Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Intracranial Hypertension: Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Infarction: Formation of an infarct, which is NECROSIS in tissue due to local ISCHEMIA resulting from obstruction of BLOOD CIRCULATION, most commonly by a THROMBUS or EMBOLUS.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Glasgow Coma Scale: A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.Pseudotumor Cerebri: A condition marked by raised intracranial pressure and characterized clinically by HEADACHES; NAUSEA; PAPILLEDEMA, peripheral constriction of the visual fields, transient visual obscurations, and pulsatile TINNITUS. OBESITY is frequently associated with this condition, which primarily affects women between 20 and 44 years of age. Chronic PAPILLEDEMA may lead to optic nerve injury (see OPTIC NERVE DISEASES) and visual loss (see BLINDNESS).Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Perfusion Imaging: The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood flow reaches by following the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Glasgow Outcome Scale: A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.Technetium Tc 99m Exametazime: A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Decompressive Craniectomy: Excision of part of the skull. This procedure is used to treat elevated intracranial pressure that is unresponsive to conventional treatment.Organotechnetium Compounds: Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Trauma Centers: Specialized hospital facilities which provide diagnostic and therapeutic services for trauma patients.Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Papilledema: Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Diuretics, Osmotic: Compounds that increase urine volume by increasing the amount of osmotically active solute in the urine. Osmotic diuretics also increase the osmolarity of plasma.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Head Injuries, Closed: Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Circulatory Arrest, Deep Hypothermia Induced: A technique to arrest the flow of blood by lowering BODY TEMPERATURE to about 20 degrees Centigrade, usually achieved by infusing chilled perfusate. The technique provides a bloodless surgical field for complex surgeries.Diffuse Axonal Injury: A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts: Tubes inserted to create communication between a cerebral ventricle and the internal jugular vein. Their emplacement permits draining of cerebrospinal fluid for relief of hydrocephalus or other condition leading to fluid accumulation in the ventricles.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Stroke, Lacunar: Stroke caused by lacunar infarction or other small vessel diseases of the brain. It features hemiparesis (see PARESIS), hemisensory, or hemisensory motor loss.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Multiple Trauma: Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Leukoaraiosis: Non-specific white matter changes in the BRAIN, often seen after age 65. Changes include loss of AXONS; MYELIN pallor, GLIOSIS, loss of ependymal cells, and enlarged perivascular spaces. Leukoaraiosis is a risk factor for DEMENTIA and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS.Ventriculostomy: Surgical creation of an opening in a cerebral ventricle.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Brain Hemorrhage, Traumatic: Bleeding within the brain as a result of penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Traumatically induced hemorrhages may occur in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM (see BRAIN STEM HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC); and CEREBELLUM.Blast Injuries: Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Transducers, Pressure: Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.Post-Concussion Syndrome: The organic and psychogenic disturbances observed after closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED). Post-concussion syndrome includes subjective physical complaints (i.e. headache, dizziness), cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes. These disturbances can be chronic, permanent, or late emerging.Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood is flowing into the MYOCARDIUM by following over time the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.Arterial Pressure: The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Hydrostatic Pressure: The pressure due to the weight of fluid.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Papio: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Spinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Cranial Sinuses: Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Iofetamine: An amphetamine analog that is rapidly taken up by the lungs and from there redistributed primarily to the brain and liver. It is used in brain radionuclide scanning with I-123.Subdural Space: Potential cavity which separates the ARACHNOID MATER from the DURA MATER.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Malaria, Cerebral: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Cerebral Ventriculography: Radiography of the ventricular system of the brain after injection of air or other contrast medium directly into the cerebral ventricles. It is used also for x-ray computed tomography of the cerebral ventricles.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Wounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Central Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Heart Arrest, Induced: A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Hypocapnia: Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Critical Care: Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Mice, Inbred C57BLCoronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Blood Pressure Determination: Techniques for measuring blood pressure.Encephalocele: Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Percussion: Act of striking a part with short, sharp blows as an aid in diagnosing the condition beneath the sound obtained.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Axillary Artery: The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hematoma, Subdural: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the THORACIC AORTA. This proximal descending portion of aorta gives rise to the visceral and the parietal branches above the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Aneurysm, Dissecting: Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure: A form of compensated hydrocephalus characterized clinically by a slowly progressive gait disorder (see GAIT DISORDERS, NEUROLOGIC), progressive intellectual decline, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. Spinal fluid pressure tends to be in the high normal range. This condition may result from processes which interfere with the absorption of CSF including SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, chronic MENINGITIS, and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp631-3)Reperfusion: Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.Aquaporin 4: Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Hypotension, Controlled: Procedure in which arterial blood pressure is intentionally reduced in order to control blood loss during surgery. This procedure is performed either pharmacologically or by pre-surgical removal of blood.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Cerebral Hemorrhage, Traumatic: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES due to TRAUMA. Hemorrhage may involve any part of the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the BASAL GANGLIA. Depending on the severity of bleeding, clinical features may include SEIZURES; APHASIA; VISION DISORDERS; MOVEMENT DISORDERS; PARALYSIS; and COMA.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Neurosurgery: A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.JapanNerve Tissue ProteinsArachnoid: A delicate membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord. It lies between the PIA MATER and the DURA MATER. It is separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid cavity which is filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.
This results in widespread reduction in cerebral flow and perfusion, eventually leading to ischemia and brain infarction. ... Traumatic Brain Injury in Children at eMedicine Head Trauma at eMedicine Trauma.org 2000. "TRAUMA.ORG: Neurotrauma: Control of ... The pressure-volume relationship between ICP, volume of CSF, blood, and brain tissue, and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is ... ICP the cerebral perfusion pressure is calculated by subtracting the intracranial pressure from the mean arterial pressure: CPP ...
John Pickard (professor)
... pressure reactivity allows determination of optimal cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with traumatic brain injury". ... "Mind Your Head campaign launches in Cambridgeshire to find solutions to the dangers of brain trauma". Cambridge News. 9 May ... a trustee of the Brain Research Trust and was the first patron of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) UK. Pickard's ... "Effect of oral nimodipine on cerebral infarction and outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage: British aneurysm nimodipine trial ...
It is performed on victims of traumatic brain injury, stroke and other conditions associated with raised intracranial pressure ... In addition to reducing ICP, studies have found decompressive craniectomy to improve cerebral perfusion pressure and cerebral ... 2007). "Early decompressive surgery in malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery: a pooled analysis of three ... found a net 65% favorable outcomes rate in pediatric patients for accidental trauma after craniectomy when followed for more ...
... and are accompanied by a decrease of the cerebral perfusion pressure. It has been found that if a Cushing reflex occurs, brain ... Intracranial pressure was raised by filling an intracranial, soft, rubber bag with mercury. Cushing recorded the intracranial ... If the increase in blood pressure is not sufficient to compensate for the compression on the artery, infarction occurs. Raised ... Traumatic brain injury Bainbridge reflex Ayling, J (2002). "Managing head bangles". Emergency Medical Services. 31 (8): 42. ...
Also, as a result of inadequate blood flow to the brain (cerebral perfusion), the patient will quickly become unconscious and ... Myocardial infarction) - Heart attack Thromboembolism (Pulmonary embolism) - A blood clot in the lung Traumatic cardiac arrest ... This is most commonly the result of longstanding high blood pressure which has caused secondary damage to the wall of the main ... SCA due to non-cardiac causes accounts for the remaining 15 to 25%. The most common non-cardiac causes are trauma, bleeding ( ...
... plays a part in the brain's ischemic cascade, which is involved in stroke and brain trauma. Similar failure ... These inflammatory responses cause intracranial pressure, pressure which leads to cell injury and in some situations cell death ... This same process of mitochondrial destruction through the opening of the MPT pore is implicated in making traumatic brain ... "SOD1 nanozyme salvages ischemic brain by locally protecting cerebral vasculature". Journal of Controlled Release. 213: 36-44. ...
Remote ischemic conditioning
"Secondary brain injury in trauma patients". Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. 78 (4): 698-705. doi:10.1097/ta. ... Delayed cerebral infarction after subarachnoid hemorrhage is a major cause of morbidity. Two Phase I clinical trials have shown ... Traumatic brain injury (TBI) shares many pathophysiological pathways with acute stroke, and ischemic preconditioning increases ... and cerebral perfusion. The second trial examined the effect of 180 days of RIC on symptomatic ICAS in Chinese people aged 80- ...
Brain ischemia/. cerebral infarction. (ischemic stroke/TIA). TACI, PACI. *precerebral: Carotid artery stenosis ... is rarely due to trauma. Instead it is thought to result from changes in perfusion of the delicate cellular structures that are ... Repeated lumbar punctures are used widely to reduce the effects in increased intracranial pressure and an alternative to ... "Traumatic Brain Injury: Definition, Epidemiology, Pathophysiology" Emedicine.com. Retrieved on June 19, 2007. ...
Neuropsychiatric Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury | Psychiatric Times
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects approximately 2 of every 1000 persons per year. Persons vulnerable to mental illness (eg, ... brain injury that may occur soon after trauma because of poor cerebral perfusion secondary to raised intracranial pressure and ... In some patients, localized infarction occurs (Figure 3).. Neuropsychiatric assessment. The neuropsychiatric assessment starts ... Brain activation during working memory 1 month after mild traumatic brain injury: a functional MRI study. Neurology. 1999;53: ...
... is the pressure exerted by the cranium on the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the brains ... This results in widespread reduction in cerebral flow and perfusion, eventually leading to ischemia and brain infarction. ... "Head Trauma." Emedicine.com. Accessed January 4, 2007.. *^ a b c Su F and Huh J. 2006. "Neurointensive Care for Traumatic Brain ... cerebral perfusion pressure is calculated by subtracting the intracranial pressure from the mean arterial pressure CPP=MAP-ICP ...
Most Effective Lupus Home Remedies - Barnard Health Care
Increased intracranial pressure resulting from trauma can lead to reduced cerebral perfusion pressure with watershed ischemia ... Thu, 20 Sep 2018 , Human Brain There are many other causes of stroke, most of which are rare. Inflammatory disorders can cause ... Areas of infarction provide a nidus for focal seizures. Platelets are activated during migraine, and platelet activation by ... Traumatic causes of stroke include air, fat, and marrow embolism. ...
Latest Treatment of Shingles - Barnard Health Care
Increased intracranial pressure resulting from trauma can lead to reduced cerebral perfusion pressure with watershed ischemia ... Coronal View Of Brain Showing Spinal Cord Last Updated on Wed, 26 Jul 2017 , Action Potential ... Some 1 to 2 percent of elderly patients with abdominal pain will be having a myocardial infarction.10 Virtually all other chest ... Traumatic causes of stroke include air, fat, and marrow embolism. ...
Traumatic Brain Injury - Injuries; Poisoning - Merck Manuals Professional Edition
... treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals. ... Cerebral blood flow is proportional to the cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), which is the difference between mean arterial ... decompress the brain if intracranial pressure is increased, or remove intracranial hematomas. In the first few days after the ... Systemic complications from trauma (eg, hypotension, hypoxia) can also contribute to cerebral ischemia and are often called ...
Medical Sciences | Free Full-Text | Intensive Care in Traumatic Brain Injury Including Multi-Modal Monitoring and...
As traumatic brain injury is rather a syndrome comprising a range of different affections to the brain and as, e.g., age- ... Major goals include all measurements to prevent secondary brain injury due to secondary brain insults and to optimize frame ... Moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries (TBI) require treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU) in close collaboration of a ... Cerebral perfusion pressure and intracranial pressure are not surrogates for brain tissue oxygenation in traumatic brain injury ...
Head Injury: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
Brain perfusion (ie, cerebral perfusion pressure) is the difference between the mean arterial pressure and intracranial ... Cerebral salt wasting after traumatic brain injury: a review of the literature. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2015 Nov 11. ... Risk factors for posttraumatic cerebral infarction in patients with moderate or severe head trauma. Neurosurg Rev. 2008 Oct. 31 ... Intracranial pressure monitoring and outcomes after traumatic brain injury. Can J Surg. 2000 Dec. 43(6):442-8. [Medline]. ...
Decompressive Craniotomy and Fast-Track Duraplasty in Acute Subdural Hematomas
Mean time from trauma to surgery was five hours. The dura could be effectively closed with no brain herniation in all cases. ... Traumatic subdural hematoma is one of the severe injuries to brain with high mortality rates. Dural opening is often associated ... with brain herniation against the dural edges due to associated edema that would lead to venous infarction. Aim: The objective ... Analysis of the technique effectiveness was performed by the operative detection of brain herniation, as well as clinical and ...
Intracranial pressure - Wikipedia
This results in widespread reduction in cerebral flow and perfusion, eventually leading to ischemia and brain infarction. ... Traumatic Brain Injury in Children at eMedicine Head Trauma at eMedicine Trauma.org 2000. "TRAUMA.ORG: Neurotrauma: Control of ... The pressure-volume relationship between ICP, volume of CSF, blood, and brain tissue, and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is ... ICP the cerebral perfusion pressure is calculated by subtracting the intracranial pressure from the mean arterial pressure: CPP ...
John Pickard (professor) - Wikipedia
... pressure reactivity allows determination of optimal cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with traumatic brain injury". ... "Mind Your Head campaign launches in Cambridgeshire to find solutions to the dangers of brain trauma". Cambridge News. 9 May ... a trustee of the Brain Research Trust and was the first patron of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) UK. Pickards ... "Effect of oral nimodipine on cerebral infarction and outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage: British aneurysm nimodipine trial ...
Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine Page 7
Intracranial pressure and cerebral haemodynamics. Publication date: Available online 29 March 2017 Source:Anaesthesia & ... several techniques are available for global and regional brain monitoring that provide assessment of cerebral perfusion, ... and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although the primary damage to brain tissue may be irreversible, aggressive early treatment ... Urquhart Airway trauma should be considered according to location and mechanism of injury. Mechanism of airway trauma can be ...
Effects of Hypertonic Saline Hydroxyethyl Starch Solution and Mannitol in Patients With Increased Intracranial Pressure After...
... of a hypertonic lactated Ringers solution on intracranial pressure and cerebral water content in a model of traumatic brain ... Effect of small-volume resuscitation on intracranial pressure and related cerebral variables. J Trauma. 1997;42:S48-S53. ... Effect of mannitol on cerebral blood flow and cerebral perfusion pressure in human head injury. J Neurosurg. 1985;63:43-48. ... Frank J. Large hemispheric infarction, deterioration, and intracranial pressure. Neurology. 1995;45:1286-1290. ...
Central nervous system /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian… - English
Increased intracranial pressure Causes of cerebral edema: focal and generalized Types of herniation: cingulate, uncal, ... Trauma Focal (often vasogenic) Infarction Injury/contusion Mass-neoplastic, infectious (cerebral abscess), hematoma www ... Shearing of brain vessels, high impact Diffuse Axonal Injury: Shearing of axons results in post-traumatic neurologic deficits ... Lack of oxygen or poor perfusion after MI results in watershed infarcts and/or damage in vulnerable regions, ie hippocampus and ...
PPT - Neurologic Trauma 8-10 Questions PowerPoint Presentation - ID:356589
Increased Intracranial Pressure. The cranial vault contains: Brain tissue Blood Cerebrospinal fluid These three things give ... your brain a state of equilibrium Slideshow 356589 by theresa ... Maintain cerebral perfusion by using fluid volume & inotropic ... Herniation of brain stem + occlusion of cerebral blood flow = cerebral ischemia & infarction = leading to brain death ... Traumatic Brain Injury*Occurs as a result of an external physical force that may produce a diminished or altered state of ...
Subdural Hematoma: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology
Subdural hematoma is the most common type of traumatic intracranial mass lesion. ... is a collection of blood below the inner layer of the dura but external to the brain and arachnoid membrane (see the images ... Mori et al found that old age, pre-existing cerebral infarction, and subdural air after surgery correlated with poor brain ... even minor trauma may cause one of these veins to tear. Slow bleeding from the low-pressure venous system often enables large ...
Pharmacological Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: An Evidence-Based Review
CPP: Cerebral perfusion pressure. CVR: Cerebral vascular resistance. MAP: Mean arterial pressure. ICP: Intracranial pressure. ... with severe acute brain trauma who underwent both management of cerebral extraction of oxygen and cerebral perfusion pressure ... these ischemic changes will become irreversible and lead to brain tissue infarction. Increases in cerebral oxygen delivery ... Cerebral blood flow, CERO2 = Cerebral extraction ratio of oxygen, CBV = Cerebral blood volume, ICP = Intracranial pressure ...
Transcranial Doppler to Predict Neurologic Outcome after Mild to Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury | Anesthesiology | ASA...
P Reliability of the blood flow velocity pulsatility index for assessment of intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures in ... intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring (yes/no), and number of repeat CT scans after trauma; and (3) neurologic outcome ... S Sensitive troponin I assay in early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.. N Engl J Med. (2009). 361 868-77 [Article] [ ... M Beyond intracranial pressure: Optimization of cerebral blood flow, oxygen, and substrate delivery after traumatic brain ...
Head Trauma | American Journal of Neuroradiology
Relationship between brain perfusion computed tomography variables and cerebral perfusion pressure in severe head trauma ... Role of brain perfusion single-photon emission tomography in traumatic head injury. Nucl Med Commun 2004;25:333-37. ... CT is relatively insensitive for detecting increased intracranial pressure or cerebral edema and for early demonstration of ... Diffusion sequences improve detection of acute infarction associated with head injury. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery ( ...
Traumatic brain injury
Maintain cerebral perfusion pressures with intravenous fluids and pressors. The actual values of a target blood pressure goal ... Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. Brain Trauma Foundation. 2007. ... Intracranial causes of secondary cerebral insults include intracranial hypertension, delayed intracerebral hemorrhage, edema, ... cerebral swelling, skull fractures, ischemic infarction, pneumocephalus, midline shift. In terms of subdural and epidural ...
CHAPTER 60 ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK MEGHAVI S. KOSBOTH ERIC S. SOBEL - PDF
Testing of cerebral autoregulation in head injury by waveform analysis of blood flow velocity and cerebral perfusion pressure. ... Traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid haemorrhage are conditions at high risk for hypopituitarism: screening study at 3 ... Intracranial pressure: to monitor or not to monitor? A review of our experience with severe head injury. J Neurosurg. 1982;56(5 ... Brain Trauma Foundation. Eur J Emerg Med. 1996;3(2): Czosnyka M, Guazzo E, Iyer V, et al. ...
RAISED INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE | Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry
Rosner MJ, Daughton S. Cerebral perfusion pressure management in head injury. J Trauma1990;30:933-41. ... A new therapy of post-trauma brain oedema based on haemodynamic principles for brain volume regulation. Intensive Care Medicine ... This technique has been reported as being beneficial in a number of disorders, including head injury, cerebral infarction, ... a clinician may choose to monitor ICP in certain conscious patients with traumatic mass lesions. ...
Interstitial glycerol as a marker for membrane phospholipid degradation in the acutely injured human brain | Journal of...
Thus case 1 had a long lasting episode of secondary ischaemia leading to cerebral infarction in the microdialyisis probe area, ... The patients required an intraventricular catheter for intracranial pressure monitoring and were treated at the neurointensive ... perfusion medium, and perfusion rate as for brain tissue) on heparinised arterial plasma samples17 from the same patients, to ... 1997) Glycerol as a marker for post-traumatic membrane phospholipid degradation in rat brain. Neuroreport 8:1457-1461. ...
Beat (one's) brains (out) | definition of beat (one's) brains (out) by Medical dictionary
What is beat (ones) brains (out)? Meaning of beat (ones) brains (out) medical term. What does beat (ones) brains (out) mean? ... brains (out) in the Medical Dictionary? beat (ones) brains (out) explanation free. ... brain hemorrhage. intracranial hemorrhage affecting the brain usually follows traumatic injury but spontaneous hemorrhage may ... cerebral perfusion may be impaired by cardiac arrest, pericardial tamponade and ex-sanguination ...
JCM | Free Full-Text | Neuroimaging of Pediatric Intracerebral Hemorrhage | HTML
Whole brain time-of-flight angiography, to identify macro-vascular lesions.. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion, to ... and cerebral amyloid angiopathy is almost exclusively an adult disease . Trauma is the most common cause of intracerebral ... and signs of increased intracranial pressure (nausea, vomiting, depressed level of consciousness) in 50%-60% of children [10,11 ... towards a hemorrhagic transformation of an acute ischemic stroke or towards a venous infarction in the context of cerebral ...
Search Results for "cerebral venous thrombosis" | jns
Cerebral venous thrombosis in traumatic brain injury: a cause of secondary insults and added mortality ... Cerebral venous thrombosis requiring invasive treatment for elevated intracranial pressure in women with combined hormonal ... and trauma. If the disease is unrecognized, a delay in treatment may result in cerebral edema, intracranial hypertension, ... cerebral ischemia, and hemorrhagic infarction, resulting in rapid neurological deterioration, coma, and even death. 6 ...
Patent US8152721 - Radial expansible retractor for minimally invasive surgery - Google Patents
Procedures are carried out with real time monitoring of the retracted brain perfusion pressure. A plurality of improved radial ... less traumatic, and more reliable, reducing risk and the need for subsequent surgery and reducing recovery time. ... The improved radial expansible retractor allows access to areas of the brain previously almost impossible to access. ... by opening a channel in the brain or other soft tissue of a patient, by inserting the radial expansible retractor into the body ...
The ethereal "efficiency of scale"
CT-brain perfusion study, CT angiogram of head, and CT angiogram of neck) or a combination of MRIs (brain MRI, brain-MR ... Patients who present with symptoms of acute cerebral infarction may benefit from blood-clot disrupting treatment. In this ... intracranial pressure. As a result, the patient would not only require an initial CT scan to diagnose the blockage but would ... patients with suspected blunt abdominal trauma: Results of a prospective, multi-institutional trial. J Trauma. 1998;44:273-80; ...
Cerebral blood flow as a predictor of outcome following traumatic brain injury
... and the most severe degree of intracranial hypertension and reduced cerebral perfusion pressure (p , 0.0001). These results ... Messeter K, Nordström CH, Sundbärg G, et al: Cerebral hemodynamics in patients with acute severe head trauma. J Neurosurg 64: ... rising substantially above the threshold for infarction for the first 5 days postinjury. For the majority of patients, it is ... traumatic brain injury * cerebral blood flow * cerebral metabolism * cerebral vasoreactivity * hyperemia * intracranial ...
Posttraumatic Refractory Intracranial Hypertension and Brain Herniation Syndrome: Cerebral Hemodynamic Assessment before...
To investigate the cerebral hemodynamic changes associated with brain herniation syndrome due to traumatic brain swelling. ,i, ... i,Conclusions,/i,. There is a marked heterogeneity of cerebral hemodynamic disturbances among patients with brain herniation ... An improved understanding of intracranial circulatory process related to brain herniation may have treatment implications. ,i, ... i,Results,/i,. A wide variety of cerebral hemodynamic findings were observed. Ten patients (52.7%) presented with cerebral ...
Circulatory, Vascular and Cardiac sub-cluster 66
Cerebral (brain) arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) are a tangle of disorganized vessels that are a rare cause of hemorrhagic ... Intracranial pressure following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: monitoring practices and outcome data. Mack William J - - ... Four patients presented with dissecting aneurysms confined to the ACA, two with cerebral infarctions in the territories of the ... that often results in decreased cerebral perfusion and secondary clinical decline. No definitive guidelines exist regarding ...
IschemiaSevereSecondaryHypotensionLesionsCerebrospinalPathophysiologySystemicTumorsHematomaHematomasCardiacFocalAneurysmsHead traumaHypoxiaAneurysmDysfunctionCranialNeurosurgeryDecompressive craniectomyVesselsNeurologicHigh intracranialIntraventricularArterial pressureIncreasesOxygenSubarachnoid haemorrhageOxygenationManagement of intracranialAcute brainComplicationsMortalitySurgical
- Injury to the brain occurs both at the time of the initial trauma (the primary injury) and subsequently due to ongoing cerebral ischemia (the secondary injury). (bionity.com)
- In the intensive care unit, raised intracranial pressure (intracranial hypertension) is seen frequently after a severe diffuse brain injury and leads to cerebral ischemia by compromising cerebral perfusion. (bionity.com)
- One of the main dangers of increased ICP is that it can cause ischemia by decreasing cerebral perfusion pressure . (bionity.com)
- as a consequence, there are few therapeutic options to control this condition and a number of patients develop increased intracranial pressure (ICP), brain ischemia, and herniation [ 1 - 23 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Cells within the brain become anoxic and cannot metabolize properly causing Ischemia, infarction, irreversible brain damage and eventually brain death. (graduateway.com)
- Any condition that increases intracranial pressure (ICP) may decrease cerebral perfusion pressure, resulting in secondary brain ischemia. (merckmanuals.com)
- Secondary brain ischemia may affect the RAS or both cerebral hemispheres, impairing consciousness. (merckmanuals.com)
- The aim of this study was to directly compare the benefit of reperfusion with that of craniectomy and to study the effects of combined treatment in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. (ahajournals.org)
- Methods -Cerebral ischemia was introduced in 28 rats. (ahajournals.org)
- Focal cerebral ischemia was introduced in 28 male Sprague-Dawley rats (weight, 290 to 340 g) with the use of an intraluminal suture occlusion model. (ahajournals.org)
- Decreased cerebral blood flow, secondary ischemia and prolonged cerebral ischemia may lead to death. (respiratorytherapyzone.com)
- Previous studies have focused on intracranial complications of SAH as independent predictors of outcome, such as early brain injury, delayed cerebral ischemia, and chronic hydrocephalus [ 5 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Brain tissue is highly sensitive to ischemia, such that even brief ischemic periods in neurons can initiate a complex sequence of events that may ultimately culminate in cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
- Transient brain ischemia following cardiac arrest results from the complex interplay of multiple pathways including excitotoxicity, acidotoxicity, ionic imbalance, peri-infarct depolarization, oxidative and nitrative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
- Patients who achieve return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after OHCA show significant morbidity and mortality due to the cerebral and cardiac dysfunction that leads to prolonged whole-body ischemia. (biomedcentral.com)
- This syndrome, called the post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS), comprises anoxic brain injury, post-cardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction, systemic ischemia/reperfusion response, and persistent precipitating pathology. (biomedcentral.com)
- Cerebral ischemia is an ischemic condition where the brain or parts of the brain do not receive enough blood flow to maintain normal neurological function. (google.com)
- Cerebral ischemia can be the result of various serious diseases such as stroke and cardiac arrest, or the result of arterial obstruction such as strangulation. (google.com)
- Severe or prolonged cerebral ischemia will result in unconsciousness, brain damage or death. (google.com)
- The neuroprotective efficacy of induced hypothermia following or during ischemia of the brain is evident in experimental animal models of stroke [1 -1 (google.com)
- 1. Ischemia induces opening of the blood-brain barrier, a process that seems to be very sensitive to brain temperature . (google.com)
- This is evident from studies of tracers and their migration across the blood-brain barrier, in which hypothermia attenuates extravasation several hours after ischemia and prevents vasogenic oedema . (google.com)
- 2. Reperfusion after brain ischemia results in the production of free radicals, which causes peroxidation and destruction of membrane lipids . (google.com)
- Hypothermia prevents the production of free radicals such as hydroxyl and nitric oxide during reperfusion after brain ischemia [19; (google.com)
- Re- lease of excitotoxic neurotransmitters might also cause progressive neuronal death in the penumbra in stroke patients , and hypothermia after cerebral ischemia could attenuate this process. (google.com)
- 6. Apoptosis and DNA changes are crucial stages in delayed neuronal death after transient cerebral ischemia . (google.com)
- CBF decreases, and symptoms of cerebral ischemia, such as syncope and blurred vision, occur. (studystack.com)
- Serious complications can result from these injuries, such as multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), as well as a generalized reduction in cerebral perfusion, e.g. during cardiac arrest, shock, or severe hypotension that may cause global brain ischemia (GBI). (biomedcentral.com)
- Venous ischemia at first shows a vasogenic edema due to venous congestion and a breakdown of the normal blood-brain barrier. (mussenhealth.us)
- Progressive venous ischemia re sults in reduced capillary perfusion pressure and cy-totoxic edema . (mussenhealth.us)
- Cytotoxic edema may be present not only in infarction/ischemia and trauma, but also in status epilepticus, the acute phase of multiple sclerosis , toxic or metabolic leuko-encephalopathy, osmotic myelinolysis, encephalitis, and presumably in the early phase of transneuronal or wallerian degeneration and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. (mussenhealth.us)
- Absence of extracranial or intracranial atherosclerosis causing ≥50% luminal stenosis of the artery supplying the area of ischemia. (pennstroke.org)
- Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a brain injury caused by a lack of oxygen (hypoxia) and/or a lack of blood flow (ischemia) in the brain. (abclawcenters.com)
- Hypoxia (a lack of oxygen at the tissue level) and ischemia (a restriction of blood flow) both cause cell injury and brain damage, but ischemia is the more significant contributor to brain injury. (abclawcenters.com)
- The cerebral cortex is vulnerable to prolonged, less severe hypoxia/ischemia because when the brain is subjected to these conditions, blood gets shunted away from the cerebral cortex - which is the outermost layer of neural tissue - to the deeper structures of the brain. (abclawcenters.com)
- When a baby suffers an insult in which the oxygen deprivation/ischemia is moderate to severe and relatively prolonged, there is a cerebral deep nuclear pattern (injury to deep parts of the brain), and there might be at least some degree of shunting. (abclawcenters.com)
- Injured brain may show signs of ischemia if CPP remains below 50 mmHg and raising the CPP above 60 mmHg may avoid cerebral oxygen desaturation. (joacp.org)
- Patients with poor grades tolerate higher blood pressures, but are prone to ischemia whereas patients with lower grades tolerate lower blood pressure, but are prone to aneurysm rupture if blood pressure increases. (joacp.org)
- Moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries (TBI) require treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU) in close collaboration of a multidisciplinary team consisting of different medical specialists such as intensivists, neurosurgeons, neurologists, as well as ICU nurses, physiotherapists, and ergo-/logotherapists. (mdpi.com)
- Background: Traumatic subdural hematoma is one of the severe injuries to brain with high mortality rates. (scirp.org)
- The treatment goal of severe TBI is to reduce and prevent intracranial hypertension (ICH). (scirp.org)
- 10 11 We have developed the microdialysis technique for neurochemical monitoring in patients with severe acute brain injuries, including subarachnoid haemorrhage and trauma. (bmj.com)
- 29 However, severe complications of SIH have been reported, including cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). (thejns.org)
- In a minority of individuals, however, the constellation of supranormal CBF, severe intracranial hypertension, and poor outcome indicates a state of grossly impaired vasoreactivity with uncoupling between blood flow and metabolism. (c3.hu)
- Some common settings where patients will require multiple examinations on the same day include severe trauma, cancer diagnosis and follow-up, and stroke. (appliedradiology.com)
- OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of repeated bolus dosing of HTS and mannitol in similar osmotic burdens to treat intracranial hypertension (ICH) in patients with severe TBI. (bvsalud.org)
- The jarring of the brain maybe so slight that it only causes temporary dizziness and headache, sometimes it maybe severe to cause a complete loss of consciousness for a period of time. (graduateway.com)
- unilateral cerebral hemisphere disorders are not sufficient, although they may cause severe neurologic deficits. (merckmanuals.com)
- Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is known to occur in patients with severe brain insult. (springer.com)
- Regions of the brain that have high metabolic activity (high neuronal excitation), such as the basal ganglia and thalamus, are the most vulnerable to sudden and severe insults, which usually last 30 minutes or less. (abclawcenters.com)
- 1 Over the past few years, the use of previously recommended therapies such as barbiturates or hyperventilation has been increasingly questioned since it was recognized that they may critically reduce the CPP through negative effects on the systemic blood pressure or excessive cerebral vasoconstriction with secondary ischemic damage. (ahajournals.org)
- 6. Stat CT scan of the brain and secondary survey for concomitant injuries. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- If no intracranial mass lesion found and patient continues to have a GCS score of 8 or less, consider elevated ICP secondary to global or focal swelling, which requires immediate treatment. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- We report a case of cerebral venous thrombosis as a complication of polycythemia secondary to adaptation to a high altitude. (thejns.org)
- This is primarily due to brain swelling or ongoing bleeding including Secondary Impact syndrome that may lead to hypoxemia and electrolyte imbalances. (graduateway.com)
- Neuroprotective strategies that limit secondary tissue loss and/or improve functional outcomes have been identified in multiple animal models of ischemic, hemorrhagic, traumatic and nontraumatic cerebral lesions. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this review, based on expert opinion and nonsystematic literature review, we provide an up-to-date summary of the current evidence for strategies to protect the brain from secondary insults and highlight areas for future experimental and clinical research. (biomedcentral.com)
- Following the initial insult, patients may deteriorate due to secondary brain damage. (frontiersin.org)
- IRI is quite common in clinical settings such as thrombolysis after ischemic stroke or myocardial infarction secondary to arteriosclerotic vascular diseases, cardiac surgery and organ transplantation. (aging-us.com)
- Decompressive hypotension is a relatively frequent occurrence during the evacuation of intracranial masses, and is thought to be due to an evacuation-mediated decrease in blood pressure. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Predisposing factors for SDH include trauma, cerebral atrophy (i.e., the elderly, chronic alcoholics), systemic anticoagulation or antiplatelet agents, and low cerebrospinal fluid pressure (a.k.a., intracranial hypotension). (clinicaladvisor.com)
- In many cases, multifocal white matter lesions are seen on brain MRI that likely represent ischemic lesions and infarcts related to the vasculopathy that is characteristic of SLE. (barnardhealth.us)
- Many of these patients harbor intracranial mass lesions. (medscape.com)
- TCD was performed upon admission in 356 patients (Glasgow Coma Score [GCS], 9 to 15) with mild lesions on cerebral computed tomography scan. (asahq.org)
- Likewise, diffuse axonal injuries (DAIs) that result in small brain lesions go undetected on CT. (ajnr.org)
- Investigation of the CT brain may show intracranial mass lesions, including subdural hematoma, epidural hematoma, or intracerebral hematoma. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- Subendocardial haemorrhages associated with intracranial lesions. (healthdocbox.com)
- 1980;52(3): Crompton MR. Hypothalamic lesions following the rupture of cerebral berry aneurysms. (healthdocbox.com)
- It can arise as a consequence of intracranial mass lesions, disorders of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation, and more diffuse intracranial pathological processes. (bmj.com)
- According to the radiological features, CNS aspergillosis lesions were divided into two subtypes: parenchymal lesions in the cerebral lobes (n = 11), and meningeal lesions in the meninges (n = 23). (unboundmedicine.com)
- Most of the lesions in brain parenchyma were abscess formation, and magnetic resonance imaging showed ring enhancement. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Parenchymal aspergillosis lesions are usually localized and manifest as brain abscesses with annular enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Could this hemosiderin correspond for example to those cases where we see iron deposition with SWI in lesions in the brain (14)? (ms-mri.com)
- develops from destructive lesions or trauma to brain tissue resulting in cerebral hypoxia or anoxia, sodium depletion, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion. (studystack.com)
- It seems to be a promising non-pharmaceutical and non-surgical therapy for preventing and treating age-related systemic vascular diseases such as combined lesions in the brain, heart and kidney, and also arteriosclerosis-induced neurodegenerative disorders. (aging-us.com)
- Intracranial pressure , ( ICP ), is the pressure exerted by the cranium on the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the brain's circulating blood volume. (bionity.com)
- Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). (wikipedia.org)
- 15, suspected open or depressed skull fracture, sign of fracture at the skull base (raccoon eyes, Battle's sign, hemotympanum, cerebrospinal fluid leakage from the ears or nose), post-traumatic seizure, focal neurological deficit, vomiting, amnesia of events. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- Culture and sensitivity: no growth Cerebrospinal fluid analysis a. b. c. d. obtained via lumbar, cisternal or ventricular puncture indications: inflammation, infection standard precautions are required maintain strict asepsis Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Definition: A watery cushion that protects the brain and spinal cord from physical impact and bathes the brain in electrolytes and proteins. (scribd.com)
- The analysis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in compartments of the central nervous system (CNS), including the cerebrospinal fluid and the extracellular fluid, represent the most common approaches to monitor surrogate markers of cerebral inflammatory activity. (frontiersin.org)
- 1 Treatment modalities listed by the Brain Trauma Foundation Guidelines (BTFG) include: decompressive craniectomy, hyperosmolar therapy, cerebrospinal fluid drainage, ventilation techniques and anesthetics/analgesics/sedatives. (neurocriticalcare.org)
- The pathophysiology of traumatic brain swelling remains little understood. (hindawi.com)
- The aim of this article is to discuss the underlying pathophysiology of brain damage, which is a devastating pathological condition, and highlight the central signal transduction pathway involved in brain damage, which reveals potential targets for therapeutic intervention. (biomedcentral.com)
- Underlying pathophysiology as it relates to large vessel steno-occlusive disease and the impact of this macrovascular disease on tissue-level viability, hemodynamics (cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and mean transit time), and metabolism (cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption and pH) are also discussed in the context of emerging neuroimaging protocols with sensitivity to these factors. (stanford.edu)
- Once the ICP approaches the level of the mean systemic pressure, it becomes more and more difficult to squeeze blood into the intracranial space. (bionity.com)
- Although the brain represents only 2% of total body weight, it utilizes 20% of the systemic oxygen consumption for the oxidation of glucose. (simstat.com)
- Simultaneous determination of glycerol in arterial plasma samples showed that the changes in brain interstitial glycerol could not be attributed to systemic changes and an injured blood brain barrier. (bmj.com)
- The BTP from each cerebral hemisphere and the cisternal pressure (CP) were monitored during alterations of pCO 2 and systemic blood pressure, and distilled H 2 O injection prior to and after right middle cerebral artery (MCA) ligation. (thejns.org)
- The response of intracranial pressure and CP to MCA occlusion, alterations in pCO 2 , and systemic blood pressure were similar. (thejns.org)
- 2006;5(2): Brisman R, Mendell J. Thromboembolism and brain tumors. (healthdocbox.com)
- Tumors, headaches, cranial bleeds, trauma, seizures, hemiparalysis which is a paralysis on one side, slurred speech, the respiratory pattern is irregular (bradypnea or Cheyne stokes), level of consciousness shows altered breathing and a pupillary response is abnormal. (respiratorytherapyzone.com)
- We have used Schmidt's auto-adaptive method to assess the accuracy of this method for patients after surgery for supratentorial brain tumors. (degruyter.com)
- Disruption of White Matter Integrity in Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors: Correlates with Long-Term Intellectual Outcomes. (jove.com)
- Specifically, disruption of brain white matter integrity and its relationship to intellectual outcomes in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors needs to be better understood. (jove.com)
- Generally, acute subdural hematomas are less than 72 hours old and are hyperdense compared with the brain on computed tomography scans. (medscape.com)
- Chronic subdural hematomas develop over the course of weeks and are hypodense compared with the brain. (medscape.com)
- Surgical procedures for TBI include craniotomy for evacuation of epidural, subdural, or intracerebral hematomas and decompressive craniectomy for the treatment of intracranial hypertension refractory to medical treatment. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Subdural hematomas (SDH) are intracranial blood collections which form between the dura and arachnoid membranes of the meninges. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Approximately 15% of cardiac output is distributed to the brain (750 mL/min), and normal cerebral blood flow (CBF) in an adult remains relatively constant at 40-50 mL/100 g brain/min. (simstat.com)
- I believe that the most likely etiology of arrest is brain stem compression, apnea, hypoxia, then asystole, and that it is ventilation, along with chest compressions, that leads to successful cardiac resuscitation. (blogspot.com)
- Cardiac arrest induces the cessation of cerebral blood flow, which can result in brain damage. (biomedcentral.com)
- The brain receives 15% of resting cardiac output, 20% of total body oxygen consumption. (radnotes.co.nz)
- Other patients are seen for cardiac arrest, psychiatric issues, sequelae of noncardiac surgery, and trauma. (biomedcentral.com)
- Involving a team of cardiac surgeons, perfusion experts, and heart-failure physicians, as well as ED and ICU physicians and nurses, is critical for managing treatment for these patients and for successful outcomes. (biomedcentral.com)
- The prevalence of unruptured intracranial aneurysms in health adults was found to be between 3% and 7% [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- With improvements in the surgical and endovascular management of intracranial aneurysms, nonneurological complications will assume a more prominent role in the overall outcome of SAH patients [ 10 ], as such complications may increase the length of hospital stays as well as the need of intensive care unit management. (hindawi.com)
- Dr. Jeremy Heit is a neurointerventional surgeon (neurointerventional radiologist) who specializes in treating stroke, brain aneurysms, brain arteriovenous malformations, brain and spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae, carotid artery stenosis, vertebral body compression fractures, and congenital vascular malformations. (stanford.edu)
- Ruptured brain aneurysms are fatal in about 40% of cases. (thewordscraft.com)
- There are almost 500,000 deaths worldwide due to ruptured brain aneurysms & half of the victims are younger than the age of 50. (thewordscraft.com)
- So here we begin with the understanding of hypertension & cerebral aneurysms. (thewordscraft.com)
- It is a round shaped aneurysm that accounts for the vast majority of intracranial aneurysms. (thewordscraft.com)
- Some patients acutely recovering from head trauma demonstrate no ability to retain new information. (medscape.com)
- 13 Various animal experiments of hemorrhagic shock and head trauma have indicated that SVR lowers ICP and improves CPP. (ahajournals.org)
- Masters et al 7 developed and tested a management strategy that shifted the focus of neuroimaging of head trauma away from skull radiography and toward CT scanning. (ajnr.org)
- Antecedent closed-head trauma is the most common cause of SDH. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- If you're a Respiratory Therapy student looking for head trauma practice questions, then you've come to the right place. (respiratorytherapyzone.com)
- That's because, this study guide is loaded with some of the absolute best practice questions that can help you learn everything you need to know about head trauma. (respiratorytherapyzone.com)
- Head trauma is something you definitely need to be familiar with as a Respiratory Therapist and is a subject that you will definitely cover in your Pathology course. (respiratorytherapyzone.com)
- You can use this study guide to gain a good understanding of how to properly treat head trauma patients now and for years to come. (respiratorytherapyzone.com)
- 5. What is head trauma? (respiratorytherapyzone.com)
- 7. What is the diagnosis of head trauma? (respiratorytherapyzone.com)
- 8. What are the effects of head trauma? (respiratorytherapyzone.com)
- 9. What are the causes of head trauma? (respiratorytherapyzone.com)
- 11. What past medical history do patients of head trauma have? (respiratorytherapyzone.com)
- 12. What special tests are performed on a head trauma patient? (respiratorytherapyzone.com)
- 14. What oxygen therapy should be given to head trauma patients? (respiratorytherapyzone.com)
- 15. What forms of mechanical ventilation should be used for head trauma patients? (respiratorytherapyzone.com)
- 16. What medications should be given to head trauma patients? (respiratorytherapyzone.com)
- 19. How to manage patients with head trauma? (respiratorytherapyzone.com)
- So far, non-invasive methods have been tailored for the patients with head trauma. (degruyter.com)
- Occlusion of the posterior communicating artery mimicking cerebral aneurysm: case report. (biomedsearch.com)
- It may be congenital , surgically created for hemodialysis treatment , or acquired due to a pathologic process, such as trauma or erosion of an arterial aneurysm . (wikidoc.org)
- A fistula can progress to an aneurysm , usually in the setting of a trauma , carrying a risk of rupture and necessitating surgical intervention. (wikidoc.org)
- Intraoperatively, tight control of blood pressure and adequate brain relaxation is desirable, so that accidental aneurysm rupture can be averted. (joacp.org)
- As promised in our previous post " Reason For Being Away " here is our post about Cerebral Aneurysm. (thewordscraft.com)
- It is said 1 in 50 people have a brain aneurysm. (thewordscraft.com)
- The annual rate of rupture is approximately 8 per 100,000 people or about 30,000 people in the United States suffer a ruptured brain aneurysm. (thewordscraft.com)
- There is a brain aneurysm rupturing every 18 minutes. (thewordscraft.com)
- Cerebral or brain aneurysm is a cerebra-vascular disorder in which weakness in the wall of a cerebral artery or vein causes a localized dilation or ballooning of the blood vessel. (thewordscraft.com)
- Hypertension may cause many health problems but this is article is written with the idea to provide you information about cerebral aneurysm. (thewordscraft.com)
- When the Tunica Intima the inner most layer gets damaged usually due to high blood pressure or due to trauma, the vessel's elasticity is compromised & the blood gets turbulence leading to the ballooning of vessel known as False Aneurysm formation. (thewordscraft.com)
- Aneurysm is a weak bulging spot on the wall of a brain artery very much like a thin balloon or weak spot on an inner tube. (thewordscraft.com)
- This pressure may cause the aneurysm to rupture & allow blood to escape into the space around the brain, which may be Fatal or can be a serious Complication. (thewordscraft.com)
- The mechanism for coma or impaired consciousness involves dysfunction of both cerebral hemispheres or of the reticular activating system (also known as the ascending arousal system). (merckmanuals.com)
- Therefore, the mechanism of impaired consciousness must involve both cerebral hemispheres or dysfunction of the RAS. (merckmanuals.com)
- Diseases causing acute onset of raised intracranial pressure or diffuse/multifocal cerebral dysfunction resemble CVT. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- The cranium and its constituents (blood, CSF, and brain tissue) create a state of volume equilibrium, such that any increase in volume of one of the cranial constituents must be compensated by a decrease in volume of another. (bionity.com)
- Both acute and subacute SDH may cause increased intracranial pressure, with symptoms of emesis, speech disturbances, papilledema, cranial nerve abnormalities, or seizure. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the tension the day and is in uenced by changes in posture, within the cranial vault. (who.int)
- It is reabsorbed through the arachnoid villi into the blood in the cranial venous sinuses, and through the perineural lymph spaces of both the brain and the cord. (scribd.com)
- Cerebral hemodynamic assessment by transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography was performed prior to decompressive craniectomy. (hindawi.com)
- Decompressive Craniectomy, Reperfusion, or a Combination for Early Treatment of Acute "Malignant" Cerebral Hemispheric Stroke in Rats? (ahajournals.org)
- Four groups were investigated: (1) no treatment, (2) decompressive craniectomy, (3) reperfusion, and (4) reperfusion and craniectomy as treatment at 1 hour after middle cerebral artery occlusion. (ahajournals.org)
- The aim of this study was to directly compare the benefits of reperfusion with those of decompressive craniectomy and to study the effects of a combined treatment of reperfusion and craniectomy in an animal model of hemispheric infarction. (ahajournals.org)
- The difference between the ICP and the mean arterial pressure within the cerebral vessels is termed the cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)(cerebral perfusion pressure is calculated by subtracting the intracranial pressure from the mean arterial pressure CPP=MAP-ICP), the amount of blood able to reach the brain. (bionity.com)
- The body's response to a decrease in CPP is to raise blood pressure and dilate blood vessels in the brain. (bionity.com)
- This causes brain tissue to accelerate or decelerate relative to the fixed dural structures, tearing blood vessels. (topneurodocs.com)
- Vasculitis or MMD usually causes stroke by a hemodynamic mechanism after the diffuse narrowing of extracranial or intracranial vessels. (j-nn.org)
- Patients must undergo vascular imaging of the extracranial and intracranial vessels using either catheter angiography, CT angiogram (CTA), MR angiogram (MRA), or ultrasound, as considered appropriate by the treating physician and local principal investigator. (pennstroke.org)
- The pressure of the blood against the inner walls of the blood vessels, varying in different parts of the body during different phases of contraction of the heart & under different conditions of health, exertion, etc. (thewordscraft.com)
- The patients required an intraventricular catheter for intracranial pressure monitoring and were treated at the neurointensive care unit. (bmj.com)
- Measures pressure within ventricles, facilitates removal/sampling of CSF, intraventricular drug administration. (studystack.com)
- Extra attention should be placed on intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring via an intraventricular catheter and medications to maintain ICP, blood pressure, and coagulation. (wikipedia.org)
- intracranial pressure (ICP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were continuously monitored between the beginning of each osmotherapy and the return of ICP to 20 mm Hg. (bvsalud.org)
- e Monro-Kellie doctrine states that calculated difference between the mean the sum of intracranial volumes is constant arterial pressure (MAP) and the ICP. (who.int)
- These buffers respond to increases in volume of the remaining intracranial constituents. (bionity.com)
- Small increases in brain volume do not lead to immediate increase in ICP because of the ability of the CSF to be displaced into the spinal canal, as well as the slight ability to stretch the falx cerebri between the hemispheres and the tentorium between the hemispheres and the cerebellum. (bionity.com)
- As a result any bleeding or swelling within the skull increases the volume of its contents and thus causing increased intracranial pressure. (graduateway.com)
- A waves may come and go, spiking from temporary rises in thoracic pressure or from any condition that increases ICP beyond the brain's compliance limits. (slideplayer.com)
- The metabolic rate of the brain is often expressed in terms of its rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ), which is approximately 3.5 mL/100g brain/min. (simstat.com)
- The brain is not able to store the right amount of oxygen and glucose to a significant degree because of this. (graduateway.com)
- The UHMS defines hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) as an intervention in which an individual breathes near 100% oxygen intermittently while inside a hyperbaric chamber that is pressurized to greater than sea level pressure (1 atmosphere absolute, or ATA). (uhms.org)
- According to the UHMS definition and the determination of The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and other third party carriers, breathing medical grade 100% oxygen at 1 atmosphere of pressure or exposing isolated parts of the body to 100% oxygen does not constitute HBO2 therapy. (uhms.org)
- A device and method of its use for the treatment or prevention of an acute ischemic condition by administering high concentrations of oxygen or an oxygen- containing gas at normobaric pressure and a flow rate of 10 L/min or greater. (freepatentsonline.com)
- and b) means for delivering, to the respiratory system of a human patient, oxygen from said source of oxygen at a flow rate of 10 L/min or greater at normal or near-normal atmospheric pressure, wherein said apparatus is adapted such that the apparatus is: i) portable, and ii) MRI-compatible. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 11. The apparatus of claim 10, wherein said end-tidal capnometer further comprises an alarm and automatic shutoff that prevents the flow of oxygen to said patient, both of which activate when said capnometer sensor means detects expiratory partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (paCO 2 ) levels of greater than 40 mm Hg or greater than 10% or more of baseline values. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 13. A method of reducing acute ischemic damage in a human patient comprising delivering oxygen to the respiratory system of said patient at a flow rate of 25 L/min or greater at normal or near-normal atmospheric pressure. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Brain monitoring techniques such as jugular venous oximetry, monitoring of brain tissue oxygen tension (PbrO 2 ), and cerebral microdialysis provide complementary and specific information that permits the selection of the optimal CPP. (joacp.org)
- Despite these encouraging results, several currently applied therapies remain to be properly evaluated in well-designed trials and new pharmacological strategies to control ICP, improve cerebral oxygenation, and reduce morbidity and mortality are still needed to further improve patient outcomes. (simstat.com)
- The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of cerebral physiology under normal conditions and during TBI, provide an outline of monitoring strategies for TBI patients, review current treatment strategies to control ICP and optimize cerebral oxygenation in TBI patients, and discuss experimental therapies in the pharmacological management of TBI. (simstat.com)
Management of intracranial1
- 12) who harbor significant intracranial pathology and/or require acute surgical intervention have been problematic. (ajnr.org)
- The use of the improved radial expansible retractor renders surgical procedures, including neurosurgical procedures, shorter, less traumatic, and more reliable, reducing risk and the need for subsequent surgery and reducing recovery time. (google.com)
- (41) Air embolism can occur during procedures in which the surgical site is under pressure (e.g. laparoscopy, (42-46) transurethral surgery, (47,48) vitrectomy, (49) endoscopic vein harvesting (50) and hysteroscopy (51,52) ). (uhms.org)
- Massive VGE can occur due to passive entry of air into surgical wounds that are elevated above the level of the heart (such that the pressure in adjacent veins is subatmospheric). (uhms.org)