Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Bell Palsy: A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Muscle Hypertonia: Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Equinus Deformity: Plantar declination of the foot.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Agnosia: Loss of the ability to comprehend the meaning or recognize the importance of various forms of stimulation that cannot be attributed to impairment of a primary sensory modality. Tactile agnosia is characterized by an inability to perceive the shape and nature of an object by touch alone, despite unimpaired sensation to light touch, position, and other primary sensory modalities.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Neuromuscular Agents: Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Disabled Children: Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.Leukomalacia, Periventricular: Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)Facial Paralysis: Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Wheelchairs: Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Athetosis: A dyskinesia characterized by an inability to maintain the fingers, toes, tongue, or other body parts in a stable position, resulting in continuous slow, sinusoidal, and flowing involuntary movements. This condition is frequently accompanied by CHOREA, where it is referred to as choreoathetosis. Athetosis may occur as a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES or DRUG TOXICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p76)Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Orthotic Devices: Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Exercise Movement Techniques: Methods or programs of physical activities which can be used to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Vocal Cord Paralysis: Congenital or acquired paralysis of one or both VOCAL CORDS. This condition is caused by defects in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, the VAGUS NERVE and branches of LARYNGEAL NERVES. Common symptoms are VOICE DISORDERS including HOARSENESS or APHONIA.Stroboscopy: The observation of successive phases of MOVEMENT by use of a flashing light.Gait Disorders, Neurologic: Gait abnormalities that are a manifestation of nervous system dysfunction. These conditions may be caused by a wide variety of disorders which affect motor control, sensory feedback, and muscle strength including: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or MUSCULAR DISEASES.Dysarthria: Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)Ocular Motility Disorders: Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Malaria, Cerebral: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)Voice Training: A variety of techniques used to help individuals utilize their voice for various purposes and with minimal use of muscle energy.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Motor Skills Disorders: Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)Kinesthesis: Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.Upper Extremity: The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.Sialorrhea: Increased salivary flow.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Hip Dislocation: Displacement of the femur bone from its normal position at the HIP JOINT.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Bulbar Palsy, Progressive: A motor neuron disease marked by progressive weakness of the muscles innervated by cranial nerves of the lower brain stem. Clinical manifestations include dysarthria, dysphagia, facial weakness, tongue weakness, and fasciculations of the tongue and facial muscles. The adult form of the disease is marked initially by bulbar weakness which progresses to involve motor neurons throughout the neuroaxis. Eventually this condition may become indistinguishable from AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS. Fazio-Londe syndrome is an inherited form of this illness which occurs in children and young adults. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1091; Brain 1992 Dec;115(Pt 6):1889-1900)Abducens Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.Denial (Psychology): Refusal to admit the truth or reality of a situation or experience.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Cardiotocography: Monitoring of FETAL HEART frequency before birth in order to assess impending prematurity in relation to the pattern or intensity of antepartum UTERINE CONTRACTION.Muscle Hypotonia: A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.Hemispherectomy: A neurosurgical procedure that removes or disconnects the epileptogenic CEREBRAL CORTEX of a hemisphere. Hemispherectomy is usually performed for patients with intractable unilateral EPILEPSY due to malformations of cortical development or brain lesions. Depending on the epileptogenic area in the hemisphere, cortical removal can be total or partial.Birth Injuries: Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Oculomotor Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)Pneumoencephalography: Radiographic visualization of the cerebral ventricles by injection of air or other gas.Rhizotomy: Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Hip Contracture: Permanent fixation of the hip in primary positions, with limited passive or active motion at the hip joint. Locomotion is difficult and pain is sometimes present when the hip is in motion. It may be caused by trauma, infection, or poliomyelitis. (From Current Medical Information & Technology, 5th ed)Dysphonia: Difficulty and/or pain in PHONATION or speaking.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Ankle: The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.Infant, Premature, DiseasesNervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Contracture: Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain: A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Cranial Nerve Diseases: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.Equine-Assisted Therapy: Therapy assisted by the use of a horse and/or its movement, including equine-assisted psychotherapy, horseback riding, and hippotherapy.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Fetal Hypoxia: Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Ophthalmoplegia: Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Infarction, Anterior Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY system, including branches such as Heubner's artery. These arteries supply blood to the medial and superior parts of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, Infarction in the anterior cerebral artery usually results in sensory and motor impairment in the lower body.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Adaptor Protein Complex 4: An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and the endosomal-lysosomal system.Patient Positioning: Moving a patient into a specific position or POSTURE to facilitate examination, surgery, or for therapeutic purposes.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Echoencephalography: Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.Asphyxia Neonatorum: Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Magnesium Sulfate: A small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decreases the frequency and force of contractions. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1083)Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Trochlear Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the fourth cranial (trochlear) nerve or its nucleus in the midbrain. The nerve crosses as it exits the midbrain dorsally and may be injured along its course through the intracranial space, cavernous sinus, superior orbital fissure, or orbit. Clinical manifestations include weakness of the superior oblique muscle which causes vertical DIPLOPIA that is maximal when the affected eye is adducted and directed inferiorly. Head tilt may be seen as a compensatory mechanism for diplopia and rotation of the visual axis. Common etiologies include CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Tocolytic Agents: Drugs that prevent preterm labor and immature birth by suppressing uterine contractions (TOCOLYSIS). Agents used to delay premature uterine activity include magnesium sulfate, beta-mimetics, oxytocin antagonists, calcium channel inhibitors, and adrenergic beta-receptor agonists. The use of intravenous alcohol as a tocolytic is now obsolete.Psychomotor Disorders: Abnormalities of motor function that are associated with organic and non-organic cognitive disorders.Anterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.Fetal Distress: A nonreassuring fetal status (NRFS) indicating that the FETUS is compromised (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 1988). It can be identified by sub-optimal values in FETAL HEART RATE; oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD; and other parameters.Migraine with Aura: A subtype of migraine disorder, characterized by recurrent attacks of reversible neurological symptoms (aura) that precede or accompany the headache. Aura may include a combination of sensory disturbances, such as blurred VISION; HALLUCINATIONS; VERTIGO; NUMBNESS; and difficulty in concentrating and speaking. Aura is usually followed by features of the COMMON MIGRAINE, such as PHOTOPHOBIA; PHONOPHOBIA; and NAUSEA. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Infusions, Spinal: The administration of medication by insertion of a tiny needle or catheter into the spinal sac or epidural cavity.Perceptual Disorders: Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.
He has cerebral palsy right hemiplegia. Haanappel represented Australia at the 2012 Summer Paralympics, the 2013 IPC Swimming ... Diagnosed at four months of age, Matthew has cerebral palsy right hemiplegia as a result of a prenatal stroke at around 20 ... Matthew attended the Cerebral Palsy Education Centre as a child in 1998 and 1999. Today, Matthew is an ambassador of the ...
Scissor gait: occurs in cerebral palsy. *Stiff hip gait: occurs in ankylosis of the hip ... Circumduction gait: occurs in hemiplegia. *Waddling gait: occurs in bilateral congenital hip dislocation ... Subsection: Regulation by the Cerebral Cortex. From fMRI studies, two regions have been identified to hold particular ... These centers are coordinated with the posture control systems in place in the cerebral hemisphere and the cerebellum. With ...
Brad Scott (runner)
Athletics at the 2016 Summer Paralympics - Women's 400 metres T37
Athletics at the 2012 Summer Paralympics - Men's 200 metres T37
Athletics at the 2012 Summer Paralympics - Men's 800 metres
The T36 category is for ambulant athletes with cerebral palsy. These athletes do not have the capacity to remain still and they ... They have good ability in their dominant side of their body (ie hemiplegia). There were no heats in this event. The final was ... The T37 category is for ambulant athletes with cerebral palsy. These athletes have movement and coordination problems on one ...
Athletics at the 2016 Summer Paralympics - Men's 1500 metres
T38 athletes have the mildest form of impairment caused by cerebral palsy, often in only one limb, and not affecting the ... They have good ability in their dominant side of their body (ie hemiplegia). There were no heats in this event. The final was ... The final was competed at 10:58 on 13 September 2016: The T37 category is for ambulant athletes with cerebral palsy. These ... The T38 category is for ambulant athletes with cerebral palsy. ...
Athletics at the 2012 Summer Paralympics - Men's 1500 metres
Athletics at the 2012 Summer Paralympics - Women's 100 metres T37
Athletics at the 2012 Summer Paralympics - Women's 400 metres
Athletics at the 2016 Summer Paralympics - Men's 1500 metres T37
Athletics at the 2012 Summer Paralympics - Men's 200 metres
Final The T36 category is for ambulant athletes with cerebral palsy. These athletes do not have the capacity to remain still ... They have good ability in their dominant side of their body (i.e. hemiplegia). Final The T38 category is for ambulant athletes ... with cerebral palsy. T38 athletes have the mildest form of impairment caused by cerebral palsy, often in only one limb, and not ... Final The T35 category is for ambulant athletes with cerebral palsy. The typical T35 athlete may need assistive devices for ...
It is frequently associated with cerebral palsy. This is the mildest form of cerebral palsy, and individuals with it generally ... It is often thought as hemiplegia with much less involvement of the other limb. Monoplegia is often a result to damage to the ... "Monoplegic Cerebral Palsy - What Is Monoplegia?" Cerebral Palsy Information. 2013. Web. 14 Apr. 2016. "Monoplegia." 2015. ... Though cerebral palsy is the main cause, other causes include a brain tumor, stroke, nerve trauma, nerve inflammation, multiple ...
Athletics at the 2016 Summer Paralympics - Women's 400 metres
T38 athletes have the mildest form of impairment caused by cerebral palsy, often in only one limb, and not affecting the ... They have good ability in their dominant side of their body (ie hemiplegia). 10:14 13 September 2016: The T38 category is for ... 17:46 13 September 2016: The T34 category is for wheelchair athletes with cerebral palsy. Athletes in this category have ... 17:40 14 September 2016: The T37 category is for ambulant athletes with cerebral palsy. These athletes have movement and ...
Athletics at the 2016 Summer Paralympics - Men's 400 metres
T38 athletes have the mildest form of impairment caused by cerebral palsy, often in only one limb, and not affecting the ... They have good ability in their dominant side of their body (ie hemiplegia). 10:23 16 September 2016: The T38 category is for ... 11:20 9 September 2016: The T36 category is for ambulant athletes with cerebral palsy. These athletes do not have the capacity ... 10:15 16 September 2016: The T37 category is for ambulant athletes with cerebral palsy. These athletes have movement and ...
People in this class tend to have energy expenditure similar to people without cerebral palsy. People with cerebral palsy are ... CP8 swimmers are often classified in S8, S9 or S10 because of their hemiplegia and spasicity. The less severe, the closer they ... "Classification Profiles" (PDF). Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association. Cerebral Palsy International ... "Classification Profiles" (PDF). Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association. Cerebral Palsy International ...
Upper motor neuron lesion: Spastic cerebral palsy. *Scissor gait. *Spastic diplegia. *Spastic hemiplegia ... Not all people with spastic cerebral palsy benefit from SDR. For those under 18 years of age, rhizotomy requires that they be: ... Rhizotomy is usually performed on the pediatric spastic cerebral palsy population between the ages of 2 and 6, since this is ... Louis, Missouri has a "Center for Cerebral Palsy Spasticity" that is the only internationally known clinic in the world to have ...
Fraser was born with spastic hemiplegia, a form of cerebral palsy where one side of the body is affected. At the age of 12, she ... She has cerebral palsy and competes in the F37 category for the physically impaired. Competing in the 2000, 2004, and 2008 ... medal when British athlete Rebecca Chin was disqualified on the basis that she was ineligible to compete in the cerebral palsy ...
International Federation of Cerebral Palsy Football. Retrieved 2017-09-24. "CEREBRAL PALSY 7 A-SIDE SOCCER TAKE CENTRE STAGE". ... FT7: Athletes with hemiplegia. FT8: Minimally disabled athletes; they must meet eligibility criteria and have an obvious ... a.e.t.: after extra time p: after penalty shoot-out International Federation of Cerebral Palsy Football Cerebral Palsy Games ... From 1978 to 2014, cerebral palsy football was governed by the Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association ( ...
It is very common for people with Cerebral Palsy to have diplegia of the arms. Although most people with Cerebral Palsy have ... This included limbs on the same side of the body thus including hemiplegia. Later in 1956 diplegia was presented as a form of ... Diplegia is the most common cause of crippling in children, specifically in children with Cerebral Palsy. Other causes may be ... In 1890 Sachs and Peterson first referenced to the term diplegia, along with the word paraplegia, for their cerebral palsy ...
Athletics at the 2016 Summer Paralympics - Men's 100 metres
T38 athletes have the mildest form of impairment caused by cerebral palsy, often in only one limb, and not affecting the ... They have good ability in their dominant side of their body (ie hemiplegia). The final in this classification took place at 10: ... The T37 category is for ambulant athletes with cerebral palsy. These athletes have movement and coordination problems on one ... The T36 category is for ambulant athletes with cerebral palsy. These athletes do not have the capacity to remain still and they ...
World Cerebral Palsy Day. References. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai ... Main article: Ataxic cerebral palsy. Ataxic cerebral palsy is observed in approximately 5-10% of all cases of cerebral palsy, ... Main article: Spastic cerebral palsy. Spastic cerebral palsy, or cerebral palsy where spasticity (muscle tightness) is the ... Main article: Athetoid cerebral palsy. Athetoid cerebral palsy or dyskinetic cerebral palsy (sometimes abbreviated ADCP) is ...
"Spastic Hemiplegia : Cerebral Palsy". OriginsOfCerebralPalsy.com. Retrieved 2013-03-08.. *^  Archived October 11, 2010, at ... Congenital: cerebral palsy, Neonatal-Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease (NOMID). *Degenerative: ALS, corticobasal ... Potential to progress may differ in cerebral palsy, compared to adult acquired brain injury. It is vital to integrate the ... "What is hemiplegia? , HemiHelp: for children and young people with hemiplegia (hemiparesis)". HemiHelp. Retrieved 2013-03-08.. ...
List of neurological conditions and disorders
Cerebral dysgenesis-neuropathy-ichthyosis-keratoderma syndrome. *Cerebral gigantism. *Cerebral palsy. *Cerebral vasculitis ... Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy. * ... Alternating hemiplegia of childhood. *Alzheimer's disease. *Amaurosis fugax. *Amnesia. *Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ...
Subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord
Upper motor neuron lesion: Spastic cerebral palsy. *Scissor gait. *Spastic diplegia. *Spastic hemiplegia ... Unusually, cerebral palsy, including spastic cerebral palsy, is notable for a glaring overall research deficiency-the fact that ... For other types of cerebral-palsy-based spasticity affecting other limbs in varying combinations, see spastic cerebral palsy. ... comparing two or more registers of patients with cerebral palsy and also the extent to which children with mild cerebral palsy ...
Spastic cerebral palsy
Cerebral Palsy Alliance". Cerebral Palsy Alliance. Retrieved 2020-03-23.. *^ a b c d "Hemiplegia". CHASA. Retrieved 2020-03-31. ... "Spastic cerebral palsy (for parents)". Kidshealth. Retrieved 16 March 2020.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Cerebral ... "How does cerebral palsy affect people? , Cerebral Palsy Alliance". Cerebral Palsy Alliance. Retrieved 2020-04-05.. ... "Cerebral Palsy Alliance. 2015-11-18. Retrieved 2020-03-10.. *^ a b c d e f g h i "What is Cerebral Palsy?". Centers for Disease ...
Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome, Cerebral vasculitis (got onto DYK), Cholesterol embolism (got onto DYK), Chronic granulomatous ... Alkaptonuria (got onto DYK), Allergy, Alternating hemiplegia of childhood, Anaphylaxis (T), Anemia, Antiphospholipid syndrome, ... Progressive supranuclear palsy, Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (T), Psoriasis (T), Pulmonary edema, Pulmonary embolism (T), Pulmonary ... Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (T / good article since 17 April 2008), Chronic fatigue syndrome (T, Chronic myelogenous ...
Category:Mid-importance neurology articles
ICD-10 Chapter VI: Diseases of the nervous system
G80.8) Other cerebral palsy. *(G80.9) Cerebral palsy, unspecified. *(G81) Hemiplegia *(G81.0) Flaccid hemiplegia ... G80-G83) Cerebral palsy and other paralytic syndromes. *(G80) Cerebral palsy *(G80.0) Spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy ... It covers conditions such as meningitis, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy and cerebral palsy. However; neoplastic conditions, such ... G45.8) Other transient cerebral ischaemic attacks and related syndromes. *(G45.9) Transient cerebral ischaemic attack, ...
Congenital mirror movement disorder
Movement disorders Chiari malformation Klippel-Feil Syndrome Dystonia Cerebral palsy Parkinson's disease Epilepsies Amyotrophic ... lateral sclerosis Kallman's syndrome Alien hand syndrome Obsessive compulsive disorder Schizophrenia Congenital hemiplegia ... First, some researchers believe that this neurological disorder is due to abnormal communication between cerebral hemispheres. ...
"Classification Profiles" (PDF). Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association. Cerebral Palsy International ... Lower Extremities-Hemiplegia Spasticity Grade 3 to 2. Dominant side has better development and good follow through movement in ... "Classification Profiles" (PDF). Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association. Cerebral Palsy International ... People with cerebral palsy are eligible to compete in cycling at the Paralympic Games. CP7 and CP8 may compete on a bicycle in ...
1991 CPISRA European Soccer Championship
Cerebral Palsy International Sports & Recreation Association (CPISRA) International Federation of Cerebral Palsy Football ( ... C7: Athletes with hemiplegia. C8: Athletes with minimal disability; must meet eligibility criteria and have an impairment that ... CPISRA stands for Cerebral Palsy International Sports & Recreation Association. Athletes with a physical disability competed. ... The athlete's disability was caused by a non-progressive brain damage that affects motor control, such as cerebral palsy, ...
Central facial palsy
When central facial palsy occurs, there are lesions in the corticobulbar tract between the cerebral cortex. Because of these ... Patients with hemiplegia have movements that are lower level and less motor coordination, and often must relearn these ... Central facial palsy is the paralysis of the lower half of one side of the face. This condition is often caused by a stroke. ... Central facial palsy (colloquially referred to as central seven) is a symptom or finding characterized by paralysis or paresis ...
Paralympic association football
International Federation of Cerebral Palsy Football. Retrieved 2017-09-24. International Blind Sport Federation - Football 5-a- ... C7: Athletes with hemiplegia. C8: Minimally disabled athletes; they must meet eligibility criteria and have an obvious ... The sport is governed by the Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association (CP-ISRA). The sport is played with ... and 7-a-side football for athletes with cerebral palsy. 5-a-side football, also known as futsal and blind football, is an ...
Football 7-a-side at the 2017 ASEAN Para Games
The athlete's disability was caused by a non-progressive brain damage that affects motor control, such as cerebral palsy, ... C7: Athletes with hemiplegia. C8: Athletes with minimal disability; must meet eligibility criteria and have an impairment that ... 7-a-side Football at 2017 ASEAN Para Games of International Federation of Cerebral Palsy Football (IFCPF). ...
List of ICD-9 codes 320-359: diseases of the nervous system
Hemiplegia (342.0) Hemiplegia, flaccid (342.1) Hemiplegia, spastic (343) Infantile cerebral palsy (343.0) Cerebral palsy, ... paraplegic, congenital (343.1) Cerebral palsy, hemiplegic, congenital (343.2) Cerebral palsy, quadriplegic (344) Other ... Progressive bulbar palsy (335.23) Pseudobulbar palsy (335.24) Primary lateral sclerosis (335.29) Other motor neuron diseases ( ... Cerebral lipidoses Batten disease Tay-Sachs disease (331) Other cerebral degenerations (331.0) Alzheimer's (331.1) Pick's ...
ICD-10 Chapter VI: Diseases of the nervous system
Ataxic cerebral palsy (G80.8) Other cerebral palsy (G80.9) Cerebral palsy, unspecified (G81) Hemiplegia (G81.0) Flaccid ... Cerebral palsy (G80.0) Spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy (G80.1) Spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (G80.2) Spastic hemiplegic ... cerebral palsy (G80.3) Dyskinetic cerebral palsy (G80.4) ... Middle cerebral artery syndrome (G46.1) Anterior cerebral ... hemiplegia (G81.1) Spastic hemiplegia (G81.9) Hemiplegia, unspecified (G82) Paraplegia and tetraplegia (G82.0) Flaccid ...
List of OMIM disorder codes
SNAP29 Cerebral palsy, spastic quadriplegic, 3; 612936; AP4M1 Cerebral palsy, spastic quadriplegic; 612900; KANK1 Cerebral ... ALMS1 Alternating hemiplegia of childhood; 104290; ATP1A2 Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins; ... NOTCH3 Cerebral cavernous malformations 3; 603285; PDCD10 Cerebral cavernous malformations-1; 116860; CCM1 Cerebral cavernous ... VLDLR Cerebral amyloid angiopathy; 105150; CST3 Cerebral amyloid angiopathy, Dutch, Italian, Iowa, Flemish, Arctic variants; ...
The exact prevalence of porencephaly is not known; however, it has been reported that 6.8% of patients with cerebral palsy or ... COL4A1 mutation causes a variety of phenotypes, including porencephaly, infantile hemiplegia, and cerebral small vessel ... abnormal movements of appendages Cerebral palsy - a motor condition causing movement disabilities Blood vascular diseases such ... Lack of oxygen and blood supply to the brain leading to internal bleeding Cerebral degeneration - loss of neuron structure and ...
Football 7-a-side at the 2015 Parapan American Games
Cerebral Palsy International Sports & Recreation Association (CPISRA) International Federation of Cerebral Palsy Football ( ... C7: Athletes with hemiplegia. C8: Athletes with minimal disability; must meet eligibility criteria and have an impairment that ... The athlete's disability was caused by a non-progressive brain damage that affects motor control, such as cerebral palsy, ...
Athletics at the 2016 Summer Paralympics - Women's 4 × 100 metres relay
The T36 category is for ambulant athletes with cerebral palsy. These athletes do not have the capacity to remain still and they ... They have good ability in their dominant side of their body (ie hemiplegia). The T38 category is for ambulant athletes with ... cerebral palsy. T38 athletes have the mildest form of impairment caused by cerebral palsy, often in only one limb, and not ... The T35 category is for ambulant athletes with cerebral palsy. The typical T35 athlete may need assistive devices for walking. ...
Hemiplegia Awareness, Pediatric Stroke Awareness, and Cerebral Palsy Awareness Shirts - Order by November 2nd - CHASA
... cerebral palsy, Cerebral Palsy Awareness Shirts, Childrens Hemiplegia and Stroke Association, hemiparesis, hemiplegia, ... Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy Awareness > Hemiplegia Awareness, Pediatric Stroke Awareness, and Cerebral Palsy Awareness Shirts - ... Hemiplegia Awareness, Pediatric Stroke Awareness, and Cerebral Palsy Awareness Shirts - Order by November 2nd. You asked for ... The Hemiplegia Awareness Shirts, Pediatric Stroke Awareness Shirts, Cerebral Palsy Awareness Shirts will be GRAY, similar to ...
Hemi-Kids - Support Group for Families of Children who have Hemiplegia or Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy
Hemiplegia. Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy. Hemiparesis. Abbreviations used on HK list HK list Guidelines. Archives of HK list. ... To learn more about hemiplegia, hemiplegic cerebral palsy, or hemiparesis, visit the Childrens Hemiplegia and Stroke ... What is Hemiplegia or Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy?. Archives of Hemi-Kids list Messages. Local Support Groups for families of ... Infant and Childhood Stroke are two causes of hemiplegia or hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Visit our sister website, Kids Have ...
Hemiplegia / Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy | MyCerebralPalsyChild.org
Hemiplegic CP is a type of cerebral palsy that results from damage to the parts of the childs brain that control muscle ... Cerebral palsy presents itself in numerous ways. One of these forms is hemiplegia. Hemiplegia is a type of cerebral palsy that ... See more causes or cerebral palsy…. Hemiplegia is expensive to treat and rehabilitate. Given the fact that most cerebral palsy ... Hemiplegia Symptoms. Here are a few symptoms of hemiplegia you should watch out for if you suspect that your child has the ...
Double hemiplegia as a form of cerebral palsy
Symptoms, consequences, diagnosis of double hemiplegia. Description of different methods of treatment of double hemiplegia. ... Double hemiplegia is the rarest form of cerebral palsy. ... CEREBRAL PALSY (CP). The term "cerebral palsy" combines a group ... Double hemiplegia as a form of cerebral palsy. Double hemiplegia is the rarest form of cerebral palsy. It occurs in 1.9% of ... Hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Hemiparetic cerebral palsy is one of the most common forms of cerebral palsy. This condition arises ...
Cerebral Palsy Courses | Constraint Therapy | Occupational Therapy | Hemiplegia Education at CPteaching
... evidence-based education to therapists working with children with cerebral palsy (CP). ... CPteaching provides the latest, high quality, evidence-based education to therapists working with children with cerebral palsy. ... Functional Hand Use in Hemiplegia - Melbourne 2020. August 21, 2020 - August 22, 2020. ...
Frontiers | What are the Best Animal Models for Testing Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy? | Neurology
There are also many causal pathways to cerebral palsy, such as periventricular white matter injury in premature babies, ... There are also many causal pathways to cerebral palsy, such as periventricular white matter injury in premature babies, ... and the extent to which the multifactorial nature of cerebral palsy has been modelled. The degree to which the corticospinal ... and the extent to which the multifactorial nature of cerebral palsy has been modelled. The degree to which the corticospinal ...
Communicating with parents | HemiHelp: for children and young people with hemiplegia (hemiparesis)
Telling parents that their child has hemiplegia or cerebral palsy (CP) is a critical event. Research has shown that the way in ... Knowledge about cerebral palsy. Parents may know very little about hemiplegia or CP. They may also be too shocked to formulate ... Telling parents that their child has hemiplegia or cerebral palsy (CP) is a critical event. Research has shown that the way in ...
Hemiparesis - Wikipedia
"Spastic Hemiplegia : Cerebral Palsy". OriginsOfCerebralPalsy.com. Retrieved 2013-03-08.. *^  Archived October 11, 2010, at ... Congenital: cerebral palsy, Neonatal-Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease (NOMID). *Degenerative: ALS, corticobasal ... Potential to progress may differ in cerebral palsy, compared to adult acquired brain injury. It is vital to integrate the ... "What is hemiplegia? , HemiHelp: for children and young people with hemiplegia (hemiparesis)". HemiHelp. Retrieved 2013-03-08.. ...
List of drugs/medicine used for Hemiplegia (What is Hemiplegia?)
What is Hemiplegia? ). You can find more information including dosage, side effects of the Hemiplegia (What is Hemiplegia? ) ... View list of generic and brand names of drugs used for treatment of Hemiplegia ( ... Faulty Genes, A Possible Cause For Cerebral Palsy In Children. Cerebral palsy (CP) affects 3 in every 1000 children every year ... It may be congenital (cerebral palsy) or acquired later in life due to illness. Overview , Causes , Symptoms and Signs , ...
CHASA Orthotic Grants - Pediatric Stroke & Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy | Created by Children's Hemiplegia and Stroke Association
Statistics on Hand and Arm Loss
Cerebral palsy: Symptoms, causes, and treatments
Cerebral palsy does not get worse with age, and symptoms can improve. Here, learn about types in children and adults, diagnosis ... Cerebral palsy is a set of neurological conditions that affect movement. It is a common form of childhood disability. Severity ... Cerebral palsy does not necessarily affect intelligence. Spastic hemiplegia: A child with spastic hemiplegia will typically ... Cerebral palsy affects the muscles. An infant with cerebral palsy may have muscular and movement problems, including poor ...
Cerebral palsy: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that can involve brain, which affects nervous system functions, such as movement, ... Premature infants have a slightly higher risk of developing cerebral palsy. Cerebral palsy may also occur during early infancy ... Spastic paralysis; Paralysis - spastic; Spastic hemiplegia; Spastic diplegia; Spastic quadriplegia. Patient Instructions. ... Cerebral palsy is caused by injuries or abnormalities of the brain. Most of these problems occur as the baby grows in the womb ...
Bimanual Training in Children With Hemiplegia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Cerebral Palsy. Hemiplegia. Brain Damage, Chronic. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. ... cerebral palsy. constraint-induced therapy. constraint-induced movement therapy. CP. hemiplegia. hand. forced use. motor ... Center for Cerebral Palsy Research, TC, Columbia University Publications: Hung YC, Casertano L, Hillman A, Gordon AM. The ... Two hands are better than one: bimanual skill development in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol. ...
Effect of Baby-CIMT in Infants Younger Than 12 Months - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Cerebral Palsy Hemiplegia Children Behavioral: Baby-CIMT Behavioral: Baby-Massage Not Applicable ... Cerebral Palsy. Hemiplegia. Brain Damage, Chronic. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. ... in Infants Below 12 Month With Risk of Developing Unilateral Cerebral Palsy, a Study Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial ... performed before 12 months of age will improve hand function in children with risk for developing cerebral palsy. ...
Back to School - Kids with Hemiplegia - CHASA
... hemiplegic cerebral palsy, or hemiparesis. Talking with the teacher, health needs, bullying, making friends ... Back to school tips for kids with hemiplegia, ... Kids with Hemiplegia. Back to School - Kids with Hemiplegia. ... Childrens Hemiplegia and Stroke Association, disability, education, hemiparesis, hemiplegia, hemiplegic cerebral palsy, ... Support for children, teens and adults with hemiplegia, hemiparesis, hemiplegic cerebral palsy, childhood stroke, infant stroke ...
Cerebral Palsy -- American Academy of Neurology
Childrens Hemiplegia and Stroke Assocn. (CHASA). CHASA is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization dedicated to improving the lives ... Cerebral Palsy. The term cerebral palsy refers to any one of a number of neurological disorders that appear in infancy or early ... Cerebral palsy doesnt always cause profound disabilities. While one child with severe cerebral palsy might be unable to walk ... AAN Guideline Evaluates Treatments for Kids with Cerebral Palsy. 01.25.2010. New Guidelines for Cerebral Palsy Recommend Early ...
Gait disturbances in pregnancy and Hemiplegia in in children and Legs stiffly extended - Symptom Checker - check medical...
List of 24 causes for Gait disturbances in pregnancy and Hemiplegia in in children and Legs stiffly extended, alternative ... 7. Cerebral Palsy. 8. Cerebral abscess. 9. Cerebral contusion. 10. Complicated migraine. More causes » , Show All Causes , Show ... Hemiplegia in in children:*Causes: Hemiplegia in in children *Introduction: Hemiplegia in in children *Hemiplegia in in ... Hemiplegia in in children: Remove a symptom Legs stiffly extended:*Causes: Legs stiffly extended *Introduction: Legs stiffly ...
Gait disturbances in pregnancy and Hemiplegia in in children - Symptom Checker - check medical symptoms at RightDiagnosis
List of causes of Gait disturbances in pregnancy and Hemiplegia in in children, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, ... 2. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood. 3. Back pain. 4. Birth Injury. 5. Brain cancer. 6. Cerebral Palsy. 7. Cerebral abscess ... Hemiplegia in in children:*Causes: Hemiplegia in in children *Introduction: Hemiplegia in in children *Hemiplegia in in ... Results: Causes of Gait disturbances in pregnancy AND Hemiplegia in in children 1. Cerebral Palsy. 2. Multiple Sclerosis. Show ...
Alternating Hemiplegia,Alzheimer,Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis,Ataxia,Autonomic Nervous System,Brain Diseases,Cerebral Palsy...
ICD is a brainchild of a team of professionals who have been working in the field cerebral palsy, spina bifida, arthrogryposis ... Bells Palsy (Eye Diseases) Bells palsy is a weakness or paralysis of the facial nerve known as the seventh cranial nerve. ... Cerebral Palsy,Chromosomal,Chronic Fatigue Syndrome,Chronic Pain Syndromes,Congenital Anomalies,Cranial Nerve Diseases,Delirium ... Website related to Alternating Hemiplegia,Alzheimer,Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis,Ataxia,Autonomic Nervous System,Brain ...
China first aid kit suppliers - China first aid kit manufacturer directory, China first aid kit products from frbiz.com
Product description: Cerebral palsy hemiplegia patients rehabilitation training wheel walking aid walkers for adults . Were ... Cerebral palsy hemiplegia patients rehabilitation training wheel walking aid walkers for adults ... Cerebral palsy hemiplegia patients rehabilitation training wheel walking aid walkers for adults ...
Gait (human) - Wikipedia
Scissor gait: occurs in cerebral palsy. *Stiff hip gait: occurs in ankylosis of the hip ... Circumduction gait: occurs in hemiplegia. *Waddling gait: occurs in bilateral congenital hip dislocation ... Subsection: Regulation by the Cerebral Cortex. From fMRI studies, two regions have been identified to hold particular ... These centers are coordinated with the posture control systems in place in the cerebral hemisphere and the cerebellum. With ...
MRI-Based Radiologic Scoring System for Extent of Brain Injury in Children with Hemiplegia | American Journal of Neuroradiology
cerebral palsy. GMFCS. Gross Motor Functional Classification System. MACS. Manual Ability Classification System. AHA. Assisting ... Diffusion MRI in corticofugal fibers correlates with hand function in unilateral cerebral palsy. Neurology 2011;77:775-83. ... The role of neuroimaging in assessing patterns of injury in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) is well established. MR imaging ... The role of magnetic resonance imaging in elucidating the pathogenesis of cerebral palsy: a systematic review. Dev Med Child ...
Repetibilidade dos parâmetros espaço-temporais da marcha: comparação entre crianças normais e com paralisia cerebral do tipo...
Palavras-chave : gait; children; cerebral palsy; repeatability. · resumo em Português · texto em Português , Inglês · Português ... a group of nine children with spastic hemiplegia CP and a group of eight normal children. The children were evaluated by the ... comparison between normal children and children with hemiplegic spastic cerebral palsy. Rev. bras. fisioter. [online]. 2009, ... of spatiotemporal gait parameters by means of a comparative study between normal children and children with cerebral palsy (CP ...
Research Profiles | Health Research Council
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Cerebral Palsy Flashcards by Hugh Murray | Brainscape
MND] Cerebral Palsy Flashcards by Bobby Dosanjh | Brainscape
cerebral palsy; it is a classification tool with five levels based on the childs ability to perform gross motor skills and ... Dyskinetic Cerebral Palsy is a lesion located @? What are the movements like? ... Approximately 7000 people have a degree of cerebral palsy in NZ (1/3 are under 21 years old) ...
Cerebral Palsy (CP) | Boston Children's Hospital
Learn more about Cerebral Palsy (CP) symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments from experts at Boston Childrens, ranked best ... diplegia: when cerebral palsy only affects your childs legs. • hemiplegia: symptoms occur on only one side of the body. • ... What is Cerebral Palsy?. Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability of childhood. The term CP itself is an ... How Boston Childrens Hospital approaches cerebral palsy. The team of experts in the Cerebral Palsy Program are dedicated to ...
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Children's Hemiplegia and Stroke AssociationDiplegiaHemiplegicHemiparesisForms of cerebral palsyTypes of cerebralSpasticityCases of cerebral palsyPatients with cerebral palsyAffectsChild'sCause cerebral palsyParalysisDystonic Cerebral PalsyCongenital hemiplegiaType of cerebral palsyAthetoid Cerebral PalsyKids with Cerebral PalsyRight hemiplegiaSymptoms of Cerebral PalsyUnilateralBrainPeople with cerebralDevelop cerebral palsySeverePediatric strokeDiagnosisChildren and young people with hemiplegiaDyskinetic cerebral palsyParents of children with hemiplegiaFunction in children with hemiplegiaDisordersDisabilityQuadriplegic cerebral palsyForm of cerebral palsyGaitSigns of cerebral palsyClassification of cerebral palsyRisk of developing cerChildLittle about hemiplegiaCorticalMovementsPerinatalTreat cerebral palsyCauses cerebral palsyNeurologicalAtaxic cerebralOccurAbnormal
Children's Hemiplegia and Stroke Association1
- Such classifications include spastic diplegia , spastic hemiplegia , spastic quadriplegia , and in cases of single limb involvement, spastic monoplegia. (wikipedia.org)
- For instance, affected muscles in one limb is monoplegia, both arms or both legs is diplegia, both limbs on one side of the body is hemiplegia, and in all four limbs is quadriplegia. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Roughly 20% of all cerebral palsy cases are classified as spastic diplegia. (millerandzois.com)
- The most common forms are the spastic forms: hemiplegia, quadriplegia, and diplegia. (brainandspinalcord.org)
- CI: 1.09 to 7.59) but was not associated with other forms of cerebral palsy (diplegia and hemiplegia). (medpagetoday.com)
- Topographical distribution is in commonly described as hemiplegia, diplegia, quadriplegia and sometimes monoplegia or triplegia. (brightkite.com)
- Infant and Childhood Stroke are two causes of hemiplegia or hemiplegic cerebral palsy. (hemikids.org)
- The possible cause of hemiplegic cerebral palsy was found to be faulty genes. (medindia.net)
- A common problem in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) is the asymmetrical development of arm and hand capacity caused by the lack of use of the affected upper limb, or developmental disregard. (nih.gov)
- To investigate motor cortical map patterns in children with diplegic and hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP), and the relationships between motor cortical geometry and motor function in CP. (nih.gov)
- Coordination during a Goal-Directed Task in Children with Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy. (columbia.edu)
- Camp Take Hold offers children and teens with hemiparisis and hemiplegic or diplegic cerebral palsy, ages 9-17, 5 days and 4 nights of summer fun, social connections, and knowledge about their condition. (brainycamps.com)
- Carr LJ, Harrison LM, Evans AL, Stephens JA (1993) Patterns of central motor reorganization in hemiplegic cerebral palsy. (springer.com)
- Duff SV, Gordon AM (2003) Learning of grasp control in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. (springer.com)
- Kids who have hemiplegia or hemiparesis often wear hand or foot braces. (gofundme.com)
- Hemiplegia is more severe than hemiparesis , wherein one half of the body is weakened but not paralysed. (thefullwiki.org)
- Hemiplegia is similar to hemiparesis, but hemiparesis is considered less severe. (wikidoc.org)
Forms of cerebral palsy5
- As with other forms of cerebral palsy, the earlier you start the treatment, the more favorable prognosis will be. (doctorbersenev.ua)
- Spastic CP is distinguished from other forms of cerebral palsy by its prominent symptom of spasticity or stiff, tight movements and gait patterns such as the scissor gait. (wikipedia.org)
- Treatment for all forms of cerebral palsy is focussed on enabling the child to live as normal a life as possible. (dystonia.org.uk)
- Physicians distinguish nine different forms of cerebral palsy. (brainandspinalcord.org)
- Sometimes two or more forms of cerebral palsy affect one patient-a condition called mixed cerebral palsy. (brainandspinalcord.org)
Types of cerebral2
- Treatment for Spasticity in Cerebral Palsy. (aan.com)
- Spastic cerebral palsy is the type of cerebral palsy characterized by spasticity or high muscle tone often resulting in stiff, jerky movements. (wikipedia.org)
- Thus, the presence of spasticity alone does not warrant a conclusive diagnosis of spastic cerebral palsy. (wikipedia.org)
- In cerebral palsy , damage to the hemisphere may limit function or cause spasticity without resulting in total paralysis of one half of the body. (thefullwiki.org)
- Spastic cerebral palsy (sometimes referred to symptomatically as "spasticity") is the most frequently occurring subtype of cerebral palsy. (millerandzois.com)
- Spasticity is present in around 80% of cerebral palsy cases. (dystonia.org.uk)
- This means that the child will have the stiffness of spasticity with the writhing, involuntary movements of athetoid cerebral palsy. (brainandspinalcord.org)
- To work on activities that quiet down or inhibit the muscles that are working too much, because with cerebral palsy specifically, there are components called spasticity where the brain sends too many messages to muscles and that muscle kind of does all the work all the time, and that causes problems and the other muscles don't get much of a chance to learn how to function," Onstad said. (lptv.org)
- Surgical management of spasticity in the child with cerebral palsy Kolaski K, Frino J, Koman LA. In: Brashear A, Elovic E, eds. (brennerchildrens.org)
Cases of cerebral palsy4
- However, during the 1980s, research showed that fewer than 1 in 10 cases of cerebral palsy stem from oxygen deprivation during birth. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- 25% of all cases of cerebral palsy. (aappublications.org)
- Some cases of cerebral palsy involve a mix of 2 or more of the CP types described above. (millerandzois.com)
- Beyond these similarities, however, individual cases of cerebral palsy present a very wide variation of symptoms, severity, and characteristics. (millerandzois.com)
Patients with cerebral palsy4
- Currently available treatments for patients with cerebral palsy are supportive, but not curative. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- We hypothesize that, in the setting of brain injury, infusion of autologous UCB will facilitate neural cell repair resulting in improved function in pediatric patients with cerebral palsy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- For the study, 215 patients with cerebral palsy and/or epilepsy were studied for their vulnerabilities to obstructive sleep apnea - a dangerous condition in which breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep. (lawfitz.com)
- A review of the complications of intrathecal baclofen in patients with cerebral palsy Kolaski K, Logan LR. (brennerchildrens.org)
- Cerebral palsy (CP) affects 3 in every 1000 children every year. (medindia.net)
- Even though cerebral palsy affects muscle movement, it isn't caused by problems in the muscles or nerves. (aan.com)
- when cerebral palsy only affects your child's legs. (childrenshospital.org)
- Spastic cerebral palsy affects the motor cortex of the brain, a specific portion of the cerebral cortex responsible for the planning and completion of voluntary movement. (wikipedia.org)
- The athlete's disability was caused by a non-progressive brain damage that affects motor control, such as cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury or stroke. (wikipedia.org)
- Originally named Little's Disease due to its discovery by William Little, cerebral palsy refers to a group of neurological conditions that permanently affects body movement and muscle coordination. (lawfitz.com)
- The first part of the name 'cerebral palsy' refers to the part of the brain originally thought to be affected: the cerebrum (although we now know that it affects other parts of the brain as well). (howstuffworks.com)
- Cerebral palsy affects each child differently. (royalfree.nhs.uk)
- Anything that changes or affects the normal development of the brain can lead to problems with the way it transmits information to the muscles, and therefore can cause cerebral palsy. (dystonia.org.uk)
- Ataxic cerebral palsy affects balance and depth perception. (brainandspinalcord.org)
- I have Cerebral Palsy, a physical disability that affects my right side. (nationaleatingdisorders.org)
- Cerebral palsy is a permanent physical condition that affects muscle control. (kidshealth.org.nz)
- However, it's not uncommon to have hemiplegia develop well into the third year of a child's development. (mycerebralpalsychild.org)
- Double hemiplegia can be diagnosed immediately after child's delivery. (doctorbersenev.ua)
- Amid the excitement of shopping for school supplies and thinking about meeting new friends, parents of children with hemiplegia find many questions pertaining to their child's diagnosis and learning styles. (chasa.org)
- Cerebral palsy can't be cured, but treatment will often improve a child's capabilities. (aan.com)
- This five day course has particular relevance for physiotherapists and speech and language therapists who would like to deepen their understanding of the effects that cerebral palsy has in breathing in children who have different presentations and wish to gain insight into how treatment can be adapted to improve aspects of the child's activity. (bobath.org.uk)
- Cerebral palsy occ-urs when a child's brain is injured and permanently damaged. (howstuffworks.com)
- Alternatively in ataxic cerebral palsy, the muscle can be too flexible making the child's limb or body appear floppy (the muscle is described as having low tone). (dystonia.org.uk)
- An assessed scoring scale can be used to determine the impact of cerebral palsy on the child's motor function at any age (motor function means the ability to use hands, arms and legs as well as the ability to sit). (dystonia.org.uk)
- These include the Gross Motor Function Classification System, which has been used to classify cerebral palsy in terms of child's gross motor function and mobility at different age ranges. (mychildwithoutlimits.org)
Cause cerebral palsy2
- The term hemiplegia means that the paralysis is on one side of the body. (mycerebralpalsychild.org)
- In children with hemiplegia, the paralysis in the body occurs on the side opposite the affected part of the brain. (mycerebralpalsychild.org)
- Hemiplegia is a condition that is characterized by paralysis of one half of the body, usually due to a brain lesion on the opposite side. (medindia.net)
- Hemiplegia is, in its most severe form, complete paralysis of half of the body. (wikipedia.org)
- Bell's palsy is a weakness or paralysis of the facial nerve known as the seventh cranial nerve. (medicalhealthsites.com)
- Hemiplegia means paralysis of one side of the body but the clinical features can vary tremendously. (thefullwiki.org)
- Palsy means paralysis , but may also be used to describe uncontrolled muscle movement. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Therefore, cerebral palsy encompasses any disorder of abnormal movement and paralysis caused by abnormal function of the cerebral cortex. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The term cerebral references the brain and palsy is a medical term that refers to paralysis or weakness. (millerandzois.com)
- Cerebral palsy or paralysis of the brain is a non progressive disturbance in the brain, this interference may be caused by the lesion or abnormal development in the brain. (hubpages.com)
- Palsy' refers to the involuntary shaking, stiffness, lack of feeling and paralysis in body parts. (howstuffworks.com)
- Palsy is a medical term derived from the word paralysis that is defined as paralysis of a body part often accompanied by loss of feeling and uncontrolled body movements such as shaking. (statemaster.com)
- Once the immediate symptoms of the stroke had passed, Peter was diagnosed with permanent hemiplegia, a paralysis of the arm, leg and trunk on one side of his body. (bbc.co.uk)
Dystonic Cerebral Palsy6
- In around one in six cases, cerebral palsy causes involuntary muscle spasms and unwanted movement - this is described as dystonic cerebral palsy (or alternatively dyskinetic or choreoathetoid cerebral palsy ). (dystonia.org.uk)
- The symptoms of dystonic cerebral palsy are usually of muscle spasms which can be difficult to control and sometimes painful. (dystonia.org.uk)
- Dystonic cerebral palsy often appears in combination with other symptoms of cerebral palsy - usually the dystonic movements appear in combination with high and/or low muscle tone. (dystonia.org.uk)
- Dystonic cerebral palsy is generally caused by damage to the basal ganglia - part of the brain involved in the recruitment of muscles of movement. (dystonia.org.uk)
- No two people will be affected by dystonic cerebral palsy in the same way. (dystonia.org.uk)
- Click here for more information on therapies for dystonic cerebral palsy. (dystonia.org.uk)
Type of cerebral palsy3
- Hemiplegia is a type of cerebral palsy that results from damage to the parts of the brain that control muscle movements . (mycerebralpalsychild.org)
- The most prevalent type of cerebral palsy is spastic CP. (millerandzois.com)
- A child with this type of cerebral palsy can appear restless and constantly on the move. (dystonia.org.uk)
Athetoid Cerebral Palsy1
Kids with Cerebral Palsy2
- He or she still wants a high quality of life and parents of kids with cerebral palsy want the same thing for and to do the same things with their kids that other parents want. (cdc.gov)
- The intervention aims to get kids with Cerebral Palsy to participate in sports and physical activities that are meaningful to them. (cerebralpalsy.org.au)
Symptoms of Cerebral Palsy3
- Symptoms of cerebral palsy can be very different between people with this group of disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
- The following are the most common symptoms of cerebral palsy. (stlouischildrens.org)
- The symptoms of cerebral palsy are different in each person affected and will be very dependent on the extent of the damage to the developing brain. (dystonia.org.uk)
- Does constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) improve arm and hand use in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP)? (cochrane.org)
- Hung, Y-C, Gordon, AM, (2013) Motor learning of a bimanual task in children with unilateral cerebral palsy. (columbia.edu)
- Gordon, AM (2011) To constrain or not to constrain, and other stories of intensive upper extremity training for children with unilateral cerebral palsy. (columbia.edu)
- Eliasson AC, Krumlinde-Sundholm L, Gordon AM et al (2014) Guidelines for future research in constraint-induced movement therapy for children with unilateral cerebral palsy: an expert consensus. (springer.com)
- The term "cerebral palsy" combines a group of syndromes resulting from underdevelopment or brain damage (often combined with spinal cord injury in the cervical spine) during the prenatal, intranatal and early postnatal periods. (doctorbersenev.ua)
- Hemiplegia - caused by stroke - indicates the dysfunctions of the neurological network between the limbs and brain. (medindia.net)
- Cerebral palsy is caused by injuries or abnormalities of the brain. (medlineplus.gov)
- In some people with cerebral palsy, parts of the brain are injured due to a low level of oxygen ( hypoxia ) in those areas. (medlineplus.gov)
- A small number of children have cerebral palsy as the result of brain damage in the first few months or years of life, brain infections such as bacterial meningitis or viral encephalitis, or head injury from a motor vehicle accident, a fall, or child abuse. (aan.com)
- Researchers are investigating the roles of mishaps early in brain development, including genetic defects, which are sometimes responsible for the brain malformations and abnormalities that result in cerebral palsy. (aan.com)
- Brain MR imaging is recommended in children with cerebral palsy. (ajnr.org)
- We developed a quantitative scoring method for brain injury based on anatomic MR imaging and examined the reliability and validity in correlation to motor function in children with hemiplegia. (ajnr.org)
- Spastic cerebral palsy is caused by malformation of or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement. (wikipedia.org)
- What exactly makes some children susceptible to such brain damage is often unknown but it is believed that cerebral palsy may be the result of causal pathways, or chains of events that cause or increase the likelihood of brain injury. (wikipedia.org)
- Most of the time, children are born with the brain damage resulting in spastic cerebral palsy, but a small percentage experience the damage shortly after birth following a stroke, head injury, or infection. (wikipedia.org)
- Alternate causes of hemiplegia include any spinal cord injury , specifically Brown-Séquard syndrome , traumatic brain injury , or other disease affecting the central nervous system . (thefullwiki.org)
- There is also a high incidence of hemiplegia during pregnancy and experts believe that this may be related to either a traumatic delivery, use of forceps or some event which causes brain injury. (thefullwiki.org)
- Hemiplegia in adults include trauma , bleeding , brain infections and cancers . (thefullwiki.org)
- The exact cause of hemiplegia is not known in all cases, but it appears that in all cases the brain is deprived of oxygen and this results in the death of neurons , leading to hemiplegia. (thefullwiki.org)
- For example if one has an injury to the right side of the brain, the hemiplegia will be on the left side of the body. (thefullwiki.org)
- The diagnosis of hemiplegia includes some blood tests and radiological studies like a CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. (thefullwiki.org)
- Cerebral palsy (CP) is the term used for a group of nonprogressive disorders of movement and posture caused by abnormal development of, or damage to, motor control centers of the brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Control of the skeletal muscles originates in the cerebral cortex, the largest portion of the brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Football 7-a-side is played by athletes with cerebral palsy, a condition characterized by impairment of muscular coordination, stroke, or traumatic brain injury (TBI). (wikipedia.org)
- As explained above, cerebral palsy is not a specific disorder but rather an umbrella term for a group of related movement disorders resulting from injury to the brain during pregnancy, childbirth, and early infancy. (millerandzois.com)
- Cerebral palsy results from in utero or perinatal injury to the developing brain, often through stroke, hypoxic insult or hemorrhage. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In fact, cerebral palsy is not one singular medical condition but rather a grouping of multiple movement disorders all of which are caused by abnormal or impaired brain function. (millerandzois.com)
- All of the conditions within the umbrella of "cerebral palsy" share the same point of origin: damage to the developing brain during pregnancy or childbirth. (millerandzois.com)
- The brain damage during pregnancy or childbirth which results in cerebral palsy also has the same end result. (millerandzois.com)
- Cerebral hypoxia occurs when there is not enough oxygen getting to the brain. (stlukes-stl.com)
- People with cerebral palsy have an injury to the brain that occurred during pregnancy , during childbirth or shortly after childbirth. (howstuffworks.com)
- Damage to the brain is irreversible, which is why cerebral palsy can be treated and managed but not cured. (howstuffworks.com)
- Sometimes, cerebral palsy occurs when the baby's brain simply doesn't develop properly due to a genetic disorder or other problem in the womb. (howstuffworks.com)
- Drinking alcohol, smoking and taking certain drugs during pregnancy can also cause the brain damage that leads to cerebral palsy. (howstuffworks.com)
- If labor is prolonged and the baby gets 'stuck' in the birth canal, or if there's an emergency C-section, babies are at a higher risk of experiencing a brain injury that can lead to cerebral palsy. (howstuffworks.com)
- Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a stroke that occurs when a blood clot forms in the brain's venous sinuses, but rather that preventing blood from flowing into the brain, it blocks the blood from flowing out. (cookchildrens.org)
- the cerebrum (however the centers have not been perfectly localized and the disease most likely involves connections between the cortex and other parts of the brain such as the cerebellum ) and palsy refers to disorder of movement. (statemaster.com)
- Cerebral palsy is a general term for a group of movement and posture disorders that arise as a result of non-progressive damage to the developing brain of a foetus or infant. (dystonia.org.uk)
- On occasion, cerebral palsy can be caused by damage to the brain that occurs within the first few weeks after birth. (dystonia.org.uk)
- Cerebral palsy, or static encephalopathy, is a condition where non-progressive damage to the brain results in a disorder of posture or movement. (drgreene.com)
- Cerebral palsy is the term used to designate movement impairment caused by brain damage or brain malformations which are present at birth or develop soon thereafter. (brainandspinalcord.org)
- All forms of CP are caused by brain damage or abnormal brain development and mixed cerebral palsy is no exception. (brainandspinalcord.org)
- Cerebral palsy (CP) is a condition that results from injury to the brain. (kennedykrieger.org)
- The word "cerebral" refers to the brain, and "palsy" to difficulty controlling movement. (kennedykrieger.org)
- Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of non-progressive developmental movement disorders inducing a strong brain reorganization in primary and secondary motor areas. (springer.com)
- Arnfield E, Guzzetta A, Boyd R (2013) Relationship between brain structure on magnetic resonance imaging and motor outcomes in children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review. (springer.com)
- Hemiplegia is caused by damage to some part of the brain, which may happen before, during, soon after birth or later in childhood. (bbc.co.uk)
- During childhood, hemiplegia is often caused by a stroke, like Peter's, when a bleed or clot damages part of the brain. (bbc.co.uk)
- Cerebral Palsy (CP) is defined as a neuromuscular impairment and non progressive disturbances in the developing fetal or infant's brain. (brightkite.com)
People with cerebral5
- People with cerebral palsy tend to have a normal lifespan, and in many cases, a good quality of life can be expected. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This is why some people with cerebral palsy have problems with communication and learning. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A third of people with cerebral palsy have seizures - this is most common in spastic CP. (wikipedia.org)
- Not all people with cerebral palsy have the same uniform disability. (millerandzois.com)
- Once a diagnosis has been made (often by the local community disability team) the child is referred to a team of health care professionals who have experience in planning and delivering care to children and young people with cerebral palsy. (dystonia.org.uk)
Develop cerebral palsy4
- Exposure to any of these factors does not mean that the infant will necessarily develop cerebral palsy - but they do increase the risk. (dystonia.org.uk)
- On the other hand, they noted, it's likely that other factors are involved in triggering the neurotropic damage that leads to the disease, since a large proportion of controls shared viral exposure but did not develop cerebral palsy. (medpagetoday.com)
- It is estimated that two out of every 1,000 newborn children will develop cerebral palsy. (mychildwithoutlimits.org)
- Visit the My Child Without Limits support community and talk about why infants develop cerebral palsy. (mychildwithoutlimits.org)
- For example, despite severe musculoskeletal disorders a patient suffering from double hemiplegia may learn to sit. (doctorbersenev.ua)
- While one child with severe cerebral palsy might be unable to walk and need extensive, lifelong care, another with mild cerebral palsy might not require special assistance. (aan.com)
- Severe cranial ultrasound abnormalities predict motor disability strongly, but one third of infants with cerebral palsy had no ultrasound abnormalities. (aappublications.org)
- Cerebral palsy is one of the most common and severe sequelae of very preterm birth. (aappublications.org)
- Participants must be 18 years or older, have cerebral palsy, and no known moderate to severe intellectual impairment. (cerebralpalsy.org.au)
- And approximately 40% of those born with cerebral palsy will have a severe case. (mychildwithoutlimits.org)
- Traditionally, cerebral palsy has been classified by the type of muscle tone, and the areas of the body that have been affected, and the severity of the impairments (mild, moderate and severe). (mychildwithoutlimits.org)
- This is the most severe form of cerebral palsy, involving severe stiffness of the arms and legs and a floppy, or weak, neck. (nih.gov)
- You asked for them - Hemiplegia Awareness Shirts, Pediatric Stroke Awareness Shirts, Cerebral Palsy Awareness Shirts, and Kandu Shirts - and CHASA is going to deliver! (chasa.org)
- You might even set up your own Hemiplegia, Pediatric Stroke, or Cerebral Palsy Awareness event in 2013. (chasa.org)
- The Hemiplegia Awareness Shirts, Pediatric Stroke Awareness Shirts, Cerebral Palsy Awareness Shirts will be GRAY , similar to the shirts featured on the three children in the photo. (chasa.org)
- CHASA is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization dedicated to improving the lives of children, young adults, and families affected by pediatric stroke and other causes of hemiplegia. (firstgiving.com)
- Cynthia Frisina Gray asked upon learning about her daughter's diagnosis of cerebral palsy in 2001. (cdc.gov)
- Several doctor's appointments later, she finally received a diagnosis of cerebral palsy. (cdc.gov)
- Read Dalila's story about how her cerebral palsy diagnosis helped her realize her strength. (cdc.gov)
- The diagnosis of cerebral palsy is generally made based on the clinical picture. (medscape.com)
- In the case-control study of more than 1,300 newborns in South Australia, using newborn screening cards, exposure to any neurotropic virus increased the risk of a later diagnosis of cerebral palsy, according to Catherine Gibson, Ph.D., and colleagues at the University of Adelaide Women's and Children's Hospital here. (medpagetoday.com)
Children and young people with hemiplegia1
Dyskinetic cerebral palsy1
Parents of children with hemiplegia1
Function in children with hemiplegia1
- Cerebral palsy is an umbrella term for a number of conditions including cerebellar ataxia and basal ganglia disorders, but this article will largely concentrate on the most common condition, spastic cerebral palsy (80% of cases) primarily arising from insults to the cerebral cortex and associated, sub-cortical white matter ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The term cerebral palsy refers to any one of a number of neurological disorders that appear in infancy or early childhood and permanently affect body movement and muscle coordination but don't worsen over time. (aan.com)
- Continuous loss of motor skills likely indicates a condition other than spastic CP such as a genetic muscle disease Some metabolic disorders mimic spastic cerebral palsy and can be ruled out using a Magnetic resonance imaging test (MRI). (wikipedia.org)
- Amsterdam, NL, August 3, 2020 - Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most common developmental movement disorders in children. (eurekalert.org)
- New research tells us that serious sleep disorders have joined the list of other life-altering complications caused by cerebral palsy. (lawfitz.com)
- Carried out by researchers with the Gillette Children's Specialty Healthcare in Minnesota , the study found that sleep disorders - including sleep apnea - are often underreported by cerebral palsy patients. (lawfitz.com)
- This entry was posted in Blog , Medical Malpractice Blog and tagged birth injury lawyers , cerebral palsy , cerebral palsy sleep disorders , fitzgerald law firm , sleep disorders . (lawfitz.com)
- The image of a person in a wheelchair is just one of the many misconceptions surrounding the group of disorders known as cerebral palsy. (howstuffworks.com)
- Children with cerebral palsy (CP), one of the most common childhood neurological disorders, often have associated medical and psychological symptoms. (hindawi.com)
- ICD is a brainchild of a team of professionals who have been working in the field cerebral palsy, spina bifida, arthrogryposis and other disability diseases. (medicalhealthsites.com)
- Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability of childhood. (childrenshospital.org)
- Symptoms of spastic cerebral palsy vary as the disability can affect individuals differently. (wikipedia.org)
- Cerebral palsy is the leading cause of childhood disability affecting function and development. (medscape.com)
- Cerebral palsy ( CP ) is an umbrella term encompassing a group of non-progressive, non- contagious conditions that cause physical disability in human development . (statemaster.com)
- Cerebral palsy is a disability that effects a person's ability to move and maintain balance. (lptv.org)
Quadriplegic cerebral palsy1
Form of cerebral palsy3
- To evaluate the repeatability of spatiotemporal gait parameters by means of a comparative study between normal children and children with cerebral palsy (CP). (scielo.br)
- Intraoperative experiments combined with gait analyses indicate that active state rather than passive dominates the spastic gracilis muscle's joint movement limiting effect in cerebral palsy . (nih.gov)
- Not singled out and accommodate for hemiplegia/'scissors gait. (prezi.com)
Signs of cerebral palsy1
Classification of cerebral palsy2
- This two day course aims to provide an overview of the transdisciplinary nature of assessment and treatment within the Bobath Concept and will explore aspects such as classification of cerebral palsy and principles of treatment in a series of Tutor led treatment demonstrations, lecture and discussion. (bobath.org.uk)
- Bax M, Goldstein M, Rosenbaum P et al (2005) Proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy. (springer.com)
Risk of developing cer2
- Premature infants have a slightly higher risk of developing cerebral palsy. (medlineplus.gov)
- Hand Assessment for Infants (HAI) identify and measure upper limb asymmetry and general manual development from 3-12 month in children at risk of developing cerebral palsy.Even though our Primary Outcome Measure is when children are at one year post term age, we are going to publish results from assessments at earlier ages to measure changes after each intervention period. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Telling parents that their child has hemiplegia or cerebral palsy (CP) is a critical event. (hemihelp.org.uk)
- The protocols have been developed at Columbia University to be child friendly and draws upon our experience since 1997 with constraint-induced movement therapy in children with cerebral palsy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Sandy is the parent of a child with cerebral palsy and the Board President of Gio's Garden external icon , a non-profit organization in Wisconsin whose mission is to nurture and strengthen families with special needs children by increasing their access to services. (cdc.gov)
- Cynthia expressed her frustrations to Cathryn's orthopedic surgeon, who connected Cynthia with another parent of a child with cerebral palsy: Anna Marie Champion. (cdc.gov)
- Dr Patricia Atkinson, Consultant Paediatrician at the Child Development Centre, Crawley Hospital, gave an overview of the causes of hemiplegia, and the use of botulinum toxin to treat hemiplegia and cerebral palsy. (hemihelp.org.uk)
- David Scrutton, a physiotherapist and Honorary Senior Lecturer at the Institute of Child Health, University College London, gave a talk entitled 'Why don't all therapists use the same treatments for cerebral palsy? (hemihelp.org.uk)
- This means that treatment and management of hemiplegia should focus on what's best for that particular child, rather than simply concentrating on the physical manifestations of hemiplegia. (hemihelp.org.uk)
- Matthew attended the Cerebral Palsy Education Centre as a child in 1998 and 1999. (wikipedia.org)
- Participants will gain a comprehensive insight into the Bobath approach and advance their clinical assessment and treatment skills with children with cerebral palsy through interactive sessions held over eight weeks that will deepen knowledge of neuroscience, child development, classification, problem solving and communication whilst enhancing and developing hands-on skills. (bobath.org.uk)
- Does Your Child Have Cerebral Palsy? (lawfitz.com)
- If your child has cerebral palsy, call us here at the Fitzgerald Law Firm for a free consultation at 800-323-9900. (lawfitz.com)
- A child with cerebral palsy playing on a merry-go-round at a boarding school south of Minsk, Belarus. (howstuffworks.com)
- The team, including orthopaedists, therapists and orthotists work together with the patient and family to prescribe a customized care plan for the child with cerebral palsy. (shrinershospitalsforchildren.org)
- In this article written for LD OnLine, the author discusses her experiences with two disabilities, one visible and one invisible, reflecting on how cerebral palsy and her learning disabilities impacted her life as a child and young woman. (ldonline.org)
- As a child with Cerebral Palsy (CP), I had a lot of physical therapy and dance lessons. (ldonline.org)
- Using the GMFCS, it is possible to project forwards to estimate how the cerebral palsy may affect the child at a later age. (dystonia.org.uk)
- When parents hear the words "cerebral palsy," it often conjures up an image of a twisted, wheel chair-bound child. (drgreene.com)
- For example, a child with both a spastic form and hypotonic cerebral palsy will have some muscles which are spastic and others which are "floppy. (brainandspinalcord.org)
- However, the latter are sometimes difficult to elicit in the infant and even in the older child with spastic cerebral palsy. (mychildwithoutlimits.org)
- There are also many causal pathways to cerebral palsy, such as periventricular white matter injury in premature babies, perinatal infarcts of the middle cerebral artery, or generalized anoxia at the time of birth, indeed multiple causes, including intra-uterine infection or a genetic predisposition to infarction, may need to interact to produce a clinically significant injury. (frontiersin.org)
- Given the limited available information and recent changes in perinatal care, cerebral palsy is still an important issue for very preterm children. (aappublications.org)
- ADELAIDE, Australia, Jan. 6 - Perinatal exposure to neurotropic viruses -- and especially herpes group B viruses -- is associated with the development of cerebral palsy, researchers here have found on the basis of a case-control study. (medpagetoday.com)
- The reason for the negative associations between perinatal exposure to viral nucleic acids and subsequent cerebral palsy for babies born before term was not clear. (medpagetoday.com)
Treat cerebral palsy2
Causes cerebral palsy2
- Scientists are also looking at traumatic events in newborn babies' brains, such as bleeding, epileptic seizures, and breathing and circulation problems, which can cause the abnormal release of chemicals that trigger the kind of damage that causes cerebral palsy. (aan.com)
- What causes cerebral palsy? (kidshealth.org.nz)
- Cerebral palsy is a term used to describe a set of neurological conditions that affect movement. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Sometimes, cerebral palsy occurs as a complication of another condition, like premature birth , low birthweight or neurological trauma . (childrenshospital.org)
- It is mainly caused by cerebral palsy, but can be associated with other neurological conditions as well. (medindia.net)
- The neurological difficulties of mixed cerebral palsy frequently cause difficulty with speaking and swallowing. (brainandspinalcord.org)
- Hemiplegia may occur during pregnancy, delivery or shortly after birth. (mycerebralpalsychild.org)
- In children, the majority of cases of hemiplegia have no identifiable cause and occur with a frequency of about one in every thousand births. (thefullwiki.org)
- Experts indicate that the majority of cases of hemiplegia that occur up to the age of two should be considered to be cerebral palsy until proven otherwise. (thefullwiki.org)
- Facial hemiplegia may occur on one side of the face and may be due to a viral infection, stroke or a cancer. (thefullwiki.org)