by various factors, including injury to the blood vessel wall, changes in blood flow, and alterations in the composition of the blood. These factors can lead to the activation of clotting factors and platelets, which can result in the formation of a clot that blocks the vein.

Symptoms of venous thrombosis may include swelling, pain, warmth, and redness in the affected area. In some cases, the clot can dislodge and travel to other parts of the body, causing potentially life-threatening complications such as pulmonary embolism.

Risk factors for venous thrombosis include advanced age, obesity, smoking, pregnancy, use of hormonal contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy, cancer, recent surgery or trauma, prolonged immobility, and a history of previous venous thromboembolism. Treatment typically involves the use of anticoagulant medications to prevent further clotting and dissolve existing clots.

Cerebral infarction, also known as a "stroke" or "brain attack," is the sudden death of brain cells caused by the interruption of their blood supply. It is most commonly caused by a blockage in one of the blood vessels supplying the brain (an ischemic stroke), but can also result from a hemorrhage in or around the brain (a hemorrhagic stroke).

Ischemic strokes occur when a blood clot or other particle blocks a cerebral artery, cutting off blood flow to a part of the brain. The lack of oxygen and nutrients causes nearby brain cells to die. Hemorrhagic strokes occur when a weakened blood vessel ruptures, causing bleeding within or around the brain. This bleeding can put pressure on surrounding brain tissues, leading to cell death.

Symptoms of cerebral infarction depend on the location and extent of the affected brain tissue but may include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; loss of balance or coordination; and severe headache with no known cause. Immediate medical attention is crucial for proper diagnosis and treatment to minimize potential long-term damage or disability.

The portal vein is the large venous trunk that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder to the liver. It is formed by the union of the superior mesenteric vein (draining the small intestine and a portion of the large intestine) and the splenic vein (draining the spleen and pancreas). The portal vein then divides into right and left branches within the liver, where the blood flows through the sinusoids and gets enriched with oxygen and nutrients before being drained by the hepatic veins into the inferior vena cava. This unique arrangement allows the liver to process and detoxify the absorbed nutrients, remove waste products, and regulate metabolic homeostasis.

Varicose veins are defined as enlarged, swollen, and twisting veins often appearing blue or dark purple, which usually occur in the legs. They are caused by weakened valves and vein walls that can't effectively push blood back toward the heart. This results in a buildup of blood, causing the veins to bulge and become varicose.

The condition is generally harmless but may cause symptoms like aching, burning, muscle cramp, or a feeling of heaviness in the legs. In some cases, varicose veins can lead to more serious problems, such as skin ulcers, blood clots, or chronic venous insufficiency. Treatment options include lifestyle changes, compression stockings, and medical procedures like sclerotherapy, laser surgery, or endovenous ablation.

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and maintain balance and posture. According to the Mayo Clinic, CP is caused by abnormal brain development or damage to the developing brain that affects a child's ability to control movement.

The symptoms of cerebral palsy can vary in severity and may include:

* Spasticity (stiff or tight muscles)
* Rigidity (resistance to passive movement)
* Poor coordination and balance
* Weakness or paralysis
* Tremors or involuntary movements
* Abnormal gait or difficulty walking
* Difficulty with fine motor skills, such as writing or using utensils
* Speech and language difficulties
* Vision, hearing, or swallowing problems

It's important to note that cerebral palsy is not a progressive condition, meaning that it does not worsen over time. However, the symptoms may change over time, and some individuals with CP may experience additional medical conditions as they age.

Cerebral palsy is usually caused by brain damage that occurs before or during birth, but it can also be caused by brain injuries that occur in the first few years of life. Some possible causes of cerebral palsy include:

* Infections during pregnancy
* Lack of oxygen to the brain during delivery
* Traumatic head injury during birth
* Brain bleeding or stroke in the newborn period
* Genetic disorders
* Maternal illness or infection during pregnancy

There is no cure for cerebral palsy, but early intervention and treatment can help improve outcomes and quality of life. Treatment may include physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, medications to manage symptoms, surgery, and assistive devices such as braces or wheelchairs.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, color is a type of diagnostic ultrasound technique that uses the Doppler effect to produce visual images of blood flow in vessels and the heart. The Doppler effect is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the source of the wave. In this context, it refers to the change in frequency of the ultrasound waves as they reflect off moving red blood cells.

In color Doppler ultrasonography, different colors are used to represent the direction and speed of blood flow. Red typically represents blood flowing toward the transducer (the device that sends and receives sound waves), while blue represents blood flowing away from the transducer. The intensity or brightness of the color is proportional to the velocity of blood flow.

Color Doppler ultrasonography is often used in conjunction with grayscale ultrasound imaging, which provides information about the structure and composition of tissues. Together, these techniques can help diagnose a wide range of conditions, including heart disease, blood clots, and abnormalities in blood flow.

Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to visualize and measure the velocity of blood flow in the cerebral arteries located in the skull. This imaging modality employs the Doppler effect, which describes the change in frequency of sound waves as they reflect off moving red blood cells. By measuring the frequency shift of the reflected ultrasound waves, the velocity and direction of blood flow can be determined.

Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography is primarily used to assess cerebrovascular circulation and detect abnormalities such as stenosis (narrowing), occlusion (blockage), or embolism (obstruction) in the intracranial arteries. It can also help monitor patients with conditions like sickle cell disease, vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments such as thrombolysis or angioplasty. The procedure is typically performed by placing a transducer on the patient's skull after applying a coupling gel, and it does not involve radiation exposure or contrast agents.

The femoral vein is the large vein that runs through the thigh and carries oxygen-depleted blood from the lower limbs back to the heart. It is located in the femoral triangle, along with the femoral artery and nerve. The femoral vein begins at the knee as the popliteal vein, which then joins with the deep vein of the thigh to form the femoral vein. As it moves up the leg, it is joined by several other veins, including the great saphenous vein, before it becomes the external iliac vein at the inguinal ligament in the groin.

The Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) is one of the main blood vessels that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. It arises from the internal carotid artery and divides into several branches, which supply the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere, including the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes.

The MCA is responsible for providing blood flow to critical areas of the brain, such as the primary motor and sensory cortices, Broca's area (associated with speech production), Wernicke's area (associated with language comprehension), and the visual association cortex.

Damage to the MCA or its branches can result in a variety of neurological deficits, depending on the specific location and extent of the injury. These may include weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, sensory loss, language impairment, and visual field cuts.

An intracranial aneurysm is a localized, blood-filled dilation or bulging in the wall of a cerebral artery within the skull (intracranial). These aneurysms typically occur at weak points in the arterial walls, often at branching points where the vessel divides into smaller branches. Over time, the repeated pressure from blood flow can cause the vessel wall to weaken and balloon out, forming a sac-like structure. Intracranial aneurysms can vary in size, ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter.

There are three main types of intracranial aneurysms:

1. Saccular (berry) aneurysm: This is the most common type, characterized by a round or oval shape with a narrow neck and a bulging sac. They usually develop at branching points in the arteries due to congenital weaknesses in the vessel wall.
2. Fusiform aneurysm: These aneurysms have a dilated segment along the length of the artery, forming a cigar-shaped or spindle-like structure. They are often caused by atherosclerosis and can affect any part of the cerebral arteries.
3. Dissecting aneurysm: This type occurs when there is a tear in the inner lining (intima) of the artery, allowing blood to flow between the layers of the vessel wall. It can lead to narrowing or complete blockage of the affected artery and may cause subarachnoid hemorrhage if it ruptures.

Intracranial aneurysms can be asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during imaging studies for other conditions. However, when they grow larger or rupture, they can lead to severe complications such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke, or even death. Treatment options include surgical clipping, endovascular coiling, or flow diversion techniques to prevent further growth and potential rupture of the aneurysm.

Pulmonary veins are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. There are four pulmonary veins in total, two from each lung, and they are the only veins in the body that carry oxygen-rich blood. The oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins is then pumped by the left ventricle to the rest of the body through the aorta. Any blockage or damage to the pulmonary veins can lead to various cardiopulmonary conditions, such as pulmonary hypertension and congestive heart failure.

The jugular veins are a pair of large, superficial veins that carry blood from the head and neck to the heart. They are located in the neck and are easily visible when looking at the side of a person's neck. The external jugular vein runs along the surface of the muscles in the neck, while the internal jugular vein runs within the carotid sheath along with the carotid artery and the vagus nerve.

The jugular veins are important in clinical examinations because they can provide information about a person's cardiovascular function and intracranial pressure. For example, distention of the jugular veins may indicate heart failure or increased intracranial pressure, while decreased venous pulsations may suggest a low blood pressure or shock.

It is important to note that medical conditions such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can also affect the jugular veins and can lead to serious complications if not treated promptly.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) infarction is a type of ischemic stroke that occurs when there is an obstruction in the blood supply to the middle cerebral artery, which is one of the major blood vessels that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. The MCA supplies blood to a large portion of the brain, including the motor and sensory cortex, parts of the temporal and parietal lobes, and the basal ganglia.

An infarction is the death of tissue due to the lack of blood supply, which can lead to damage or loss of function in the affected areas of the brain. Symptoms of MCA infarction may include weakness or numbness on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, and altered levels of consciousness.

MCA infarctions can be caused by various factors, including embolism (a blood clot that travels to the brain from another part of the body), thrombosis (a blood clot that forms in the MCA itself), or stenosis (narrowing of the artery due to atherosclerosis or other conditions). Treatment for MCA infarction may include medications to dissolve blood clots, surgery to remove the obstruction, or rehabilitation to help regain lost function.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Cerebral malaria is a severe form of malaria that affects the brain. It is caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasites, which are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. In cerebral malaria, the parasites infect and destroy red blood cells, leading to their accumulation in small blood vessels in the brain. This can cause swelling of the brain, impaired consciousness, seizures, coma, and even death if left untreated.

The medical definition of cerebral malaria is:

A severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasites that affects the brain and results in altered mental status, seizures, coma, or other neurological symptoms. It is characterized by the sequestration of infected red blood cells in the cerebral microvasculature, leading to inflammation, endothelial activation, and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Cerebral malaria can cause long-term neurological deficits or death if not promptly diagnosed and treated with appropriate antimalarial therapy.

The mesenteric veins are a set of blood vessels that are responsible for draining deoxygenated blood from the small and large intestines. There are two main mesenteric veins: the superior mesenteric vein and the inferior mesenteric vein. The superior mesenteric vein drains blood from the majority of the small intestine, as well as the ascending colon and proximal two-thirds of the transverse colon. The inferior mesenteric vein drains blood from the distal third of the transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. These veins ultimately drain into the portal vein, which carries the blood to the liver for further processing.

Brain ischemia is the medical term used to describe a reduction or interruption of blood flow to the brain, leading to a lack of oxygen and glucose delivery to brain tissue. This can result in brain damage or death of brain cells, known as infarction. Brain ischemia can be caused by various conditions such as thrombosis (blood clot formation), embolism (obstruction of a blood vessel by a foreign material), or hypoperfusion (reduced blood flow). The severity and duration of the ischemia determine the extent of brain damage. Symptoms can range from mild, such as transient ischemic attacks (TIAs or "mini-strokes"), to severe, including paralysis, speech difficulties, loss of consciousness, and even death. Immediate medical attention is required for proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent further damage and potential long-term complications.

The renal veins are a pair of large veins that carry oxygen-depleted blood and waste products from the kidneys to the inferior vena cava, which is the largest vein in the body that returns blood to the heart. The renal veins are formed by the union of several smaller veins that drain blood from different parts of the kidney.

In humans, the right renal vein is shorter and passes directly into the inferior vena cava, while the left renal vein is longer and passes in front of the aorta before entering the inferior vena cava. The left renal vein also receives blood from the gonadal (testicular or ovarian) veins, suprarenal (adrenal) veins, and the lumbar veins.

It is important to note that the renal veins are vulnerable to compression by surrounding structures, such as the overlying artery or a tumor, which can lead to renal vein thrombosis, a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention.

The umbilical veins are blood vessels in the umbilical cord that carry oxygenated and nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the developing fetus during pregnancy. There are typically two umbilical veins, one of which usually degenerates and becomes obliterated, leaving a single functional vein. This remaining vein is known as the larger umbilical vein or the venous duct. It enters the fetal abdomen through the umbilicus and passes through the liver, where it branches off to form the portal sinus. Ultimately, the blood from the umbilical vein mixes with the blood from the inferior vena cava and is pumped to the heart through the right atrium.

It's important to note that after birth, the umbilical veins are no longer needed and undergo involution, becoming the ligamentum teres in the adult.

The iliac veins are a pair of large veins in the human body that carry deoxygenated blood from the lower extremities and the pelvic area back to the heart. They are formed by the union of the common iliac veins, which receive blood from the lower abdomen and legs, at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra.

The combined iliac vein is called the inferior vena cava, which continues upward to the right atrium of the heart. The iliac veins are located deep within the pelvis, lateral to the corresponding iliac arteries, and are accompanied by the iliac lymphatic vessels.

The left common iliac vein is longer than the right because it must cross the left common iliac artery to join the right common iliac vein. The external and internal iliac veins are the two branches of the common iliac vein, with the external iliac vein carrying blood from the lower limbs and the internal iliac vein carrying blood from the pelvic organs.

It is essential to maintain proper blood flow in the iliac veins to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a condition that can lead to serious complications such as pulmonary embolism.

A cerebral hemorrhage, also known as an intracranial hemorrhage or intracerebral hemorrhage, is a type of stroke that results from bleeding within the brain tissue. It occurs when a weakened blood vessel bursts and causes localized bleeding in the brain. This bleeding can increase pressure in the skull, damage nearby brain cells, and release toxic substances that further harm brain tissues.

Cerebral hemorrhages are often caused by chronic conditions like hypertension (high blood pressure) or cerebral amyloid angiopathy, which weakens the walls of blood vessels over time. Other potential causes include trauma, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, illicit drug use, and brain tumors. Symptoms may include sudden headache, weakness, numbness, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, loss of balance, and altered level of consciousness. Immediate medical attention is required to diagnose and manage cerebral hemorrhage through imaging techniques, supportive care, and possible surgical interventions.

The hepatic veins are blood vessels that carry oxygen-depleted blood from the liver back to the heart. There are typically three major hepatic veins - right, middle, and left - that originate from the posterior aspect of the liver and drain into the inferior vena cava just below the diaphragm. These veins are responsible for returning the majority of the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen to the heart. It's important to note that the hepatic veins do not have valves, which can make them susceptible to a condition called Budd-Chiari syndrome, where blood clots form in the veins and obstruct the flow of blood from the liver.

The popliteal vein is the continuation of the tibial and fibular (or anterior and posterior tibial) veins, forming in the lower leg's back portion or popliteal fossa. It carries blood from the leg towards the heart. The popliteal vein is located deep within the body and is accompanied by the popliteal artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to the lower leg. This venous structure is a crucial part of the venous system in the lower extremities and is often assessed during physical examinations for signs of venous insufficiency or deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

The external cerebral veins known as the superficial cerebral veins are the superior cerebral veins, inferior cerebral veins, ... The superior cerebral veins include the superior anastomotic vein. The internal cerebral veins are also known as the deep ... They are divisible into external (superficial cerebral veins) and internal (internal cerebral veins) groups according to the ... and middle cerebral veins. The superior cerebral veins on the upper side surfaces of the hemispheres drain into the superior ...
The inferior cerebral veins are veins that drain the undersurface of the cerebral hemispheres and empty into the cavernous and ... Meninges and superficial cerebral veins. Deep dissection. Superior view. This article incorporates text in the public domain ... Those on the orbital surface of the frontal lobe join the superior cerebral veins, and through these open into the superior ... Those of the temporal lobe anastomose with the middle cerebral and basal veins, and join the cavernous, sphenoparietal, and ...
The internal cerebral veins are two veins included in the group of deep cerebral veins that drain the deep parts of the ... each internal cerebral vein is formed near the interventricular foramina by the union of the superior thalamostriate vein and ... the great cerebral vein of Galen; just before their union each receives the corresponding basal vein. This article incorporates ... Veins of the head and neck, All stub articles, Cardiovascular system stubs). ...
The superior cerebral veins are several cerebral veins that drain the superolateral and superomedial surfaces of the cerebral ... The superior cerebral veins drain into the superior sagittal sinus individually. The anterior veins run at near right angles to ... There are 8-12 cerebral veins.[further explanation needed] They are predominantly found in the sulci between the gyri, but can ... Meninges and superficial cerebral veins. Deep dissection. Superior view. Sinnatamby, Chummy (2011). Last's Anatomy (12th ed.). ...
The superficial cerebral veins are a group of cerebral veins in the head. This group includes the superior cerebral veins, the ... the inferior cerebral veins, the inferior anastomotic vein and the superior anastomotic vein. Mudgal, Prashant. "Cerebral veins ... Veins of the head and neck, All stub articles, Cardiovascular system stubs). ...
The middle cerebral veins - the superficial middle cerebral vein and the deep middle cerebral vein - are two veins running ... The superficial middle cerebral vein is also known as the superficial Sylvian vein, and the deep middle cerebral vein is also ... and with the transverse sinus via the inferior anastomotic vein. The deep middle cerebral vein (deep Sylvian vein) receives ... The superficial middle cerebral vein (superficial Sylvian vein) begins on the lateral surface of the hemisphere. It runs along ...
... may refer to: Deep cerebral veins, a group of veins in the head Deep middle cerebral vein, a vein which ... insula and neighboring gyri in the brain This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Deep cerebral vein. ...
The great cerebral vein is one of the deep cerebral veins. Other deep cerebral veins are the internal cerebral veins, formed by ... The deep cerebral veins of the brain normally drain through the great cerebral vein. In its absence, the veins from the ... The vein of Markowski actually drains into the vein of Galen. Absence of the great cerebral vein is a congenital disorder. ... Most of the blood in the deep cerebral veins collects into the great cerebral vein. This comes from the inferior side of the ...
The inferior anastomotic vein (also known as the vein of Labbe) is one of several superficial cerebral veins. It forms an ... Superior anastomotic vein Meninges and superficial cerebral veins. Deep dissection. Superior view. Meninges and superficial ... cerebral veins. Deep dissection. Superior view. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text in the public domain ... It drains adjacent cortical regions, gathering tributaries from minor veins of the temporal lobe.[citation needed] It is highly ...
Meninges and superficial cerebral veins. Deep dissection. Superior view. Meninges and superficial cerebral veins. Deep ... The dorsal layer covers internal cerebral veins and fixes them to the surrounding tela choroidea. The ventral layer of ... The arachnoid mater lies under the dura mater, and arteries and veins run on top of it. Brain with arachnoid mater, and an area ... Sandwiched between the dura and arachnoid maters lie some veins that connect the brain's venous system with the venous system ...
Meninges and superficial cerebral veins. Deep dissection. Superior view. Sheep Brain Dissection with labels An anatomical ... Cerebral Cortex, 11(9), 868-877. doi:10.1093/cercor/11.9.868 "A Neurosurgeon's Overview the Brain's Anatomy". www.aans.org. ... Here, billions of neurons and glia can be found working together to send messages that form what is known as the cerebral ... Even though the lateral cerebral fissure morphology was uniform in the dog breeds. Mesaticephalic‐(M) dogs were found to have ...
Cerebral vein thrombosis. Portal vein thrombosis, hepatic vein, or other intra-abdominal thrombotic events. Jugular vein ... blood clots develop in the deep veins of the lower extremities, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or as a blood clot in the lung, ... Central retinal vein and/or central retinal arterial thrombosis. Small vessel thrombosis affecting one or more organs, systems ... The initial symptoms of TS present similarly to the symptoms experienced in deep vein thrombosis. Symptoms of a DVT may include ...
"Prognosis of cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis: results of the International Study on Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus ... Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST), cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis or cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), is the ... In cerebral venous thrombosis, blood clots usually form both in the veins of the brain and the venous sinuses. The thrombosis ... Cerebral angiography may demonstrate smaller clots than CT or MRI, and obstructed veins may give the "corkscrew appearance". ...
Stam J (April 2005). "Thrombosis of the cerebral veins and sinuses". The New England Journal of Medicine. 352 (17): 1791-8. doi ... Cerebral infarction is the pathologic process that results in an area of necrotic tissue in the brain (cerebral infarct). It is ... Cerebral infarction is caused by a disruption to blood supply that is severe enough and long enough in duration to result in ... If cerebral infarction is caused by a thrombus occluding blood flow to an artery supplying the brain, definitive therapy is ...
Stam, J. (2005-04-28). "Thrombosis of the Cerebral Veins and Sinuses". New England Journal of Medicine. 352 (17): 1791-1798. ... causing cerebral vasoconstriction which ultimately narrows blood vessels in the brain leading to cerebral hypoxia and tissue ... Cerebral ischaemia refers to a severely reduced flow of blood in the brain due to narrowing or blocking of arteries or blood ... A thrombus is a blood clot which forms in a cerebral blood vessel, reducing the flow of blood through that vessel. This ...
with H. L. Sheehan: Martin, J. P.; Sheehan, H. L. (8 March 1941). "Primary Thrombosis of Cerebral Veins (following Childbirth ... with H. L. Sheehan: Martin, J. P.; Sheehan, H. L. (25 April 1942). "Puerperal Cerebral Thrombosis". Br Med J. 1 (4242): 538-539 ... Martin, J. P. (5 April 1941). "Cerebral Venous Thrombosis after Childbirth". Br Med J. 1 (4187): 534-535. doi:10.1136/bmj. ...
with J. Purdon Martin: Martin, J. P.; Sheehan, H. L. (8 March 1941). "Primary Thrombosis of Cerebral Veins (following ... with J. Purdon Martin: Martin, J. P.; Sheehan, H. L. (25 April 1942). "Puerperal Cerebral Thrombosis". Br Med J. 1 (4242): 538- ...
Different structures in the mouse brain are indicated: sv, supraorbital veins; icv, inferior cerebral vein; sss, superior ...
... internal jugular vein, or of the Great Cerebral Vein of Galen itself.[citation needed] 10% of vein of Galen aneurysmal ... The vein of Galen can be visualized using ultrasound or Doppler. A malformed Great Cerebral Vein will be noticeably enlarged. ... Dilation of the great cerebral vein of Galen is a secondary result of the force of arterial blood either directly from an ... Therefore, when a child is diagnosed with a faulty Great Cerebral Vein of Galen, most parents know little to nothing about what ...
Stam J (April 2005). "Thrombosis of the cerebral veins and sinuses" (PDF). The New England Journal of Medicine. 352 (17): 1791- ... The following are some common outcomes:[citation needed] Cerebral Palsy (often Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy/Hemiplegia) Epilepsy ...
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... also known as the vein of Trolard, is a superficial cerebral vein grouped with the superior cerebral veins. The vein was ... The vein anastomoses with the middle cerebral vein and the superior sagittal sinus. Meninges and superficial cerebral veins. ... Meninges and superficial cerebral veins.Deep dissection.Superior view. Radiopaedia Definition v t e (Articles with TA98 ... identifiers, Veins of the head and neck, All stub articles, Cardiovascular system stubs). ...
It unites with the superior thalamostriate vein to form the internal cerebral vein. The inferior choroid vein drains the ... The choroid veins are the superior choroid vein, and the inferior choroid vein of the lateral ventricle. Both veins drain ... The superior choroid vein runs along the length of the choroid plexus in the lateral ventricle. It drains the choroid plexus, ... ISBN 978-1-4557-0418-7. v t e (Veins of the head and neck, All stub articles, Cardiovascular system stubs). ...
... reflux in the deep cerebral veins, high-resolution B-mode ultrasound evidence of stenosis of the internal jugular vein, absence ... Haacke EM, Garbern J, Miao Y, Habib C, Liu M (April 2010). "Iron stores and cerebral veins in MS studied by susceptibility ... and iron deposits around the cerebral veins. Multiple sclerosis has been proposed as a possible outcome of CCSVI.[citation ... defective jugular valves and jugular vein aneurysms. Problems with the innominate vein and superior vena cava have also been ...
The superior cerebellar veins drain to the straight sinus and the internal cerebral veins. The inferior cerebellar veins drain ... The cerebellar veins are veins which drain the cerebellum. They consist of the superior cerebellar veins and the inferior ... They end in the straight sinus, and the internal cerebral veins, partly lateralward to the transverse and superior petrosal ... Surgical management of cerebral dural arteriovenous fistulas". Cerebral Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas. Academic Press. pp. 105- ...
... cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and thrombosis of the splanchnic veins. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis may cause severe ... Riva N, Ageno W (March 2020). "Cerebral and Splanchnic Vein Thrombosis: Advances, Challenges, and Unanswered Questions". ... Splanchnic vein thrombosis may cause abdominal pain, accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, and gastrointestinal ... The Paul Ehrlich Institute has recorded 31 cerebral venous sinus thromboses (CVST) and nine deaths out of 2.7 million ...
Breschet's veins: (venae diploici), Diploic veins connected with the cerebral sinuses by emissary veins. In 1842, he was ... He did extensive anatomical studies of veins of the cranium and spine, and made important investigations of the auditory system ... Breschet's canals: (canales diploici), Channels in the diploe of the skull that accommodate the diploic veins. Breschet's sinus ...
The basal vein passes backward around the cerebral peduncle, and ends in the great cerebral vein; it receives tributaries from ... b) the deep middle cerebral vein (deep Sylvian vein), which receives tributaries from the insula and neighboring gyri, and runs ... a small anterior cerebral vein which accompanies the anterior cerebral artery and supplies the medial surface of the frontal ... The basal vein is a vein in the brain. It is formed at the anterior perforated substance by the union of (a) ...
Cerebral veins drain the deoxygenated blood, and metabolic wastes including carbon dioxide, back to the heart. The main ... Blood supply to the cerebral cortex is part of the cerebral circulation. Cerebral arteries supply the blood that perfuses the ... the middle cerebral artery, and the posterior cerebral artery. The anterior cerebral artery supplies the anterior portions of ... The cerebral cortex, also known as the cerebral mantle, is the outer layer of neural tissue of the cerebrum of the brain in ...
In the body of the article, Labbé described various kinds of intracranial connections of cerebral veins. In his paragraph on ... He discovered what is now known as the vein of Labbé (inferior anastomotic vein) in his 3rd year of medical school. He was the ... 559-. ISBN 978-0-19-971004-1. "Vein of Labbé". Retrieved 2014-10-01. (Articles with short description, Short description ... the communications between dural sinuses, he reported the presence of the vein that bears his name. Bartels, Ronald H. M. A.; ...
The external cerebral veins known as the superficial cerebral veins are the superior cerebral veins, inferior cerebral veins, ... The superior cerebral veins include the superior anastomotic vein. The internal cerebral veins are also known as the deep ... They are divisible into external (superficial cerebral veins) and internal (internal cerebral veins) groups according to the ... and middle cerebral veins. The superior cerebral veins on the upper side surfaces of the hemispheres drain into the superior ...
Those of the temporal lobe anastomose with the middle cerebral and basal veins, and join the cavernous, sphenoparietal, and ... Those on the orbital surface of the frontal lobe join the superior cerebral veins, and through these open into the superior ... The inferior cerebral veins, of small size, drain the under surfaces of the hemispheres. ... Articles on Inferior cerebral veins in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ ... Inferior cerebral veins en Espanol Inferior cerebral veins en ...
A hyperdense superficial cerebral vein is seen adjacent to the bleed, along the convexity leading to the superior sagittal ... "superficial-cerebral-vein-thrombosis","modality":"CT","series":[{"id":18106176,"content_type":"image/jpeg","frames":[{"id": ... "superficial-cerebral-vein-thrombosis","modality":"CT","series":[{"id":18106215,"content_type":"image/jpeg","frames":[{"id": ... Giyab O, Superficial cerebral vein thrombosis. Case study, Radiopaedia.org (Accessed on 25 Sep 2023) https://doi.org/10.53347/ ...
"Cerebral Veins" by people in this website by year, and whether "Cerebral Veins" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Cerebral Veins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Cerebral Veins" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Cerebral Veins". ...
No results for your search, please try with something else. ...
Cerebral vein and venous sinus occlusions. Occlusion of cerebral veins and venous sinuses is usually caused by systemic ... Which MRI findings are characteristic of cerebral vein and venous sinus occlusions in the workup of acute stroke? ... MRI is a technique that can be used to detect deoxyhemoglobin in the cerebral capillaries and veins as an MRI indicator of ... Cerebral endothelial cells are more resistant to ischemia than are neurons and neuroglial cells. Approximately 3-4 hours after ...
Cerebral vein and venous sinus occlusions. Occlusion of cerebral veins and venous sinuses is usually caused by systemic ... Which MRI findings are characteristic of cerebral vein and venous sinus occlusions in the workup of acute stroke? ... MRI is a technique that can be used to detect deoxyhemoglobin in the cerebral capillaries and veins as an MRI indicator of ... Cerebral endothelial cells are more resistant to ischemia than are neurons and neuroglial cells. Approximately 3-4 hours after ...
We have shown that predominance of the jugular veins in cerebrovenous drainage is limited to the supine position. In the erect ... We have shown that predominance of the jugular veins in cerebrovenous drainage is limited to the supine position. In the erect ... Postural dependency of the cerebral venous outflow Lancet. 2000 Jan 15;355(9199):200-1. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(99)04804-7. ...
BackgroundConcurrent development of retinal venous drainage and cerebral venous thrombosis has not been reported.Case ... Stam J Thrombosis of the cerebral veins and sinuses. N Engl J Med 2005;3521791- 1798PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref ... Case Description We describe a 23-year-old man with bilateral central retinal vein occlusions and cerebral venous thrombosis. ... Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is induced by thrombosis and altered venous drainage of the central retinal vein.1 The ...
Cerebral vein thrombosis secondary to closed head injury. Report of one case]. / Trombosis de seno venoso secundaria a ... Cerebral lesions and neurologic signs develop in half of patients with IST. We report a 29 year-old male who had an IST after a ...
Stam J. Thrombosis of the cerebral veins and sinuses. N Engl J Med. 2005 Apr 28;352(17):1791-8. [PubMed: 15858188] ... Smith E, Kumar V. BET 1: Does a normal D-dimer rule out cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST)? Emerg Med J. 2018 Jun;35(6): ... Alons IM, Jellema K, Wermer MJ, Algra A. D-dimer for the exclusion of cerebral venous thrombosis: a meta-analysis of low risk ... For example, cerebral CT angiography (CTA) can be useful in identifying nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, arterial ...
Lateral ventricle; internal cerebral vein within transverse fissure. The septum pellucidum has been cut away to expose the ... Lateral ventricle; internal cerebral vein within transverse fissure. For permissions information regarding the use of these ... The internal cerebral vein (5) is injected and most of the visible branches lie within the transverse fissure. ...
Cerebral and Sinus Vein Thrombosis (American Heart Association) * Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis (CVST) (Johns Hopkins ... Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot in a deep vein, usually in the lower leg, thigh, or pelvis. It can block a vein and ... Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare blood clot in the venous sinuses in your brain. Normally the venous sinuses ... X-rays of the veins (venography) or blood vessels (angiography) that are taken after you get an injection of special dye. The ...
... vein of Galen, internal cerebral veins, thalamostriate veins); and 6) superficial venous system (transverse, sigmoid, and ... The present study confirms the superiority of BPA for use in cerebral TR-MRA over conventional SCA. Superior quality was noted ... This study represents the first comparison of blood-pool agents to standard agents in time-resolved cerebral MRA. ... Whereas differences in thoracic versus cerebral anatomy, particularly differences in vessel size, make conclusive judgments in ...
Reflux in the deep cerebral veins (DCVs). The Vv. basales Rosenthal, -cerebri media profunda (VCP) and -Galeni (VG) were ... Conclusions This triple-blinded extra- and transcranial duplex sonographic assessment of cervical and cerebral veins does not ... Reflux in the internal jugular veins (IJVs) and/or vertebral veins (VVs) in the supine and sitting position. Flow ... as predominant outflow via IJV in the supine but via VV and deep cerebral veins in the upright position is typically found.31 ...
The most frequent sites of thrombosis include the hepatic, pulmonary, cerebral, and deep and superficial veins, as well as the ... Thromboses in large vessels, such as hepatic, abdominal, cerebral, and subdermal veins ... and cerebral veins can have life-threatening consequences. Prophylactic anticoagulation has not been shown to be of benefit ... Patients with PNH experience a high incidence (40%) of thrombotic events (mostly venous) in large vessels (cerebral, hepatic, ...
Sometimes in these cerebral vein thrombosis situations, we actually also get hemorrhage, and there is a lot of debate, but a ... The clot looks like its in a cerebral vein, and one person has died. So thats what we know right now. Now, I agree more ... But, I guess I would say that, as a general rule of thought, we do tend to anticoagulate cerebral vein thrombosis. The evidence ... And it seems like, although we dont know for sure, that that thrombosis is likely cerebral vein thrombosis -- at least if its ...
Vascular disorders: thrombosis/embolism (coronary artery, pulmonary, cerebral, deep vein).. Hepatobiliary disorders: ... Have deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, now or in the past [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] ● Have cerebrovascular ... Evaluate for retinal vein thrombosis immediately.. If feasible, stop Gemmily at least 4 weeks before and through 2 weeks after ... Ever had blood clots in your arms, legs (deep vein thrombosis), lungs (pulmonary embolism), or eyes (retinal thrombosis) ...
cerebral veins* superficial veins of the brain * superior cerebral veins (superficial cerebral veins) ... deep veins of the brain * great cerebral vein (of Galen) * basal vein of Rosenthal *lateral mesencephalic vein ... The posterior cerebral circulation (or simply, posterior circulation) is the blood supply to the posterior portion of the brain ... middle cerebral artery (MCA) *M1 branches * lenticulostriate arteries *medial lenticulostriate arteries. *lateral ...
Cerebral angiography may show prominent dilation of veins, as seen in our patient. This finding may be helpful to direct the ... Cerebral Angiographic Findings of Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension. John D. Roll, Theodore C. Larson and Morris M. Soriano ... Cerebral Angiographic Findings of Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Cerebral angiography (including spin angiography with 3D reconstruction) was performed and did not show an aneurysm or source ...
Anticoagulation should be administered to patients with cerebral vein thrombosis. Rehabilitation should be started as early as ... Keywords: Brain protection; Cerebral infarct; Cerebral venous thrombosis; Cerebroprotección; Ictus isquémico; Infarto cerebral ... Decompressive hemicraniectomy should be considered in cases of malignant cerebral oedema. Intravenous thrombolysis with rtPA ... Ischaemic stroke; Stroke units; Thrombolysis; Trombosis venosa cerebral; Trombólisis; Unidades de ictus. ...
Stroke is caused not only by arterial thrombosis but also by cerebral venous thrombosis. Arterial stroke is currently the main ... Stroke is caused not only by arterial occlusion but also by cerebral venous thrombosis. Therefore, stroke includes arterial ... Deep cerebral vein thrombosis generally involves the intracerebral veins and the Galen veins. Approximately 60% of cerebral ... Venous return obstruction may result from thrombosis of the cortical cerebral veins, deep cerebral veins, or dural venous ...
Treatment of Patients with Cerebral Sinus and Vein Thrombosis with Heparin. In: Cerebral Sinus Thrombosis: Experimental and ... In: Cerebral Blood Flow under Stimulated Conditions, pp. 61 - 65 (Eds. Schmiedek, P.; Piepgras, A.; Einhaeupl, K. M.). Springer ... In: Cerebral Sinus Throm¬bosis: Experimental and Clinical Aspects, pp. 149 - 156 (Eds. Einhaeupl, K. M.; Kempski, O.; Baethmann ... In: Cerebral Sinus Throm¬bosis: Experimental and Clinical Aspects, pp. 211 - 217 (Eds. Einhaeupl, K. M.; Kempski, O.; Baethmann ...
Sinus vein thrombosis (CVST) describes the formation of a blood clot in the cerebral vein of the brain. ... the MHRA said it had found no evidence of either the AstraZeneca or Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine causing blood clots in veins - a ...
... an abnormal tangle of blood vessels that causes irregular connections between arteries and veins in the brain. Some AVMs never ... Dilated outflow cerebral veins from a large AVM are a sign that they under considerable pressure. Veins are not made to sustain ... "AVMs are always a very serious pathology, but in her case the worrisome feature was that the outflow veins were very dilated. ... an abnormal tangle of blood vessels that causes irregular connections between arteries and veins in the brain. Some AVMs never ...
A possible complication of this tension is rupture of the great cerebral vein. As growth and ossification progress, the ...
Pediatric Otogenic Cerebral Sinus Vein Thrombosis and Thrombophilia Kfir Siag MD, Salim Mazzawi MD, Ariel Koren MD, Raul ... Background: Otogenic cerebral sinus vein thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare but severe complication of otitis media in children. To ...
CT venography revealed occlusion of the internal cerebral veins, the vein of Galen and the straight sinus. Conventional ...
... tuber cinereum and cerebral aqueduct; p , 0.05). The mean thickness of the right frontal lobe parenchyma was 35 ± 3 mm, the ... and larger mean angular exposure area on the longitudinal plane for the cerebral aqueduct (transforniceal-transchoroidal 62° ± ... tuber cinereum and cerebral aqueduct) were compared. Additionally, the thickness of the right frontal lobe parenchyma, ... anterior septal vein; 2 = interthalamic adherence; 3 = thalamostriate vein, 4 = internal cerebral vein; 5 = posterior ...
... tuber cinereum and cerebral aqueduct; p , 0.05). The mean thickness of the right frontal lobe parenchyma was 35 ± 3 mm, the ... and larger mean angular exposure area on the longitudinal plane for the cerebral aqueduct (transforniceal-transchoroidal 62° ± ... tuber cinereum and cerebral aqueduct) were compared. Additionally, the thickness of the right frontal lobe parenchyma, ... anterior septal vein; 2 = interthalamic adherence; 3 = thalamostriate vein, 4 = internal cerebral vein; 5 = posterior ...
  • CT venography was performed to rule out superior sagittal vein thrombosis. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Background Concurrent development of retinal venous drainage and cerebral venous thrombosis has not been reported. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Case Description We describe a 23-year-old man with bilateral central retinal vein occlusions and cerebral venous thrombosis. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Cerebral vein thrombosis secondary to closed head injury. (bvsalud.org)
  • Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot in a deep vein, usually in the lower leg, thigh, or pelvis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare blood clot in the venous sinuses in your brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • And it seems like, although we don't know for sure, that that thrombosis is likely cerebral vein thrombosis -- at least if it's consistent with the AstraZeneca experience. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Now, you're a hematologist: Why is it cerebral vein thrombosis? (medpagetoday.com)
  • But, I guess I would say that, as a general rule of thought, we do tend to anticoagulate cerebral vein thrombosis. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Sometimes in these cerebral vein thrombosis situations, we actually also get hemorrhage, and there is a lot of debate, but a number of hematologists often anticoagulate through hemorrhage because we believe this is a back-flow problem when we actually get that situation. (medpagetoday.com)
  • It's not a great place to be with a cerebral vein thrombosis and concomitant hemorrhage. (medpagetoday.com)
  • But why does it appear that AstraZeneca and potentially Johnson & Johnson may be linked to CVT [cerebral vein thrombosis]? (medpagetoday.com)
  • Stroke is caused not only by arterial thrombosis but also by cerebral venous thrombosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • The ischemic stroke accounts for the 87% of all cases, which results from the cerebral arteries occlusion due to thrombosis, atherosclerosis and platelets plug ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Thrombosis also form in cerebral venous, which is termed as cerebral venous thrombosis(CVT), a particular type of cerebrovascular disease, characterized by intracerebral hemorrhage and infarction, associated with increased intracranial pressure due to cerebrospinal fluid absorption and cerebral venous drainage, accounting for 0.5-1% of strokes ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The molecular pathological hallmarks of arterial stroke and cerebral venous thrombosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Treatment of Patients with Cerebral Sinus and Vein Thrombosis with Heparin. (mpg.de)
  • In: Cerebral Sinus Thrombosis: Experimental and Clinical Aspects, pp. 225 - 230 (Eds. (mpg.de)
  • Anticoagulation should be administered to patients with cerebral vein thrombosis. (nih.gov)
  • Sinus vein thrombosis (CVST) describes the formation of a blood clot in the cerebral vein of the brain. (sky.com)
  • Differences in duration of anticoagulation after pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis: Findings from the SWIss Venous ThromboEmbolism Registry (SWIVTER). (uzh.ch)
  • Outcome after bilateral deep vein thrombosis. (uzh.ch)
  • Complications of note in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPNs) include ischemic stroke, intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage, microbleeds, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, and dural sinus and cerebral vein thrombosis. (ajmc.com)
  • 1 A review of 39 cases of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) showed that right heart failure consistent with PE was frequent. (neurology.org)
  • 2 In this report, patients had conditions favoring lower-limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and further PE. (neurology.org)
  • We did find in people under 70 years old that there was a very small increase in the risk of hospitalisation because of clots in the cerebral veins (intracranial venous thrombosis) or hospitalisation because of low platelets with the ChAdOx1-S vaccine. (plos.org)
  • So all of these six cases happened in relatively younger women, and all of them involved blood clots in the brain, something that we call cerebral vein or cerebral sinus vein thrombosis. (nhpr.org)
  • Cerebral venous thrombosis and portal vein thrombosis: A retrospective cohort study of 537,913 COVID-19 cases. (hypothes.is)
  • Thrombosis can occur within veins or arteries, however the mechanism of clot formation is different, with venous thrombosis associated with sluggish movement of blood (stasis) or imbalance of the clotting progress and feedback mechanism, whereas arterial thrombosis more commonly results from the rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque due to build-up of cholesterol in the arterial wall. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • In February, 2021, he and a number of his colleagues warned the European Medicines Agency about the potential danger of blood clots and cerebral vein thrombosis in millions of people receiving experimental gene-based Covid injections. (davidicke.com)
  • Dr. Tom Shimabukuro said of the 15 confirmed blood clots with low platelet counts, 12 of them resulted in a clot in veins near the brain, called "cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. (kivitv.com)
  • Several of the slides later in the presentation will refer to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis or CVST. (cdc.gov)
  • This is a somewhat rare type of thrombosis involving large veins inside the head such as those shown on this diagram. (cdc.gov)
  • She was diagnosed with an AVM ( arteriovenous malformation ) an abnormal tangle of blood vessels that causes irregular connections between arteries and veins in the brain. (baptisthealth.net)
  • Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the brain are rare vascular disorders characterized by the presence of direct connections between cerebral arteries and veins. (eg.org)
  • They are divisible into external (superficial cerebral veins) and internal (internal cerebral veins) groups according to the outer or inner parts of the hemispheres they drain into. (wikipedia.org)
  • The external cerebral veins known as the superficial cerebral veins are the superior cerebral veins, inferior cerebral veins, and middle cerebral veins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extra- and intracranial venous flow direction was assessed by colour-coded duplex sonography, and extracranial venous cross-sectional area (VCSA) of the internal jugular and vertebral veins (IJV/VV) was measured in B-mode to assess the five previously proposed CCSVI criteria. (bmj.com)
  • Results No participant showed retrograde flow of cervical or intracranial veins. (bmj.com)
  • 5-7 In a recent study 5 based on duplex sonographic and venographic assessment of extracranial and intracranial veins of 65 MS patients and 235 controls, Zamboni et al claimed a perfect coincidence of MS and venous stenoses in various locations. (bmj.com)
  • Summary: We report a case of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that underwent cerebral angiography. (ajnr.org)
  • X-rays of the veins (venography) or blood vessels (angiography) that are taken after you get an injection of special dye. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In situations in which the typical clinical presentation is not present and additional examinations such as cerebral angiography are performed, these findings may be helpful to direct the physicians involved toward the correct diagnosis. (ajnr.org)
  • Cerebral angiography (including spin angiography with 3D reconstruction) was performed and did not show an aneurysm or source of subarachnoid hemorrhage. (ajnr.org)
  • These findings that were suggestive of subarachnoid hemorrhage, coupled with her presentation with a severe headache, resulted in evaluation with cerebral angiography. (ajnr.org)
  • The best images of an AVM are obtained through cerebral angiography . (bionity.com)
  • Our research group established for instance normal values of blood flow velocity in different intra- and extracranial veins and sinuses e.g. the basal vein of Rosenthal, the vertebral veins, the inferior petrosal sinus and the cavernous sinus and we reported changes of these values in patients with cerebral venous disease. (charite.de)
  • This method can for instance be used to detect cerebral arteriovenous malformations (angiomas or dural fistulas) or to monitor the patients treatment progress. (charite.de)
  • i.p) or vehicle administered 24 hours after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) on behavior, angiogenesis, ultra-structural integrity of brain capillary endothelial cells, and expression of EPO and VEGF were assessed. (researchgate.net)
  • The superior cerebral veins on the upper side surfaces of the hemispheres drain into the superior sagittal sinus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inferior cerebral veins , of small size, drain the under surfaces of the hemispheres. (wikidoc.org)
  • CT venography revealed occlusion of the internal cerebral veins, the vein of Galen and the straight sinus. (bmj.com)
  • Partially reversible lung consolidation after revascularization of a total occlusion of both left pulmonary veins following ablation of atrial fibrillation: a case report. (uzh.ch)
  • However, there is evidence that the vertebral venous system also forms part of the cerebral venous outflow, depending on the position of the body. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Arterial cerebral blood flow (CBFA) was measured in 0° and 45°-position. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In human anatomy, the cerebral veins are blood vessels in the cerebral circulation which drain blood from the cerebrum of the human brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on our special knowledge of the venous cerebral ultrasound anatomy we developed a method to analyse the global cerebral circulation time. (charite.de)
  • The posterior cerebral circulation (or simply, posterior circulation ) is the blood supply to the posterior portion of the brain, including the occipital lobes , cerebellum and brainstem . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Doctors in Dubai have succeeded in saving the life of a 60-year-old Omani woman who suffered from a cerebral aneurysm with the help of a state-of-the-art custom 3D-printed model of the patient's brain dilated arteries to help plan the complex surgery. (tradearabia.com)
  • The patient was admitted to the hospital after suffering from severe bleeding in the brain due a cerebrovascular disorder in which the weakness in the wall of a cerebral artery causes a localised dilation or ballooning of the blood vessel. (tradearabia.com)
  • A cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a congenital disorder of blood vessels within the brain , characterized by tangle(s) of veins and arteries . (bionity.com)
  • Approximately 40% of cases with cerebral AVM are discovered through symptoms caused by sudden bleeding due to the fragility of abnormally-structured blood vessels in the brain. (bionity.com)
  • If a rupture or bleeding incident occurs, the blood may penetrate either into the brain tissue ( cerebral hemorrhage ) or into the subarachnoid space. (bionity.com)
  • This is the time interval, the blood needs to pass the brain from the internal carotid artery to the internal jugular vein, assessed by echo-contrast bolus tracking. (charite.de)
  • Such a condition may for instance arise in patients after subarachnoid hemorrhage, after a brain operation or in cases of suspected cerebral circulatory arrest. (charite.de)
  • A stroke due to a blood clot in a cerebral vein is a venous infarction (see VENOUS INFARCTION, BRAIN). (bvsalud.org)
  • Cerebral Veins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (wakehealth.edu)
  • We have shown that predominance of the jugular veins in cerebrovenous drainage is limited to the supine position. (nih.gov)
  • This paper asseses the hemodynamic consequences of postural changes in cerebral venous drainage by color-coded duplex sonography. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Discussion: The results show, that the cerebral blood drainage pathways depend heavily on the inclination of the body. (hu-berlin.de)
  • The role of the IJV as the main drainage pathway of the cerebral blood appears to be confined to the supine position. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Those on the orbital surface of the frontal lobe join the superior cerebral veins , and through these open into the superior sagittal sinus . (wikidoc.org)
  • A hyperdense superficial cerebral vein is seen adjacent to the bleed, along the convexity leading to the superior sagittal sinus. (radiopaedia.org)
  • The posterior circulation is supplied by the vertebral arteries that combine to form the basilar artery which then divides into the posterior cerebral arteries . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Implicit in that assumption, but rarely stated explicitly, is a correlative assumption: that the cerebral circulation is an "open" fluid path where a pump forces blood up to a higher elevation, and that it flows passively downward (like a waterfall in open air) back to the heart. (apsf.org)
  • Combining cerebral blood volume flow and circulation time we described for the first time an ultrasonographic method to calculate the global cerebral blood volume. (charite.de)
  • Venous phase of lateral view angiogram of the left internal carotid artery shows prominent dilation of the small and medium sized veins. (ajnr.org)
  • A type of ischemic stroke resulting from obstruction due to a BLOOD CLOT formed within in a CEREBRAL ARTERY often associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS. (bvsalud.org)
  • The prominent venous dilation seen on the angiogram involved the cortical veins. (ajnr.org)
  • Those of the temporal lobe anastomose with the middle cerebral and basal veins , and join the cavernous , sphenoparietal , and superior petrosal sinuses. (wikidoc.org)
  • We postulate that the mature fluke pair migrated from the mesenteric veins through Batson's vertebral-venous plexus to the cerebral veins at the cerebellar level. (cdc.gov)
  • The working area, microsurgical exposure area, and angular exposure on the longitudinal and transversal planes of 2 anatomical targets (tuber cinereum and cerebral aqueduct) were compared. (thejns.org)
  • The ventricular system is composed of 2 lateral ventricles, the third ventricle, the cerebral aqueduct, and the fourth ventricle (see the following images). (medscape.com)
  • The cavity of the mesencephalon forms the cerebral aqueduct. (medscape.com)
  • The lateral ventricles communicate with the third ventricle through interventricular foramens, and the third ventricle communicates with the fourth ventricle through the cerebral aqueduct (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • Erythrocyte flow in cerebral capillaries under resting and stimulated conditions. (mpg.de)
  • Blood is normally in a fluid state (anticoagulated) within the body to enable flowing through a vessel network of arteries, capillaries and veins, delivering oxygen and nutrients to the organs of the body and removing carbon dioxide and waste products. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • The internal cerebral veins are also known as the deep cerebral veins and drain the deep internal parts of the hemispheres. (wikipedia.org)
  • The internal cerebral vein (5) is injected and most of the visible branches lie within the transverse fissure. (stanford.edu)
  • 1 Catheterization of internal jugular vein, infectious disease, or co-morbidity related to malignancy are the main sources of PE in these patients. (neurology.org)
  • Background: The internal jugular veins (IJV) are considered to be the main outflow of cerebral venous blood. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Local recurrence is often observed, with rare dissemination to the cerebral spinal fluid. (thieme-connect.de)
  • At the atlas vertebra, cerebral nerves, arteries, veins, spinal cord and spinal fluid pass through the opening at the base of the skull. (atlasprofilax.ch)
  • Cerebral lesions and neurologic signs develop in half of patients with IST. (bvsalud.org)
  • Conclusions This triple-blinded extra- and transcranial duplex sonographic assessment of cervical and cerebral veins does not provide supportive evidence for the presence of CCSVI in MS patients. (bmj.com)
  • In the Summer 2007 APSF Newslette r, Cullen and Kirby cite a dramatic case of cerebral infarction during shoulder surgery in the beachchair position. (apsf.org)
  • In: Cerebral Blood Flow under Stimulated Conditions, pp. 61 - 65 (Eds. (mpg.de)
  • In: Cerebral Sinus Throm¬bosis: Experimental and Clinical Aspects, pp. 149 - 156 (Eds. (mpg.de)
  • Using data from 46 million people, we wanted to find out how commonly people had thromboses in the cerebral veins after COVID-19 vaccination. (plos.org)
  • Generally, intense headache, perhaps coincident with seizure or loss of bodily consciousness, is the first indication of a cerebral AVM. (bionity.com)
  • Tipo de ictus isquémico causado por una obstrucción debida a un COÁGULO SANGUÍNEO formado en una de las ARTERIAS CEREBRALES, asociado a menudo a ATEROSCLEROSIS. (bvsalud.org)
  • Un ictus debido a un coágulo sanguíneo en una vena cerebral recibe el nombre de infarto venoso (véase INFARTO VENOSO CEREBRAL). (bvsalud.org)
  • Cerebral endothelial cells are more resistant to ischemia than are neurons and neuroglial cells. (medscape.com)
  • Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the most common condition associated with hypercoagulable disorders, with blood clots most frequently forming in the deep veins of the legs (DVT) causing redness, pain and swelling particularly at the back of legs. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Meanwhile, the MHRA said it had found no evidence of either the AstraZeneca or Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine causing blood clots in veins - a condition called venous thromboembolism. (sky.com)
  • Neither of the ChAdOx1-S (Oxford-AstraZeneca) or BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccines were associated with any increase in the average risk of major clots in the arteries or in the risk of major clots in the veins. (plos.org)