A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.
Infant, Very Low Birth Weight
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight
Intensive Care Units, Neonatal
Aspergillosis, Allergic Bronchopulmonary
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn
A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.
Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)
Infant, Newborn, Diseases
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
Intensive Care, Neonatal
Retinopathy of Prematurity
A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Infant, Small for Gestational Age
A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Fetal Growth Retardation
A developmental anomaly in which a mass of nonfunctioning lung tissue lacks normal connection with the tracheobroncheal tree and receives an anomalous blood supply originating from the descending thoracic or abdominal aorta. The mass may be extralobar, i.e., completely separated from normally connected lung, or intralobar, i.e., partly surrounded by normal lung.
Ductus Arteriosus, Patent
Oxygen Inhalation Therapy
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone
Obstetric Labor, Premature
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Social Behavior Disorders
Severity of Illness Index
A group of hereditary disorders involving tissues and structures derived from the embryonic ectoderm. They are characterized by the presence of abnormalities at birth and involvement of both the epidermis and skin appendages. They are generally nonprogressive and diffuse. Various forms exist, including anhidrotic and hidrotic dysplasias, FOCAL DERMAL HYPOPLASIA, and aplasia cutis congenita.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Brain Damage, Chronic
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Hyaline Membrane Disease
A respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants, usually premature infants with insufficient PULMONARY SURFACTANTS. The disease is characterized by the formation of a HYALINE-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory airspaces (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and subsequent collapse of the lung (PULMONARY ATELECTASIS).
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Factor XIII Deficiency
Disease Models, Animal
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic
Multiple Birth Offspring
Predictive Value of Tests
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Analysis of Variance
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Consensus Development Conferences, NIH as Topic
Articles on conferences sponsored by NIH presenting summary statements representing the majority agreement of physicians, scientists, and other professionals convening for the purpose of reaching a consensus on a subject of interest. This heading is used for NIH consensus conferences as a means of scientific communication. In indexing it is viewed as a type of review article and as a tag for any article appearing in any publication of the NIH Office of Medical Applications of Research (OMAR).
Sudden Infant Death
The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)
Middle Cerebral Artery
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)
Functional Residual Capacity
Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate
Motor Skills Disorders
Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.
Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation
Techniques for effecting the transition of the respiratory-failure patient from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous ventilation, while meeting the criteria that tidal volume be above a given threshold (greater than 5 ml/kg), respiratory frequency be below a given count (less than 30 breaths/min), and oxygen partial pressure be above a given threshold (PaO2 greater than 50mm Hg). Weaning studies focus on finding methods to monitor and predict the outcome of mechanical ventilator weaning as well as finding ventilatory support techniques which will facilitate successful weaning. Present methods include intermittent mandatory ventilation, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and mandatory minute volume ventilation.
Respiratory Function Tests
Uterine Cervical Dysplasia
The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.
A dyskinesia characterized by an inability to maintain the fingers, toes, tongue, or other body parts in a stable position, resulting in continuous slow, sinusoidal, and flowing involuntary movements. This condition is frequently accompanied by CHOREA, where it is referred to as choreoathetosis. Athetosis may occur as a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES or DRUG TOXICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p76)
A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.
Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.
Atrioventricular septal defect Benign neonatal hemangiomatosis Brachial plexus injury Bronchopulmonary dysplasia Cerebral palsy ... low birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction, congenital malformations (birth defects), sepsis, pulmonary hypoplasia or ... birth asphyxia. While high infant mortality rates were recognized by the British medical community at least as early as the ... 2001). "Very Low Birth Weight Outcomes of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research ...
Air pollution has been associated with low birth weight infants. Conditions of particular severity in pregnancy include ... Babies born before 37 weeks are preterm and are at higher risk of health problems such as cerebral palsy. Delivery before 39 ... low birthweight and preterm birth. Often reproductive disorders are the only manifestation of undiagnosed celiac disease and ... Bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Cardiovascular. *Pneumopericardium. *Persistent fetal circulation. Haemorrhagic and. hematologic ...
Outcome of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants Who Received Delivery Room Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation | RTI
... in extremely low birth weight infants. Study design We conducted a cohort study of infants born with birth weight of 401 to ... 1000 g and gestational age of 23 to 30 weeks. DR-CPR was defined as chest compressions, ... cerebral palsy, blindness, or deafness). Data are adjusted ORs with 95% CIs. Results Of 8685 infants, 1333 (15%) received DR- ... bronchopulmonary dysplasia (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13-1.59), death by 12 hours (OR, 3.69; 95% CI, 2.98-4.57), and death by 120 ...
Growth in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Influences Neurodevelopmental and Growth Outcomes of Extremely Low Birth Weight...
... and weight loss during the first ten days of life and risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low birth weight infants ... cerebral palsy (CP), neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI), rehospitalization, and growth (weight, length, and head circumference ... Effect of early versus standard central line removal on growth of very low birthweight premature infants: a protocol for a non- ... Postnatal growth failure is the norm for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants, especially the sickest infants.1-4 The ...
Predicting the growth percentile of extremely low birthweight infants<...
... bronchopulmonary dysplasia, neurosensory disorders, or cerebral palsy. Compounding these morbidities is the role socio-economic ... Because of the morbidities that occur with premature birth it is imperative for healthcare professionals to know the influence ... weight, height, and head circumference); (2) hospital length of stay and gestational age predict growth percentiles; and (3) ... keywords = "Bronchopulmonary dysplasia and socio-economic status, Extremely low birthweight infants, Percentile", ...
Analysis of circulating hem-endothelial marker RNA levels in preterm infants | BMC Pediatrics | Full Text
We observed significantly elevated Tie-2 levels in preterm infants born to mothers with amnionitis, and in infants with ... This study aims to determine circulating RNA levels of hem-endothelial marker genes in peripheral blood of preterm infants and ... as an expression for hematopoietic and endothelial-specific markers have not been previously evaluated in preterm infants. ... extremely low birthweight infants. BPD : bronchopulmonary dysplasia. ROP : retinopathy of prematurity. GM-IVH : germinal matrix ...
Clinical utility of corpus callosum measurements in head sonograms of preterm infants: a cohort study.
... outcomes in preterm infants. We hypothesised that including CC measurements in routine HUS will be an ... and very low birth weight infants (VLBW with birth weight of ≤1500 g) may have major disabilities such as cerebral palsy (CP), ... Morbidities associated with prematurity such as retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), patent ... 21133966 - Does in utero exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids influence birthweight, head circumf.... 21148656 - Early ...
Impact of Postnatal Corticosteroid Use on Neurodevelopment at 18 to 22 Months' Adjusted Age: Effects of Dose, Timing, and Risk...
BPD-bronchopulmonary dysplasia • ELBW-extremely low birth weight • NDI-neurodevelopmental impairment • CP-cerebral palsy • SGA- ... more bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a population-based study in very low birthweight infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. ... There is no "safe" window for steroid use in extremely low birth weight infants. Neonates with low bronchopulmonary dysplasia ... Outcomes of extremely low birth weight (,1 kg) and extremely low gestational age (,28 week) infants with bronchopulmonary ...
Outcome of extremely low birth weight infants who received delivery room cardiopulmonary resuscitation<...
... cerebral palsy, blindness, or deafness). Data are adjusted ORs with 95% CIs. Results: Of 8685 infants, 1333 (15%) received DR- ... bronchopulmonary dysplasia (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13-1.59), death by 12 hours (OR, 3.69; 95% CI, 2.98-4.57), and death by 120 ... in extremely low birth weight infants. Study design: We conducted a cohort study of infants born with birth weight of 401 to ... in extremely low birth weight infants. Study design: We conducted a cohort study of infants born with birth weight of 401 to ...
Inguinal herniorrhaphy (pediatric) - Renal and Urology News
CLD is seen in formerly preterm infants, especially those that were a very low weight at birth (, 1000 g). It is caused by a ... Retrospective analysis of 52 preterm infants who underwent hernia repair, of whom 17 had bronchopulmonary dysplasia, finding no ... Succinylcholine has been used safely in the care of children with cerebral palsy. ... MeloFilho, AA, de FátimaAssunção Braga, A, Calderoni, DR, Volk, S, Marba, S, Sbragia, L. "Does bronchopulmonary dysplasia ...
Current Pharmacologic Approaches for Prevention and Treatment of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
... is a major complication of preterm birth and has serious adverse long-term health consequences. The etiology of BPD is complex ... "Hydration during the first days of life and the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in low birth weight infants," Journal of ... to the caffeine group had a lower incidence of neurodevelopmental impairment including lower rates of cerebral palsy and lower ... "Vitamin A supplementation to prevent mortality and short and long-term morbidity in very low birthweight infants," Cochrane ...
Impact of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia, Brain Injury, and Severe Retinopathy on the Outcome of Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants...
ContextDespite more than 2 decades of outcomes research after very preterm birth, clinicians remain uncertain about the extent ... Cranial ultrasound prediction of disabling and nondisabling cerebral palsy at age two in a low birth weight population. ... Prevalence and aetiology of neurological impairment in extremely low birthweight infants. J Paediatr Child Health.1996;32:120- ... Impact of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia, Brain Injury, and Severe Retinopathy on the Outcome of Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants ...
Randomized Trial of Hydrocortisone in Very Preterm High-Risk Infants - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Postnatal dexamethasone therapy and cerebral tissue volumes in extremely low birth weight infants. Pediatrics. 2007 Feb;119(2): ... Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia. Premature Birth. Encephalomalacia. Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury. Lung Injury. Lung Diseases. ... Neurological delay, including cerebral palsy and mental retardation, affect up to 40%-50% of surviving ELBW infants. BPD is an ... Hypothesis: Among extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW; BW ≤ 1000 g) at high risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and ...
Minimal Breathing Support and Early Steroids to Prevent Chronic Lung Disease in Extremely Premature Infants (SAVE) - Tabular...
Minimal ventilation to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely-low-birth-weight infants. J Pediatr. 2002 Sep;141(3):370 ... Cerebral palsy [ Time Frame: 18-22 months corrected age ]. *Bilateral blindness [ Time Frame: 18-22 months corrected age ] ... Adverse effects of early dexamethasone treatment in extremely-low-birth-weight infants. National Institute of Child Health and ... Infants with birth weight 501g to 1000g and mechanically ventilated before 12 hours were randomly assigned to minimal ...
Patent Ductus Arteriosus | SpringerLink
... continues to be a frequent complication of extremely premature birth, despite the more generalized use of antenatal steroids, ... Spontaneous closure of the ductus occurs in 30% of infants with very low birth weight (,1500 g). When the PDA is hampering the ... dexamethasone treatment in the first week of life for preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants: a systematic ... controlled trial of magnesium sulfate for the prevention of cerebral palsy. N Engl J Med 359:895-905PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef ...
Outcomes in infants | 29 weeks of gestation following single-dose prophylactic indomethacin | Journal of Perinatology
Infants who received SD-INDO were more premature (p , 0.001) but had lower odds of PDA (OR 0.26 [0.15, 0.44], p , 0.005), PDA ... A retrospective cohort (2007-2014) compared infants born , 29 weeks who did (n = 299) or did not (n = 85) receive SD-INDO and ... in preterm infants. The study aim was to determine whether single-dose indomethacin (SD-INDO) decreases PDA, IVH, and improves ... Severe IVH is a major antecedent of cerebral palsy (CP), which affects 19% of extremely low birth weight (EBLW) infants (birth ...
Montana Medical Home Portal - Premature Infant Follow-Up
Associated morbidities can occur following delivery or may unfold as chronic disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, cognitive ... Immunization of Preterm and Low Birth Weight Infants (AAP) (. 256 KB). Guidance for immunizing preterm and low birth weight ... Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a form of chronic lung disease that primarily affects ... Palatal development of preterm and low birthweight infants compared to term infants - What do we know? Part 2: The palate of ...
Neonatology - Wikipedia
Atrioventricular septal defect Benign neonatal hemangiomatosis Brachial plexus injury Bronchopulmonary dysplasia Cerebral palsy ... low birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction, congenital malformations (birth defects), sepsis, pulmonary hypoplasia or ... birth asphyxia. While high infant mortality rates were recognized by the British medical community at least as early as the ... 2001). "Very Low Birth Weight Outcomes of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research ...
Survival must not be the outcome: Survival without Morbidity should | MEDCHROME
In any NICU, there are lot of premature, very low birth weight babies, cases of NEC, surgical abdomens and much more going on. ... Cerebral palsy. ... Bronchopulmonary dysplasia. 5. Metabolic diseases in adulthood. ... Some infants present with delay in speaking, hearing loss is an important cause for it. ... The patient survived, our ICU mortality has come down, We have saved extremely low birth weight baby… and so on. But survival ...
Increasing illness severity in very low birth weight infants over a 9-year period | BMC Pediatrics | Full Text
... and cerebral palsy  in VLBW infants.. Our study has a number of other important limitations. First, since our study sample ... Consistent with our study, other important neonatal morbidities including bronchopulmonary dysplasia , retinopathy of ... Increasing infant mortality among very low birthweight infants--Delaware, 1994-2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2003, 52 (36): ... Meadow W, Lee G, Lin K, Lantos J: Changes in mortality for extremely low birth weight infants in the 1990s: implications for ...
Transfusion of Prematures Trial - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Infant, Newborn, Diseases Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant, Small for Gestational Age Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) ... Cerebral Palsy [ Time Frame: Birth to 22-26 months corrected gestational age ]. The incidence of ambulatory and non-ambulatory ... Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia. Infant, Newborn, Diseases. Birth Weight. Body Weight. Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury. Lung Injury. ... Long-term outcomes of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) preterm infants, those weighing less than or equal to 1000 g at birth, ...
Changes in neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 to 22 months' corrected age among infants of less than 25 weeks' gestational age...
Neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants Betty R Vohr, Linda L Wright, W Kenneth Poole, Scott A ... Logistic-regression models were constructed to evaluate the independent risk of cerebral palsy, Mental Development Index of ,70 ... Validation of the National Institutes of Health consensus definition of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Richard A Ehrenkranz, ... Neurodevelopmental outcome and growth at 18 to 22 months corrected age in extremely low birth weight infants treated with ...
Indications for Invasive Conventional Mechanical Ventilation | Springer for Research & Development
OShea TM, Dammann O (2000) Antecedents of cerebral palsy in very low-birth weight infants. Clin Perinatol 27(2):285PubMed ... Neurodevelopmental and medical status of low-birthweight survivors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia at 10 to 12 years of age. Dev ... Minimal ventilation to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely-low-birth-weight infants. J Pediatr 141(3):370-375PubMed ... Cognitive performance at school age of very low birth weight infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Dev Behav Pediatr 20(1 ...
Incidence of Hypocapnia, Hypercapnia, and Acidosis and the Associated Risk of Adverse Events in Preterm Neonates | Respiratory...
Minimal ventilation to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely-low-birth-weight infants. J Pediatr 2002;141(3):370-374. ... Early hypocarbia of preterm infants: its relationship to periventricular leukomalacia and cerebral palsy, and its perinatal ... Permissive hypercapnia in extremely low birthweight infants (PHELBI): a randomised controlled multicentre trial. Lancet Respir ... The effects of hypercapnia on cerebral autoregulation in ventilated very low birth weight infants. Pediatr Res 2005;58(5):931- ...
Cerebral Palsy: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy
Cerebral palsy is the leading cause of childhood disability affecting function and development. The incidence of the condition ... 23] The prevalence of cerebral palsy was highest in children with a low birth weight; however, the odds ratio of this order ... Lie KK, Grøholt EK, Eskild A. Association of cerebral palsy with Apgar score in low and normal birthweight infants: population ... Chronic lung disease/bronchopulmonary dysplasia * Bronchiolitis/asthma Neurologic complications include the following:. * ...
Inguinal herniorrhaphy (pediatric) - Infectious Disease Advisor
... formerly bronchopulmonary dysplasia(BPD)) CLD is seen in formerly preterm infants, especially those that were a very low weight ... Succinylcholine has been used safely in the care of children with cerebral palsy. 5. What laboratory tests should be obtained ... These neonates by definition require supplemental oxygen for some time after birth and may have poor lung mechanics (i.e. ... 431-7. (Retrospective analysis of 52 preterm infants who underwent hernia repair, of whom 17 had bronchopulmonary dysplasia, ...
Hospital Variation and Risk Factors for Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in a Population-Based Cohort. | Critical Care Medicine |...
... cohort study reports that increased regionalization of neonatal intensive care unit care may reduce bronchopulmonary dysplasia ... Outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: impact of the physiologic definition. Early Hum ... Does bronchopulmonary dysplasia contribute to the occurrence of cerebral palsy among infants born before 28 weeks of gestation ... Perinatal risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia in a national cohort of very-low-birthweight infants. Am J Obstet Gynecol ...
... , Preterm Infant Outcomes, Premature Infant, Low Birth Weight Infant, Gestational age, Chronological age, ... Late Preterm Infants (34-37 weeks). *Fourfold increased risk of Cerebral Palsy than term infants ... See Infant Nutrition. *Specific Condition Management. *Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia. *May require additional Caloric Intake, ... Birth weight ,1500 grams (3 pounds 5 ounces). *Extremely low birthweight. *Birth weight ,1000 grams (2 pounds 3 ounces) ...
Medical Home Portal - Premature Infant Follow-Up
Premature births are the leading cause of infant mortality in the US. Medical Home Portal has resources to aid in detecting ... Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) Extremely low birth weight infants at a corrected-gestational age of 36 weeks have rates of 43 ... Cerebral palsy (CP) CP occurs in approximately 12-15% of extremely premature infants. Although the injury is not progressive, ... Palatal development of preterm and low birthweight infants compared to term infants - What do we know? Part 2: The palate of ...
PDA Closure in ELBW Infants: If, When, and How to Do It | IntechOpen
... when and how to close to the PDA in ELBW infants. This chapter will examine current evidence in order to answer these ... physicians from all sub-specialties come together and integrate the evidence to develop a management algorithm for ELBW infants ... is the most common cardiovascular condition afflicting premature neonates especially those born extremely low birth weight ( ... A large retrospective study using conservative management found that 85% of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (birth weight ...
The Relationship between Maternal Haemoglobin and Haematocrit with Low Birth Weight and Preterm Labour
... and third trimesters are considered as possible risk factors regarding low birth weight (LBW) and preterm labour (PTL). The ... Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 383 pregnant women who were admitted in postnatal ward and gave birth to ... Low levels of maternal haemoglobin and haematocrit in the first, second, ... Does reducing infant mortality depend on preventing low birthweight? An analysis of temporal trends in the Americas. Paediatric ...
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: clinical aspects and preventive and therapeutic strategies | Journal of Translational Medicine |...
... is the result of a complex process in which several prenatal and/or postnatal factors interfere with lower respiratory tract ... Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is a respiratory condition that presently occurs in preterm neonates and can lead to chronic ... Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is associated with persistent lung impairment later in life, significantly impacting health services ... Chorioamnionitis and subsequent bronchopulmonary dysplasia in very-low-birth weight infants: a 25-year cohort. J Perinatol. ...
Premature infantsOutcomesGestationalNeonatalPostnatalWeeks of gestatELBWPrematurityPediatricsImpairmentVLBWPulmonaryModerate to severe brMorbidityGramsChronic lung diseaseNeonatesGestationRespiratory distressNecrotizing enterocolitisNewborn infantsHigh risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasiaPeriventricularIncidenceCohort studyPatent ductus artClinicalCognitivePerinatalOutcomeMortality ratesHyaline-membranNICUDeficitsSurvivalPostmenstrual ageBlindnessSurfactantPreterm infants includeNeurologicalIntraventricular haemorrhageAbstractChildren with cerebral palsyNeurologicPrematurelyMETHODSApnea
- Only few studies involve EPCs in regard to premature infants and associated morbidities. (biomedcentral.com)
- Abnormal pulmonary outcomes in premature infants: prediction from oxygen requirement in the neonatal period. (jamanetwork.com)
- In the 1980s, the development of pulmonary surfactant replacement therapy further improved survival of extremely premature infants and decreased chronic lung disease, one of the complications of mechanical ventilation, among less severely premature infants. (wikipedia.org)
- Chronic lung disease (CLD), also known as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), in very premature infants has been associated with mechanical ventilation and relative adrenal insufficiency. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Amin SB, Miravalle N (2011) Effect of ibuprofen on bilirubin-albumin binding affinity in premature infants. (springer.com)
- Bancalari E, Claure N, Gonzalez A (2005) Patent ductus arteriosus and respiratory outcome in premature infants. (springer.com)
- Premature infants, particularly those born extremely early, often have or are at risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular hemorrhage, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), necrotizing enterocolitis, and other complications that require follow-up in the neonatal period and beyond. (medicalhomeportal.org)
- It has been postulated that the technology for caring for premature infants has reached it limits. (biomedcentral.com)
- One factor that has yet to be investigated is the longitudinal effect of illness severity on morbidity and mortality in premature infants. (biomedcentral.com)
- Prediction of bronchopulmonary dysplasia by postnatal age in extremely premature infants. (jamanetwork.com)
- RDS is a respiratory disorder chiefly of newborn premature infants that is characterized by deficiency of the surfactant coating the inner surface of the lungs resulting in labored breathing, lung collapse, and hypoxemia. (biomedcentral.com)
- Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. (biomedcentral.com)
- Premature infants, even late preterm infants who are the size of some full-term infants, have increased morbidity and mortality compared to full-term infants due to their prematurity. (msdmanuals.com)
- Premature infants tend to be smaller than term infants. (msdmanuals.com)
- To assess the efficacy and safety of the drug in the prevention of symptomatic PDA in premature infants. (bvsalud.org)
- CUROSURF® (poractant alfa) Intratracheal Suspension is indicated for the rescue treatment of Respiratory Distress Syndrome ( RDS ) in premature infants. (rxlist.com)
- CUROSURF should be administered by, or under the supervision of clinicians experienced in intubation , ventilator management, and general care of premature infants. (rxlist.com)
- Very low birth weight infants (VLBW) refer to premature infants whose birth weight is less than 1500 g . (scirp.org)
- AIM To determine whether patient triggered ventilation (PTV) leads to greater exposure to significant hypocarbia than conventional ventilation (CMV) in premature infants during the first 72 hours of life. (bmj.com)
- A similar study reported greater tidal volumes in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) on patient triggered ventilation (PTV), but no significant reduction in carbon dioxide concentrations. (bmj.com)
- The aim of this study was to establish whether PTV was associated with a greater risk of significant hypocarbia in premature infants. (bmj.com)
- Premature infants are at high risk for variations in blood pressure and oxygenation during the first few days of life. (stanford.edu)
- Thus, a greater number of premature infants are surviving with major and minor neurodevelopmental morbidities, often resulting in lifelong disability. (racgp.org.au)
- Premature infants may develop anemia for a number of reasons. (akronchildrens.org)
- CUROSURF is a surfactant indicated for the rescue treatment, including the reduction of mortality and pneumothoraces, of Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) in premature infants. (nih.gov)
- Outcomes for extremely premature infants. (infantools.com)
- Knowledge and expert care of these infants increased, and by the early 1990s, more than 90 percent of these premature infants were surviving, including those infants born as early after just twenty-four weeks of gestation. (medcraveonline.com)
- She has also co-written a Neonatology board review book (Brodsky, Martin) and co-edited a book for primary care clinicians caring for premature infants (Brodsky, Ouellette). (childrenshospital.org)
- Since the intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is still a serious problem in premature infants associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes, there is a need for an accessible tool in order to identify these at high risk neonates. (kowsarpub.com)
- High MPV within 24 hours of birth can be determined as a simple available laboratory test for identifying NICU-admitted premature infants at risk of IVH. (kowsarpub.com)
- Even though the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) has declined by increasing the use of antenatal corticosteroids and the postnatal use of surfactant ( 1 - 3 ), it is still a serious problem in premature infants associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes ( 4 - 6 ). (kowsarpub.com)
- Therefore, identification of molecular mediators of oligodendrocyte regeneration in neonatal white matter following hypoxia in vivo is essential for developing therapeutic strategies to prevent neurodevelopmental deficits associated with this pathology in premature infants. (jneurosci.org)
- The objectives of this study were to assess whether (1) in-hospital growth velocity is predictive of neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes at 18 to 22 months' corrected age among extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants and (2) in-hospital growth velocity contributes to these outcomes after controlling for confounding demographic and clinical variables. (aappublications.org)
- OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical usefulness of measurement of corpus callosum (CC) size in head ultrasound (HUS) to predict short-term neurodevelopmental (ND) outcomes in preterm infants. (biomedsearch.com)
- Neurodevelopmental and functional outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network, 1993-1994. (jamanetwork.com)
- Neurodevelopment and predictors of outcomes of children with birth weights of less than 1000 g: 1992-1995. (jamanetwork.com)
- The purpose of this study is to determine whether treatment of very preterm infants at high-risk for lung and brain injury with low dose hydrocortisone results in improved pulmonary and neurologic outcomes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- [ Novak: 2017 ] The goal is to maximize the outcomes for babies at high risk for motor impairment and cerebral palsy (10-15% of infants born ≤26 weeks develop CP). (medicalhomeportal.org)
- Askie LM, Henderson-Smart DJ, Irwig L, Simpson JM (2003) Oxygen-saturation targets and outcomes in extremely preterm infants. (springer.com)
- Long-term outcomes of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) preterm infants, those weighing less than or equal to 1000 g at birth, are poor and pose a major health care burden. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The objective of this study was to determine temporal changes in illness severity in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants in relationship to the outcomes of death and/or severe IVH. (biomedcentral.com)
- The objectives of this study were to investigate whether illness was increasing over time and to determine the effect of illness severity on the outcomes of death and/or severe IVH in a population of VLBW infants. (biomedcentral.com)
- Neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants after necrotizing enterocolitis. (qxmd.com)
- Association between peak serum bilirubin and neurodevelopmental outcomes in extremely low birth weight infants. (qxmd.com)
- Neonatal outcomes of extremely preterm infants from the NICHD Neonatal Research Network. (jamanetwork.com)
- Outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: impact of the physiologic definition. (jamanetwork.com)
- Center differences and outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants. (jamanetwork.com)
- and (5) improve systems and tools to capture acute morbidity and long-term impairment outcomes following preterm birth. (biomedcentral.com)
- The Milk Trial seeks to determine the effect on neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 22-26 months of donor human milk as compared to preterm infant formula as the in-hospital diet for infants whose mothers choose not to provide breast milk or are able to provide only a minimal amount. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Our long-term goal is to optimize neurodevelopmental and health outcomes for ELBW infants, maximizing their quality of life and societal functionality throughout their lives. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The Neonatal Research Group consists of a team of experienced neonatologists, nurses, scientists and engineers whose aim is to improve the treatments and outcomes of ill newborn infants. (edu.au)
- Of the infants whose outcomes were known at 18-22 months, 49% died, 61% died or had profound impairment, and 73% died or had impairment. (medscape.com)
- Infant outcomes were in-hospital mortality, severe neonatal morbidity at discharge, and a composite measure of death or severe morbidity, or both. (bmj.com)
- Therefore, further prospective studies on various aspects of preterm infant feeding are needed, especially with regard to the effects on long-term outcomes. (bvsalud.org)
- 1 - 3 CoNS typically demonstrate low virulence 1 , 2 but are associated with morbidities in the premature infant, including chronic lung disease and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Association of Resident Duty Hour Reform and Neonatal Outcomes of Very Preterm Infants. (neonatalresearch.org)
- Predicting Outcomes in the Very Preterm Infant. (neonatalresearch.org)
- 191. Rabi Y, Lodha A, Soraisham A, Singhal N, BARRINGTON K, Shah PS, Site Investigators for the Canadian Neonatal N: Outcomes of preterm infants following the introduction of room air resuscitation. (neonatalresearch.org)
- Randomized trials of other anti-inflammatory agents with assessment of brain volumes and neurodevelopmental outcomes are urgently needed in this population of vulnerable infants. (bmj.com)
- Ventilating preterm infants can be associated with severe negative pulmonary and extrapulmonary outcomes, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), severe neurological impairment and death. (ersjournals.com)
- Some of the proven quality improvement initiatives to improve the neonatal care outcomes in NICU include measures such as maintaining hand hygiene, maintenance and optimization of the central line, improving mother-infant interaction, reducing the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and hypothermia, reducing the exposure of infants to various stressors, and implementing the family-centered care approach. (medcraveonline.com)
- Dr. Belfort's research focuses on the long-term outcomes of infant growth and nutrition. (childrenshospital.org)
- The effect of rapid infant weight gain on beneficial cognitive outcomes as well as adverse obesity-related outcomes. (childrenshospital.org)
- Of the enrolled infants, 180 (100%) were analyzed for the primary outcome and followed until death or discharge for the primary and secondary outcomes. (ebneo.org)
- Both of these outcomes have been independently linked to adverse neurodevelopmental outcome so it stands to reason that reducing each of these outcomes in the most vulnerable infants could have a benefit. (allthingsneonatal.com)
- Using the data from the randomized controlled trial and its follow-up, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between gestational ages at birth in children exposed to single versus multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroid (ACS) therapy in utero and outcomes at 5 years of age. (springer.com)
- To optimize outcomes for infants/children, efforts in reducing the incidence of preterm birth should remain the primary focus in perinatal research. (springer.com)
- Study design We conducted a cohort study of infants born with birth weight of 401 to 1000 g and gestational age of 23 to 30 weeks. (rti.org)
- Nearly one in ten low birthweight infants are considered extremely low birthweight (ELBW), weighing less that 1000 grams at birth and 27 weeks or less gestational age. (utmb.edu)
- Circulating Tie-2 and SCL/Tal1 RNA levels displayed an inverse correlation to gestational age (GA). We observed significantly elevated Tie-2 levels in preterm infants born to mothers with amnionitis, and in infants with sustained brain echogenicity on brain sonography. (biomedcentral.com)
- PARTICIPANTS: 929 HUS of 502 infants with gestational age of 23-36 weeks in African-American infants were initially studied. (biomedsearch.com)
- Its incidence is inversely related to gestational age, such that it affects almost 60% of infants less than 28 weeks' gestation. (springer.com)
- This module focuses on the care of infants born at extremely low gestational ages and weights - typically ≤26 weeks and/or 1500 grams (about 3 pounds) - although much of this information also pertains to preterm infants born later in gestation. (medicalhomeportal.org)
- The last digit, represented above as an "x," signifies the need for further coding details about weight or gestational age. (medicalhomeportal.org)
- The investigators propose in TOP to randomize infants less than or equal to 1000 g BW and gestational age at least 22 weeks but less than 29 weeks to receive red blood cell (RBC) transfusions according to one of two strategies of Hgb thresholds, either a high Hgb (liberal transfusion) or a low Hgb (restrictive transfusion) algorithm. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- We consecutively evaluated 104 infants with mean gestational age of 27.6 ± 2.0 weeks and BW of 913 ± 181 g (mean ± standard deviation). (biomedcentral.com)
- 22 infants (21%) were small for gestational age at birth. (biomedcentral.com)
- Methods Two population-based cohorts born at gestational age ≤28 weeks or with birth weight ≤1000 g performed lung function tests at 10 and 18 and at 18 and 25 years of age, respectively, together with matched term-born controls. (bmj.com)
- Prematurity is defined by the gestational age at which infants are born. (msdmanuals.com)
- They had a mean +/- SEM gestational age of 31.2 +/- 0.4 weeks (range 28-34) and a mean +/- SEM birthweight of 1562 +/- 71 g (range 1160-2010). (bvsalud.org)
- Most extremely low birth weight infants are also the youngest of premature newborns, usually born at 27 weeks' gestational age or younger. (medscape.com)
- Infants whose weight is appropriate for their gestational ages are termed appropriate for gestational age (AGA). (medscape.com)
- conversely, those smaller than expected are considered small for gestational age (SGA), and are they also usually found to be intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) prior to birth. (medscape.com)
- Survival correlates with gestational age for infants who are appropriate for gestational age (AGA). (medscape.com)
- Infants with lower gestational age and birth weight had a higher incidence of CoNS infection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- CoNS infection was strongly related to lower gestational age and birth weight. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- A definition of BPD based on gestational age and severity was developed by a National Institutes of Health consensus conference and applies to infants who receive supplemental oxygen for the first 28 postnatal days. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- Very low birth weight infants usually have a gestational age of less than 30 weeks, and their organs are extremely immature and have a high risk of nosocomial infection. (scirp.org)
- These clinical data include the sex, birth weight, gestational age, diagnosis and clinical related operations of the children. (scirp.org)
- Fetal growth restriction is a condition in which a fetus does not reach its designated growth potential and thus is too small for gestational age (SGA), mostly defined as either estimated fetal weight or abdominal circumference determined by ultrasound below the third percentile or gestational age below the tenth percentile. (biomedcentral.com)
- 1 Wyatt et al found a reduction in cerebral blood flow to be associated with lower Pa co 2 levels and showed greater cerebrovascular sensitivity to hypocarbia with increasing gestational age. (bmj.com)
- The risks of cognitive delay increase as the gestational age at birth decreases. (racgp.org.au)
- Therapeutic attitudes did not differ between groups, but healthcare professionals with children were more restrained and students more aggressive at very low gestational ages. (biomedcentral.com)
- Children born at extremely low gestational ages represent 0.3% of all live births [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Most tools or guidelines use gestational age to guide counseling, however it is ethically questionable and illogical to base decisions concerning the care of infants at the limits of viability on a gestational age label [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The intervention here was that within 24 hours of birth babies born between 24-27 weeks gestational age were randomized to receive placebo or hydrocortisone 1 mg/kg/d divided q12h for one week followed by 0.5 mg/kg/d for three days. (99nicu.org)
- This study aims to assess the feasibility of MPV within 24 hours of birth as a simple accessible tool to identify preterm infants prone to IVH in a large case group with lower gestational age and also to evaluate MPV in relation to IVH grades. (kowsarpub.com)
- Overall, the interaction between ACS groups and gestational age at birth was not significant, p = 0.064. (springer.com)
- Hill, AS 2010, ' Predicting the growth percentile of extremely low birthweight infants ', Neonatal, Paediatric and Child Health Nursing , vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 12-19. (utmb.edu)
- Aziz K, Vickar DB, Sauve RS, Etches PC, Pain KS, Robertson CM. Province-based study of neurologic disability of children weighing 500 through 1249 grams at birth in relation to neonatal cerebral ultrasound findings. (jamanetwork.com)
- While high infant mortality rates were recognized by the British medical community at least as early as the 1860s, modern neonatal intensive care is a relatively recent advance. (wikipedia.org)
- The average hospital costs from 2003-2011 for the maternal and neonatal surgical services were the lowest hospital costs in the U.S. In 2012, maternal or neonatal hospital stays constituted the largest proportion of hospitalizations among infants, adults aged 18-44, and those covered by Medicaid. (wikipedia.org)
- Between 2000 and 2012, the number of neonatal stays (births) in the United States fluctuated around 4.0 million stays, reaching a high of 4.3 million in 2006. (wikipedia.org)
- Babies are surviving increasingly premature births due to the dramatic improvements in neonatal intensive care, advances in neurodevelopmental care techniques, and use of prenatal steroids, surfactant, and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). (medicalhomeportal.org)
- Cohort study of 1414 VLBW infants cared for in a single level III neonatal intensive care unit in Delaware from 1993-2002. (biomedcentral.com)
- 25 weeks' EGA, with birth weights of 501 to 1000 g, born between January 1993 and June 1996 (epoch I) or between July 1996 and December 1999 (epoch II), in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. (qxmd.com)
- Beneficial effects of breast milk in the neonatal intensive care unit on the developmental outcome of extremely low birth weight infants at 18 months of age. (qxmd.com)
- Mortality and neonatal morbidity among infants 501 to 1500 grams from 2000 to 2009. (jamanetwork.com)
- These findings are most likely the sequelae of a neonatal insult (eg, periventricular leukomalacia with a superimposed left-sided cerebral infarct). (medscape.com)
- One of the determinants of neonatal mortality is low birth weight (LBW) (1, 2). (ac.ir)
- Preterm birth is also the dominant risk factor for neonatal mortality, particularly for deaths due to infections. (biomedcentral.com)
- Early and late neonatal mortality rates and under 5 mortality rates per 1000, 1960-2007. (biomedcentral.com)
- Longitudinal development was compared for groups born at term and preterm, split by a history of absence (n=20), mild (n=38) or moderate/severe (n=25) neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). (bmj.com)
- Results The preterm-born cohorts, particularly those with neonatal BPD, had significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s and mid-expiratory flow than those born at term at all assessments (z scores in the range −0.40 to −1.84). (bmj.com)
- Conclusions Airway obstruction was present from mid-childhood to adulthood after extreme preterm birth, most evident after neonatal BPD. (bmj.com)
- The study on perinatal mortality, neonatal mortality and weight specific death rate of neonatal infants born at Rajavithi Hospital in 1996 was carried out and compared with the rates of 1976 and 1986. (bvsalud.org)
- The perinatal mortality rate was 9.09 per 1000 births and neonatal mortality rate was 2.90 per 1000 live births. (bvsalud.org)
- The weight specific neonatal mortality in 1996 was reduced from 1986 and 1976 in all weight groups. (bvsalud.org)
- [ 2 ] Infants with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) are more susceptible to all complications of premature birth, both in the immediate neonatal period and after discharge from the nursery. (medscape.com)
- Objectives To evaluate the implementation of four high evidence practices for the care of very preterm infants to assess their use and impact in routine clinical practice and whether they constitute a driver for reducing mortality and neonatal morbidity. (bmj.com)
- Participants 7336 infants born between 24+0 and 31+6 weeks' gestation in 2011/12 without serious congenital anomalies and surviving to neonatal admission. (bmj.com)
- Providing adequate amounts of all essential macro- and micronutrients to preterm infants during the period of extraordinarily rapid growth from 24 to 34 weeks' postmenstrual age to achieve growth as in utero is challenging yet important, since early growth restriction and suboptimal neonatal nutrition have been identified as risk factors for adverse long-term development. (bvsalud.org)
- The incidence of live, spontaneous preterm birth is increasing 3 and, concomitantly, post-partum survival of preterm babies has increased over the last 30 yrs due to advances in neonatal care 4 . (ersjournals.com)
- Many of the first infants to benefit from these improvements in neonatal care are now reaching adulthood. (ersjournals.com)
- In this paper, we will explore the relationship between nurses of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and nosocomial infections. (scirp.org)
- Conclusion: Our research shows that in the neonatal intensive care unit, the reasonable deployment of nursing staff is an important factor in preventing urinary tract infections in very low birth weight infants. (scirp.org)
- With the continuous advancement of neonatal medical technology and perinatal medicine, the rescue success rate of very low birth weight infants has greatly increased, but the quality of life is not optimistic. (scirp.org)
- This study analyzes the clinical data of 280 very low birth weight infants born in our hospital to study neonatal intensive care. (scirp.org)
- Multiple births are associated with significant health risks and maternal and neonatal complications, as well as physical, emotional, and financial stresses that can strain families and increase the incidence of depression and anxiety disorders in parents. (biomedcentral.com)
- Reducing mortality and long-term neurodevelopmental damage associated with birth asphyxia is the main purpose of an optimal neonatal resuscitation. (who.int)
- Indeed, some experiments using a high blood concentration of oxygen showed an increased risk of adverse neonatal effects in short- and long-term evaluations, especially in preterm infants. (who.int)
- 1 Over the past few decades, improvement in the clinical care of preterm infants has resulted in improved survival in the neonatal age group and beyond. (racgp.org.au)
- An understanding of the effects of prematurity and the neonatal course is necessary to counsel the family and identify the infant with an increased neurodevelopmental risk. (racgp.org.au)
- We evaluated brain component volumes in a cohort of extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, BW ≤ 1000 g) discharged from our neonatal intensive care unit during a 7-month period, from June 2003 through December 2003. (bmj.com)
- Although there has been a considerable reduction in the number of neonatal deaths in NICUs during the last two decades, the management of critically ill infants who are continuously exposed to various risk factors has remained a matter of major concern. (medcraveonline.com)
- Exposure of neonates to infections, birth asphyxia, and birth before term are considered as the most common causes of neonatal deaths. (medcraveonline.com)
- Although there has been a considerable reduction in the number of neonatal deaths in the NICU during the last two decades, it is the management of critically ill infants that has become of major concern, as they are continuously exposed to various risk factors. (medcraveonline.com)
- Despite limited evidence supporting its use, prophylactic indomethacin treatment is often administered to very preterm infants within the first 24-hours after birth to reduce the risks of intraventricular hemorrhage and longer-term neonatal morbidities, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). (pediatricsnationwide.org)
- The Multiple Courses of Antenatal Corticosteroids for Preterm Birth Study ( MACS ) showed no benefit in the reduction of major neonatal mortality/morbidity or neurodevelopment at 2 and 5 years of age. (springer.com)
- Postnatal growth failure is the norm for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants, especially the sickest infants. (aappublications.org)
- Compared with fetal nutrient intakes, the early parenteral and enteral nutritional support received by ELBW infants results in substantial protein and energy deficits that persist for weeks and can be directly related to subsequent postnatal growth restriction. (aappublications.org)
- INTERVENTIONS: CC size (length and thickness) was measured in a subset of 87 infants who had routine HUS between 23 and 29 weeks (0-6 postnatal weeks). (biomedsearch.com)
- We hypothesized that increased dose is associated with increased neurodevelopmental impairment, lower postmenstrual age at exposure increases impairment, and risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia modifies the effect of postnatal corticosteroid. (aappublications.org)
- Postnatal steroid therapy was frequently prescribed during the 1990s to facilitate extubation and reduce bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) by modifying lung inflammation. (aappublications.org)
- Postnatal corticosteroids however have shown harmful effects on the brain and can lead to increased rates of cerebral palsy and learning problems. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) continues to be a frequent complication of extremely premature birth, despite the more generalized use of antenatal steroids, postnatal surfactant administration, and the improvement of noninvasive ventilatory strategies. (springer.com)
- The spectrum and severity of respiratory illness in the newly born has been changing over the past three decades with the introduction of antenatal steroids, improved management of the fetus during preterm labor and birth, and postnatal exogenous surfactant administration. (springer.com)
- This cross-sectional study was conducted on 383 pregnant women who were admitted in postnatal ward and gave birth to live neonates. (ac.ir)
- Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the result of a complex process in which several prenatal and/or postnatal factors interfere with lower respiratory tract development, leading to a severe, lifelong disease. (biomedcentral.com)
- This narrative review will summarize currently available and still missing evidence regarding optimal preterm infant nutrition, with emphasis on enteral nutrition and early postnatal growth, and deduce a practical approach. (bvsalud.org)
- When first described in the 1960s, the diagnosis of BPD was assigned to infants who required supplemental oxygen and/or mechanical ventilation for at least 1 week and continued to require oxygen at 28 days' postnatal age. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- 190. Lapointe M, BARRINGTON KJ, Savaria M, Janvier A: Preventing postnatal growth restriction in infants with birthweight less than 1300 g. (neonatalresearch.org)
- The initial reduction in intakes may have contributed to the lower postnatal growth observed in these infants. (diva-portal.org)
- While postnatal dexamethasone (dex) therapy ameliorates bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants, it also increases rates of neuromotor and cognitive abnormalities. (bmj.com)
- In ELBW infants, postnatal dex therapy after two weeks of life, for a duration of 7 days or less, may adversely affect developing white matter growth, possibly contributing to increased rates of cerebral palsy and other neuromotor abnormalities. (bmj.com)
- Most authorities agree this damage occurs up to the postnatal period but some classify cerebral palsy as damage occurring before the age of 3 years. (patient.info)
Weeks of gestat6
- In fact, at discharge from the NICU or at 36 weeks' PMA, most were less than the comparable 10th percentile birth weight for completed weeks of gestation according to the reference intrauterine growth data reported by Alexander et al. (aappublications.org)
- Does bronchopulmonary dysplasia contribute to the occurrence of cerebral palsy among infants born before 28 weeks of gestation? (jamanetwork.com)
- [ Klebanoff: 2011 ] Of all infant deaths in the US in 2006, 54% occurred in the 2% of infants born at less than 32 weeks of gestation. (medicalhomeportal.org)
- Preterm labour (PTL) is defined as giving birth earlier than 37 weeks of gestation (11). (ac.ir)
- Preterm birth is defined as any birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation (37+0). (infantools.com)
- Women were enrolled in the MACS if they were between 25 and 32 weeks of gestation, remained pregnant 14 to 21 days after an initial course of antenatal corticosteroid therapy (either betamethasone or dexamethasone) therapy, and continued to be viewed as at high risk of preterm birth by their clinicians. (springer.com)
- Because of the morbidities that occur with premature birth it is imperative for healthcare professionals to know the influence that major medical complications and associated social factors have on the growth of ELBW infants. (utmb.edu)
- Understanding the influence of these factors on growth will assist healthcare professionals in discussing developmental issues and growth expectations with parents of ELBW infants. (utmb.edu)
- Therefore, a secondary data analysis was conducted to help identify the growth percentile and those factors that may influence the growth of ELBW infants. (utmb.edu)
- A recent study by Doyle et al 14 suggests that low-dose dexamethasone after the first week of life shortens the duration of intubation among ventilator-dependent, extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants, without any obvious short-term complications, reopening debate regarding the potential role of low-dose PNS therapy specifically for infants at high risk for BPD. (aappublications.org)
- Specific Aims: 1) To perform a pilot blinded randomized controlled trial of a 7-day regimen of low dose hydrocortisone in ELBW infants at high risk for BPD and neurosensory impairments and assess its effect on cerebral tissue volumes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- It is primarily seen in ELBW infants. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Neurological delay, including cerebral palsy and mental retardation, affect up to 40%-50% of surviving ELBW infants. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The patient's anatomic brain MRI (routinely done on all ELBW infants at 38 weeks post-menstrual age) will be further processed by the masked study investigators to derive total and regional brain volumes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Blinded developmental follow-up at two years, already currently performed for all ELBW infants at MHCH, will be analyzed and reported for all study infants. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The objective of the TOP trial is to determine whether higher hemoglobin thresholds for transfusing ELBW infants resulting in higher hemoglobin levels lead to improvement in the primary outcome of survival and rates of neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 22-26 months of age, using standardized assessments by Bayley. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is the most common cardiovascular condition afflicting premature neonates especially those born extremely low birth weight (ELBW). (intechopen.com)
- Despite five decades of scientific inquiry which has produced thousands of publications including over 65 randomized controlled trials, cardiologists, neonatologists, and surgeons still cannot answer simple questions such as if, when and how to close to the PDA in ELBW infants. (intechopen.com)
- It is about time that physicians from all sub-specialties come together and integrate the evidence to develop a management algorithm for ELBW infants with hemodynamically significant PDA. (intechopen.com)
- Rates of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis are also lower in human milk fed ELBW infants, and they experience shorter hospital stays and fewer re-hospitalizations in the first year of life. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The proposed study will be the first US multicenter randomized trial of the health and developmental effects of donor milk as compared to preterm formula in ELBW infants receiving little or no maternal milk. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- If donor human milk has similar effects to maternal milk, the public health benefit of donor milk feedings in ELBW infants unable to receive maternal milk would be considerable. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- An extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infant is defined as one with a birth weight of less than 1000 g (2 lb, 3 oz). (medscape.com)
- Of the 38 ELBW infants who survived to discharge, 37 had an anatomical brain MRI at term corrected age. (bmj.com)
- retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which is still the second most common cause of blindness among children, and germinal matrix intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) that may cause severe complications with long-term consequences, including post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus, seizures, cerebral palsy and other neurological deficits. (biomedcentral.com)
- CONCLUSIONS: No association was found between morbidities related to prematurity and short-term ND outcome and CC size in preterm infants. (biomedsearch.com)
- Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains a major complication of prematurity resulting in significant mortality and morbidity despite advances in perinatal care and decline in mortality rates among very low birth weight (VLBW) infants [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Long-term ophthalmic outcome of low birth weight children with and without retinopathy of prematurity. (jamanetwork.com)
- The principal patients of neonatologists are newborn infants who are ill or require special medical care due to prematurity, low birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction, congenital malformations (birth defects), sepsis, pulmonary hypoplasia or birth asphyxia. (wikipedia.org)
- Prematurity is the leading cause of infant mortality in the US. (medicalhomeportal.org)
- [ Mikkola: 2005 ] [ Hintz: 2011 ] No data yet exists on what percentage of infants with extreme prematurity end up with no significant complications. (medicalhomeportal.org)
- Morbidity and mortalities due to the PTL are mainly attributed to prematurity of the organs and include respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, pneumothorax, pneumonia, patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular haemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, and the CP (13). (ac.ir)
- Breathing mismanagement or giving the baby too much or too little oxygen can cause permanent injuries such as cerebral palsy (CP), hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). (medicallaw.ie)
- In addition to prematurity and excess oxygen, other risk factors for ROP include low birth weight, infection and heart defects. (medicallaw.ie)
- Positive airway pressure was discon- *Members of the Caffeine for Apnea of tinued one week earlier in the infants assigned to caffeine (median postmenstrual Prematurity Trial Group are listed in the Appendix. (diseasepdf.com)
- Caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity reduces the rate of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in infants with very low birth weight. (diseasepdf.com)
- Two studies reported an association between lower Pa co 2 levels and chronic lung disease of prematurity. (bmj.com)
- Since the 1970s, methylxanthines have been routinely prescribed in preterm infants to prevent apnoea of prematurity (AOP) and reduce the need for invasive ventilatory support [ 13 ]. (ersjournals.com)
- 9060IntroductionSevere prematurity at birth is an indicator of additional attention for the multidisciplinary team, since the newborn in this condition did not have the opportunity to develop organic systems under ideal conditions (intrauterine). (annexpublishers.co)
- The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes the harm racism causes to infants, children, adolescents, and their families. (aappublications.org)
- Neonatology is a subspecialty of pediatrics that consists of the medical care of newborn infants, especially the ill or premature newborn. (wikipedia.org)
- the We randomly assigned 2006 infants with birth weights of 500 to 1250 g during the Department of Pediatrics, University of first 10 days of life to receive either caffeine or placebo, until drug therapy for apnea Toronto, Toronto (A.O. (diseasepdf.com)
- Objective To determine whether delivery room cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DR-CPR) independently predicts morbidities and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in extremely low birth weight infants. (rti.org)
- The relationship between steroid exposure and impairment was modified by the bronchopulmonary dysplasia risk, with those at highest risk experiencing less harm. (aappublications.org)
- Prevalence and aetiology of neurological impairment in extremely low birthweight infants. (jamanetwork.com)
- A secondary study entitled 'Economic Evaluation Ancillary to the Transfusion of Prematures Randomized Controlled Trial' will determine whether higher transfusion threshold will result in lower total costs to society over the first 22 to 26 corrected months of life and estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for survival without neurodevelopmental impairment, from the perspective of society, the third-party payer, and the family. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Associated morbidities can occur following delivery or may unfold as chronic disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, cognitive impairment, vision and hearing impairment, feeding disorders, cardiac or respiratory conditions, and/or behavioral disabilities. (medicalhomeportal.org)
- Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is associated with persistent lung impairment later in life, significantly impacting health services because subjects with BPD have, in most cases, frequent respiratory diseases and reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. (biomedcentral.com)
- These data demonstrate a progressive increase in illness in VLBW infants over time, associated with an increase in death and/or severe IVH. (biomedcentral.com)
- We hypothesized that illness severity in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants was increasing over time. (biomedcentral.com)
- Mortality rate in the neonates with LBW is reported as 40 times and in newborns with very low birth weight (VLBW), between 1000 and 1500 g, is announced as 200 times higher than that in neonates with normal birth weight (2). (ac.ir)
- The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants as an alternative to bovine-based fortification of mother's own milk or bovine-based formula has risen dramatically. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, growth failure remains a common concern in exclusively human milk fed VLBW infants. (biomedcentral.com)
- Recommended enteral nutrient intakes per Tsang guidelines [ 13 ] for VLBW infants are 110-130 kilocalories per kilogram per day (kcal/kg/d) with 3.4-4.2 grams per kilogram per day (g/kg/d) of protein. (biomedcentral.com)
- Infants born with a birth weight less than 1500 g are defined as very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. (medscape.com)
- 2500 g) was noted in 7.99% of the births, and VLBW was noted in 1.42% of all births. (medscape.com)
- The relationship between nurses for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants in the ward (NICU) and nosocomial infections to improve the success rate of treatment for very low birth weight infants. (scirp.org)
- Aim: We explored if fluid restriction in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants with a haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) affected energy and protein intakes and growth. (diva-portal.org)
- Methods: Retrospectively, we identified 90 VLBW infants that were admitted to Umea University Hospital, Sweden, between 2009 and 2012: 42 with and 48 without haemodynamically significant PDA (hsPDA). (diva-portal.org)
- However, non-invasive respiratory support is often ineffective, with a high failure rate of up to 50% in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants [ 10 , 11 ], most commonly due to insufficient respiratory drive. (ersjournals.com)
- The American and Canadian Pediatric societies and respected researchers have commented on the urgent need for more trials of other corticosteroids at lower doses started after the first week of life to evaluate their short and long-term pulmonary and neurological benefits and risks. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Landry JS, Chan T, Lands L, Menzies D. Long-term impact of bronchopulmonary dysplasia on pulmonary function. (jamanetwork.com)
- Non-pathologic PDAs may occur in infants with cyanotic heart disease and increased pulmonary vascular resistance. (intechopen.com)
- In a normal fetus, blood flows from right-to-left (PA to aorta) as a result of high resistance in the pulmonary arterioles and low systemic vascular resistance in the fetus and placenta. (intechopen.com)
- There are concerns that preterm birth and its treatments may harm pulmonary development and thereby lead to chronic airway obstruction in adulthood. (bmj.com)
- 1 , 2 However, there is an increasing awareness that EP birth carries a risk of poor long-term pulmonary outcome. (bmj.com)
- Young adult survivors of moderate and severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia may be left with residual functional and characteristic structural pulmonary abnormalities, most notably emphysema. (ersjournals.com)
- formerly termed chronic lung disease of infancy), defined as continued dependence on supplementary oxygen for ≥28 days post-partum 1 , is the most common and the most significant long-term pulmonary complication of preterm birth 2 . (ersjournals.com)
- Affected infants are more likely to have long-term pulmonary problems, to be rehospitalized during the first year of life, and to have delayed neurodevelopment. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- Chronic aspiration pneumonia, unrepaired tracheal esophageal fistula, viral pneumonia, or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or pulmonary hypertension may also cause a persistent oxygen requirement in newborn infants and should be considered in infants with an atypical course for BPD. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- The incidence of preterm birth is increasing, leading to a growing population with potential long-term pulmonary complications. (ersjournals.com)
- Categorizing infants with pulmonary vein stenosis into stable and progressive groups could help inform treatment. (pediatricsnationwide.org)
- Pulmonary hypertension is high blood pressure in the lungs and is a comorbidity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), which is the chronic lung disease of premature babies. (pediatricsnationwide.org)
Moderate to severe br1
- 189. Villeneuve A, Bigras J-L, Lachance C, Berube D, Barrington K, Lapointe A, Moussa A. Echocardiographic Right Ventricular Pressure Ratio Correlates with Prolonged Oxygen Therapy in Patients with Moderate to Severe Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia. (neonatalresearch.org)
- Survival rates and morbidity often vary within countries1 and while the survival rate for these infants has increased, there has been very little decrease in the proportion of infants with severe sequelae, for example, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, neurosensory disorders, or cerebral palsy. (utmb.edu)
- Bell EF, Acarregui MJ (2008) Restricted versus liberal water intake for preventing morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. (springer.com)
- and higher risk of morbidity and mortality for subsequent children due to premature births, especially very premature births. (acpeds.org)
- Preterm birth represents a significant healthcare burden and is among the leading causes of infant mortality and long-term morbidity [ 1 ]. (ersjournals.com)
- The use of parenteral nutrition (PN) in deep affected patients has grown significantly in recent years, and its presence has reduced intensely the morbidity/mortality levels among affected infants. (annexpublishers.co)
- In modern NICUs, infants weighing more than 1000 grams and born after 27 weeks gestation have an approximately 90% chance of survival and the majority have normal neurological development. (wikipedia.org)
- The objective of this study was to evaluate growth velocities and incidence of extrauterine growth restriction in infants ≤ 1250 grams (g) birth weight (BW) receiving an exclusive human milk-based diet with early and rapid advancement of fortification using a donor human milk derived fortifier. (biomedcentral.com)
- 1000 grams: a sequential analysis. (biomedsearch.com)
- This study examines the impact of routine use of a probiotic, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (BioGaia®), on the rate of NEC in neonates at highest risk for developing NEC, those with birth weight ≤1000 grams. (biomedsearch.com)
- METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study comparing the rates of NEC in neonates with birth weight ≤ 1000 grams. (biomedsearch.com)
- 1000 grams (P), does the use of a supine position with the head of bed elevated 30 degrees (I) compared to a supine position with no elevation (C) decrease the incidence of periventricular and intraventricular hemorrhage seen on ultrasound (O) when used during the first four days of life (T)? (ebneo.org)
- 1000 grams. (ebneo.org)
- 1000 grams and able to be randomized, positioned according to randomization, and obtain initial ultrasound all within four hours of birth. (ebneo.org)
Chronic lung disease6
- Despite advances in the field of neonatology, infants born very prematurely remain at risk for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), chronic lung disease and other complications. (nature.com)
- Baraldi E, Filippone M. Chronic lung disease after premature birth. (jamanetwork.com)
- Is chronic lung disease in low birth weight infants preventable? (jamanetwork.com)
- Although the mortality rate has greatly diminished with the use of surfactants, the proportion of surviving infants with severe sequelae, such as chronic lung disease, cognitive delays, cerebral palsy, and neurosensory deficits (ie, deafness and blindness), has not improved as significantly. (medscape.com)
- BPD is a chronic lung disease that affects newborn infants, predominantly those born prematurely. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- 202. Barrington KJ, Fortin-Pellerin E, Pennaforte T. Fluid restriction for treatment of preterm infants with chronic lung disease. (neonatalresearch.org)
- Neonates with low bronchopulmonary dysplasia risk should not be exposed. (aappublications.org)
- Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is a respiratory condition that presently occurs in preterm neonates and can lead to chronic respiratory problems. (biomedcentral.com)
- The authors planned to include all randomized or quasi-randomized trials that had studied term or preterm neonates requiring ventilation support at birth. (who.int)
- Brain injury is one of the most consequential problems facing neonates, with many preterm and term infants at risk for cerebral hypoxia and ischemia. (stanford.edu)
- The recommendations are also applicable to neonates who have completed perinatal transition and require resuscitation during the first few weeks to months following birth. (ahajournals.org)
- Does an Elevated Midline Head Position Prevent Periventricular-Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Extremely Low Birthweight Neonates? (ebneo.org)
- For neonates randomized to the treatment group, infants were maintained supine with head midline and elevated 30 degrees above horizontal. (ebneo.org)
- 1 - 4 The NICHD Growth Observational Study 1 demonstrated that, although the rate of weight gain was similar to the reported intrauterine rate of weight gain (∼15 g/kg per day), once birth weight was regained, most of the infants between 24 to 29 weeks' gestation did not achieve the median birth weight of the reference fetus of the same postmenstrual age (PMA) at hospital discharge. (aappublications.org)
- Coding for Disorders of Newborn Related to Short Gestation and Low Birth Weight (ICD10data.com) provides these coding details. (medicalhomeportal.org)
- An infant born before 37 weeks gestation is considered premature. (msdmanuals.com)
- Birth prior to 37 weeks gestation is considered premature. (msdmanuals.com)
- [ 3 ] The study reported that 83% of infants born at 22-25 weeks' gestation received intensive care (consisting of mechanical ventilation). (medscape.com)
- According to data from a 2011 cohort study, infants born at 23-25 weeks' gestation who received antenatal exposure to corticosteroids had a lower rate of mortality and complications compared with those who did not have such exposure to corticosteroids. (medscape.com)
- The majority of infants diagnosed with BPD are born at less than 28 weeks' gestation. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- Infants born at less than 32 weeks' gestation are evaluated at 36 weeks' PMA: infants with mild BPD have no need for supplemental oxygen, those with moderate BPD require supplemental oxygen at less than 30%, and those with severe BPD need oxygen at greater than 30%, or positive pressure either as continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or mechanical ventilation. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- For infants born at greater than 32 weeks' gestation, BPD severity is based on the receipt of oxygen at 56 days of age. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- This definition accounts for infants who are born at late preterm or term gestation who have severe lung disease at birth (e.g., pneumonia, meconium aspiration syndrome) requiring mechanical ventilation. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- Maternal transport of immunoglobulins to the fetus mainly occurs after 32 weeks' gestation, and endogenous synthesis begins several months after birth. (bvsalud.org)
- METHODS Infants of 32 weeks gestation or less were included. (bmj.com)
- Infants less than 32 weeks gestation requiring ventilation within 72 hours of birth, with clinical and x ray features compatible with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), were eligible for trial entry. (bmj.com)
- Comparison 1 Long vs Short IT as defined by investigators (all trials), Outcome 7 Cerebral palsy in survivors less than 33 weeks gestation at birth Analysis 1.8. (docplayer.net)
- 30, 30-36, and ≥ 37 weeks gestation at birth, contributed to the primary outcome: death or survival with a disability in one of the following domains: neuromotor, neurosensory, and neurobehavioral/emotional disability and were included in this analysis. (springer.com)
- Brion LP, Soll RF (2008) Diuretics for respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants. (springer.com)
- Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. (rcjournal.com)
- Eighteen preterm infants severely ill with respiratory distress syndrome who required assisted ventilaton were given modified natural surfactant (Survanta) endotracheally. (bvsalud.org)
- Previous studies suggested the possible correlation between MPV and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) ( 18 ), broncopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) ( 19 ) and IVH ( 20 ) in preterm infants. (kowsarpub.com)
- The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. (biomedcentral.com)
- A pilot study was conducted in order to identify the cases and determine the incidence of congenital hypothyroidism, phenylketonuria (PKU) and glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in the newborn infants born at Rajavithi Hospital. (bvsalud.org)
- 24,714 newborn infants were screened for G6PD deficiency by fluorescent screening technique. (bvsalud.org)
- Improving the resuscitation of sick newborn infants at birth. (edu.au)
- For some newborn infants this does not occur and they require resuscitation at birth. (edu.au)
- This work, funded by a National Health and Medical Research Council project grant in collaboration with Monash University and the Royal Women's Hospital, has improved the way neonatologists resuscitate sick newborn infants. (edu.au)
- Background A B S T R A C T When intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) was introduced in newborn infants with hypoxic respiratory failure from hyaline membrane disease (HMD), mortality was high and air leaks problematic. (docplayer.net)
High risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia2
- 72% of those treated were at high risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. (aappublications.org)
- BW ≤ 1000 g) at high risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and neurologic impairments, those infants randomized to seven days of hydrocortisone will demonstrate increased total cerebral tissue volumes as compared to infants randomized to placebo. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Computed tomography scanning of the brain: In infants, helps to identify congenital malformations, intracranial hemorrhage, and periventricular leukomalacia or early craniosynostosis. (medscape.com)
- Abnormal levels of oxygen (O2) and CO2 can cause permanent brain damage, such as cerebral palsy and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). (medicallaw.ie)
- Very close attention must be paid to a premature baby's O2 levels because too much oxygen can cause ROP (as well lung problems), but too little oxygen may cause permanent brain damage such as hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and cerebral palsy. (medicallaw.ie)
- Several studies have shown an association between hypocarbia and neurodevelopmental sequelae 3 4 or periventricular leukomalacia 5-8 in preterm infants. (bmj.com)
- Elevated midline head positioning of extremely low birth weight infants: effects on cardiopulmonary function and the incidence of periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage. (ebneo.org)
- These infants are at high risk of developing diffuse white matter injury (DWMI) previously referred to as periventricular leukomalacia ( Back, 2006 ). (jneurosci.org)
- Papile LA, Burstein J, Burstein R, Koffler H. Incidence and evolution of subependymal and intraventricular hemorrhage: a study of infants with birth weights less than 1,500 gm. (jamanetwork.com)
- The incidence of a hemodynamically significant PDA (hsPDA) is as high as 70% in infants born at 23-24 weeks and 59% in those born at 25-28 weeks [ 1 ]. (nature.com)
- Seven cases of congenital hypothyroidism were identified (incidence of 1 : 4,629 live births). (bvsalud.org)
- 7 It has been observed that preterm infants exposed to antenatal administration of corticosteroids for threatened preterm labour showed a lower incidence of cognitive delay. (racgp.org.au)
- Infants 501 to 1000 g birth weight from a multicenter cohort study were divided into quartiles of in-hospital growth velocity rates. (aappublications.org)
- Clinical utility of corpus callosum measurements in head sonograms of preterm infants: a cohort study. (biomedsearch.com)
- In a single center, prospective observational cohort study, preterm infants weighing ≤ 1250 g BW were fed an exclusive human milk-based diet until 34 weeks postmenstrual age. (biomedcentral.com)
Patent ductus art5
- Prophylactic indomethacin (3 doses) decreases patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in preterm infants. (nature.com)
- Andriessen P, Struis NC, Niemarkt H et al (2009) Furosemide in preterm infants treated with indomethacin for patent ductus arteriosus. (springer.com)
- Aranda JV, Clyman R, Cox B et al (2009) A randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial on intravenous ibuprofen l-lysine for the early closure of nonsymptomatic patent ductus arteriosus within 72 hours of birth in extremely low-birth-weight infants. (springer.com)
- Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) can be expected in all infants immediately after birth but may become pathologic if closure fails to occur within the first few days. (intechopen.com)
- Determination of the hemodynamic significance and effects of a patent ductus arteriosus in the preterm infant. (stanford.edu)
- The presence and clinical implications of circulating RNA levels as an expression for hematopoietic and endothelial-specific markers have not been previously evaluated in preterm infants. (biomedcentral.com)
- The diagnosis of cerebral palsy is generally made based on the clinical picture. (medscape.com)
- Preterm birth has been associated with an increased risk of early and late severe clinical problems, including poor adult health. (biomedcentral.com)
- This is of particular clinical importance in preterm infants and cystic fibrosis patients. (bvsalud.org)
- Infants with clinical sepsis and culture-positive CoNS infection had lower mortality rates than infants with clinical sepsis and negative blood culture results. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Methods: The clinical data of 280 very low birth weight infants born in our hospital from January 2010 to January 2020 were collected, and the chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to study the nursing staff of each very low birth weight infant who was admitted to the NICU The relationship between the number of infections and hospital infections. (scirp.org)
- Collect the clinical data of 280 extremely low birth weight infants born in Foshan women and children's hospital from January 2010 to January 2020. (scirp.org)
- Infants with a birth weight of 500 to 1250 g were all clinical centers approved the protocol. (diseasepdf.com)
- The aim of this article is to provide a pragmatic clinical review of long-term neurodevelopmental risk experienced by very preterm infants. (racgp.org.au)
- METHODS: To assess neural stem cell-like (NSC-like) cells derived from autologous marrow mesenchymal stem cells as a novel treatment for patients with moderate-to-severe cerebral palsy, a total of 60 cerebral palsy patients were enrolled in this open-label, non-randomised, observer-blinded controlled clinical study with a 6-months follow-up. (stem-cell-center.com)
- The influenza A(H1N1)v pandemic caused higher rates of illness in children and young adults and lower rates of illness in adults aged 60 years and older when compared with 'seasonal' influenza ( Writing Committee of the WHO Consultation on Clinical Aspects of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza, 2010 ). (pcouk.org)
- Prompt referral to diagnostic-specific early intervention to optimize infant motor and cognitive plasticity, prevent secondary complications, and enhance caregiver well-being is essential. (medicalhomeportal.org)
- It is believed that the LBW is associated with mental retardation, learning disorders, and cognitive growth retardation, as well as visual-motor disorders, and cerebral palsy (CP) (10). (ac.ir)
- Very preterm infants have a higher risk of cerebral palsy, cognitive delay, deafness and blindness, and autism spectrum disorder when compared with term controls. (racgp.org.au)
- 5 Pascal et al reported that a confirmative test using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development indicated a pooled prevalence of 16.9% for the cognitive delay for preterm infants. (racgp.org.au)
- Cognitive tests were performed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition. (racgp.org.au)
- We hypothesised that including CC measurements in routine HUS will be an additional tool for early identification of infants at risk of adverse short-term ND outcome, over and above the predictive power of perinatal morbidities. (biomedsearch.com)
- Perinatal risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia in a national cohort of very-low-birthweight infants. (jamanetwork.com)
- Background As a result of advances in perinatal care, more small preterm infants survive. (bmj.com)
- Advances in perinatal care have markedly increased the prospects of survival for infants born extremely preterm (EP). (bmj.com)
- To reduce the low birth weight infant rate by means of an effective family planning program and antenatal care may improve the perinatal mortality rate at Rajavithi Hospital. (bvsalud.org)
- Setting 19 regions from 11 European countries covering 850 000 annual births participating in the EPICE (Effective Perinatal Intensive Care in Europe for very preterm births) project. (bmj.com)
- Although it was long considered that the main causes of cerebral palsy occurred during the perinatal period, it is now considered that perinatal causes account for less than 10% of people with cerebral palsy. (patient.info)
- Singer L, Yamashita T, Lilien L, Collin M, Baley J. A longitudinal study of developmental outcome of infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and very low birth weight. (jamanetwork.com)
- If we see a study by Erenkranz, growth of preterm in gm per kg per day and how it affects the long term outcome and worst, Cerebral palsy. (medchrome.com)
- Neurodevelopmental outcome and growth at 18 to 22 months' corrected age in extremely low birth weight infants treated with early erythropoietin and iron. (qxmd.com)
- DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Statistical analyses included typical risk ratio (RR), risk difference (RD), weighted mean difference (WMD), number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) or an additional harmful outcome (NNTH), all with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and the I2 statistic to examine for statistical heterogeneity. (bvsalud.org)
- We speculate that with increased understanding of caffeine and its metabolism, a more refined respiratory management of preterm infants is feasible, leading to an overall improvement in patient outcome. (ersjournals.com)
- The primary outcome, any peri/intraventricular hemorrhage documented on ultrasound, occurred in 34 of 90 infants in the treatment group and 31 of 90 infants in the control group (p value not reported, no significant difference). (ebneo.org)
- Ten days of hydrocortisone has now been shown to reduce BPD, decrease PDA ligations and importantly in the most vulnerable of our infants improve their developmental outcome. (allthingsneonatal.com)
- Currently, premature infant mortality rates are reducing significantly. (annexpublishers.co)
- Preterm infants with mild hyaline membrane disease require a more aggressive approach to weaning on both modes of ventilation, followed by extubation to limit the risk of hypocarbia. (bmj.com)
- In any NICU, there are lot of premature, very low birth weight babies, cases of NEC, surgical abdomens and much more going on. (medchrome.com)
- To help with the transition, the medical home clinician ideally would communicate with parents and the NICU staff, or visit with the infant, prior to NICU discharge. (medicalhomeportal.org)
- In the following study, we sought to describe the epidemiology of CoNS infection in the NICU and determine the mortality for infants with definite, probable, or possible CoNS infection in a large cohort of infants. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- It's very stressful when your infant is admitted to the NICU. (akronchildrens.org)
- With equipment designed for infants and a hospital staff who have special training in newborn care, the NICU is an intensive care unit created for sick newborns who need specialized treatment. (akronchildrens.org)
- Only very young babies (or babies with a condition linked to being born prematurely) are treated in the NICU - they're usually infants who haven't gone home from the hospital yet after being born. (akronchildrens.org)
- The infants born at 24-25 weeks are certainly some of our highest risk infants in the NICU. (allthingsneonatal.com)
- 34 weeks) with diagnosis of RDS who were admitted to the NICU of Arash hospital in Tehran, soon after birth. (kowsarpub.com)
- Examination findings were consistent with a spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy with asymmetry (more prominent right-sided deficits). (medscape.com)
- CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that NSC-like cells are safe and effective for the treatment of motor deficits related to cerebral palsy. (stem-cell-center.com)
- Survival of preterm infants has improved in the last decades thanks to advances in ventilation strategies, preterm nutrition and behavioral adaptation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Transfusion of Prematures (TOP) Trial: Does a Liberal Red Blood Cell Transfusion Strategy Improve Neurologically-Intact Survival of Extremely-Low-Birth-Weight Infants as Compared to a Restrictive Strategy? (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Recent reports have documented a leveling-off of survival rates in preterm infants through the 1990's. (biomedcentral.com)
- The reasons for increasing morbidities and recent lack of improvement in survival rates of preterm infants have not been conclusively explained. (biomedcentral.com)
- Increased survival rates for extremely preterm, extremely low birth weight infants during the postsurfactant era have been reported, but data on changes in neurosensory and developmental impairments are sparse. (qxmd.com)
- Improved survival rates with increased neurodevelopmental disability for extremely low birth weight infants in the 1990s. (qxmd.com)
- First year survival was 15.5% for infants with a birth weight less than 500g. (medscape.com)
- Improved survival following extreme preterm birth complicated by bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is resulting in an increasing number of affected infants surviving to adulthood. (ersjournals.com)
- It is important for improving the survival rate of very low birth weight infants and reducing the occurrence of sequelae. (scirp.org)
- Research data at home and abroad shows that survival of very low birth weight infants have different degrees of cerebral palsy. (scirp.org)
- The centralization of care for high-risk pregnancies, delaying preterm birth (tocolytic agents) in order to administer corticosteroids for fetal lung maturation, antibiotic treatment for infection, improved ventilation and circulation support, and exogenous surfactant administration significantly aided to improving survival of preterm newborns. (infantools.com)
- Steroid dose and timing of exposure beyond 7 days was assessed among 2358 extremely low birth weight infants nested in a prospective trial, with 1667 (84%) survivors examined at 18 to 22 months' postmenstrual age. (aappublications.org)
- Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), defined as room air oxygen saturation of less than 90% at 36 weeks postmenstrual age using the NRN standard physiologic definition of BPD. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is diagnosed based on the need for supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- Infants are now diagnosed with BPD if they need supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA). (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- For 50-75% of children with cerebral palsy, the causative lesion occurs between 24 weeks of postmenstrual age and term. (patient.info)
- 70, cerebral palsy, blindness, or deafness). (rti.org)
- Such infants often require invasive ventilation for reasons other than surfactant deficiency. (springer.com)
- surfactant used within two hours of birth or early nasal continuous positive airway pressure. (bmj.com)
- CUROSURF is an extract of natural porcine lung surfactant consisting of 99% polar lipids (mainly phospholipids) and 1% hydrophobic low molecular weight proteins (surfactant associated proteins SP-B and SP-C). (rxlist.com)
- One studied infants at 48 hours 9 and the other prior to surfactant administration. (bmj.com)
- Two small studies 11 12 conducted in the presurfactant and a third 13 in the surfactant era showed significantly lower P co 2 levels in infants switched over from conventional to trigger ventilation. (bmj.com)
Preterm infants include1
- Strategies to improve the success rate of non-invasive ventilation in preterm infants include pharmacological treatment of AOP. (ersjournals.com)
- Neurological monitoring in critically ill infants. (stanford.edu)
- The presence of Grade 3 or 4 intraventricular haemorrhage or necrotising enterocolitis increased the risk of cerebral palsy, while magnesium sulphate for threatened preterm labour decreased the risk in the surviving neonate. (racgp.org.au)
- 2013 Jan 26;11:21 Authors: Chen G, Wang Y, Xu Z, Fang F, Xu R, Wang Y, Hu X, Fan L, Liu H Abstract BACKGROUND: Stem cell therapy is a promising treatment for cerebral palsy, which refers to a category of brain diseases that are associated with chronic motor disability in children. (stem-cell-center.com)
Children with cerebral palsy1
- children with cerebral palsy may have an early period of hypotonia followed by hypertonia. (medscape.com)
- The immaturity of the premature brain may further predispose these infants to death or the development of neurologic problems. (stanford.edu)
- Infants born extremely prematurely are also at high risk for IVH. (nature.com)
- Women who have had 1 infant born prematurely are at higher risk for a second premature infant. (medicalhomeportal.org)
- Additionally, women born prematurely have an increased risk of delivering their infant prematurely. (medicalhomeportal.org)
- The most salient genetic risk factor for premature delivery is that women who have had one infant born prematurely are at higher risk for a second premature infant. (medicalhomeportal.org)
- Conclusion: Energy and protein intake was diminished in prematurely born infants with hsPDA when fluid was restricted after diagnosis. (diva-portal.org)
- METHODS: We examined 112 anterior-posterior chest X-rays from intubated infants and determined the carina's vertebral projection, whenever possible. (bvsalud.org)
- Elective single embryo transfer (eSET) is among the most effective methods to reduce the risk of multiple births with IVF. (biomedcentral.com)
- Almost all babies born at 30 weeks or less will have apnea, but apnea spells become less frequent as the premature infant gets closer to term (the baby's original due date at 39 weeks). (akronchildrens.org)