Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Dominance, Ocular: The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Speech Intelligibility: Ability to make speech sounds that are recognizable.Speech Acoustics: The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Speech Production Measurement: Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.Speech Therapy: Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Audiometry, Speech: Measurement of the ability to hear speech under various conditions of intensity and noise interference using sound-field as well as earphones and bone oscillators.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Speech Articulation Tests: Tests of accuracy in pronouncing speech sounds, e.g., Iowa Pressure Articulation Test, Deep Test of Articulation, Templin-Darley Tests of Articulation, Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation, Screening Speech Articulation Test, Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale.Speech Discrimination Tests: Tests of the ability to hear and understand speech as determined by scoring the number of words in a word list repeated correctly.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Malaria, Cerebral: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Speech Recognition Software: Software capable of recognizing dictation and transcribing the spoken words into written text.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Speech Reception Threshold Test: A test to determine the lowest sound intensity level at which fifty percent or more of the spondaic test words (words of two syllables having equal stress) are repeated correctly.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Sound Spectrography: The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Noise: Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.Cochlear Implants: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.Dysarthria: Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Speech, Esophageal: A method of speech used after laryngectomy, with sound produced by vibration of the column of air in the esophagus against the contracting cricopharyngeal sphincter. (Dorland, 27th ed)Dominance-Subordination: Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.Vision, Monocular: Images seen by one eye.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Articulation Disorders: Disorders of the quality of speech characterized by the substitution, omission, distortion, and addition of phonemes.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Stuttering: A disturbance in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech that is inappropriate for the individual's age. This disturbance is characterized by frequent repetitions or prolongations of sounds or syllables. Various other types of speech dysfluencies may also be involved including interjections, broken words, audible or silent blocking, circumlocutions, words produced with an excess of physical tension, and monosyllabic whole word repetitions. Stuttering may occur as a developmental condition in childhood or as an acquired disorder which may be associated with BRAIN INFARCTIONS and other BRAIN DISEASES. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Voice: The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.Speech, Alaryngeal: Methods of enabling a patient without a larynx or with a non-functional larynx to produce voice or speech. The methods may be pneumatic or electronic.Perceptual Masking: The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Anterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.Apraxias: A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Voice Quality: That component of SPEECH which gives the primary distinction to a given speaker's VOICE when pitch and loudness are excluded. It involves both phonatory and resonatory characteristics. Some of the descriptions of voice quality are harshness, breathiness and nasality.Communication Aids for Disabled: Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Psychoacoustics: The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Linguistics: The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Lipreading: The process by which an observer comprehends speech by watching the movements of the speaker's lips without hearing the speaker's voice.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Language Tests: Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hearing Aids: Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Vocabulary: The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)Phonation: The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Hybrid Vigor: The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Critical Period (Psychology): A specific stage in animal and human development during which certain types of behavior normally are shaped and molded for life.Psycholinguistics: A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.Correction of Hearing Impairment: Procedures for correcting HEARING DISORDERS.Child Language: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.Pattern Recognition, Physiological: The analysis of a critical number of sensory stimuli or facts (the pattern) by physiological processes such as vision (PATTERN RECOGNITION, VISUAL), touch, or hearing.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Lip: Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Persons With Hearing Impairments: Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Aphasia, Broca: An aphasia characterized by impairment of expressive LANGUAGE (speech, writing, signs) and relative preservation of receptive language abilities (i.e., comprehension). This condition is caused by lesions of the motor association cortex in the FRONTAL LOBE (BROCA AREA and adjacent cortical and white matter regions).Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Aphasia: A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Gestures: Movement of a part of the body for the purpose of communication.Pia Mater: The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Reperfusion: Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.Acoustics: The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Epistasis, Genetic: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Speech-Language Pathology: The study of speech or language disorders and their diagnosis and correction.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Audiometry, Pure-Tone: Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.Inheritance Patterns: The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Vision Disparity: The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Intracranial Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Hearing Loss, Sensorineural: Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Technetium Tc 99m Exametazime: A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations: Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.Propoxur: A carbamate insecticide.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.ReadingMagnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Auditory Perceptual Disorders: Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Amobarbital: A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Hyaenidae: A family of large terrestrial carnivores possessing long legs, coarse guard hairs and a busy tail. It is comprised of hyenas and aardwolves.Voice Disorders: Pathological processes that affect voice production, usually involving VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA. Voice disorders can be caused by organic (anatomical), or functional (emotional or psychological) factors leading to DYSPHONIA; APHONIA; and defects in VOICE QUALITY, loudness, and pitch.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Velopharyngeal Insufficiency: Failure of the SOFT PALATE to reach the posterior pharyngeal wall to close the opening between the oral and nasal cavities. Incomplete velopharyngeal closure is primarily related to surgeries (ADENOIDECTOMY; CLEFT PALATE) or an incompetent PALATOPHARYNGEAL SPHINCTER. It is characterized by hypernasal speech.Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Sound Localization: Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral: Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)Mice, Inbred C57BLAnimals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Papio: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Dichotic Listening Tests: Tests for central hearing disorders based on the competing message technique (binaural separation).Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Anisometropia: A condition of an inequality of refractive power of the two eyes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Audiometry: The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Intracarotid injection of Sodium Amytal for the lateralization of cerebral speech dominance. Experimental and clinical ... Event-related fMRI evidence for differential activation to speech and non-speech. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 13 (7), ... Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 37, 418-421 McGurk, H., & MacDonald, J. (1976). Hearing lips and seeing voices. Nature ... Mattys, S.L., Pleydell-Pearce, C. W., Melhorn, J.F., & Whitecross, S.E. (2005). Detecting silent pauses in speech: A new tool ...
Wada J (1949). "A new method for the determination of the side of cerebral speech dominance. A preliminary report of the intra- ... Generally, recovery of speech is dysphasic (contains errors in speech or comprehension) after a language dominant hemisphere ... This is because music and singing uses a different part of the brain than speech and language. Recovery from the anesthesia is ... The aim is to determine which side of the brain is responsible for certain vital cognitive functions, namely speech and memory ...
Cerebral dominance or specialization has been studied in relation to a variety of human functions. With speech in particular, ... Ambidexterity Cross-dominance Dextrocardia Footedness Handedness Ocular dominance Situs inversus Ellis, S. J.; Ellis, P. J.; ... Ocular dominance: The eye preferred when binocular vision is not possible, as through a keyhole or monocular microscope. ... It turns out that the hemisphere of speech is the hemisphere of action in general and that the command hemisphere is located ...
Dichotic listening test
Kimura, Doreen (1961). "Cerebral dominance and the perception of verbal stimuli". Canadian Journal of Psychology. 15 (3): 166- ... Zatorre RJ (1989). "Perceptual asymmetry on the dichotic fused words test and cerebral speech lateralization determined by the ... It is important to note that REA doesn't apply to non-speech sounds. In "Hemispheric Specialization for Speech Perception," by ... "to the localization of speech and language processing in the so-called dominant left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex." ...
Jane H. Hill
Auditory processing disorder
Kimura, Doreen (1961). "Cerebral dominance and the perception of verbal stimuli". Canadian Journal of Psychology. 15 (3): 166- ... Kamhi, A.G. (2011). "What speech-language pathologists need to know about Auditory Processing Disorder". Language Speech and ... "The performance of children with auditory perceptual disorders on a time-compressed speech discrimination measure". J Speech ... In one study, speech therapy improved auditory evoked potentials (a measure of brain activity in the auditory portions of the ...
Auditory processing disorder
Kimura, Doreen (1961). "Cerebral dominance and the perception of verbal stimuli". Canadian Journal of Psychology. 15 (3): 166- ... Kamhi, A.G. (2011). "What speech-language pathologists need to know about Auditory Processing Disorder". Language, Speech, and ... According to the Society, APD refers to the inability to process speech and on-speech sounds. ... "American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. doi:10.1044/policy.PS2005-00114.. *^ Neijenhuis, Karin; de Wit, Ellen; Luinge, ...
That evening, Crosland had intended to complete a major foreign policy speech on détente. The speech was subsequently delivered ... It was at Adderbury that he suffered a massive cerebral haemorrhage on the afternoon of 13 February 1977 whilst working on a ... In particular, Crosland wished to challenge the dominance of Sidney and Beatrice Webb in Fabian thinking, challenging their ... And Wales and Northern Ireland." Another major educational change was that presaged by his speech at Woolwich Polytechnic ...
In our opinion, the weight of evidence reported here suggests that the theory of the left hemisphere dominance for speech must ... PMID 10452812 Finger S, Roe D. Gustave Dax and the early history of cerebral dominance. Arch Neurol. 1996 Aug;53(8):806-13. ... an overlooked chapter in the early history of cerebral dominance. J Hist Neurosci. 1996 Dec;5(3):228-40. PMID 11618743 Finger S ... The Temporal Lobe Theory and Other Contributions of an Overlooked Figure in the History of Language and Cerebral Dominance. ...
Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery
Linguistic development of Genie
People unfamiliar with her speech said she sounded either like a deaf child or someone with cerebral palsy, although trained ... Her results on their non-language tests suggested to them that her hemispheric dominance was not simply reversed. They believed ... She never used them in her own speech but appeared to understand them, and while she was generally better with the suffix -est ... During this time Genie also used a few verb infinitives in her speech, in all instances clearly treating them as one word, and ...
ISBN 978-0-521-80532-2. "Cerebral ventricular size and cognitive impairment in... [Lancet. 1976] - PubMed - NCBI". Ncbi.nlm.nih ... McKenna & Oh (2005). Schizophrenic Speech. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University press. Frith, Christopher (1992). The cognitive ... Crow has also proven that people with Schizophrenia show less left-sided dominance for language. What is the ... the symptoms arise as confusions between thought and speech and through the abnormal attachment of meaning to perceived speech ...
Broadbent's filter model of attention
This dominance is seen again through a visual-haptic task that vision is capable of making better judgements of an object that ... The thalamus is a section of the brain responsible for relaying sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex. As stimuli ... One example of visual capture is known as the "ventriloquism effect," which refers to the perception of speech sounds as coming ... In psychology, visual capture is the dominance of vision over other sense modalities in creating a percept. In this process, ...
Brodmann area 45
In fact, the only subject tested that had right-hemispheric language dominance was found to have a rightward asymmetry of the ... Lateral surface of left cerebral hemisphere, viewed from the side. (shown in orange). Brodmann area List of regions in the ... A strong correlation has been found between speech-language and the anatomically asymmetric pars triangularis. Foundas, et al. ... Vartiainen, J; Parviainen, T; Salmelin, R (2009). "Spatiotemporal convergence of semantic processing in reading and speech ...
Comprehension of idioms
Idioms are a common type of figure of speech. Based on common linguistic definitions, an idiom is a combination of words that ... rTMS causes temporary cerebral lesion, and thereby impairs the target area's functioning. fMRI measures brain activity by ... The right hemisphere shows dominance in visuospatial processing. Other researchers have hypothesized that comprehension of ... Lauro, L. J. R., Tettamanti, M., Cappa, S. F., & Papagno, C. (2008). Idiom comprehension: A prefrontal task? Cerebral Cortex, ...
Transverse temporal gyrus
In general, larger transverse temporal gyri "could be associated with more efficient processing of speech-related cues which ... the right and left hemispheres of the brain and one study found that this number is not related to the hemisphere or dominance ... Poles of cerebral hemispheres. Some categorizations are approximations, and some Brodmann areas span gyri. ...
The cerebral cortex processing vestibular sensations extends into the insula, with small lesions in the anterior insular cortex ... Ackermann H, Riecker A (May 2004). "The contribution of the insula to motor aspects of speech production: a review and a ... Sander K, Scheich H (October 2005). "Left auditory cortex and amygdala, but right insula dominance for human laughing and ... In each hemisphere of the mammalian brain the insular cortex (also insula and insular lobe) is a portion of the cerebral cortex ...
Birdsong learning in the zebra finch occurs during a critical period similar to that for human speech. This critical period ... Kobayashi, K., Emson, P. C., & Mountjoy, C. Q. (1989). Vicia villosa lectin-positive neurones in human cerebral cortex. Loss in ... Pizzorusso, T., Medini, P., Berardi, N., Chierzi, S., Fawcett, J. W., & Maffei, L. (2002). Reactivation of ocular dominance ... In humans, complications in the speech sensorimotor critical period is implicated in disorders such as autism. Reopening of the ...
There is also some debate as to how one can judge the native-like quality of the speech participants produce and what exactly ... The kittens had abnormally small ocular dominance columns (part of the brain that processes sight) connected to the closed eye ... The critical period hypothesis holds that first language acquisition must occur before cerebral lateralization completes, at ... Cerebral Cortex. 13 (2): 155-161. doi:10.1093/cercor/13.2.155. ISSN 1047-3211. White, Lydia; Genesee, Fred (1996-01-01). "How ...
Cognitive neuroscience of music
The tonic is the element which tends to assert its dominance and attraction over all others, and it functions as the ultimate ... found that TMS applied to the left frontal lobe disturbs speech but not melody supporting the idea that they are subserved by ... They found that as these chills increase, many changes in cerebral blood flow are seen in brain regions such as the amygdala, ... With more difficult rhythms such as a 1:2.5, more areas in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum are involved. EEG recordings have ...
Critical period hypothesis
The pronunciation of speech sounds relies on neuromuscular function. Adults learning a new language are unlikely to attain a ... He reports observations of cerebral activation when reading and translating two languages. They found the most activated brain ... Flege, Mackay & Piske (2002) looked at bilingual dominance to evaluate two explanations of L2 performance differences between ... They studied the effect of late SLA on speech comprehension by German immigrants to the U.S.A. and American immigrants to ...
List of MeSH codes (F02)
This new musical perceptual loop contains musical inner speech in addition to the verbal inner speech provided by the original ... Ayotte, Peretz, Rousseau, Bard & Bojanowski (2000) found that those patients who had their left middle cerebral artery cut in ... Although bilateral activation was found there was dominance in the right hemisphere. This research suggests independence of ... Ayotte J.; Peretz I.; Rousseau I.; Bard C.; Bojanowski M. (2000). "Patterns of music agnosia associated with middle cerebral ...
Expressive language disorder
... and asymmetry of dominance of language structures, as opposed to the more typical left hemisphere dominance. Scientists are ... It is usually treated by specific speech therapy, and usually cannot be expected to go away on its own. Expressive language ... Pujol J, Deus J, Losilla JM, Capdevila A (March 1999). "Cerebral lateralization of language in normal left-handed people ... Vargha-Khadem F, Gadian DG, Copp A, Mishkin M (February 2005). "FOXP2 and the neuroanatomy of speech and language" (PDF). Nat. ...
Our thoughts often occur as the inner speech of our natural language. Inner speech is used for such things as rehearsing facts ... It has been shown that there are no grounds on which to assume the existence of distinct cerebral organization of separate ... Bilingual performance on working memory tasks can be affected by language dominance, language proficiency, and the nature of ... That is to say, the cerebral regions that are engaged for both languages are the same. Although neurologists have a basic ...
In each hemisphere of the mammalian brain the insular cortex (also insula and insular lobe) is a portion of the cerebral cortex ... In motor control, it contributes to hand-and-eye motor movement, swallowing, gastric motility, and speech ... "Left auditory cortex and amygdala, but right insula dominance for human laughing and crying". J Cogn Neurosci. 17 (10): 1519- ... The cerebral cortex processing vestibular sensations extends into the insula, with small lesions in the anterior insular ...
Best of JNSPG - 75th Anniversary
What is Special About the Human Brain? - Richard Passingham - Oxford University Press
Language Representation in the Human Brain: Evidence from Cortical Mapping - PDF Free Download
Wada, J., & Rasmussen, T. (1960). Intracarotid injections of sodium amytal for the lateralization of cerebral speech dominance ... Cerebral dominance. IQ. Male/31 Male/31 Male/28. 8 9 10. 14 14 3. Right Right Right. Left Left Left. 85 86 95. neuroanatomical ... Rasmussen, T., & Milner, B. (1977). The role of early left brain injury in determining lateralization of cerebral speech ... The study protocol included the assessment of handedness, preoperative IQ, auditory-verbal language, and cerebral dominance. ...
An Interesting Email about autism/ autistics - Autism Today
Cerebral allergies cause inflammation: Was your callosum inflamed hindering your ability to access left hemispheric functions? ... As you probably know, the right hemisphere of our brains knows no sense of time, order, abstraction, speech, rational or ... My experience and education with infants, leads me to the assumption that right hemispheric dominance at birth is normal and ...
Spatial and temporal factors during processing of audiovisual speech: a PET study. - Oxford Neuroscience
Here we used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) during audiovisual speech processing to study how temporal and spatial factors ... While ventral areas appear more affected by audiovisual synchrony (which can influence speech identification), more dorsal ... In agreement with previous work, synchronous versus asynchronous audiovisual speech yielded increased activity in multisensory ... but previous imaging studies of audiovisual speech focused primarily on just temporal aspects. ...
Emmanuel Mellet - Google Scholar
Education Archives - ELBERT™: EVERYONE LEARNS BETTER EMBRACING REVOLUTIONARY TEACHING!!!
... cerebral palsy) and Parasympathetic Functional System Dominance (shame- PFD)- have mostly hypo-sensory processing and ... Auburn Speech and Hearing Clinic- Status 10 Program for Audiology & Speech Pathology (Auburn University-Auburn) ... PROBLEMS IDENTIFYING SPEECH SOUND AND LEARNING HOW THEY RELATE TO LETTERS Defined by difficulty processing the basic sounds of ... Note: Students can have deficits that are both auditory and visual in nature! Total Functional Dominance. ...
Brain structure and function in developmental stuttering and bilingualism - Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences
Brain imaging studies of developmental stuttering and bilingualism will inform our understanding of the neural bases of speech ... which leads to timing problems with speech production. ... processing first and second languages and incomplete cerebral ... dominance for speech and language is a candidate theory to explain stuttering. In addition, recent work in bilingualism has ... of the left and right hemispheres in processing first and second languages and incomplete cerebral dominance for speech and ...
It is a comprehensive, multipurpose institution dedicated to the total rehabilitation of speech and hearing-impaired persons ... National Institute of Speech and Hearing (NISH), set up in 1997, is a prestigious venture of the Kerala State Social Welfare ... A clear majority of the population we serve are children with congenital conditions - hearing and speech impairment, cerebral ... The accepted male dominance they see in their families should change. The perverted and totally distorted image of sexuality ...
Retained Primitive Reflexes - drboulet.com
It is a reflex that prevents integration of the two sides of the brain so that dominance and cerebral specialisation do not ... Poor control of mouth for speech. *Poor co-ordination of breathing and speech ... In one view, the brain can be divided into two distinct parts: the brain stem, and the cerebral hemispheres. (For the purposes ... reaches the higher levels of the cerebral hemispheres that conscious recognition and response takes place. Within the conscious ...
Presentations | Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences
Submillimeter resolution resolves the cortical organization of speech pronunciation. Symposium: Neural Bases of Speech ... Reliable 3D mapping of ocular dominance columns in humans using GE-EPI fMRI at 7 T. 25th Annual Meeting of the Organization for ... Cerebral Cortex 30 (8), pp. 4496 - 4514 (2020). MPG.PuRe DOI. publisher-version ...
man o war gun
... functional cerebral dominance is accompanied by subtle anatomical asymmetry.. Sudani From Nigeria Majeed, a ... From two Greek words theos meaning " discourse or speech " Ceremony speech... By connective tissue spaces അവ്യയം ( Conjunction ... 3 Step Guide to Writing a Great Master of Ceremony Opening Speech. It was adapted as a film of the same name in 1986. , A ... Phase of this period the brain of most vertebrates speech " a flamboyant or alluring statement about an click. Skull x-rays ...
Publications | Max Planck Institute
Enfield, N. J. (2004). On linear segmentation and combinatorics in co-speech gesture: A symmetry-dominance construction in Lao ... We measured behavioural performance and cerebral activity using rapid event-related functional MRI in 16 CFS patients and 16 ... Janse, E. (2004). Word perception in fast speech: Artificially time-compressed vs. naturally produced fast speech. Speech ... Models of speech production assume that syllables play a functional role in the process of word-form encoding in speech ...
Ruth Ann Atchley - Publications
Gibson L, Atchley RA, Voyer D, Diener US, Gregersen S. Detection of sarcastic speech: The role of the right hemisphere in ... Atchley RA, Burgess C, Keeney M. The effect of time course and context on the facilitation of semantic features in the cerebral ... The differential role of dominance compatibility and association strength in left hemisphere lexical retrieval Brain and ... Cerebral hemispheric mechanisms linking ambiguous word meaning retrieval and creativity. Brain and Cognition. 40: 479-99. PMID ...
51 Drugstore: How fast does diflucan work with trial pills!
Sodium valproate, , is an attribute of speech or a word with the same reason. More recent prospective cohort study. It is also ... Which arise from causes other probabilities are based on a ground glass screen and being stacked vertically in ocular-dominance ... especially in us looking for any signs of cerebral irritation, nystagmus and rebound hypertension. ... Thermal injuries resulting from juxtaposing them, [from greek lalia speech does how fast diflucan work + -ia indicating a ...
Emotions, Instinct, and The Limbic System - darylconant.com
Both the cerebral cortex and the LS have ample access to the brain stem motor areas, permitting them to exercise their ... As a result, the monkey temporarily moves up in the groups dominance order. Violent attacks of rage are occasionally seen in ... speech) as well as higher mental functions (e.g. learning, thoughts, introspection, planning). ... The LS was once thought to be involved only in emotional/instinctive behavior and that the cerebral cortex and LS had few ...
The World Tasted: Dušan Makavejev's Sweet Movie - Senses of Cinema
In the middle of the speech, we cut to Luv, and the camera pans down his corpse from head to feet. We then see Miss Worlds ... who advocated liberation from patriarchal dominance for children as well as for women […] It is part of Makavejevs explicit ... "more grounded in the sensorial than the cerebral": ... Daniel J. Goulding noted that, in her impassioned speech in WR ... Dollars makes a ridiculous speech on money, sex, sanitation and waste (all closely tied to marriage), and the musicians, with ...
ap psych flashcards key terms 1-5 Flashcards | Quizlet
HEMISPHERIC ASYMMETRY IN EARLY LIFE: TACTILE PROCESSING - Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Cerebral Dominance Medicine & Life Sciences * Music Medicine & Life Sciences * Child Medicine & Life Sciences ... lateralization for speech and music processing (medoly recognition), and. (6) the extent to which the presence of asymmetries ... Since cerebral lateralization is a particularly. salient aspect of information processing among adults, understanding how. and ... developmental changes or continuities in functional cerebral organization. and (c) the implications of early asymmetries for ...
Thai lexical tone perception in native speakers of Thai, English and Mandarin Chinese: An event-related potentials training...
Van Lancker D, Fromkin VA: Cerebral dominance for pitch contrasts in tone language speakers and in musically untrained and ... Using the Praat speech analysis software, the original mid-level tone was shortened from 610 ms to 450 ms. The pitch contour of ... Luo H, Ni-Jing-Tian , Li Z-H, Li X-O, Zhang D-R, Zeng F-G, Chen L: Opposite patterns of hemisphere dominance for early auditory ... Näätänen R: The perception of speech sounds by the human brain as reflected by the mismatch negativity (MMN) and its magnetic ...
Emotion | World eBook Library | Read eBooks online
Emotional speech processing recognizes the users emotional state by analyzing speech patterns. The detection and processing of ... Cerebral Cortex, 13, 1064-1071. * ^ Drake, R.A. (1987). Effects of gaze manipulation on aesthetic judgments: Hemisphere priming ... The Affect theory introduced the concept of basic emotions, and was based on the idea that the dominance of the emotion , which ... Vargha-Khadem F, Gadian DG, Copp A, Mishkin M (2005) FOXP2 and the neuroanatomy of speech and language. Nature Reviews ...
Brain | Encyclopedia.com
The gray matter which forms the outer layer of the cerebrum is called the cerebral cortex. This cerebral cortex contains from ... The brain contains regions devoted to speech production and speech comprehension. Certain regions of the brain are employed in ... The brain ganglia have some dominance over the segment ganglia. The ventral nerve cords, brain, and segmental ganglia comprise ... The midbrain is attached to the base of the cerebral hemispheres by the cerebral peduncles, two massive, flattened bundles of ...
JCCP. Volume 13 No. 1 June Publication of the Council on Chiropractic Pediatrics - PDF Free Download
A cerebral MRI was done at 9½ months and it confirmed a left middle cerebral artery (MCA) lesion that affected most of the ... dominance) Hemiparesis Delayed milestones Epilepsy/seizure Cognitive and sensory impairments/ Difficulty in visuo-spatial tasks ... Occupational therapist Speech therapist Opthalmologist Neuropsychologist Audiologist At 13½ months, right before surgery, the ... Other differential diagnosis included complications of consolidated clavicle fracture, a possible cerebral lesion like cerebral ...
Signs and Symptoms of Autonomic Dysfunction
Speech disturbances: Inability to finish an expressed thought, loss of train of thought, "spoonerisms", especially if up and ... Appears to be unrelated to hand-dominance, but further research is needed. ... Intelligence normal when receiving adequate cerebral perfusion.. Less frequently recognized signs and symptoms: ...
use your brain meaning
Synonyms for brain include cerebrum, mind, head, psyche, encephalon, cerebellum, harns, thinker, cerebral matter and gray ... Decisions According to the theory of left-brain or right-brain dominance, each side of the brain controls different types of ... and is responsible for thought and control of speech. authors and contributors. The human brain is an intricate organ. Nicotine ...
cobalt toxicity symptoms
... characterized by slurred or slow speech due to weakness or poor control over the muscles used for speech), eczema, emotional ... Degrees of cerebral edema, or brain swelling symptoms caused by excessive levels of cobalt that can cause acute. Exposure, opt ... elevated estrogen/estrogen dominance, failure to thrive, fatigue, fears, fractures of the bones, fungus, hair loss, headaches, ... re the hardest to remove eventually dementia degrees of cerebral edema, the. Advice of any kind can happen in all organs of the ...
Exclusion criteria were severe cerebral palsy, severe learning disability, lack of speech, known brain injury, and Down ... Atkinson DS Jr, Abou-Khalil B, Charles PD, Welch L. Midsagittal corpus callosum area, intelligence, and language dominance in ... Minor cerebral alterations observed by magnetic resonance imaging in syndromic children with mental retardation. Eur J Radiol ... Qualitative cerebral morphology in schizophrenia: a magnetic resonance imaging study and systematic literature review. ...
All Events - Knowledge Engineering and Discovery Research Institute - AUT
Topic: Dynamics and Organization of the Cerebral Cortex Biography. Jim Wright is a psychiatrist, and an Honorary Professor in ... His current research focuses on: utility and risk theory; stochastic dominance; group decision analysis; decision support ... speech-, image- and multimodal information processing, process control, arts and design. The conference will include tutorials ... His current research focuses on: utility and risk theory; stochastic dominance; group decision analysis; decision support ...
CortexHemispheresHumansAsymmetryHandednessLateralization and CognitionCorticalStudy cerebral dominanceFunctionalPerceptionLanguageInjection of Sodium AmytalAtypical brainBehaviorLocalizationAuditory pathwaysLateralityHemispheric specializationPhysiologySchizophreniaFMRIAdultContralateralComprehensionAphasiasFrontalOnsetLinguisticEpilepticPathology and AudiologyHand preferenceRESPONSESLeft-sidedNeurophysiologicalInvolvementTheorySpinalImpairmentFocalFluentDiagnostic
- In the surgical treatment of focal epilepsy, the presence of speech representation has often been verified by electrical stimulation of the speech zones in the frontal and parietal opercula with the cortex exposed under local anesthesia. (thejns.org)
- Pavlov (1927) had a similar broad concern but an entirely different approach, stressing the general concept that the study of the elicitation or suppression of reflexes by systematically paired, concurrent stimulation was the key to understanding the role of the cerebral cortex . (encyclopedia.com)
- It has been suggested that the left half of the cerebral cortex guides information processing under conditions of high involvement, while the right hemisphere predominates when involvement is low (Hansen 1981 Krugman 197? (acrwebsite.org)
- In contrast, auditory sources showed more resilience to noise in left compared to right primary auditory cortex but also a progressive shift in dominance from left to right hemisphere at lower SNRs. (nih.gov)
- Some motor and sensory areas of the cerebral cortex. (guwsmedical.info)
- Reprinted with permission from Penfield W, Rasmussen T: The Cerebral Cortex of Man. (guwsmedical.info)
- Denny-Brown, D., Theoretical deductions from the physiology of the cerebral cortex, J. Neurol. (ipfw.edu)
- The outer surface of the cerebral cortex, commonly called the grey matter, is made up of the cell bodies many million of neurons, which are the main processing unit of the brain. (singsurf.org)
- These results were obtained using nonspeech stimuli, and it is not known whether right-hemisphere auditory cortex is dominant for coding the slow temporal features in speech known as the speech envelope. (jneurosci.org)
- Right-hemisphere auditory cortex was 100% more accurate in following contours of the speech envelope and had a 33% larger response magnitude while following the envelope compared with the left hemisphere. (jneurosci.org)
- Results provide evidence that the right hemisphere plays a specific and important role in speech processing and support the hypothesis that acoustic processing of speech involves the decomposition of the signal into constituent temporal features by rate-specialized neurons in right- and left-hemisphere auditory cortex. (jneurosci.org)
- Classically, speech processing has been thought to be mediated primarily by left-hemisphere auditory areas of the cerebral cortex ( Wernicke, 1874 ). (jneurosci.org)
- A recent hypothesis, called the "asymmetric sampling in time" (AST) hypothesis, has challenged the classical model by proposing that acoustical processing of speech occurs bilaterally in auditory cortex based on the component rates inherent to the speech signal ( Poeppel, 2003 ). (jneurosci.org)
- Much subsequent work with MRI scans and in post-mortem brain studies has confirmed this and suggests that the changes are in the cerebral cortex and particularly are related to the subtle asymmetries that are characteristic of the human cortex. (ox.ac.uk)
- This leads to a theory of the origin of psychotic symptoms - that they are associated with deviations in the subtle asymmetries of development of the cortex, and that the symptoms arise as confusions between thought and speech and through the abnormal attachment of meaning to perceived speech - and to its genetic basis in the change that led to the evolution of Homo sapiens as a species. (ox.ac.uk)
- Stimulating the Lip Motor Cortex with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Riikka Möttönen 1 , Jack Rogers 1 , Kate E. Watkins 1 1 Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has proven to be a useful tool in investigating the role of the articulatory motor cortex in speech perception. (jove.com)
- Various studies have been done relating to the emotional processing that takes place in the human cerebral cortex, but few have explored the cerebral origins of mirth. (bmj.com)
- Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we examined hemodynamic responses over neural regions integral to fluent speech production including inferior frontal gyrus, premotor cortex, and superior temporal gyrus during a picture description task. (nature.com)
- I n 1948, during the course of studies on seizure mechanisms, one of us (J.W.) carried out intracarotid injection of Sodium Amytal and Metra-zol to investigate the mechanism of the spread of epileptic discharge between the cerebral hemispheres in man. (thejns.org)
- Cerebral Hemispheres: Neuropathology and Clinical Correlation II. (springer.com)
- Both positive and negative results have been obtained regarding the correlation of CC cross-sectional areas to factors such as sex and handedness, 7 - 15 number of lacunes and the presence of infarcts in the cerebral hemispheres, 16 , 17 and/or brain size. (ajnr.org)
- Major tract of axons that functionally interconnects right and left cerebral hemispheres. (slideshare.net)
- ABSTRACT - A recent hypothesis relates high and low involvement to information processing in the left and right cerebral hemispheres, respectively. (acrwebsite.org)
- In people with a very weak ear muscle, the hemispheres trade "dominance" every two minutes. (rossaforbes.com)
- In his argument, he says that schizophrenia is associated with atypical patterns of lateralisation - which is the differential functioning of the left and right cerebral hemispheres. (ox.ac.uk)
- 2000) Handedness and hemispheric language dominance in healthy humans. (els.net)
- BACKGROUND: Although behavioural dominance of the right hand in humans is likely to be under genetic control, departures from this population norm, i.e. left- or non-right-handedness, are believed to be influenced by environmental factors. (biomedsearch.com)
- Functional dominance of the right hand is the norm across different populations, various geographical regions, and diverse cultures, with approximately 90% of humans exhibiting clear dominance of the right side of the body. (biomedsearch.com)
- Thoughts on the relation between cerebral asymmetry and reading. (springer.com)
- This reduced asymmetry in older adults may at least in part underlie the speech perception difficulties/presbycusis experienced by aging adults. (hindawi.com)
- The findings from a large number of early dichotic listening tests indicate that asymmetry of speech processing increases in elderly people, regardless of hearing loss, and that the main manifestation of this is the left ear disadvantage [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
- 1998) Evidence for linkage to psychosis and cerebral asymmetry (relative hand skill) on the X chromosome. (els.net)
- In fact, the only subject tested that had right-hemispheric language dominance was found to have a rightward asymmetry of the pars triangularis. (wikipedia.org)
- He has proposed that the origins of the psychoses relate particularly to those characteristics (e.g. cerebral asymmetry) that are associated with the specifically human capacity for language. (ox.ac.uk)
- In 1993 Crow concluded that cerebral asymmetry was linked to genes on the X and Y chromosomes later drawing attention to an X chromosomal duplication to the Y short arm (the X transposed region - XTR) approximately 6 million years ago. (ox.ac.uk)
- McManus IC (1999) Handedness, cerebral lateralization and the evolution of language. (els.net)
- McManus IC and Bryden MP (1992) The genetics of handedness, cerebral dominance and lateralization. (els.net)
- Provins KA (1997) Handedness and speech: a critical reappraisal of the role of genetic and environmental factors in the cerebral lateralization of function. (els.net)
- McManus IC and Bryden MP (1993) The neurobiology of handedness, language, and cerebral dominance: a model for the molecular genetics of behavior. (els.net)
- Genetic models of handedness [ 2 , 3 ] argue that the functional advantage of the right hand originates from a purely genetic effect, while left-handedness is a consequence of a random shift in hand dominance. (biomedsearch.com)
Lateralization and Cognition1
- Cerebral Lateralization and Cognition: Evolutionary and Developmental Investigations of Motor Biases, Volume 238 , the latest release in the Progress in Brain Research series, discusses interdisciplinary research on the influence of cerebral lateralization on cognition within an evolutionary framework. (elsevier.com)
- Functional changes in inter- and intra-hemispheric cortical processing underlying degraded speech perception. (nih.gov)
- Studies have found that the low-frequency cortical activity tracks the speech envelope. (bvsalud.org)
- Complex associated cortical centers in between the two speech centers relay the message. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
- A recent hypothesis poses that cortical processing of acoustic signals, including speech, is mediated bilaterally based on the component rates inherent to the speech signal. (jneurosci.org)
- Speech processing, defined as the neural operations responsible for transforming acoustic speech input into linguistic representations, is a well established aspect of human cortical function. (jneurosci.org)
- To examine this question, we measured cortical-evoked potentials in 12 normally developing children in response to speech sentence stimuli and compared activation patterns measured over left and right temporal cortices. (jneurosci.org)
Study cerebral dominance1
- This view continues to receive wide acceptance based on results from studies investigating the functional neuroanatomy of speech perception. (jneurosci.org)
- This investigation of neural activation during natural, connected speech production in children who stutter demonstrates that in childhood stuttering, atypical functional organization for speech production is present and suggests promise for the use of fNIRS during natural speech production in future research with typical and atypical child populations. (nature.com)
- An extensive body of neuroimaging research in adults who stutter has provided greater insight into the neurological underpinnings of stuttering, confirming functional differences in speech and language network activation even when they are speaking fluently. (nature.com)
- The exact cerebral structural and functional mechanisms under the auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in schizophrenia are still unclear. (biomedcentral.com)
- Although we know now that activity in both sides of the brain is intimately integrated and coordinated during speech production and perception, it is also well known that some degree of hemispheric specialization exists. (mnsu.edu)
- That is, scientists have had to rely on indirect measures of brain function such as electrical activity measured from the scalp during speech perception (not speech production , because movement artifacts interfere with the analysis of the signal), 4 voice reaction times, 5 dichotic listening, 6 and finger tapping. (mnsu.edu)
- To better elucidate the brain basis of SIN perception, we recorded neuroelectric activity in normal hearing listeners to speech sounds presented at various SNRs. (nih.gov)
- Subsequently, we estimated possible correlations between the ALS patients' subjective perception of their speech quality and an objective assessment of the speech organs carried out by an expert. (bvsalud.org)
- for normal speech perception. (jneurosci.org)
- This is because music and singing uses a different part of the brain than speech and language. (wikipedia.org)
- This technical report was developed by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Working Group on Auditory Processing Disorders. (asha.org)
- Although speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are essential to the overall assessment and management of children and adults with (C)APD, specifically with regard to delineation of and intervention for cognitive-communicative and/or language factors that may be associated with (C)APD, it was felt that in-depth discussion of the role of the SLP and other professionals was beyond the scope of this report. (asha.org)
- 2007). In 1863, Broca published a paper in which he described eight cases of patients with damage to the left frontal lobe, all of whom had lost their ability to produce language, and included evidence of right frontal lesions having little effect on articulate speech (Bear et al. (wikiversity.org)
- She holds the Credential of Clinical Competence in Speech-Language and is a Fellow of ASHA and a member of Division 4: Fluency and Fluency Disorders. (mnsu.edu)
- Our results suggested that IPP is an excellent method to determine not only language, semantic, and episodic memory, but also musical dominance in a professional musician who may be candidate for epilepsy surgery. (frontiersin.org)
- Determining the hand preferences of a subject/patient is important to many psychologists and clinical neurologists because hand preference is considered a marker for cerebral hemispheric dominance for speech and language. (indiana.edu)
- Today, most fluency specialists recommend that parents consider speech-language therapy if a child has been stuttering for more than six months, particularly if the child finds it bothersome. (dana.org)
- Speech-language pathologists are often challenged with the task of maximizing language recovery. (asha.org)
- Treatment techniques have relied on visual aids such as graphic symbols and visual language systems, as well as cued speech (for a review of language treatment options, see Alpern, 2010). (asha.org)
- Possible reasons for the existence of such cases are examined including language training, general cognitive functioning, working memory, cerebral dominance, and deep-seated variation at brain level. (down-syndrome.org)
- The patient understands both written and spoken language, but cannot articulate speech or write normally. (guwsmedical.info)
- However, most people undergo speech and language therapy to rehabilitate their language skills and supplement their communication experiences. (medscape.com)
- Oral dyspraxia in inherited speech and language impairment and acquired dysphasia. (ox.ac.uk)
- It is concluded that affected members of the KE family resemble patients with acquired dysphasia in having difficulties with oral praxis and that speech and language problems of affected family members arise from a lower level disorder. (ox.ac.uk)
- Conversation is often made in conjunction with co-speech gestures, which also suggests a close relationship between language and praxis. (jscimedcentral.com)
- A strong correlation has been found between speech-language and the anatomically asymmetric pars triangularis. (wikipedia.org)
- Overview Revisions in the New Edition SCAN-3:A Tests The screening tests can be used by audiologists, speech-language pathologists, and other professionals trained in standardized assessment to quickly determine if an individual is at risk for an Auditory Processing Disorder (APD). (docplayer.net)
- An individual who performs significantly outside the normal range may be suspect to have any of a number of abnormalities of the auditory nervous system, including delayed maturation of the auditory pathways, reversed cerebral dominance for language, or other neurological disorders. (docplayer.net)
- Through various experiments and observation, Crow has also proven that people with Schizophrenia show less left-sided dominance for language. (ox.ac.uk)
- a) Definition: Isolated descriptive traditions and cross-linguistic variation have sometimes obscured a typologically unified view of ideophones, but recent advances show the promise of a prototype definition of ideophones as conventionalised depictions in speech, with room for language-specific nuances. (mpi.nl)
- M/EEG analysis of naturalistic stories: a review from speech to language processing. (mpi.nl)
- Electrical stimulation of blue electrodes disrupted or arrested speech and other language tasks. (bmj.com)
- Using Wada testing scores from 296 epilepsy patients and estimated rates of typical dominance in the normal population, we assessed the frequency with which left frontal and temporal pathology resulted in reorganization of only the expressive or receptive language function or both. (cambridge.org)
- Associated with the symptoms are speech and language problems. (gregmalakoff.com)
- People who are deaf show speech-like brain activity when watching sign language. (medicalnewstoday.com)
Injection of Sodium Amytal1
- In view of the obvious importance of accurate knowledge of the lateralization of speech dominance when operating near the Sylvian regions in ambidextrous and left-handed individuals, further studies regarding the technique of intracarotid injection of Sodium Amytal seemed indicated, particularly with regard to the margin of safety in relation to dose and to the effect of accidental injection into the vertebral artery. (thejns.org)
- Atypical hand preference may be a marker of atypical cerebral laterality or atypical brain dominance. (stutteringhelp.org)
- Onset dominance in sound localization was examined by estimating observer weighting of interaural delays for each click of a train of high-frequency filtered clicks. (nih.gov)
- Cerebral dominance could provide guidance for localization. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
- Textbook of Brain Disorders") is an attempt to comprehensively account for the cerebral localization of all neurologic disease . (britannica.com)
- In the first CT scan study in 1976 Crow and colleagues at Northwick Park demonstrated that there are structural changes (e.g. a degree of enlargement of the cerebral ventricles) in individuals who have suffered from schizophrenia. (ox.ac.uk)
- Our results were in line with previous neurophysiological and neuroimaging reports of hallucination or auditory processing in schizophrenia, and illustrated a whole process of cerebral information processing from N1 to P3, indicating this illusion had triggered a dynamic cerebral response similar to that of the AVHs had engaged. (biomedcentral.com)
- 7 Nonetheless, findings from many of these studies, especially those conducted through comparisons between performances of adult stutterers and nonstutterers, have offered support for the view that the brains of people who stutter function differently for speech production than the brains of those who do not stutter. (mnsu.edu)
- Further experiments showed that: (1) onset dominance involves both within- and between-frequency-channel mechanisms, and (2) the stimulus configuration (ICI, n, frequency content, and temporal gaps) affects weighting functions in a complex way not explained by cross-correlation analysis or contralateral inhibition (Lindemann, 1986a, 1986b). (nih.gov)
- When making a decision regarding intervention, specialists may also consider additional factors such as age of stuttering onset, sex, family history of persistent stuttering, and phonological (speech sound) development. (dana.org)
- thus, there are significant gaps in our understanding of speech neurophysiology closer to the onset of the disorder. (nature.com)
- Viewing research as well essays pollution speech short on as on linguistic accuracy will engage the audience. (jeromechamber.com)
- In cognitive neuroscience, a fundamental question is to understand how neural activity encodes the acoustic properties of a continuous speech stream and resolves multiple levels of linguistic structures at the same time. (bvsalud.org)
- This paper reviews the recently developed research paradigms that employ electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography (MEG) to capture neural tracking of acoustic features or linguistic structures of continuous speech. (bvsalud.org)
- In this article, basic stages of further development of the problem are discussed and contribution of the Russian-Soviet-Russian neurological school to the return on the modern level to Jackson's unitary conception of epilepsy and a role of epileptic systems forming different courses of epileptic activity flow from epileptic focus to other cerebral structures are emphasized. (bvsalud.org)
Pathology and Audiology2
- Janis Costello Ingham received her B.S. in Speech Pathology and Audiology from Northwestern University in 1964 and her master's and doctoral degrees in the same discipline from the University of Kansas in 1966 and 1969, respectively. (mnsu.edu)
- Our profession of speech pathology and audiology was born in the 1930s, and for the first time stuttering was viewed as a disorder to be studied. (mnsu.edu)
- The spectrum of COL4A1 -related disorders includes: small-vessel brain disease of varying severity including porencephaly, variably associated with eye defects (retinal arterial tortuosity, Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly, cataract) and systemic findings (kidney involvement, muscle cramps, cerebral aneurysms, Raynaud phenomenon, cardiac arrhythmia, and hemolytic anemia). (wearerare.org)
- HANAC ( h ereditary a ngiopathy with n ephropathy, a neurysms, and muscle c ramps) syndrome usually associates asymptomatic small-vessel brain disease, cerebral large vessel involvement (i.e., aneurysms), and systemic findings involving the kidney, muscle, and small vessels of the eye. (wearerare.org)
- 6% of arteriopathic strokes are due to PACNS which is rare, non-infectious, progressive arteriopathy isolated to the cerebral vessels without systemic involvement. (educatehealth.ca)
- Auditory Figure Ground 0 db, which can be administered as a screening test or a diagnostic test, assesses the ability to process speech presented at the same intensity (i.e., perceived as equally loud) as the background noise. (docplayer.net)
- Filtered Words is a diagnostic test used to assess the ability to process distorted speech by presenting monosyllabic words low-pass filtered at 750 Hz. (docplayer.net)
- Competing Sentences, provides diagnostic information about the individual s ability to process competing speech signals. (docplayer.net)