Central Nervous System Fungal Infections: MYCOSES of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges which may result in ENCEPHALITIS; MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; MYELITIS; BRAIN ABSCESS; and EPIDURAL ABSCESS. Certain types of fungi may produce disease in immunologically normal hosts, while others are classified as opportunistic pathogens, causing illness primarily in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME).Phaeohyphomycosis: OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS caused by the dematiaceous (darkly pigmented) MITOSPORIC FUNGI of ALTERNARIA, Bipolaris, CLADOSPORIUM, Curvularia, and EXOPHIALA. These fungi have pigmented HYPHAE due to MELANIN in the cell wall. The initial subcutaneous cyst from the infection can become systemic and spread rapidly to renal, pulmonary and cerebral systems (see CEREBRAL PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS) in an IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST.Cerebral Phaeohyphomycosis: CNS infections caused by neurotropic dematiaceous fungi that contain melanin in their cell walls. The infections often result in BRAIN ABSCESS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MENINGITIS in patients who are often immunocompetent. The common causative fungi include members Cladophialophora bantiana, Exophiala dermatitidis, Rhinocladiella mackenziei, and Ochroconis gallopavum. R. mackenziei infection is seen almost exclusively in patients from the MIDDLE EAST.Exophiala: A normally saprophytic mitosporic Chaetothyriales fungal genus. Infections in humans include PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS; and PERITONITIS.. Exophiala jeanselmei (previously Phialophora jeanselmei) is an etiological agent of MYCETOMA.Chaetomium: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Chaetomiaceae, order SORDARIALES. Many members are cellulolytic and some mycotoxic. They occur naturally on paper and cotton fabric.Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)MycosesPhialophora: A mitosporic fungal genus. Phialophora verrucosa is a cause of chromomycosis (CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS). Ophiobolus is the teleomorph of Phialophora.Subcutaneous Tissue: Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Leg Dermatoses: A nonspecific term used to denote any cutaneous lesion or group of lesions, or eruptions of any type on the leg. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Itraconazole: A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.Foot Dermatoses: Skin diseases of the foot, general or unspecified.Alternaria: A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.Chromoblastomycosis: Scaly papule or warty growth, caused by five fungi, that spreads as a result of satellite lesions affecting the foot or leg. The extremity may become swollen and, at its distal portion, covered with various nodular, tumorous, verrucous lesions that resemble cauliflower. In rare instances, the disease may begin on the hand or wrist and involve the entire upper extremity. (Arnold, Odom, and James, Andrew's Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed, p362)Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Malaria, Cerebral: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Dictionaries, MedicalEndophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Polypodiaceae: The fern plant family of the order Polypodiales, class Filicopsida, division Pteridophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta.Hepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.Scopulariopsis: A mitosporic fungal genus commonly found in soil. It includes both saprophytes and animal pathogens. Scopulariopsis brevicaulis and related species may convert ARSENIC to volatile and toxic arsine. ONYCHOMYCOSIS and rarely BRAIN ABSCESS; MYCETOMA, and disseminated infections mainly in the IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOSTS are associated with Scopulariopsis.Paracoccidioides: A mitosporic fungal genus. P. brasiliensis (previously Blastomyces brasiliensis) is the etiologic agent of PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.Paracoccidioidomycosis: A mycosis affecting the skin, mucous membranes, lymph nodes, and internal organs. It is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It is also called paracoccidioidal granuloma. Superficial resemblance of P. brasiliensis to Blastomyces brasiliensis (BLASTOMYCES) may cause misdiagnosis.Adenoviruses, Canine: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.OklahomaDistemper Virus, Canine: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.Self Mutilation: The act of injuring one's own body to the extent of cutting off or permanently destroying a limb or other essential part of a body.Ear, External: The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.Personality Disorders: A major deviation from normal patterns of behavior.Borderline Personality Disorder: A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)Ear Auricle: The shell-like structure projects like a little wing (pinna) from the side of the head. Ear auricles collect sound from the environment.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Otitis Externa: Inflammation of the OUTER EAR including the external EAR CANAL, cartilages of the auricle (EAR CARTILAGE), and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Mycetoma: A chronic progressive subcutaneous infection caused by species of fungi (eumycetoma), or actinomycetes (actinomycetoma). It is characterized by tumefaction, abscesses, and tumor-like granules representing microcolonies of pathogens, such as MADURELLA fungi and bacteria ACTINOMYCETES, with different grain colors.Ananas: A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE known for the edible fruit that is the source of BROMELAINS.Chloride Peroxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the chlorination of a range of organic molecules, forming stable carbon-chloride bonds. EC, Allergic Bronchopulmonary: Hypersensitivity reaction (ALLERGIC REACTION) to fungus ASPERGILLUS in an individual with long-standing BRONCHIAL ASTHMA. It is characterized by pulmonary infiltrates, EOSINOPHILIA, elevated serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and skin reactivity to Aspergillus antigen.