A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
Plantar declination of the foot.
Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.
Performance of complex motor acts.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.
Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)
Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.
A dyskinesia characterized by an inability to maintain the fingers, toes, tongue, or other body parts in a stable position, resulting in continuous slow, sinusoidal, and flowing involuntary movements. This condition is frequently accompanied by CHOREA, where it is referred to as choreoathetosis. Athetosis may occur as a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES or DRUG TOXICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p76)
Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
Manner or style of walking.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Gait abnormalities that are a manifestation of nervous system dysfunction. These conditions may be caused by a wide variety of disorders which affect motor control, sensory feedback, and muscle strength including: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or MUSCULAR DISEASES.
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)
Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)
Increased salivary flow.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Displacement of the femur bone from its normal position at the HIP JOINT.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
Veins draining the cerebrum.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
A motor neuron disease marked by progressive weakness of the muscles innervated by cranial nerves of the lower brain stem. Clinical manifestations include dysarthria, dysphagia, facial weakness, tongue weakness, and fasciculations of the tongue and facial muscles. The adult form of the disease is marked initially by bulbar weakness which progresses to involve motor neurons throughout the neuroaxis. Eventually this condition may become indistinguishable from AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS. Fazio-Londe syndrome is an inherited form of this illness which occurs in children and young adults. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1091; Brain 1992 Dec;115(Pt 6):1889-1900)
Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.
Monitoring of FETAL HEART frequency before birth in order to assess impending prematurity in relation to the pattern or intensity of antepartum UTERINE CONTRACTION.
Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)
Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Permanent fixation of the hip in primary positions, with limited passive or active motion at the hip joint. Locomotion is difficult and pain is sometimes present when the hip is in motion. It may be caused by trauma, infection, or poliomyelitis. (From Current Medical Information & Technology, 5th ed)
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
'Infant, Premature, Diseases' refers to health conditions or abnormalities that specifically affect babies born before 37 weeks of gestation, often resulting from their immature organ systems and increased vulnerability due to preterm birth.
Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.
A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)
Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.
Therapy assisted by the use of a horse and/or its movement, including equine-assisted psychotherapy, horseback riding, and hippotherapy.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and the endosomal-lysosomal system.
The position or attitude of the body.
Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.
Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decreases the frequency and force of contractions. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1083)
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Diseases of the fourth cranial (trochlear) nerve or its nucleus in the midbrain. The nerve crosses as it exits the midbrain dorsally and may be injured along its course through the intracranial space, cavernous sinus, superior orbital fissure, or orbit. Clinical manifestations include weakness of the superior oblique muscle which causes vertical DIPLOPIA that is maximal when the affected eye is adducted and directed inferiorly. Head tilt may be seen as a compensatory mechanism for diplopia and rotation of the visual axis. Common etiologies include CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
Drugs that prevent preterm labor and immature birth by suppressing uterine contractions (TOCOLYSIS). Agents used to delay premature uterine activity include magnesium sulfate, beta-mimetics, oxytocin antagonists, calcium channel inhibitors, and adrenergic beta-receptor agonists. The use of intravenous alcohol as a tocolytic is now obsolete.
Abnormalities of motor function that are associated with organic and non-organic cognitive disorders.
Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.
The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
A nonreassuring fetal status (NRFS) indicating that the FETUS is compromised (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 1988). It can be identified by sub-optimal values in FETAL HEART RATE; oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD; and other parameters.
The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
The administration of medication by insertion of a tiny needle or catheter into the spinal sac or epidural cavity.
Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The morphologic and physiological changes of the MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body, i.e., MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, during the prenatal and postnatal stages of development.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.

Predicting the outcome of adductor tenotomy. (1/1174)

This study reviewed 57 hips in 30 children (18 girls and 12 boys) with cerebral palsy who had undergone an adductor tenotomy alone or in combination with an anterior obturator neurectomy (23 hips). Results were evaluated by the Reimers migration percentage (MP). The hips were split into three groups: group A (12 hips) a preoperative MP of less than 20%, group B (25 hips) between 20 and 40%, and group C (20 hips) more than 40%. The mean age at the time of surgery was 6 years and 1 month (range: 2.5-13 years). The mean period of review was 6 years and 3 months (2-20 years). The results were considered as "good" when radiographs at the longest follow-up showed a decrease of > 10% of the MP, as "bad" when they showed an increase of > 10%, and as "stable" when the MPs varied less than 10%. At the latest review of group A, 11 were stable (92%) and 1 was bad. In group B, 12 were stable (48%), 7 were good (28%), and 6 were bad (24%). In group C, 7 were stable (35%), and 13 were bad (65%). The preoperative migration percentage provided to be the only predictor of outcome. Age at the time of surgery had no constant significant effect on the outcome, neither had the addition of an anterior neurectomy.  (+info)

Can routine information systems be used to monitor serious disability? (2/1174)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether reliable birth cohort prevalence rates of disabling conditions in early childhood can be obtained from child health information systems. DESIGN: Comparison of two sources of information on motor and sensory disabilities: from child health information systems held by health authorities, and a population register that uses multiple sources of ascertainment. SETTING: The counties of Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire, and Northamptonshire. PARTICIPANTS: Children born to residents of the three counties between 1984 and 1989. RESULTS: Eight hundred and twenty children (6.0/1000 live births) were identified from the child health system as having one or more of the conditions, and 580 (4.2/1000 live births) were identified from the population register; however, only 284 children were identified by both sources. CONCLUSIONS: It is currently impossible to monitor trends in the prevalence rate of disabling disorders in childhood using the child health information systems. Agreement about ways of collecting, recording, and collating information on disability would be a useful step towards realising the full potential of these systems.  (+info)

Trends in incidence of cranial ultrasound lesions and cerebral palsy in very low birthweight infants 1982-93. (3/1174)

AIM: To evaluate the effects of changing perinatal practice on outcome in terms of cranial ultrasound appearances and subsequent cerebral palsy rates in survivors. METHODS: A tertiary neonatal centre based prospective cohort study was undertaken of very low birthweight infants, in three 4 year periods: 1982-5, 1986-9, 1990-3. Rates of survival, parenchymal cerebral haemorrhage (PH), and leucomalacia on cerebral ultrasound scans, and cerebral palsy (CP) at the age of 3 years were compared. Antenatal steroid prophylaxis and postnatal surfactant use were also compared. RESULTS: VLBW infants (1722) were admitted over the 12 years, of whom 1268 (73.6%) were discharged home. Neonatal survival increased significantly over the three periods (69.2%, 72.9%, 79.7%; p < 0.0001). PH declined from 14.9% to 10.5% (p = 0.032) after 1990 as did CP rate (10.9% to 7.3%; p = 0.046). The use of antenatal steroids and postnatal surfactant greatly increased during this period. Steroid use was significantly associated with increased survival (OR 3.34, 2.31-4.79), decreased PH (OR 0.44, 0.28-0.71), and decreased risk of CP in survivors (OR 0.47, 0.27-0.81) after standardising for gestation, birthweight, sex, place and mode of delivery. Similar effects for surfactant did not remain significant after steroid use had been accounted for. CONCLUSION: Improved survival in VLBW infants since 1990 has been accompanied by a fall in PH and subsequent CP rates in survivors. This change is most likely to be due to the greater use of antenatal steroid prophylaxis.  (+info)

Outcome of very severe birth asphyxia. (4/1174)

The aim of this study was to establish the outcome of very severe birth asphyxia in a group of babies intensively resuscitated at birth. 48 infants, born between 1966 and 1971 inclusive, were selected; 15 were apparently stillborn and 33 had not established spontaneous respirations by 20 minutes after birth. One-half of them died, but 3 to 7 years later three-quarters of the survivors are apparently normal. Later handicap was associated with factors leading to prolonged partial intrapartum asphyxia, while acute periods of more complete asphyxia were not necessarily harmful.  (+info)

Kinematic and qualitative analysis of lower-extremity movements in preterm infants with brain lesions. (5/1174)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effects of preterm birth, severe brain lesions, and postterm age on kicking movements of young infants and to compare the prognostic value of kinematic analysis of kicking with a qualitative assessment of infants' spontaneous movements. SUBJECTS: The subjects were 12 full-term infants without brain injury, 12 low-risk preterm infants without brain injury, and 11 preterm infants with severe brain lesions (periventricular leukomalacia). METHODS: Videotape recordings of each infant's motor behavior in a supine position were made at 1 and 3 months postterm age. Kicking frequency, temporal organization of the kick cycle, coordination among different joints, and interlimb coordination were measured. A qualitative assessment for lower-extremity movements and a Gestalt judgment of general movement quality according to Prechtl's method were made from the same videotape recordings. RESULTS: Kinematic analysis showed only mild differences among the 3 groups of infants. Qualitative assessment of the lower-extremity movements, however, showed that preterm infants with brain lesions, and particularly those who later were found to have cerebral palsy, consistently had fewer segmental movements of the foot and abnormal general movements at both ages. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: The data suggest that the mechanisms responsible for kicking movements in newborns and young infants do not appear to be influenced by the extrauterine environment or by brain lesions, at least at the ages studied. Qualitative assessment of lower-extremity and general movements seems to be more appropriate for clinical purposes.  (+info)

Prospective evaluation of perinatal risk factors for cerebral palsy and delayed development in high risk infants. (6/1174)

Prematurity, intrauterine infection and perinatal brain injury have been reported to be significant risk factors of cerebral palsy (CP). We examined the perinatal predictors of cerebral palsy and delayed development (DD) in 184 high risk infants. Thirty-five infants were diagnosed as cerebral palsy and delayed development at 12 months corrected age. Antenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal factors were prospectively evaluated in 2 groups of high risk infants compared with controls; Group A (n = 79), infants weighing less than 2,000 g; Group B (n = 43), infants weighing 2,000 g or more. In univariate analysis, there were no significant antenatal and intrapartum factors associated with cerebral palsy and delayed development in either group. We found that significant postnatal risk factors of CP in group A included sepsis (p = 0.008), BPD (bronchopulmonary dysplasia) (p = 0.028), IVH (intraventricular hemorrhage) (p = 0.042), ventriculomegaly (VM) (p = 0.001) and a longer duration of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.001); while in group B, sepsis (p = 0.047) and neonatal seizure (p = 0.027) were significant risk factors. In multivariate analysis, sepsis in group B was a moderate risk factor of CP (OR (odds ratio) 1.47; 95% CI (confidence interval) 1.02-2.13). In conclusion, neonatal sepsis may contribute to the development of cerebral palsy and delayed development. We suggest that high risk infants who have sepsis should be carefully followed for cerebral palsy and delayed development. The prevention of cerebral palsy may be feasible by decreasing neonatal risk factors such as sepsis during the neonatal period.  (+info)

Cause of death in cerebral palsy: a descriptive study. (7/1174)

BACKGROUND: Cause specific research on death certification in chronic disease has rarely involved cerebral palsy. AIMS: To evaluate cause of death information in people known to have cerebral palsy by: describing the cause of death distribution; determining case ascertainment using death certification as the data source; and analysing the choice of wording and its arrangement in the "cause of death statement". STUDY CASES AND SETTING: People with early or late impairment cerebral palsy who died by 30 June 1998, on the population based Mersey Cerebral Palsy Register born 1966-91 to mothers resident locally. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study of the multiply coded cause of death statements from National Health Service Central Register flagging. RESULTS: Death certificate copies were acquired for all 282 (13.4%) of the 2102 registered cases who died. Cerebral palsy was the most common "underlying cause of death" (95 of 282; 33.7%) and was mentioned in a further 61 cases. The underlying cause of death was more likely to be cerebral palsy with increasingly severe disability and was derived from Part II in 16 of 95 cases. CONCLUSIONS: The potential of death certification for case ascertainment of cerebral palsy is important, but limited, even with multiple cause coding. Mortality data need careful interpretation as a proxy source for examining trends and patterns in cerebral palsy.  (+info)

Prevalence of cerebral palsy in China. (8/1174)

BACKGROUND: A population-based study on the prevalence of cerebral palsy has not been previously carried out in China. The purpose of the present paper was to determine the overall and birthweight-specific prevalence of cerebral palsy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of cerebral palsy was carried out among 388192 children aged <7 years in seven cities of Jiangsu province in China from May to July 1997. Information about birthweight was obtained from routine health care records. Doctors from township and city hospitals examined all eligible children and doctors at city level finally diagnosed all cases. All the doctors involved had taken part in a training programme held by Beijing Medical University in April 1997. RESULTS: The total prevalence of cerebral palsy was 1.6 per 1000 children and the birthweight-adjusted prevalence 2.8 per 1000 children (using Australia's neonatal survivors 1994 as a standard population). The overall neonatal mortality rate was 6.8 per 1000 live births, being highest (581.1 per 1000) in the 1000-1499 g birthweight group. The birthweight-specific cerebral palsy prevalence ranged from 0.8 per 1000 children in children weighing 3750-3999 g to 67.3 in children weighing 1500-1749 g. Children weighing 3500-3999 g at birth were at the lowest risk of cerebral palsy. In a given low birthweight group the prevalence of cerebral palsy in China was higher than that in developed countries even though this study was unable to include those who died at risk of, or with cerebral palsy. However, the prevalence of cerebral palsy at normal birthweight was almost the same as that in developed countries. In all, about 2% of all children were of low birthweight (<2500 g), with those weighing <1500 g accounting for about 0.02%. Children weighing <2500 g at birth contributed 24% of all cerebral palsy cases with 99% in the group 1500-2499 g. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of cerebral palsy for children aged <7 years is 1.6 per 1000 children. It is estimated that there are 310000 children with cerebral palsy in China and as the survival of low birthweight infants improves the prevalence of cerebral palsy will rise. Survival of low birthweight infants is lower in China than in developed countries and our findings suggest the survival quality of these Chinese children needs to be improved and that intrapartum and neonatal antecedents might play an important role in the aetiology of cerebral palsy compared to developed countries.  (+info)

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and maintain balance and posture. According to the Mayo Clinic, CP is caused by abnormal brain development or damage to the developing brain that affects a child's ability to control movement.

The symptoms of cerebral palsy can vary in severity and may include:

* Spasticity (stiff or tight muscles)
* Rigidity (resistance to passive movement)
* Poor coordination and balance
* Weakness or paralysis
* Tremors or involuntary movements
* Abnormal gait or difficulty walking
* Difficulty with fine motor skills, such as writing or using utensils
* Speech and language difficulties
* Vision, hearing, or swallowing problems

It's important to note that cerebral palsy is not a progressive condition, meaning that it does not worsen over time. However, the symptoms may change over time, and some individuals with CP may experience additional medical conditions as they age.

Cerebral palsy is usually caused by brain damage that occurs before or during birth, but it can also be caused by brain injuries that occur in the first few years of life. Some possible causes of cerebral palsy include:

* Infections during pregnancy
* Lack of oxygen to the brain during delivery
* Traumatic head injury during birth
* Brain bleeding or stroke in the newborn period
* Genetic disorders
* Maternal illness or infection during pregnancy

There is no cure for cerebral palsy, but early intervention and treatment can help improve outcomes and quality of life. Treatment may include physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, medications to manage symptoms, surgery, and assistive devices such as braces or wheelchairs.

Bell palsy is a peripheral facial nerve palsy, which means that it is a weakness or paralysis of the facial nerves (cranial nerve VII) that causes sudden asymmetric weakness on one side of the face. The symptoms can vary from mild to severe and may include:

* Sudden weakness or paralysis on one side of the face
* Drooping of the mouth, causing difficulty with smiling, eating, drinking, or speaking
* Inability to close one eye
* Dryness of the eye and mouth
* Changes in taste sensation
* Discomfort around the jaw and behind the ear
* Headache
* Increased sensitivity to sound

The exact cause of Bell palsy is not known, but it is believed to be related to inflammation or swelling of the facial nerve. It may also be associated with viral infections such as herpes simplex virus or HIV. In most cases, Bell palsy resolves on its own within a few weeks to months, although some people may experience residual symptoms such as facial weakness or asymmetry. Treatment typically involves corticosteroids and antiviral medications, which can help reduce inflammation and speed up recovery.

Cerebral arteries refer to the blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the brain. These arteries branch off from the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries, which combine to form the basilar artery. The major cerebral arteries include:

1. Anterior cerebral artery (ACA): This artery supplies blood to the frontal lobes of the brain, including the motor and sensory cortices responsible for movement and sensation in the lower limbs.
2. Middle cerebral artery (MCA): The MCA is the largest of the cerebral arteries and supplies blood to the lateral surface of the brain, including the temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. It is responsible for providing blood to areas involved in motor function, sensory perception, speech, memory, and vision.
3. Posterior cerebral artery (PCA): The PCA supplies blood to the occipital lobe, which is responsible for visual processing, as well as parts of the temporal and parietal lobes.
4. Anterior communicating artery (ACoA) and posterior communicating arteries (PComAs): These are small arteries that connect the major cerebral arteries, forming an important circulatory network called the Circle of Willis. The ACoA connects the two ACAs, while the PComAs connect the ICA with the PCA and the basilar artery.

These cerebral arteries play a crucial role in maintaining proper brain function by delivering oxygenated blood to various regions of the brain. Any damage or obstruction to these arteries can lead to serious neurological conditions, such as strokes or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs).

Muscle spasticity is a motor disorder characterized by an involuntary increase in muscle tone, leading to stiffness and difficulty in moving muscles. It is often seen in people with damage to the brain or spinal cord, such as those with cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, or spinal cord injuries.

In muscle spasticity, the muscles may contract excessively, causing rigid limbs, awkward movements, and abnormal postures. The severity of muscle spasticity can vary from mild stiffness to severe contractures that limit mobility and function.

Muscle spasticity is caused by an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory signals in the central nervous system, leading to overactivity of the alpha motor neurons that control muscle contraction. This can result in hyperreflexia (overactive reflexes), clonus (rapid, rhythmic muscle contractions), and flexor or extensor spasms.

Effective management of muscle spasticity may involve a combination of physical therapy, medication, surgery, or other interventions to improve function, reduce pain, and prevent complications such as contractures and pressure sores.

Cerebral infarction, also known as a "stroke" or "brain attack," is the sudden death of brain cells caused by the interruption of their blood supply. It is most commonly caused by a blockage in one of the blood vessels supplying the brain (an ischemic stroke), but can also result from a hemorrhage in or around the brain (a hemorrhagic stroke).

Ischemic strokes occur when a blood clot or other particle blocks a cerebral artery, cutting off blood flow to a part of the brain. The lack of oxygen and nutrients causes nearby brain cells to die. Hemorrhagic strokes occur when a weakened blood vessel ruptures, causing bleeding within or around the brain. This bleeding can put pressure on surrounding brain tissues, leading to cell death.

Symptoms of cerebral infarction depend on the location and extent of the affected brain tissue but may include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; loss of balance or coordination; and severe headache with no known cause. Immediate medical attention is crucial for proper diagnosis and treatment to minimize potential long-term damage or disability.

Equinus deformity is a condition in which the ankle remains in a permanently plantarflexed position, meaning that the toes are pointing downward. This limitation in motion can occur in one or both feet and can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired. Acquired equinus deformity can result from conditions such as cerebral palsy, stroke, trauma, or prolonged immobilization. The limited range of motion in the ankle can cause difficulty walking, pain, and abnormalities in gait. Treatment options for equinus deformity may include physical therapy, bracing, orthotic devices, or surgery.

Hemiplegia is a medical term that refers to paralysis affecting one side of the body. It is typically caused by damage to the motor center of the brain, such as from a stroke, head injury, or brain tumor. The symptoms can vary in severity but often include muscle weakness, stiffness, and difficulty with coordination and balance on the affected side. In severe cases, the individual may be unable to move or feel anything on that side of the body. Hemiplegia can also affect speech, vision, and other functions controlled by the damaged area of the brain. Rehabilitation therapy is often recommended to help individuals with hemiplegia regain as much function as possible.

Motor skills are defined as the abilities required to plan, control and execute physical movements. They involve a complex interplay between the brain, nerves, muscles, and the environment. Motor skills can be broadly categorized into two types: fine motor skills, which involve small, precise movements (such as writing or picking up small objects), and gross motor skills, which involve larger movements using the arms, legs, and torso (such as crawling, walking, or running).

Motor skills development is an essential aspect of child growth and development, and it continues to evolve throughout adulthood. Difficulties with motor skills can impact a person's ability to perform daily activities and can be associated with various neurological and musculoskeletal conditions.

Cerebrovascular circulation refers to the network of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood and nutrients to the brain tissue, and remove waste products. It includes the internal carotid arteries, vertebral arteries, circle of Willis, and the intracranial arteries that branch off from them.

The internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries merge to form the circle of Willis, a polygonal network of vessels located at the base of the brain. The anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, posterior cerebral artery, and communicating arteries are the major vessels that branch off from the circle of Willis and supply blood to different regions of the brain.

Interruptions or abnormalities in the cerebrovascular circulation can lead to various neurological conditions such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and vascular dementia.

The Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) is one of the main blood vessels that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. It arises from the internal carotid artery and divides into several branches, which supply the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere, including the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes.

The MCA is responsible for providing blood flow to critical areas of the brain, such as the primary motor and sensory cortices, Broca's area (associated with speech production), Wernicke's area (associated with language comprehension), and the visual association cortex.

Damage to the MCA or its branches can result in a variety of neurological deficits, depending on the specific location and extent of the injury. These may include weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, sensory loss, language impairment, and visual field cuts.

A disabled child is a child who has a physical, cognitive, or developmental condition that limits their ability to perform everyday tasks and activities. This limitation can be temporary or permanent and may range from mild to severe. According to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), a person with a disability is someone who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, has a record of such an impairment, or is regarded as having such an impairment.

Disabled children may face challenges in various areas of their lives, including mobility, communication, self-care, learning, and socialization. Some common examples of disabilities that affect children include cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, hearing or vision loss, and spina bifida.

It is important to note that disabled children have the same rights and entitlements as other children, and they should be given equal opportunities to participate in all aspects of society. This includes access to education, healthcare, social services, and community activities. With appropriate support and accommodations, many disabled children can lead fulfilling lives and reach their full potential.

Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a medical condition that refers to the damage and softening (leukomalacia) of white matter in the brain around the ventricles, which are fluid-filled spaces near the center of the brain. This damage primarily affects the preterm infants, particularly those born before 32 weeks of gestation and weighing less than 1500 grams.

PVL is caused by a decrease in blood flow and oxygen to the periventricular area of the brain, leading to the death of brain cells (infarction) and subsequent scarring (gliosis). The damage to the white matter can result in various neurological problems such as cerebral palsy, developmental delays, visual impairments, and hearing difficulties.

The severity of PVL can vary from mild to severe, with more severe cases resulting in significant neurological deficits. The diagnosis is typically made through imaging techniques like ultrasound, CT, or MRI scans. Currently, there is no specific treatment for PVL, and management focuses on addressing the symptoms and preventing further complications.

Facial paralysis is a loss of facial movement due to damage or dysfunction of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII). This nerve controls the muscles involved in facial expressions, such as smiling, frowning, and closing the eyes. Damage to one side of the facial nerve can cause weakness or paralysis on that side of the face.

Facial paralysis can result from various conditions, including:

1. Bell's palsy - an idiopathic (unknown cause) inflammation of the facial nerve
2. Trauma - skull fractures, facial injuries, or surgical trauma to the facial nerve
3. Infections - Lyme disease, herpes zoster (shingles), HIV/AIDS, or bacterial infections like meningitis
4. Tumors - benign or malignant growths that compress or invade the facial nerve
5. Stroke - damage to the brainstem where the facial nerve originates
6. Congenital conditions - some people are born with facial paralysis due to genetic factors or birth trauma

Symptoms of facial paralysis may include:

* Inability to move one or more parts of the face, such as the eyebrows, eyelids, mouth, or cheeks
* Drooping of the affected side of the face
* Difficulty closing the eye on the affected side
* Changes in saliva and tear production
* Altered sense of taste
* Pain around the ear or jaw
* Speech difficulties due to weakened facial muscles

Treatment for facial paralysis depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, such as Bell's palsy, spontaneous recovery may occur within a few weeks to months. However, physical therapy, medications, and surgical interventions might be necessary in other situations to improve function and minimize complications.

Athetosis is a medical term that describes a type of involuntary muscle movement. It is characterized by slow, writhing, and continuous movements that can affect the hands, feet, arms, or legs. These movements are not rhythmic and can be interrupted by other voluntary movements. Athetosis is often seen in individuals with certain neurological conditions, such as cerebral palsy or brain injury. It can also be a side effect of some medications. The exact cause of athetosis is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from damage to the basal ganglia, a part of the brain that helps regulate movement. Treatment for athetosis may include physical therapy, medication, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the symptoms.

Neuromuscular agents are drugs or substances that affect the function of the neuromuscular junction, which is the site where nerve impulses are transmitted to muscles. These agents can either enhance or inhibit the transmission of signals across the neuromuscular junction, leading to a variety of effects on muscle tone and activity.

Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are a type of neuromuscular agent that is commonly used in anesthesia and critical care settings to induce paralysis during intubation or mechanical ventilation. NMBAs can be classified into two main categories: depolarizing and non-depolarizing agents.

Depolarizing NMBAs, such as succinylcholine, work by activating the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, causing muscle contraction followed by paralysis. Non-depolarizing NMBAs, such as rocuronium and vecuronium, block the activation of these receptors, preventing muscle contraction and leading to paralysis.

Other types of neuromuscular agents include cholinesterase inhibitors, which increase the levels of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction and can be used to reverse the effects of NMBAs, and botulinum toxin, which is a potent neurotoxin that inhibits the release of acetylcholine from nerve terminals and is used in the treatment of various neurological disorders.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Muscle hypertonia is a term used to describe an increased tone or tension in the muscles, which can be caused by various medical conditions. This state leads to a reduced ability to stretch the muscle fully, and it may interfere with normal movement. The two main types of muscle hypertonia are spasticity and rigidity.

1. Spasticity: It is a velocity-dependent increase in muscle tone, which means that the resistance to passive movement increases as the speed of the movement increases. This type of hypertonia is often associated with upper motor neuron lesions, such as those caused by stroke, spinal cord injury, or multiple sclerosis.
2. Rigidity: It is a constant and non-velocity dependent increase in muscle tone, meaning that the resistance to passive movement remains consistent regardless of the speed. This type of hypertonia can be seen in conditions like Parkinson's disease.

It is essential to diagnose and manage muscle hypertonia effectively to prevent complications such as contractures, pain, and decreased functional abilities. Treatment options may include physical therapy, medications (like antispasticity agents), orthoses, or surgical interventions in severe cases.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Developmental disabilities are a group of conditions that arise in childhood and are characterized by significant impairments in cognitive functioning, physical development, or both. These disabilities can affect various areas of an individual's life, including their ability to learn, communicate, socialize, and take care of themselves.

Examples of developmental disabilities include intellectual disabilities, cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorder, Down syndrome, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. These conditions are typically diagnosed in childhood and can persist throughout an individual's life.

The causes of developmental disabilities are varied and can include genetic factors, environmental influences, and complications during pregnancy or childbirth. In some cases, the exact cause may be unknown.

It is important to note that individuals with developmental disabilities have unique strengths and abilities, as well as challenges. With appropriate support and services, they can lead fulfilling lives and participate actively in their communities.

Quadriplegia, also known as tetraplegia, is a medical condition characterized by paralysis affecting all four limbs and the trunk of the body. It results from damage to the cervical spinal cord, typically at levels C1-C8, which controls signals to the muscles in the arms, hands, trunk, legs, and pelvic organs. The extent of quadriplegia can vary widely, ranging from weakness to complete loss of movement and sensation below the level of injury. Other symptoms may include difficulty breathing, bowel and bladder dysfunction, and sexual dysfunction. The severity and prognosis depend on the location and extent of the spinal cord injury.

Botulinum toxins type A are neurotoxins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. These toxins act by blocking the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, leading to muscle paralysis. Botulinum toxin type A is used in medical treatments for various conditions characterized by muscle spasticity or excessive muscle activity, such as cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, strabismus, and chronic migraine. It is also used cosmetically to reduce the appearance of wrinkles by temporarily paralyzing the muscles that cause them. The commercial forms of botulinum toxin type A include Botox, Dysport, and Xeomin.

Gait is a medical term used to describe the pattern of movement of the limbs during walking or running. It includes the manner or style of walking, including factors such as rhythm, speed, and step length. A person's gait can provide important clues about their physical health and neurological function, and abnormalities in gait may indicate the presence of underlying medical conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders, orthopedic problems, or injuries.

A typical human gait cycle involves two main phases: the stance phase, during which the foot is in contact with the ground, and the swing phase, during which the foot is lifted and moved forward in preparation for the next step. The gait cycle can be further broken down into several sub-phases, including heel strike, foot flat, midstance, heel off, and toe off.

Gait analysis is a specialized field of study that involves observing and measuring a person's gait pattern using various techniques, such as video recordings, force plates, and motion capture systems. This information can be used to diagnose and treat gait abnormalities, improve mobility and function, and prevent injuries.

Cerebral angiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the blood vessels in the brain after injecting a contrast dye into them. This procedure helps doctors to diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the blood vessels in the brain, such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and stenosis (narrowing of the blood vessels).

During the procedure, a catheter is inserted into an artery in the leg and threaded through the body to the blood vessels in the neck or brain. The contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken to visualize the blood flow through the brain's blood vessels.

Cerebral angiography provides detailed images of the blood vessels in the brain, allowing doctors to identify any abnormalities or blockages that may be causing symptoms or increasing the risk of stroke. Based on the results of the cerebral angiography, doctors can develop a treatment plan to address these issues and prevent further complications.

A gait disorder is a disturbance in the ability to walk that can't be attributed to physical disabilities such as weakness or paralysis. Neurologic gait disorders are those specifically caused by underlying neurological conditions. These disorders can result from damage to the brain, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves that disrupts communication between the muscles and the brain.

Neurologic gait disorders can present in various ways, including:

1. **Spastic Gait:** This is a stiff, foot-dragging walk caused by increased muscle tone (hypertonia) and stiffness (spasticity). It's often seen in conditions like cerebral palsy or multiple sclerosis.

2. **Ataxic Gait:** This is a broad-based, unsteady, and irregular walk caused by damage to the cerebellum, which affects balance and coordination. Conditions such as cerebellar atrophy or stroke can cause this type of gait disorder.

3. **Parkinsonian Gait:** This is a shuffling walk with small steps, flexed knees, and difficulty turning. It's often seen in Parkinson's disease.

4. **Neuropathic Gait:** This is a high-stepping walk caused by foot drop (difficulty lifting the front part of the foot), which results from damage to the peripheral nerves. Conditions such as diabetic neuropathy or Guillain-Barre syndrome can cause this type of gait disorder.

5. **Choreic Gait:** This is an irregular, dance-like walk caused by involuntary movements (chorea) seen in conditions like Huntington's disease.

6. **Mixed Gait:** Sometimes, a person may exhibit elements of more than one type of gait disorder.

The specific type of gait disorder can provide important clues about the underlying neurological condition and help guide diagnosis and treatment.

Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) infarction is a type of ischemic stroke that occurs when there is an obstruction in the blood supply to the middle cerebral artery, which is one of the major blood vessels that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. The MCA supplies blood to a large portion of the brain, including the motor and sensory cortex, parts of the temporal and parietal lobes, and the basal ganglia.

An infarction is the death of tissue due to the lack of blood supply, which can lead to damage or loss of function in the affected areas of the brain. Symptoms of MCA infarction may include weakness or numbness on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, and altered levels of consciousness.

MCA infarctions can be caused by various factors, including embolism (a blood clot that travels to the brain from another part of the body), thrombosis (a blood clot that forms in the MCA itself), or stenosis (narrowing of the artery due to atherosclerosis or other conditions). Treatment for MCA infarction may include medications to dissolve blood clots, surgery to remove the obstruction, or rehabilitation to help regain lost function.

Cerebral malaria is a severe form of malaria that affects the brain. It is caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasites, which are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. In cerebral malaria, the parasites infect and destroy red blood cells, leading to their accumulation in small blood vessels in the brain. This can cause swelling of the brain, impaired consciousness, seizures, coma, and even death if left untreated.

The medical definition of cerebral malaria is:

A severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasites that affects the brain and results in altered mental status, seizures, coma, or other neurological symptoms. It is characterized by the sequestration of infected red blood cells in the cerebral microvasculature, leading to inflammation, endothelial activation, and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Cerebral malaria can cause long-term neurological deficits or death if not promptly diagnosed and treated with appropriate antimalarial therapy.

Motor skills disorders are conditions that affect a person's ability to perform coordinated movements. These movements can be simple, such as buttoning a shirt, or complex, such as playing a musical instrument. Motor skills disorders can make it difficult for a person to perform everyday activities and can impact their quality of life.

There are two main types of motor skills: fine motor skills and gross motor skills. Fine motor skills involve the small movements of the hands, fingers, and wrists, such as writing or using utensils. Gross motor skills involve larger movements of the arms, legs, and torso, such as crawling, walking, or running.

Motor skills disorders can affect either fine or gross motor skills, or both. Some common types of motor skills disorders include:

* Developmental coordination disorder (DCD): a condition that affects a child's ability to perform coordinated movements and is often diagnosed in early childhood. Children with DCD may have difficulty with tasks such as tying their shoes, buttoning their clothes, or using scissors.
* Cerebral palsy: a group of disorders that affect movement and muscle tone, caused by damage to the brain before, during, or after birth. Cerebral palsy can cause stiff or floppy muscles, uncontrolled movements, and difficulty with balance and coordination.
* Dyspraxia: a condition that affects a person's ability to plan and perform coordinated movements. People with dyspraxia may have difficulty with tasks such as writing, buttoning their clothes, or playing sports.
* Ataxia: a group of disorders that affect coordination and balance, caused by damage to the cerebellum (the part of the brain that controls movement). Ataxia can cause unsteady gait, poor coordination, and difficulty with fine motor tasks.

Motor skills disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, injury, illness, or developmental delays. Treatment for motor skills disorders may include physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and medication. In some cases, surgery may also be necessary to treat the underlying cause of the disorder.

Sialorrhea is the medical term for excessive drooling or saliva production. It's not necessarily a condition where the person produces too much saliva, but rather, they are unable to control the normal amount of saliva in their mouth due to various reasons such as neurological disorders, developmental disabilities, or structural issues that affect swallowing and oral motor function.

Common causes include cerebral palsy, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Down syndrome, stroke, intellectual disability, and certain medications. Treatment options vary depending on the cause and severity of the condition and may include medication adjustments, behavioral interventions, oral devices, or even surgical procedures in severe cases.

A cerebral hemorrhage, also known as an intracranial hemorrhage or intracerebral hemorrhage, is a type of stroke that results from bleeding within the brain tissue. It occurs when a weakened blood vessel bursts and causes localized bleeding in the brain. This bleeding can increase pressure in the skull, damage nearby brain cells, and release toxic substances that further harm brain tissues.

Cerebral hemorrhages are often caused by chronic conditions like hypertension (high blood pressure) or cerebral amyloid angiopathy, which weakens the walls of blood vessels over time. Other potential causes include trauma, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, illicit drug use, and brain tumors. Symptoms may include sudden headache, weakness, numbness, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, loss of balance, and altered level of consciousness. Immediate medical attention is required to diagnose and manage cerebral hemorrhage through imaging techniques, supportive care, and possible surgical interventions.

A hip dislocation is a medical emergency that occurs when the head of the femur (thighbone) slips out of its socket in the pelvis. This can happen due to high-energy trauma, such as a car accident or a severe fall. Hip dislocations can also occur in people with certain health conditions that make their hips more prone to displacement, such as developmental dysplasia of the hip.

There are two main types of hip dislocations: posterior and anterior. In a posterior dislocation, the femur head moves out of the back of the socket, which is the most common type. In an anterior dislocation, the femur head moves out of the front of the socket. Both types of hip dislocations can cause severe pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected leg.

Immediate medical attention is necessary for a hip dislocation to realign the bones and prevent further damage. Treatment typically involves sedation or anesthesia to relax the muscles around the joint, followed by a closed reduction procedure to gently guide the femur head back into the socket. In some cases, surgery may be required to repair any associated injuries, such as fractures or damaged ligaments. After treatment, physical therapy and rehabilitation are usually necessary to restore strength, mobility, and function to the affected hip joint.

Movement disorders are a group of neurological conditions that affect the control and coordination of voluntary movements. These disorders can result from damage to or dysfunction of the cerebellum, basal ganglia, or other parts of the brain that regulate movement. Symptoms may include tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), akathisia (restlessness and inability to remain still), dystonia (sustained muscle contractions leading to abnormal postures), chorea (rapid, unpredictable movements), tics, and gait disturbances. Examples of movement disorders include Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette syndrome, and dystonic disorders.

Cerebral veins are the blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the brain to the dural venous sinuses, which are located between the layers of tissue covering the brain. The largest cerebral vein is the superior sagittal sinus, which runs along the top of the brain. Other major cerebral veins include the straight sinus, transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, and cavernous sinus. These veins receive blood from smaller veins called venules that drain the surface and deep structures of the brain. The cerebral veins play an important role in maintaining normal circulation and pressure within the brain.

Brain ischemia is the medical term used to describe a reduction or interruption of blood flow to the brain, leading to a lack of oxygen and glucose delivery to brain tissue. This can result in brain damage or death of brain cells, known as infarction. Brain ischemia can be caused by various conditions such as thrombosis (blood clot formation), embolism (obstruction of a blood vessel by a foreign material), or hypoperfusion (reduced blood flow). The severity and duration of the ischemia determine the extent of brain damage. Symptoms can range from mild, such as transient ischemic attacks (TIAs or "mini-strokes"), to severe, including paralysis, speech difficulties, loss of consciousness, and even death. Immediate medical attention is required for proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent further damage and potential long-term complications.

Physical therapy modalities refer to the various forms of treatment that physical therapists use to help reduce pain, promote healing, and restore function to the body. These modalities can include:

1. Heat therapy: This includes the use of hot packs, paraffin baths, and infrared heat to increase blood flow, relax muscles, and relieve pain.
2. Cold therapy: Also known as cryotherapy, this involves the use of ice packs, cold compresses, or cooling gels to reduce inflammation, numb the area, and relieve pain.
3. Electrical stimulation: This uses electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles, which can help to reduce pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and function.
4. Ultrasound: This uses high-frequency sound waves to penetrate deep into tissues, increasing blood flow, reducing inflammation, and promoting healing.
5. Manual therapy: This includes techniques such as massage, joint mobilization, and stretching, which are used to improve range of motion, reduce pain, and promote relaxation.
6. Traction: This is a technique that uses gentle pulling on the spine or other joints to help relieve pressure and improve alignment.
7. Light therapy: Also known as phototherapy, this involves the use of low-level lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to promote healing and reduce pain and inflammation.
8. Therapeutic exercise: This includes a range of exercises that are designed to improve strength, flexibility, balance, and coordination, and help patients recover from injury or illness.

Physical therapy modalities are often used in combination with other treatments, such as manual therapy and therapeutic exercise, to provide a comprehensive approach to rehabilitation and pain management.

Paralysis is a loss of muscle function in part or all of your body. It can be localized, affecting only one specific area, or generalized, impacting multiple areas or even the entire body. Paralysis often occurs when something goes wrong with the way messages pass between your brain and muscles. In most cases, paralysis is caused by damage to the nervous system, especially the spinal cord. Other causes include stroke, trauma, infections, and various neurological disorders.

It's important to note that paralysis doesn't always mean a total loss of movement or feeling. Sometimes, it may just cause weakness or numbness in the affected area. The severity and extent of paralysis depend on the underlying cause and the location of the damage in the nervous system.

A premature infant is a baby born before 37 weeks of gestation. They may face various health challenges because their organs are not fully developed. The earlier a baby is born, the higher the risk of complications. Prematurity can lead to short-term and long-term health issues, such as respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, anemia, infections, hearing problems, vision problems, developmental delays, and cerebral palsy. Intensive medical care and support are often necessary for premature infants to ensure their survival and optimal growth and development.

Progressive bulbar palsy (PBP) is a form of motor neuron disease (MND), also known as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). It is characterized by the progressive degeneration of the motor neurons in the brainstem, which control vital functions such as swallowing, speaking, chewing, and breathing.

In PBP, these symptoms gradually worsen over time, often resulting in severe disability and ultimately death due to respiratory failure. The progression of the disease can vary from person to person, but it typically advances more slowly than other forms of ALS. There is currently no cure for PBP or any other form of MND, and treatment is focused on managing symptoms and maintaining quality of life.

The abducens nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve, is responsible for controlling the lateral rectus muscle of the eye, which enables the eye to move outward. Abducens nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and can result in various symptoms, primarily affecting eye movement.

Here are some medical definitions related to abducens nerve diseases:

1. Abducens Nerve Palsy: A condition characterized by weakness or paralysis of the abducens nerve, causing difficulty in moving the affected eye outward. This results in double vision (diplopia), especially when gazing towards the side of the weakened nerve. Abducens nerve palsy can be congenital, acquired, or caused by various factors such as trauma, tumors, aneurysms, infections, or diseases like diabetes and multiple sclerosis.
2. Sixth Nerve Palsy: Another term for abducens nerve palsy, referring to the weakness or paralysis of the sixth cranial nerve.
3. Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia (INO): A neurological condition affecting eye movement, often caused by a lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), a bundle of nerve fibers that connects the abducens nucleus with the oculomotor nucleus. INO results in impaired adduction (inward movement) of the eye on the side of the lesion and nystagmus (involuntary eye movements) of the abducting eye on the opposite side when attempting to look towards the side of the lesion.
4. One-and-a-Half Syndrome: A rare neurological condition characterized by a combination of INO and internuclear ophthalmoplegia with horizontal gaze palsy on the same side, caused by damage to both the abducens nerve and the paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF). This results in limited or no ability to move the eyes towards the side of the lesion and impaired adduction of the eye on the opposite side.
5. Brainstem Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brainstem, which can affect the abducens nerve and other cranial nerves, leading to various neurological symptoms such as diplopia (double vision), ataxia (loss of balance and coordination), and facial weakness. Brainstem encephalitis can be caused by infectious agents, autoimmune disorders, or paraneoplastic syndromes.
6. Multiple Sclerosis (MS): An autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation and demyelination of the central nervous system, including the brainstem and optic nerves. MS can cause various neurological symptoms, such as diplopia, nystagmus, and INO, due to damage to the abducens nerve and other cranial nerves.
7. Wernicke's Encephalopathy: A neurological disorder caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, often seen in alcoholics or individuals with malnutrition. Wernicke's encephalopathy can affect the brainstem and cause various symptoms such as diplopia, ataxia, confusion, and oculomotor abnormalities.
8. Pontine Glioma: A rare type of brain tumor that arises from the glial cells in the pons (a part of the brainstem). Pontine gliomas can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, facial weakness, and difficulty swallowing due to their location in the brainstem.
9. Brainstem Cavernous Malformation: A benign vascular lesion that arises from the small blood vessels in the brainstem. Brainstem cavernous malformations can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, ataxia, and facial weakness due to their location in the brainstem.
10. Pituitary Adenoma: A benign tumor that arises from the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain. Large pituitary adenomas can compress the optic nerves and cause various visual symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, and decreased vision.
11. Craniopharyngioma: A benign tumor that arises from the remnants of the Rathke's pouch, a structure that gives rise to the anterior pituitary gland. Craniopharyngiomas can cause various neurological and endocrine symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, headaches, and hormonal imbalances due to their location near the optic nerves and pituitary gland.
12. Meningioma: A benign tumor that arises from the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord. Meningiomas can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, headaches, and seizures depending on their location in the brain or spinal cord.
13. Chordoma: A rare type of malignant tumor that arises from the remnants of the notochord, a structure that gives rise to the spine during embryonic development. Chordomas can cause various neurological and endocrine symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, headaches, and hormonal imbalances due to their location near the brainstem and spinal cord.
14. Metastatic Brain Tumors: Malignant tumors that spread from other parts of the body to the brain. Metastatic brain tumors can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, headaches, seizures, and cognitive impairment depending on their location in the brain.
15. Other Rare Brain Tumors: There are many other rare types of brain tumors that can cause diplopia or other neurological symptoms, including gliomas, ependymomas, pineal region tumors, and others. These tumors require specialized diagnosis and treatment by neuro-oncologists and neurosurgeons with expertise in these rare conditions.

In summary, diplopia can be caused by various brain tumors, including pituitary adenomas, meningiomas, chordomas, metastatic brain tumors, and other rare types of tumors. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience diplopia or other neurological symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and quality of life.

Cardiotocography (CTG) is a technical means of monitoring the fetal heart rate and uterine contractions during pregnancy, particularly during labor. It provides visual information about the fetal heart rate pattern and the frequency and intensity of uterine contractions. This helps healthcare providers assess the well-being of the fetus and the progression of labor.

The cardiotocograph records two main traces:

1. Fetal heart rate (FHR): It is recorded using an ultrasound transducer placed on the mother's abdomen. The normal fetal heart rate ranges from 120 to 160 beats per minute. Changes in the FHR pattern may indicate fetal distress, hypoxia, or other complications.

2. Uterine contractions: They are recorded using a pressure sensor (toco) placed on the mother's abdomen. The intensity and frequency of uterine contractions can be assessed to evaluate the progression of labor and the effect of contractions on fetal oxygenation.

Cardiotocography is widely used in obstetrics as a non-invasive method for monitoring fetal well-being during pregnancy and labor. However, it should always be interpreted cautiously by healthcare professionals, considering other factors like maternal and fetal conditions, medical history, and clinical presentation. Overinterpretation or misinterpretation of CTG traces can lead to unnecessary interventions or delays in recognizing actual fetal distress.

Birth injuries refer to damages or injuries that a baby suffers during the birthing process. These injuries can result from various factors, such as mechanical forces during delivery, medical negligence, or complications during pregnancy or labor. Some common examples of birth injuries include:

1. Brachial plexus injuries: Damage to the nerves that control movement and feeling in the arms and hands, often caused by excessive pulling or stretching during delivery.
2. Cephalohematoma: A collection of blood between the skull and the periosteum (the membrane covering the bone), usually caused by trauma during delivery.
3. Caput succedaneum: Swelling of the soft tissues of the baby's scalp, often resulting from pressure on the head during labor and delivery.
4. Fractures: Broken bones, such as a clavicle or skull fracture, can occur due to mechanical forces during delivery.
5. Intracranial hemorrhage: Bleeding in or around the brain, which can result from trauma during delivery or complications like high blood pressure in the mother.
6. Perinatal asphyxia: A lack of oxygen supply to the baby before, during, or immediately after birth, which can lead to brain damage and other health issues.
7. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: Bleeding under the conjunctiva (the clear membrane covering the eye), often caused by pressure on the head during delivery.
8. Spinal cord injuries: Damage to the spinal cord, which can result in paralysis or other neurological issues, may occur due to excessive force during delivery or medical negligence.

It's important to note that some birth injuries are unavoidable and may not be a result of medical malpractice. However, if a healthcare provider fails to provide the standard of care expected during pregnancy, labor, or delivery, they may be held liable for any resulting injuries.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

The oculomotor nerve, also known as the third cranial nerve (CN III), is responsible for controlling several important eye movements and functions. Oculomotor nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and can lead to various symptoms related to eye movement and function. Here's a medical definition of oculomotor nerve diseases:

Oculomotor nerve diseases are a group of medical disorders characterized by the dysfunction or damage to the oculomotor nerve (CN III), resulting in impaired eye movements, abnormalities in pupillary response, and potential effects on eyelid position. These conditions can be congenital, acquired, or traumatic in nature and may lead to partial or complete paralysis of the nerve. Common oculomotor nerve diseases include oculomotor nerve palsy, third nerve ganglionopathies, and compressive oculomotor neuropathies caused by various pathologies such as aneurysms, tumors, or infections.

Rhizotomy is a surgical procedure where the root(s) of a nerve are cut. It is often used to treat chronic pain, spasticity, or other neurological symptoms that have not responded to other treatments. In some cases, only a portion of the nerve root may be severed (selective rhizotomy), while in others the entire root may be cut (root transaction). The specific nerves targeted during a rhizotomy depend on the individual patient's condition and symptoms.

This procedure is typically performed by a neurosurgeon, and it can be done through an open surgical approach or using minimally invasive techniques such as endoscopic or percutaneous approaches. After the surgery, patients may require physical therapy to help regain strength and mobility in the affected area. Potential risks of rhizotomy include numbness, weakness, and loss of reflexes in the areas served by the severed nerves.

A hip contracture is a condition in which the range of motion in the hip joint is limited due to tightness or shortening of the muscles, tendons, or other soft tissues surrounding the joint. This can make it difficult for the person to perform certain movements, such as flexing the hip or bringing the knee up towards the chest. Hip contractures can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, surgery, prolonged immobility, cerebral palsy, and other neurological conditions. Treatment may include physical therapy, stretching exercises, and in some cases, surgery.

Disability Evaluation is the process of determining the nature and extent of a person's functional limitations or impairments, and assessing their ability to perform various tasks and activities in order to determine eligibility for disability benefits or accommodations. This process typically involves a medical examination and assessment by a licensed healthcare professional, such as a physician or psychologist, who evaluates the individual's symptoms, medical history, laboratory test results, and functional abilities. The evaluation may also involve input from other professionals, such as vocational experts, occupational therapists, or speech-language pathologists, who can provide additional information about the person's ability to perform specific tasks and activities in a work or daily living context. Based on this information, a determination is made about whether the individual meets the criteria for disability as defined by the relevant governing authority, such as the Social Security Administration or the Americans with Disabilities Act.

Child development is a multidisciplinary field that examines the biological, psychological, emotional, and social growth and changes that occur in human beings between birth and the onset of adulthood. It involves a complex interaction of genetics, environment, culture, and experiences that shape a child's growth and development over time.

Child development is typically divided into several domains, including:

1. Physical Development: This refers to the growth and changes in a child's body, including their motor skills, sensory abilities, and overall health.
2. Cognitive Development: This involves the development of a child's thinking, learning, problem-solving, memory, language, and other mental processes.
3. Emotional Development: This refers to the development of a child's emotional awareness, expression, understanding, and regulation.
4. Social Development: This involves the development of a child's ability to interact with others, form relationships, communicate effectively, and understand social norms and expectations.

Child development is an ongoing process that occurs at different rates and in different ways for each child. Understanding typical patterns of child development can help parents, educators, and healthcare providers support children's growth and identify any potential delays or concerns.

Medical science often defines and describes "walking" as a form of locomotion or mobility where an individual repeatedly lifts and sets down each foot to move forward, usually bearing weight on both legs. It is a complex motor activity that requires the integration and coordination of various systems in the human body, including the musculoskeletal, neurological, and cardiovascular systems.

Walking involves several components such as balance, coordination, strength, and endurance. The ability to walk independently is often used as a measure of functional mobility and overall health status. However, it's important to note that the specific definition of walking may vary depending on the context and the medical or scientific field in question.

A "premature infant" is a newborn delivered before 37 weeks of gestation. They are at greater risk for various health complications and medical conditions compared to full-term infants, due to their immature organ systems and lower birth weight. Some common diseases and health issues that premature infants may face include:

1. Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS): A lung disorder caused by the lack of surfactant, a substance that helps keep the lungs inflated. Premature infants, especially those born before 34 weeks, are at higher risk for RDS.
2. Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH): Bleeding in the brain's ventricles, which can lead to developmental delays or neurological issues. The risk of IVH is inversely proportional to gestational age, meaning that the earlier the infant is born, the higher the risk.
3. Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC): A gastrointestinal disease where the intestinal tissue becomes inflamed and can die. Premature infants are at greater risk for NEC due to their immature digestive systems.
4. Jaundice: A yellowing of the skin and eyes caused by an accumulation of bilirubin, a waste product from broken-down red blood cells. Premature infants may have higher rates of jaundice due to their liver's immaturity.
5. Infections: Premature infants are more susceptible to infections because of their underdeveloped immune systems. Common sources of infection include the mother's genital tract, bloodstream, or hospital environment.
6. Anemia: A condition characterized by a low red blood cell count or insufficient hemoglobin. Premature infants may develop anemia due to frequent blood sampling, rapid growth, or inadequate erythropoietin production.
7. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP): An eye disorder affecting premature infants, where abnormal blood vessel growth occurs in the retina. Severe ROP can lead to vision loss or blindness if not treated promptly.
8. Developmental Delays: Premature infants are at risk for developmental delays due to their immature nervous systems and environmental factors such as sensory deprivation or separation from parents.
9. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA): A congenital heart defect where the ductus arteriosus, a blood vessel that connects two major arteries in the fetal heart, fails to close after birth. Premature infants are at higher risk for PDA due to their immature cardiovascular systems.
10. Hypothermia: Premature infants have difficulty maintaining body temperature and are at risk for hypothermia, which can lead to increased metabolic demands, poor feeding, and infection.

Orthotic devices are custom-made or prefabricated appliances designed to align, support, prevent deformity, or improve the function of movable body parts. They are frequently used in the treatment of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as foot and ankle conditions, knee problems, spinal alignment issues, and hand or wrist ailments. These devices can be adjustable or non-adjustable and are typically made from materials like plastic, metal, leather, or fabric. They work by redistributing forces across joints, correcting alignment, preventing unwanted movements, or accommodating existing deformities. Examples of orthotic devices include ankle-foot orthoses, knee braces, back braces, wrist splints, and custom-made foot insoles.

A neurological examination is a series of tests used to evaluate the functioning of the nervous system, including both the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system (the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body). It is typically performed by a healthcare professional such as a neurologist or a primary care physician with specialized training in neurology.

During a neurological examination, the healthcare provider will assess various aspects of neurological function, including:

1. Mental status: This involves evaluating a person's level of consciousness, orientation, memory, and cognitive abilities.
2. Cranial nerves: There are 12 cranial nerves that control functions such as vision, hearing, smell, taste, and movement of the face and neck. The healthcare provider will test each of these nerves to ensure they are functioning properly.
3. Motor function: This involves assessing muscle strength, tone, coordination, and reflexes. The healthcare provider may ask the person to perform certain movements or tasks to evaluate these functions.
4. Sensory function: The healthcare provider will test a person's ability to feel different types of sensations, such as touch, pain, temperature, vibration, and proprioception (the sense of where your body is in space).
5. Coordination and balance: The healthcare provider may assess a person's ability to perform coordinated movements, such as touching their finger to their nose or walking heel-to-toe.
6. Reflexes: The healthcare provider will test various reflexes throughout the body using a reflex hammer.

The results of a neurological examination can help healthcare providers diagnose and monitor conditions that affect the nervous system, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, or peripheral neuropathy.

A contracture, in a medical context, refers to the abnormal shortening and hardening of muscles, tendons, or other tissue, which can result in limited mobility and deformity of joints. This condition can occur due to various reasons such as injury, prolonged immobilization, scarring, neurological disorders, or genetic conditions.

Contractures can cause significant impairment in daily activities and quality of life, making it difficult for individuals to perform routine tasks like dressing, bathing, or walking. Treatment options may include physical therapy, splinting, casting, medications, surgery, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the contracture.

Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain refers to a condition characterized by a reduced supply of oxygen (hypoxia) and blood flow (ischemia) to the brain. This can lead to serious damage or death of brain cells, depending on the severity and duration of the hypoxic-ischemic event.

Hypoxia occurs when there is insufficient oxygen available to meet the metabolic needs of the brain tissue. Ischemia results from a decrease in blood flow, which can be caused by various factors such as cardiac arrest, stroke, or severe respiratory distress. When both hypoxia and ischemia occur together, they can have a synergistic effect, leading to more severe brain damage.

Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia can result in neurological deficits, cognitive impairment, and physical disabilities, depending on the area of the brain affected. Treatment typically focuses on addressing the underlying cause of the hypoxia-ischemia and providing supportive care to minimize secondary damage. In some cases, therapeutic hypothermia may be used to reduce metabolic demands and protect vulnerable brain tissue.

Gestational age is the length of time that has passed since the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) in pregnant women. It is the standard unit used to estimate the age of a pregnancy and is typically expressed in weeks. This measure is used because the exact date of conception is often not known, but the start of the last menstrual period is usually easier to recall.

It's important to note that since ovulation typically occurs around two weeks after the start of the LMP, gestational age is approximately two weeks longer than fetal age, which is the actual time elapsed since conception. Medical professionals use both gestational and fetal age to track the development and growth of the fetus during pregnancy.

Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder that results from damage to the nervous system, particularly the brainstem or cerebellum. It affects the muscles used for speaking, causing slurred, slow, or difficult speech. The specific symptoms can vary depending on the underlying cause and the extent of nerve damage. Treatment typically involves speech therapy to improve communication abilities.

Cranial nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the cranial nerves, which are a set of 12 pairs of nerves that originate from the brainstem and control various functions in the head and neck. These functions include vision, hearing, taste, smell, movement of the eyes and face, and sensation in the face.

Diseases of the cranial nerves can result from a variety of causes, including injury, infection, inflammation, tumors, or degenerative conditions. The specific symptoms that a person experiences will depend on which cranial nerve is affected and how severely it is damaged.

For example, damage to the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) can cause vision loss or visual disturbances, while damage to the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) can result in weakness or paralysis of the face. Other common symptoms of cranial nerve diseases include pain, numbness, tingling, and hearing loss.

Treatment for cranial nerve diseases varies depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to treat the underlying cause and relieve symptoms. Physical therapy or rehabilitation may also be recommended to help individuals regain function and improve their quality of life.

Equine-assisted therapy (EAT) is a form of experiential psychotherapy that involves interactions between patients and horses. It is facilitated by a licensed therapist, equine specialist, and sometimes a horse handler. The goal of EAT is to help patients achieve specific physical, occupational, and emotional health goals.

The therapy can include various activities such as grooming, feeding, leading, and riding horses. These activities are designed to improve the patient's physical, cognitive, emotional, and social skills. For example, patients with physical disabilities may work on balance and coordination while riding a horse, while those with mental health disorders may work on building self-esteem and confidence through caring for and interacting with the horse.

Equine-assisted therapy has been shown to be effective in treating a variety of conditions, including but not limited to:

* Mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and substance abuse disorders
* Physical disabilities such as cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, and spinal cord injuries
* Developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disabilities
* Neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis, stroke, and traumatic brain injury.

It is important to note that EAT should only be facilitated by trained professionals who adhere to the standards set forth by professional organizations such as the Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association (EAGALA) or the Professional Association of Therapeutic Horsemanship International (PATH Intl.).

Brain diseases, also known as neurological disorders, refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the brain and nervous system. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as genetics, infections, injuries, degeneration, or structural abnormalities. They can affect different parts of the brain, leading to a variety of symptoms and complications.

Some examples of brain diseases include:

1. Alzheimer's disease - a progressive degenerative disorder that affects memory and cognitive function.
2. Parkinson's disease - a movement disorder characterized by tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with coordination and balance.
3. Multiple sclerosis - a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the nervous system and can cause a range of symptoms such as vision loss, muscle weakness, and cognitive impairment.
4. Epilepsy - a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures.
5. Brain tumors - abnormal growths in the brain that can be benign or malignant.
6. Stroke - a sudden interruption of blood flow to the brain, which can cause paralysis, speech difficulties, and other neurological symptoms.
7. Meningitis - an infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
8. Encephalitis - an inflammation of the brain that can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or autoimmune disorders.
9. Huntington's disease - a genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination, cognitive function, and mental health.
10. Migraine - a neurological condition characterized by severe headaches, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.

Brain diseases can range from mild to severe and may be treatable or incurable. They can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, and early diagnosis and treatment are essential for improving outcomes and quality of life.

Fetal hypoxia is a medical condition that refers to a reduced level of oxygen supply to the fetus. This can occur due to various reasons, such as maternal health problems, complications during pregnancy or delivery, or issues with the placenta. Prolonged fetal hypoxia can lead to serious complications, including brain damage and even fetal death. It is important for healthcare providers to closely monitor fetal oxygen levels during pregnancy and delivery to ensure the well-being of the fetus.

Articular Range of Motion (AROM) is a term used in physiotherapy and orthopedics to describe the amount of movement available in a joint, measured in degrees of a circle. It refers to the range through which synovial joints can actively move without causing pain or injury. AROM is assessed by measuring the degree of motion achieved by active muscle contraction, as opposed to passive range of motion (PROM), where the movement is generated by an external force.

Assessment of AROM is important in evaluating a patient's functional ability and progress, planning treatment interventions, and determining return to normal activities or sports participation. It is also used to identify any restrictions in joint mobility that may be due to injury, disease, or surgery, and to monitor the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs.

Ophthalmoplegia is a medical term that refers to the paralysis or weakness of the eye muscles, which can result in double vision (diplopia) or difficulty moving the eyes. It can be caused by various conditions, including nerve damage, muscle disorders, or neurological diseases such as myasthenia gravis or multiple sclerosis. Ophthalmoplegia can affect one or more eye muscles and can be partial or complete. Depending on the underlying cause, ophthalmoplegia may be treatable with medications, surgery, or other interventions.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

The cerebral ventricles are a system of interconnected fluid-filled cavities within the brain. They are located in the center of the brain and are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which provides protection to the brain by cushioning it from impacts and helping to maintain its stability within the skull.

There are four ventricles in total: two lateral ventricles, one third ventricle, and one fourth ventricle. The lateral ventricles are located in each cerebral hemisphere, while the third ventricle is located between the thalami of the two hemispheres. The fourth ventricle is located at the base of the brain, above the spinal cord.

CSF flows from the lateral ventricles into the third ventricle through narrow passageways called the interventricular foramen. From there, it flows into the fourth ventricle through another narrow passageway called the cerebral aqueduct. CSF then leaves the fourth ventricle and enters the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain and spinal cord, where it can be absorbed into the bloodstream.

Abnormalities in the size or shape of the cerebral ventricles can indicate underlying neurological conditions, such as hydrocephalus (excessive accumulation of CSF) or atrophy (shrinkage) of brain tissue. Imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are often used to assess the size and shape of the cerebral ventricles in clinical settings.

Adaptor Protein Complex 4 (AP-4) is a group of proteins that form a complex and play a crucial role in the intracellular trafficking of membrane proteins within eukaryotic cells. The AP-4 complex is composed of four subunits, namely, α-Adaptin, β2-Adaptin, Mu-Adaptin, and Sigmal-Adaptin4 (σ4A or σ4B).

The primary function of the AP-4 complex is to facilitate the sorting of proteins in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. It recognizes specific sorting signals present on the cytoplasmic tails of membrane proteins, recruits accessory proteins, and mediates the formation of transport vesicles that carry these proteins to their target destinations.

Mutations in genes encoding AP-4 complex subunits have been associated with several neurological disorders, including hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), mental retardation, and cerebral palsy. These genetic defects disrupt the normal functioning of the AP-4 complex, leading to aberrant protein trafficking and impaired neuronal development and function.

Posture is the position or alignment of body parts supported by the muscles, especially the spine and head in relation to the vertebral column. It can be described as static (related to a stationary position) or dynamic (related to movement). Good posture involves training your body to stand, walk, sit, and lie in positions where the least strain is placed on supporting muscles and ligaments during movement or weight-bearing activities. Poor posture can lead to various health issues such as back pain, neck pain, headaches, and respiratory problems.

Echoencephalography (EEG) is a type of neurosonology technique that uses ultrasound to assess the structures of the brain and detect any abnormalities. It is also known as brain ultrasound or transcranial Doppler ultrasound. This non-invasive procedure involves placing a small ultrasound probe on the skull, which emits sound waves that travel through the skull and bounce back (echo) when they reach the brain tissue. The resulting echoes are then analyzed to create images of the brain's structures, including the ventricles, cerebral arteries, and other blood vessels.

EEG is often used in infants and young children, as their skulls are still thin enough to allow for clear ultrasound imaging. It can help diagnose conditions such as hydrocephalus (fluid buildup in the brain), intracranial hemorrhage (bleeding in the brain), stroke, and other neurological disorders. EEG is a safe and painless procedure that does not require any radiation or contrast agents, making it an attractive alternative to other imaging techniques such as CT or MRI scans. However, its use is limited in older children and adults due to the thickening of the skull bones, which can make it difficult to obtain clear images.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

A wheelchair is defined medically as a mobility aid with wheels, providing the user with increased independence and freedom of movement. It is designed to accommodate individuals who have difficulty walking or are unable to walk due to various reasons such as physical disabilities, illnesses, or injuries. Wheelchairs can be manually propelled by the user or others, or they can be power-driven (motorized). They come in different types and designs, including standard, lightweight, sports, pediatric, bariatric, and reclining wheelchairs, to cater to the diverse needs of users. Some wheelchairs are custom-made to ensure optimal comfort, safety, and functionality for the user.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, "movement" refers to the act or process of changing physical location or position. It involves the contraction and relaxation of muscles, which allows for the joints to move and the body to be in motion. Movement can also refer to the ability of a patient to move a specific body part or limb, which is assessed during physical examinations. Additionally, "movement" can describe the progression or spread of a disease within the body.

An "Extremely Low Birth Weight" (ELBW) infant is a newborn with a birth weight below 1000 grams (2 pounds, 3 ounces), according to the World Health Organization (WHO). This classification is part of the broader category of low birth weight infants, which includes those born weighing less than 2500 grams (about 5.5 pounds). ELBW infants often face significant health challenges due to their prematurity and small size, which can include issues with breathing, feeding, temperature regulation, and potential long-term neurodevelopmental impairments. It is crucial for these infants to receive specialized care in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to optimize their chances of survival and promote healthy development.

Asphyxia neonatorum is a medical condition that refers to a newborn baby's lack of oxygen or difficulty breathing, which can lead to suffocation and serious complications. It is often caused by problems during the birthing process, such as umbilical cord compression or prolapse, placental abruption, or prolonged labor.

Symptoms of asphyxia neonatorum may include bluish skin color (cyanosis), weak or absent breathing, poor muscle tone, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, and a slow heart rate. In severe cases, it can lead to organ damage, developmental delays, or even death.

Prompt medical attention is necessary to diagnose and treat asphyxia neonatorum. Treatment may include oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and medications to support the baby's heart function and blood pressure. In some cases, therapeutic hypothermia (cooling the body) may be used to reduce the risk of brain damage. Preventive measures such as proper prenatal care, timely delivery, and careful monitoring during labor and delivery can also help reduce the risk of asphyxia neonatorum.

Magnesium Sulfate is an inorganic salt with the chemical formula MgSO4. It is often encountered as the heptahydrate sulfate mineral epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O), commonly called Epsom salts. Magnesium sulfate is used medically as a vasodilator, to treat constipation, and as an antidote for magnesium overdose or poisoning. It is also used in the preparation of skin for esthetic procedures and in the treatment of eclampsia, a serious complication of pregnancy characterized by seizures.

Intellectual disability (ID) is a term used when there are significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.

Intellectual functioning, also known as intelligence, refers to general mental capacity, such as learning, reasoning, problem-solving, and other cognitive skills. Adaptive behavior includes skills needed for day-to-day life, such as communication, self-care, social skills, safety judgement, and basic academic skills.

Intellectual disability is characterized by below-average intelligence or mental ability and a lack of skills necessary for day-to-day living. It can be mild, moderate, severe, or profound, depending on the degree of limitation in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior.

It's important to note that people with intellectual disabilities have unique strengths and limitations, just like everyone else. With appropriate support and education, they can lead fulfilling lives and contribute to their communities in many ways.

A Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA), also known as a "mini-stroke," is a temporary period of symptoms similar to those you'd get if you were having a stroke. A TIA doesn't cause permanent damage and is often caused by a temporary decrease in blood supply to part of your brain, which may last as little as five minutes.

Like an ischemic stroke, a TIA occurs when a clot or debris blocks blood flow to part of your nervous system. However, unlike a stroke, a TIA doesn't leave lasting damage because the blockage is temporary.

Symptoms of a TIA can include sudden onset of weakness, numbness or paralysis in your face, arm or leg, typically on one side of your body. You could also experience slurred or garbled speech, or difficulty understanding others. Other symptoms can include blindness in one or both eyes, dizziness, or a severe headache with no known cause.

Even though TIAs usually last only a few minutes, they are a serious condition and should not be ignored. If you suspect you or someone else is experiencing a TIA, seek immediate medical attention. TIAs can be a warning sign that a full-blown stroke is imminent.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Chronic brain damage is a condition characterized by long-term, persistent injury to the brain that results in cognitive, physical, and behavioral impairments. It can be caused by various factors such as trauma, hypoxia (lack of oxygen), infection, toxic exposure, or degenerative diseases. The effects of chronic brain damage may not be immediately apparent and can worsen over time, leading to significant disability and reduced quality of life.

The symptoms of chronic brain damage can vary widely depending on the severity and location of the injury. They may include:

* Cognitive impairments such as memory loss, difficulty concentrating, trouble with problem-solving and decision-making, and decreased learning ability
* Motor impairments such as weakness, tremors, poor coordination, and balance problems
* Sensory impairments such as hearing or vision loss, numbness, tingling, or altered sense of touch
* Speech and language difficulties such as aphasia (problems with understanding or producing speech) or dysarthria (slurred or slow speech)
* Behavioral changes such as irritability, mood swings, depression, anxiety, and personality changes

Chronic brain damage can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, neurological evaluation, and imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans. Treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms and maximizing function through rehabilitation therapies such as occupational therapy, speech therapy, and physical therapy. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to address specific symptoms or underlying causes of the brain damage.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Birth weight refers to the first weight of a newborn infant, usually taken immediately after birth. It is a critical vital sign that indicates the baby's health status and is used as a predictor for various short-term and long-term health outcomes.

Typically, a full-term newborn's weight ranges from 5.5 to 8.8 pounds (2.5 to 4 kg), although normal birth weights can vary significantly based on factors such as gestational age, genetics, maternal health, and nutrition. Low birth weight is defined as less than 5.5 pounds (2.5 kg), while high birth weight is greater than 8.8 pounds (4 kg).

Low birth weight babies are at a higher risk for various medical complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, infections, and developmental delays. High birth weight babies may face challenges with delivery, increased risk of obesity, and potential metabolic issues later in life. Regular prenatal care is essential to monitor fetal growth and ensure a healthy pregnancy and optimal birth weight for the baby.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

The trochlear nerve, also known as the fourth cranial nerve (CN IV), is responsible for controlling the movement of the eye. It innervates the superior oblique muscle, which helps in depressing and rotating the eye downwards and outwards. Trochlear nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and impair its function, leading to symptoms such as double vision (diplopia), vertical misalignment of the eyes, and difficulty with depth perception.

Trochlear nerve diseases can be caused by various factors, including trauma, compression, inflammation, infection, or tumors. Some common conditions that affect the trochlear nerve include:

1. Trochlear nerve palsy: This is a weakness or paralysis of the trochlear nerve, which can cause vertical and torsional diplopia, especially when looking downwards or to the side. It can be congenital or acquired due to trauma, compression, or other causes.
2. Aneurysm: Aneurysms in the vicinity of the trochlear nerve can compress or damage it, leading to palsy and diplopia.
3. Meningitis: Inflammation of the meninges (the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) due to infection or other causes can affect the trochlear nerve and cause palsy.
4. Multiple sclerosis (MS): This is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system, including the cranial nerves. MS can cause demyelination of the trochlear nerve, leading to palsy and diplopia.
5. Diabetes: People with diabetes are at risk of developing diabetic neuropathy, which can affect any peripheral nerve, including the trochlear nerve.
6. Tumors: Space-occupying lesions in the brain or skull base, such as meningiomas, schwannomas, or pituitary adenomas, can compress the trochlear nerve and cause palsy.

The diagnosis of trochlear nerve diseases involves a thorough neurological examination, including assessment of eye movements and alignment. Imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans may be ordered to identify any structural lesions causing compression or damage to the nerve. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may involve surgical intervention, medication, or observation.

Cerebral dominance is a concept in neuropsychology that refers to the specialization of one hemisphere of the brain over the other for certain cognitive functions. In most people, the left hemisphere is dominant for language functions such as speaking and understanding spoken or written language, while the right hemisphere is dominant for non-verbal functions such as spatial ability, face recognition, and artistic ability.

Cerebral dominance does not mean that the non-dominant hemisphere is incapable of performing the functions of the dominant hemisphere, but rather that it is less efficient or specialized in those areas. The concept of cerebral dominance has been used to explain individual differences in cognitive abilities and learning styles, as well as the laterality of brain damage and its effects on cognition and behavior.

It's important to note that cerebral dominance is a complex phenomenon that can vary between individuals and can be influenced by various factors such as genetics, environment, and experience. Additionally, recent research has challenged the strict lateralization of functions and suggested that there is more functional overlap and interaction between the two hemispheres than previously thought.

Tocolytic agents are a type of medication used in obstetrics to suppress premature labor. They work by relaxing the smooth muscle of the uterus, thereby reducing contractions and delaying delivery. Commonly used tocolytic agents include beta-adrenergic agonists (such as terbutaline), calcium channel blockers (such as nifedipine), and prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors (such as indomethacin). It's important to note that the use of tocolytic agents is typically reserved for specific clinical situations, and their benefits must be weighed against potential risks to both the mother and fetus.

Psychomotor disorders are conditions that involve abnormalities in cognition, emotion, and behavior associated with impaired voluntary motor or movement functions. These disorders can be characterized by hypoactivity (decreased motor activity) or hyperactivity (increased motor activity). Examples of psychomotor disorders include Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette syndrome, and catatonia. Psychomotor agitation, retardation, and stereotypies are also considered psychomotor disorders. These conditions can significantly impact a person's daily functioning and quality of life.

The Anterior Cerebral Artery (ACA) is a paired set of arteries that originate from the internal carotid artery or its branch, the posterior communicating artery. They supply oxygenated blood to the frontal lobes and parts of the parietal lobes of the brain.

The ACA runs along the medial side of each hemisphere, anterior to the corpus callosum, which is the largest bundle of nerve fibers connecting the two hemispheres of the brain. It gives off branches that supply the motor and sensory areas of the lower extremities, as well as the areas responsible for higher cognitive functions such as language, memory, and emotion.

The ACA is divided into several segments: A1, A2, A3, and A4. The A1 segment runs from its origin at the internal carotid artery to the anterior communicating artery, which connects the two ACAs. The A2 segment extends from the anterior communicating artery to the bifurcation of the ACA into its terminal branches. The A3 and A4 segments are the distal branches that supply the frontal and parietal lobes.

Interruptions or blockages in the flow of blood through the ACA can lead to various neurological deficits, including weakness or paralysis of the lower extremities, language impairment, and changes in cognitive function.

The ankle joint, also known as the talocrural joint, is the articulation between the bones of the lower leg (tibia and fibula) and the talus bone in the foot. It is a synovial hinge joint that allows for dorsiflexion and plantarflexion movements, which are essential for walking, running, and jumping. The ankle joint is reinforced by strong ligaments on both sides to provide stability during these movements.

Fetal distress is a term used to describe situations where a fetus is experiencing problems during labor or delivery that are causing significant physiological changes. These changes may include an abnormal heart rate, decreased oxygen levels, or the presence of meconium (the baby's first stool) in the amniotic fluid. Fetal distress can be caused by a variety of factors, such as problems with the umbilical cord, placental abruption, maternal high blood pressure, or prolonged labor. It is important to monitor fetal well-being during labor and delivery to detect and address any signs of fetal distress promptly. Treatment may include changing the mother's position, administering oxygen, giving intravenous fluids, or performing an emergency cesarean section.

The term "upper extremity" is used in the medical field to refer to the portion of the upper limb that extends from the shoulder to the hand. This includes the arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand. The upper extremity is responsible for various functions such as reaching, grasping, and manipulating objects, making it an essential part of a person's daily activities.

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of beta-amyloid protein in the walls of small to medium-sized blood vessels in the brain. This protein buildup can cause damage to the vessel walls, leading to bleeding (cerebral hemorrhage), cognitive decline, and other neurological symptoms.

CAA is often associated with aging and is a common finding in older adults. It can also be seen in people with Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia. The exact cause of CAA is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from the abnormal processing and clearance of beta-amyloid protein in the brain.

The diagnosis of CAA typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans, and sometimes cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Treatment for CAA is generally supportive and focused on managing symptoms and preventing complications. There are currently no approved disease-modifying treatments for CAA.

Activities of Daily Living (ADL) are routine self-care activities that individuals usually do every day without assistance. These activities are widely used as a measure to determine the functional status and independence of a person, particularly in the elderly or those with disabilities or chronic illnesses. The basic ADLs include:

1. Personal hygiene: Bathing, washing hands and face, brushing teeth, grooming, and using the toilet.
2. Dressing: Selecting appropriate clothes and dressing oneself.
3. Eating: Preparing and consuming food, either independently or with assistive devices.
4. Mobility: Moving in and out of bed, chairs, or wheelchairs, walking independently or using mobility aids.
5. Transferring: Moving from one place to another, such as getting in and out of a car, bath, or bed.

There are also more complex Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) that assess an individual's ability to manage their own life and live independently. These include managing finances, shopping for groceries, using the telephone, taking medications as prescribed, preparing meals, and housekeeping tasks.

Spinal infusions, also known as intrathecal infusions, refer to the administration of medications directly into the spinal canal through a surgically implanted device. This device typically consists of a pump and a catheter. The pump is a small reservoir that contains the medication, while the catheter is a thin tube that delivers the medication to the intrathecal space, which is the area surrounding the spinal cord.

This route of administration is often used for the management of chronic pain, as well as for the treatment of certain neurological disorders such as spasticity and severe muscle spasms. The medications that are commonly administered through spinal infusions include local anesthetics, opioids, and muscle relaxants.

The main advantage of spinal infusions is that they allow for the delivery of medication directly to the site of action, which can result in more effective pain relief and fewer systemic side effects compared to systemic administration. However, there are also potential risks associated with this procedure, including infection, bleeding, and mechanical failure of the device. Therefore, spinal infusions should only be performed by trained medical professionals in a controlled clinical setting.

The Posterior Cerebral Artery (PCA) is one of the major arteries that supplies blood to the brain. It is a branch of the basilar artery, which is formed by the union of the two vertebral arteries. The PCA supplies oxygenated blood to the occipital lobe (responsible for visual processing), the temporal lobe (involved in auditory and memory functions), and the thalamus and midbrain (relay station for sensory and motor signals).

The PCA has two segments: the precommunicating segment (P1) and the postcommunicating segment (P2). The P1 segment runs posteriorly along the cerebral peduncle, while the P2 segment courses around the midbrain to reach the occipital lobe.

Atherosclerosis, embolism, or other vascular conditions can affect the PCA and lead to a variety of neurological symptoms, including visual loss, memory impairment, and difficulty with language processing.

Nervous system diseases, also known as neurological disorders, refer to a group of conditions that affect the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles. These diseases can affect various functions of the body, such as movement, sensation, cognition, and behavior. They can be caused by genetics, infections, injuries, degeneration, or tumors. Examples of nervous system diseases include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, migraine, stroke, and neuroinfections like meningitis and encephalitis. The symptoms and severity of these disorders can vary widely, ranging from mild to severe and debilitating.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

Musculoskeletal development is a process that involves the growth and development of the muscles, bones, joints, and related tissues from birth through adulthood. This complex process is regulated by genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors and is critical for overall health, mobility, and quality of life.

During musculoskeletal development, bones grow in length and diameter, muscle mass increases, and joints become stronger and more stable. The process involves the coordinated growth and maturation of various tissues, including cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and nerves. Proper nutrition, physical activity, and injury prevention are essential for optimal musculoskeletal development.

Abnormalities in musculoskeletal development can lead to a range of conditions, such as muscular dystrophy, osteoporosis, scoliosis, and joint injuries. These conditions can have significant impacts on an individual's physical function, mobility, and overall health, making it essential to promote healthy musculoskeletal development throughout the lifespan.

A subarachnoid hemorrhage is a type of stroke that results from bleeding into the space surrounding the brain, specifically within the subarachnoid space which contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This space is located between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater, two of the three layers that make up the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord.

The bleeding typically originates from a ruptured aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of a cerebral artery, or less commonly from arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) or head trauma. The sudden influx of blood into the CSF-filled space can cause increased intracranial pressure, irritation to the brain, and vasospasms, leading to further ischemia and potential additional neurological damage.

Symptoms of a subarachnoid hemorrhage may include sudden onset of severe headache (often described as "the worst headache of my life"), neck stiffness, altered mental status, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and focal neurological deficits. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent further complications and improve the chances of recovery.

Brain hypoxia is a medical condition characterized by a reduced supply of oxygen to the brain. The brain requires a continuous supply of oxygen to function properly, and even a brief period of hypoxia can cause significant damage to brain cells.

Hypoxia can result from various conditions, such as cardiac arrest, respiratory failure, carbon monoxide poisoning, or high altitude exposure. When the brain is deprived of oxygen, it can lead to a range of symptoms, including confusion, disorientation, seizures, loss of consciousness, and ultimately, brain death.

Brain hypoxia is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment to prevent long-term neurological damage or death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of hypoxia, such as administering oxygen therapy, resuscitating the heart, or treating respiratory failure. In some cases, more invasive treatments, such as therapeutic hypothermia or mechanical ventilation, may be necessary to prevent further brain damage.

Dyskinetic cerebral palsy is an extrapyramidal form of cerebral palsy. Dyskinetic cerebral palsy can be divided into two ... of all cases of cerebral palsy, making it the least frequent form of cerebral palsy. Ataxic cerebral palsy is caused by damage ... "Bell's Palsy & Other Facial Nerve Problems". 2020. Shevell M (December 2018). "Cerebral palsy to cerebral palsy spectrum ... Cerebral palsy is the most common movement disorder in children. It occurs in about 2.1 per 1,000 live births. Cerebral palsy ...
... is a Greek nonprofit charitable organization that serves people with cerebral palsy. Cerebral Palsy Greece was founded as the ... Cerebral Palsy Greece (CPG; Greek: Εταιρεία Προστασίας Σπαστικών) ... Cerebral palsy organizations, Organizations established in 1972, Disability organizations based in Greece, All stub articles, ...
"Biography of Armando A. Contreras, President and CEO of United Cerebral Palsy" (PDF). United Cerebral Palsy. Retrieved March 23 ... United Cerebral Palsy. Archived from the original on May 1, 2012. Retrieved July 3, 2012.] "Press room". United Cerebral Palsy ... United Cerebral Palsy pioneered the use of fundraising telethons. UCP, through its more than 66 local affiliates across the ... United Cerebral Palsy (UCP) is an international nonprofit charitable organization consisting of a network of affiliates. UCP is ...
Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association International Federation of Cerebral Palsy Football CP football ... Cerebral Palsy Games, Disabled multi-sport events, Recurring sporting events established in 1978, Cerebral palsy and other ... The Cerebral Palsy Games (or CP Games) are a multi-sport competition for athletes with a disability, which under the former ... "Cerebral Palsy Sport". cpsport.org. 2016-09-11. Retrieved 2016-09-19. "CP voetball, Interlands, Overzicht". cpvoetbal.nl (in ...
... is the second most common subtype of cerebral palsy, after spastic CP. A European Cerebral Palsy ... Dyskinetic cerebral palsy (DCP) is a subtype of cerebral palsy (CP) and is characterized by impaired muscle tone regulation, ... A video of dystonia in a patient with dyskinetic cerebral palsy can be seen here: Dyskinetic cerebral palsy: dystonia on ... Cans, C. (February 2007). "Surveillance of cerebral palsy in Europe: a collaboration of cerebral palsy surveys and registers". ...
Athetoid dyskinetic cerebral palsy is a non-spastic, extrapyramidal form of cerebral palsy (spastic cerebral palsy, in contrast ... Athetoid cerebral palsy, or dyskinetic cerebral palsy (sometimes abbreviated ADCP), is a type of cerebral palsy primarily ... Facts about cerebral palsy. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Robin C. Meyers; Steven J. Bachrach; Virginia A ... Classification of cerebral palsy can be based on severity, topographic distribution, or motor function. Severity is typically ...
"What Causes Cerebral Palsy? , Cerebral Palsy Alliance". Cerebral Palsy Alliance. Retrieved 2020-03-24. "How does cerebral palsy ... "How does cerebral palsy affect people? , Cerebral Palsy Alliance". Cerebral Palsy Alliance. Retrieved 2020-04-05. Gyoung Yi, MD ... "Spastic cerebral palsy". Cerebral Palsy Alliance. 2015-11-18. Retrieved 2020-03-10. "What is Cerebral Palsy?". Centers for ... Spastic cerebral palsy is the type of cerebral palsy characterized by spasticity or high muscle tone often resulting in stiff, ...
Foundation, Cerebral Palsy Alliance Research. "Our Story , Cerebral Palsy Alliance Research Foundation". research.cerebralpalsy ... Cerebral Palsy Alliance was founded on 30 January 1945 by a group of parents of children with cerebral palsy under the ... "Chair of Cerebral Palsy , Cerebral Palsy Alliance". About Us - Miss Australia Archived 13 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine ... "Our History , Cerebral Palsy Alliance". Cerebral Palsy Alliance. Retrieved 17 May 2013. Miller, Barbara (8 February 2011). " ...
... of all cases of cerebral palsy, making it the least frequent form of cerebral palsy diagnosed. Ataxic cerebral palsy is caused ... Ataxic cerebral palsy accounts for 5 to 10% of all cases. The cause of cerebral palsy, in particular its ataxic subtype is ... Ataxic cerebral palsy is known to decrease muscle tone. The most common manifestation of ataxic cerebral palsy is intention ( ... In general, cerebral palsy is a physical impairment that affects posture and the development of movement. Ataxic cerebral palsy ...
"Assistive Technology, Mobility and Customised Seating , Cerebral Palsy Alliance". www.cerebralpalsy.org.au. Cerebral Palsy ... Švraka E (2014). "Cerebral Palsy and Accessible Housing". In Švraka E (ed.). Cerebral Palsy - Challenges for the Future. doi: ... "Is Acupuncture Useful for Cerebral Palsy? What Evidence Do We Have?". In Fong HD (ed.). Trends in Cerebral Palsy Research. New ... "Mobility in Ambulant Adults with Cerebral Palsy - Challenges for the Future". In Švraka E (ed.). Cerebral Palsy - Challenges ...
They defined cerebral palsy as a non-progressive brain legion that results in impairment. People with cerebral palsy or non- ... Cerebral palsy sport classification is a classification system used by sports that include people with cerebral palsy (CP) with ... "Classification Profiles" (PDF). Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association. Cerebral Palsy International ... "Classification Profiles" (PDF). Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association. Cerebral Palsy International ...
... website Unedited novel "Samuel". Life with a cerebral palsy child. (Articles lacking reliable ... and United Cerebral Palsy (USA). It is supported by over 450 cerebral palsy service organisations, universities, parent groups ... Cerebral Palsy Day is a social movement and a day to celebrate and affirm the lives of the 17 million people living with ... cerebral palsy (CP). The project was launched in 2012 by Cerebral Palsy Alliance (Australia) ...
... is the national cerebral football team for Spain that represents the team in ... CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown, CS1 Spanish-language sources (es), National cerebral palsy football teams, Spain ... National team development is supported by an International Federation of Cerebral Palsy Football (IFCPF) recognized national ... and a Catalan team competes like a national team as Catalan national cerebral palsy team in some events against full national ...
These members are often either national cerebral palsy football associations, national cerebral palsy sports federations, ... é maluco International Federation of Cerebral Palsy Football (IFCPF) is the world governing body for cerebral palsy football. ... Cerebral palsy football has world-wide reach, and is played on all five continents. Many countries have IFCPF recognized ... From 1978 to 2014, cerebral palsy football was governed by the CPISRA. In January 2015, governance of the sport was taken over ...
... is the national cerebral football team for Ireland that represents the team in ... run2 (2015). "Fixtures & Results - Cerebral Palsy Football World Championships 2015". 2015 CP Football World Championships. ... National cerebral palsy football teams, Football 7-a-side teams at the 2016 Summer Paralympics, Football 7-a-side teams at the ... "Soccer-Specific Endurance and Running Economy in Soccer Players With Cerebral Palsy". Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. 28 ( ...
... is the national cerebral football team for England that represents the team in ... National team development is supported by an International Federation of Cerebral Palsy Football (IFCPF) recognized national ... run2 (2015). "Fixtures & Results - Cerebral Palsy Football World Championships 2015". 2015 CP Football World Championships. ...
... is the national cerebral football team for Malaysia that represents the team in ... "Hairdryer treatment spurs Cerebral Palsy team to bronze-medal win". Retrieved 2016-08-28. "Ranking - CP Football". CP Football ... hermesauto (2015-12-09). "Cerebral palsy team could show Singapore football the way forward". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2019 ... Football in Malaysia, National cerebral palsy football teams, Malaysia national football team). ...
... is the national cerebral football team for Mexico that represents the team in ... National team development is supported by an International Federation of Cerebral Palsy Football (IFCPF) recognized national ... National cerebral palsy football teams, Mexico at the Paralympics, Mexico national football team). ... Federacion Mexicana de Deportes para Personas con Paralisis Cerebral (FEMEDEPC) manages the national team. In 2016, the ...
... is the national cerebral football team for Ukraine that represents the team in ... National team development is supported by an International Federation of Cerebral Palsy Football (IFCPF) recognized national ... run2 (2015). "Fixtures & Results - Cerebral Palsy Football World Championships 2015". 2015 CP Football World Championships. ... National cerebral palsy football teams, Ukraine at the Paralympics, Ukraine men's national football team, Football 7-a-side ...
Canada national cerebral palsy football team is the national cerebral football team for Canada that represents the team in ... The sport was originally governed by the Canadian Cerebral Palsy Sports Association. The Canadian Soccer Association (CSA) ... National team development is supported by an International Federation of Cerebral Palsy Football (IFCPF) recognized national ... run2 (2015). "Fixtures & Results - Cerebral Palsy Football World Championships 2015". 2015 CP Football World Championships. ...
... is the national cerebral football team for Iran that represents the team in ... National team development is supported by an International Federation of Cerebral Palsy Football (IFCPF) recognized national ... National cerebral palsy football teams, Football 7-a-side teams at the 2004 Summer Paralympics, Football 7-a-side teams at the ... "La Selección de parálisis cerebral busca el Mundial de Argentina". AS (in Spanish). AS. July 26, 2016. Retrieved August 29, ...
"Argentine Cerebral Palsy Football Federation" Spanish: Federación Argentina de Fútbol de Parálisis Cerebral (FAFPC). Their best ... The Argentina national cerebral palsy football team (nicknamed Los Tigres) is the national football team that represents ... National team development is supported by an International Federation of Cerebral Palsy Football (IFCPF) recognized national ... run2 (2015). "Fixtures & Results - Cerebral Palsy Football World Championships 2015". 2015 CP Football World Championships. ...
"Self-Help Cerebral Palsy/Nepal". Retrieved 2013-04-28. "Nepal Calls for National Cerebral Palsy Policy". Retrieved 2013-04-28 ... "Self Help Group Cerebral Palsy/Nepal". Retrieved 2013-04-28. "International Cerebral Palsy Society". Retrieved 2013-04-29. " ... Cerebral palsy (CP) is a neurological disorder that is caused during childhood which permanently affects body movement and ... This is a major problem as most of parents of the CP children refuse to invest in children with cerebral palsy because they ...
... is the national cerebral football team for Venezuela that represents the team ... National team development is supported by an International Federation of Cerebral Palsy Football (IFCPF) recognized national ... run2 (2015). "Fixtures & Results - Cerebral Palsy Football World Championships 2015". 2015 CP Football World Championships. ... "La Selección de parálisis cerebral busca el Mundial de Argentina". AS (in Spanish). AS. July 26, 2016. Retrieved August 29, ...
... is the national cerebral football team for Singapore that represents the team ... "Singapore Cerebral Palsy football team to take on European sides in Austria - Goal.com". 2013-08-26. Retrieved 2016-08-27. " ... "Singapore Cerebral Palsy football team looking forward to Asean Para Games - Goal.com". 2014-01-10. Retrieved 2016-08-27. " ... "Cerebral Palsy football team gets own home ground at Queenstown". Retrieved 2016-08-27. "Football Association Singapore Annual ...
... is the national cerebral football team for Finland that represents the team in ... CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown, CS1 Spanish-language sources (es), National cerebral palsy football teams, Finland ... "La Selección de parálisis cerebral busca el Mundial de Argentina". AS (in Spanish). AS. July 26, 2016. Retrieved August 29, ...
... is the national cerebral football team for Denmark that represents the team in ... CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown, CS1 Spanish-language sources (es), National cerebral palsy football teams, ... "La Selección de parálisis cerebral busca el Mundial de Argentina". AS (in Spanish). AS. July 26, 2016. Retrieved August 29, ...
... is the national cerebral football team for Scotland that represents the team in ... run2 (2015). "Fixtures & Results - Cerebral Palsy Football World Championships 2015". 2015 CP Football World Championships. ...
... is the national cerebral palsy football team for Nigeria that represents the team ... "Cerebral Palsy Football Tourney Gets Date - SportsDay". sportsdayonline.com. Retrieved 27 August 2016. "Cerebral Palsy Football ... That year, Nigeria was also looking to possibly create a women's national cerebral palsy team. Power Eagles Cerebral Palsy ( ... "Ikpea asks for support for cerebral palsy sportsmen , Nigeria Newspapers". Retrieved 27 August 2016. "Cerebral Palsy football ...
... is the national cerebral football team for Germany that represents the team in ... "Singapore Cerebral Palsy football team to take on European sides in Austria - Goal.com". 2013-08-26. Retrieved 2016-08-27. " ... CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown, CS1 Spanish-language sources (es), National cerebral palsy football teams, Germany ... "La Selección de parálisis cerebral busca el Mundial de Argentina". AS (in Spanish). AS. July 26, 2016. Retrieved August 29, ...
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect a persons ability to move and maintain balance and posture. CP is the ... Birth Prevalence of Cerebral Palsy. *Prevalence of Cerebral Palsy, Co-occurring Autism Spectrum Disorders, and Motor ... Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect a persons ability to move and maintain balance and posture. CP is the ...
Dyskinetic cerebral palsy is an extrapyramidal form of cerebral palsy. Dyskinetic cerebral palsy can be divided into two ... of all cases of cerebral palsy, making it the least frequent form of cerebral palsy. Ataxic cerebral palsy is caused by damage ... "Bells Palsy & Other Facial Nerve Problems". 2020. Shevell M (December 2018). "Cerebral palsy to cerebral palsy spectrum ... Cerebral palsy is the most common movement disorder in children. It occurs in about 2.1 per 1,000 live births. Cerebral palsy ...
Cerebral palsy, CP happens when areas of the brain that control movement and posture do not develop correctly or get damaged. ... Cerebral Palsy (For Parents) (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish * Dietary Needs for Kids With Cerebral Palsy (Nemours ... What is cerebral palsy (CP)?. Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that cause problems with movement, balance, and ... What are the types of cerebral palsy (CP)?. There are different types of CP:. *Spastic cerebral palsy, which is the most common ...
Cerebral palsy is the leading cause of childhood disability affecting function and development. The incidence of the condition ... The typical types of cerebral palsy are as follows:. * Spastic hemiplegia (20-30%) - Cerebral palsy predominantly affecting 1 ... Mixed cerebral palsy - Cerebral palsy with no single specific tonal quality predominating; typically characterized by a mixture ... Bax M, Tydeman C, Flodmark O. Clinical and MRI correlates of cerebral palsy: the European Cerebral Palsy Study. JAMA. 2006 Oct ...
Cerebral Palsy. Friendship helps girl with cerebral palsy Its important for any child to have someone to look up to, but when ... Man with cerebral palsy swims for first time Watch the moment this 20-year-old with cerebral palsy faced his fear and tried ... Boy with cerebral palsy takes first steps without walker Marick Williams Jr., a 5-year-old who has cerebral palsy, took his ... Boy with cerebral palsy goes viral for Halloween costume He may be dressed as a grouchy old man, but this toddlers smile is ...
There are many options that a doctor may recommend to treat cerebral palsy. Lets look at pros, cons, recovery, costs, and more ... Do Cerebral Palsy Symptoms Get Worse?. Some symptoms of cerebral palsy may worsen with age, and other challenges may also arise ... Spastic cerebral palsy is one type of cerebral palsy that involves muscular stiffness. Heres what you may want to know. ... Several surgeries can be part of a cerebral palsy treatment plan. Surgery for cerebral palsy can help lower pain while ...
The cause of cerebral palsy and its effect on function vary from person to person. Some people with cerebral palsy can walk ... Symptoms of cerebral palsy can vary greatly. In some people, cerebral palsy affects the whole body. In other people, symptoms ... Babies born prematurely are at higher risk of cerebral palsy. The earlier a baby is born, the greater the cerebral palsy risk. ... Cerebral palsy may make it hard to swallow. It also can cause eye muscle imbalance, in which the eyes dont focus on the same ...
Cerebral Palsy*. CP Tool Kit. Download our free Cerebral Palsy Tool Kit in English, Portuguese and Spanish. ... Donate today and help us change the lives of people with cerebral palsy and their families! ...
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a ... A North Carolina high school crowned its homecoming queen on Friday, choosing a student who has cerebral palsy. ... The CDC estimates that about 1 in every 323 children in the United States has cerebral palsy. ... New York man with cerebral palsy and cancer earns blue belt in jiu-jitsu ...
Wampler was the first man with cerebral palsy to climb the tallest rock face in the world. The foundation is thrilled to ...
Grady was getting impatient. It always took his sister Jordan forever to get ready for school. Why couldnt she be faster? Mom said it was because Jordan had CP, but Grady was tired of that excuse. Why couldnt his sister just be normal? What was CP anyway? That afternoon, when Grady got home from school,
Electronic fetal monitoring and cerebral palsy. Cerebral palsy was once thought to be caused mainly by birth asphyxia. Early ... especially cerebral palsy. However, it has a high false positive rate and has not been shown to reduce cerebral palsy.4 We ... have compared cerebral palsy rates in births monitored electronically or by intermittent auscultation. Cerebral palsy cannot be ... Electronic fetal monitoring, cerebral palsy, and caesarean section: assumptions versus evidence BMJ 2016; 355 :i6405 doi: ...
The 42-year-old employee with cerebral palsy is known by regulars as the go-to guy when they cant find an item. He has had a ...
Imani Barbarin shares a personal essay about the challenges of journeying into adulthood as a Black woman with cerebral palsy. ... In order to be "high-functioning," you need things like regular physical therapy, and treatment for the cerebral palsy you were ... Im A Black Woman With Cerebral Palsy & I Didnt Think Id Make It Into Adulthood. Imani Barbarin ... I have yet to find one that treats cerebral palsy at my big age. While I have had physical therapy nearly three times a week ...
... www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Cerebral-Palsy-Information-Page"Cerebral Palsy" March of Dimes. Retrieved March 28, ... More Question About Cerebral Palsy? Fill out the form above!. Primary Sidebar. Free Case Evaluation How Can We Help? Primary ... Many children with cerebral palsy have "cross eyes" (strabismus)-the muscles surrounding one eye may be much weaker than those ... Other conditions which may accompany cerebral palsy. Seizures:. Approximately half of CP patients experience some form of ...
Swimmers have less than a week to submit their entries for the Cerebral Palsy Sport National Swimming Championships 2020. ... Adi Fawcett, Cerebral Palsy Sport Chief Operating Officer, said: "We are looking forward to a competitive day of racing at the ... To mark the start of Cerebral Palsy Awareness month on Sunday 1 March, organisers are now encouraging swimmers to make sure ... To find out more about the Cerebral Palsy Sport National Swimming Championships, or if youd like to volunteer, please contact ...
Laura Vogtle, Ph.D., OTR/L, FAOTA, has been elected as director at large of the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and ... Vogtle will lead the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine. ... Laura Vogtle, Ph.D., OTR/L, FAOTA, has been elected as director at large of the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and ... Vogtle will lead the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine. ...
Explore the advantages of using vibration plates for cerebral palsy. Restore mobility and comfort today with Power Plate! ... Alleviate symptoms of disorders like Parkinsons disease and cerebral palsy. Understanding Vibration Training in Cerebral Palsy ... Cerebral palsy is a neurological disorder caused by damage to the brain during early development. Children born with cerebral ... Cerebral palsy is a serious disorder, and you should always consult with your healthcare provider for guidance specific to your ...
... Gait Posture. ... Background: The use of Instrumented Gait Analysis (IGA) for the clinical management of individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) has ... Keywords: 3D motion capture; Cerebral palsy; Children; Computerized gait analysis; Instrumented gait analysis. ...
Learn some of the best natural treatment options for Cerebral Palsy, such as Echinacea, fish oil, acupuncture, and a number of ... What Is Cerebral Palsy?. The commonly held definition for cerebral palsy is that it is a condition or disorder of movement, ... Are There Any Natural Remedies for Cerebral Palsy?. While there are no actual cures for cerebral palsy, natural remedies can ... cerebralpalsy.org/about-cerebral-palsy/treatment/complementary-and-alternative-medicine/. Diseases and Conditions: Cerebral ...
If you camp was not a possibility for children with Cerebral Palsy, think again! Take a look at this sample list of options and ... Cerebral Palsy of Virginia - Virginia. At only $200/camper, this camp affords a unique experience for families to send youths, ... Below are just a few great camps for children with Cerebral Palsy to take a look at and possibly plan for this year or next. We ... United Cerebral Palsy of Mobile hosts this camp for individuals with disabilities, with campers ranging in age from 5-50. This ...
Scope - the main UK charity for people with cerebral palsy - call their helpline on 0808 800 3333 or visit their website at ... The most common consequence of PVL is cerebral palsy, a disorder that affects movement and coordination. Children with PVL may ... Physiotherapy and orthopaedic intervention: particularly when there is a diagnosis of cerebral palsy and there are difficulties ... such as cerebral palsy.. Laura Cook is a Partner at CL Medilaw who work closely with many families with children who have an ...
For parents of children with cerebral palsy, it is important to know how to promote limited mobility. Mobility aids from ... Cerebral palsy (CP) is also known as infantile cerebral palsy (ICP) and is defined as an injury to the brain that occurs before ... Cerebral palsy (CP) is also known as infantile cerebral palsy (ICP) and is defined as an injury to the brain that occurs before ... Cerebral palsy (CP) is also known as infantile cerebral palsy (ICP) and is defined as an injury to the brain that occurs before ...
Our cerebral palsy attorneys in Georgia may be able to help you file a medical malpractice lawsuit to pursue compensation for ... Cerebral Palsy Attorney in Georgia FAQs. Can cerebral palsy be caused by malpractice?. Yes. Doctors and other health care ... Who can sue for cerebral palsy in Georgia?. You may be able to file a Georgia cerebral palsy lawsuit if:. *Your child has ... Children with cerebral palsy face a lifetime of ongoing medical care. Treatments for cerebral palsy can add up to nearly $1 ...
A project report from Help Cerebral Palsy affected children on GlobalGiving ... The update on this project is that Zoya is making good improvement on the training she is being provided for her cerebral palsy ... Help Cerebral Palsy affected children By J M Balaraj , Project leader UPDATE ON HELP CEREBRAL PALSY AFFECTED CHILDREN ...
Continue reading "Double Donation Benefits Cerebral Palsy Charity" → Tagged: Cerebral Palsy, Cerebral Palsy Association in ... Tag: Cerebral Palsy. Double Donation Benefits Cerebral Palsy Charity. Posted by Sandra on April 26, 2016. May 24, 2022. in Blog ... Just recently a Calgary family donated 2 vehicles to their charity of choice! Who received their gifts? The Cerebral Palsy ...
Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a persons ability to move and maintain balance and posture. Learn about ... Traveling with Cerebral Palsy: Tips and Strategies for a Smooth Journey. * Everything You Need to Know About Cerebral Palsy ... Managing Your Childs Cerebral Palsy: A Comprehensive Guide. * Transportation for People with Cerebral Palsy: You Need to Know ... What is the Life Expectancy of Someone with Cerebral Palsy?. * Music Therapy: A Comprehensive Guide to Treating Cerebral Palsy ...
Megan has cerebral palsy with athetoid movements, is profoundly deaf and has epilepsy. ... Megan has cerebral palsy with athetoid movements, is profoundly deaf and has epilepsy. She was a twin born at 32 weeks, and cp ... Megan has cerebral palsy with athetoid movements, is profoundly deaf and has epilepsy. She was a twin born at 32 weeks, and cp ... Cerebral Palsy Sports registered office address is:. Lytchett House, 13 Freeland Park, Wareham Road, Poole, Dorset, BH16 6FA ...
Kenley and her parents unanimously received a diagnosis of spastic cerebral palsy, the most common type of cerebral palsy, ...
ABC Law Centers Cerebral Palsy Scholarship. /News//ABC Law Centers Cerebral Palsy Scholarship ... Awards one scholarship per year in the amount of $1,000 to a student who has cerebral palsy. Students must be seeking or ...
  • Muscle contractions in people with cerebral palsy are commonly thought to arise from overactivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes, people with cerebral palsy might also have surgery for complications, such as eye surgery or surgery to address hearing loss. (healthline.com)
  • Some people with cerebral palsy can walk while others need assistance. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Epilepsy, blindness or deafness also might affect some people with cerebral palsy. (mayoclinic.org)
  • People with cerebral palsy may walk on their toes or crouch down when they walk. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Reducing spasticity and improving mobility - Spasticity is one of the most frustrating symptoms for people with cerebral palsy, but vibration training can provide relief after one session, with more improvement over time. (powerplate.com)
  • What Financial Benefits Can People with Cerebral Palsy Receive? (originsofcerebralpalsy.com)
  • People with cerebral palsy may also experience secondary conditions such as dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, and difficulty communicating. (originsofcerebralpalsy.com)
  • People with cerebral palsy may also have difficulty using cutlery, holding a cup, or transferring food from a plate to their mouths with their hands. (originsofcerebralpalsy.com)
  • Gastroesophageal reflux is another common issue for people with cerebral palsy, in which stomach acid rises into the esophagus, making eating uncomfortable or painful. (originsofcerebralpalsy.com)
  • For example, those with stiff muscles have spastic cerebral palsy, those with poor coordination in locomotion have ataxic cerebral palsy, and those with writhing movements have dyskinetic cerebral palsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spastic cerebral palsy , which is the most common type. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Examination findings were consistent with a spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy with asymmetry (more prominent right-sided deficits). (medscape.com)
  • The effects lasted as long as two hours post-session, allowing participants with spastic cerebral palsy to walk and move more comfortably. (powerplate.com)
  • Ninety-nine non-institutionalized male and female children (aged 6 to 13 years-old) with a medical diagnosis of spastic cerebral palsy13, who were referred to a specialized rehabilitation center in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, were consecutively included in this study. (bvsalud.org)
  • The diagnosis of cerebral palsy is generally made based on the clinical picture. (medscape.com)
  • Held annually, the championships are open to individuals aged 10 or above (as of the 31 December 2020) who have a diagnosis of non-progressive brain damage with motor control dysfunction such as cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, stroke or similar conditions. (swimming.org)
  • A diagnosis of cerebral palsy is one of the last things anyone wants to hear, but even if you or someone you love has heard those words, there is something you can do about it. (earthclinic.com)
  • While there is no actual cure for cerebral palsy, early diagnosis and progressive treatment can drastically improve the quality of life for everyone. (earthclinic.com)
  • To many parents, the diagnosis of cerebral palsy in their child is initially a shock. (ottobock.com)
  • After the initial diagnosis, it will become clear that there are many ways to support the development of a child with cerebral palsy. (ottobock.com)
  • At Sokolove Law, our Georgia cerebral palsy lawyers understand the physical, emotional, and financial impacts of a CP diagnosis - and we have the resources necessary to fight for compensation on your child's behalf. (sokolovelaw.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a clinical diagnosis and was long categorized as an acquired disorder, but more and more genetic etiologies are being identified. (lu.se)
  • Some form of mobility impairment is the common to all forms of cerebral palsy. (brainandspinalcord.org)
  • For those with more severe forms of cerebral palsy, feeding tubes may be necessary. (originsofcerebralpalsy.com)
  • People with the most severe forms of cerebral palsy are more likely than others to have high myopia, lack of binocular fusion, dyskinetic strabismus (also known as "turning around" or "squinting"), severe eye dysfunction, and optic neuropathy or cerebral visual impairment (CVI). (originsofcerebralpalsy.com)
  • The use of Instrumented Gait Analysis (IGA) for the clinical management of individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) has increased in recent years. (nih.gov)
  • Salivary osmolality reflects the hydration status of individuals with cerebral palsy necessary for adequate unstimulated salivary flow rate. (bvsalud.org)
  • Ataxic cerebral palsy , which causes problems with balance and coordination. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ataxic cerebral palsy affects balance and depth perception, making it difficult to sit with their backs straight or walk. (originsofcerebralpalsy.com)
  • Enhancing muscle strength and coordination - WBV can help cerebral palsy patients restore muscle strength and coordination by stimulating the activity of muscle spindles (receptors that help muscles move and stretch) and motor neurons (nerves which control movement). (powerplate.com)
  • Mixed cerebral palsy , which means that you have symptoms of more than one type. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Additionally, each person with cerebral palsy can have their own individual symptoms and challenges to be considered. (healthline.com)
  • The symptoms of cerebral palsy may vary during the child's development, but the condition doesn't get worse. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Symptoms of cerebral palsy can vary greatly. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The condition known as cerebral palsy produces a variety of symptoms. (brainandspinalcord.org)
  • While there is no cure for the disorder, there are tools that can help, including the use of a vibration plate for addressing cerebral palsy symptoms. (powerplate.com)
  • In this article, we'll review the evidence for vibration training and discuss how using a vibration plate to stimulate muscles and nerves could provide relief from the frustrating symptoms of cerebral palsy. (powerplate.com)
  • How can something as simple as mechanical vibration help with cerebral palsy symptoms? (powerplate.com)
  • Because of its remarkable ability to strengthen the musculoskeletal system, vibration training has been shown to have a positive effect on the symptoms of cerebral palsy. (powerplate.com)
  • How mild or severe the symptoms (i.e., the physical or mental disabilities of cerebral palsy) are depends on the affected area of the brain and the level of injury. (ottobock.com)
  • Often, babies with cerebral palsy do not roll over, sit, crawl or walk as early as other children of their age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cerebral palsy is the most common movement disorder in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • These gait patterns are among the most common gait abnormalities in children with cerebral palsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's also common for children with cerebral palsy to have neurological surgeries. (healthline.com)
  • Sometimes, children with cerebral palsy also have surgery for complications of the condition. (healthline.com)
  • Several factors can influence the right age to have surgery for cerebral palsy, but children are typically between 3 and 10 years old . (healthline.com)
  • Children with cerebral palsy may have exaggerated reflexes. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Children with cerebral palsy may be diagnosed with epilepsy. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Children with cerebral palsy may have an early period of hypotonia followed by hypertonia. (medscape.com)
  • The CDC estimates that about 1 in every 323 children in the United States has cerebral palsy. (foxnews.com)
  • Many children with cerebral palsy have "cross eyes" ( strabismus )-the muscles surrounding one eye may be much weaker than those controlling the other eye. (brainandspinalcord.org)
  • Children born with cerebral palsy struggle with developing normal muscle tone and posture, as well as controlling their movements. (powerplate.com)
  • That does not mean, though, that going away for some fun cannot be in your child's plans this summer as there are a variety of different types of camp for children with Cerebral Palsy to consider! (cerebralpalsy.org)
  • Below are just a few great camps for children with Cerebral Palsy to take a look at and possibly plan for this year or next. (cerebralpalsy.org)
  • We provide this list not as a catch-all of everything you should consider but, instead, to raise awareness about the wide variety of camps, and experiences, available for children with Cerebral Palsy. (cerebralpalsy.org)
  • We should note that many of these camps are not exclusive to children with Cerebral Palsy and include other kids with special needs, making for a diverse and fun experience! (cerebralpalsy.org)
  • Find out here how cerebral palsy can affect children and how you can support your child's movement in a targeted manner. (ottobock.com)
  • Just as the development of mobility is different for every child, it also varies considerably for children with cerebral palsy. (ottobock.com)
  • Children with cerebral palsy face a lifetime of ongoing medical care. (sokolovelaw.com)
  • Behavioral problems are also common in children with cerebral palsy. (originsofcerebralpalsy.com)
  • Communication problems are among the top challenges for parents of children with cerebral palsy. (originsofcerebralpalsy.com)
  • Shortly after this, a local football team for CP children was started (Stoke City Cerebral Palsy FC) by like minded parents which has been fantastic, more and more players are joining all the time. (cpsport.org)
  • This paper describes and discusses the development of mobile exergames for children with cerebral palsy. (lu.se)
  • Methods: The sample consisted of 99 children with cerebral palsy aged 6 to 13 years old. (bvsalud.org)
  • Conclusions: The effectiveness of oral motor performance plays an important role in the hydration status of children with cerebral palsy and those with worse oral motor performance may be at higher risk of oral diseases. (bvsalud.org)
  • Alterations in mastication and swallowing in children with cerebral palsy result in feeding dysfunctions that may lead to reduced dietary intake, prolonged feeding times and poor nutritional status accompanied by compromised physical performance 3-7 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Children with cerebral palsy present low unstimulated salivary flow rate, pH and buffer capacity 8 , and variations in the activity of enzymes and sialic acid concentrations 9 . (bvsalud.org)
  • It has also been reported that children with cerebral palsy present increased salivary osmolality and total protein concentration 10 , together with increased salivary, urine and plasma osmolalities, characterizing an impaired hydration status 11 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Considering that an adequate fluid intake and homeostasis of total body water is essential for human health and survival, the aims of this study were to investigate whether (i) oral motor performance is determinant for hydration status and (ii) the effect of a supplemental oral fluid supply on salivary osmolality in children with cerebral palsy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although cerebral palsy (CP) is the commonest physical disability in children , its impact at population level has not been systematically measured so far. (bvsalud.org)
  • What are the treatments for cerebral palsy (CP)? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cerebral palsy is a chronic condition, but there are many treatments available. (healthline.com)
  • Some of the best treatments for cerebral palsy include Echinacea, fish oil, acupuncture, and physical therapy. (earthclinic.com)
  • Keep reading below to discover more complementary and alternative treatments for supporting cerebral palsy care. (earthclinic.com)
  • Treatments for cerebral palsy can add up to nearly $1 Million over the years, according to the Centers for Disease and Control Prevention (CDC). (sokolovelaw.com)
  • It was introduced to enable early identification of fetal asphyxia in the hope of preventing death or long term neurological morbidity, especially cerebral palsy. (bmj.com)
  • Sources "Cerebral Palsy: Hope Through Research" National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (brainandspinalcord.org)
  • Cerebral palsy is a neurological disorder caused by damage to the brain during early development. (powerplate.com)
  • Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and maintain balance and posture. (cdc.gov)
  • Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of movement disorders that appear in early childhood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cerebral palsy is defined as "a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that cause problems with movement , balance , and posture. (medlineplus.gov)
  • https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Cerebral-Palsy-Information-Page "Cerebral Palsy" March of Dimes. (brainandspinalcord.org)
  • The researcher also sought to determine the overlap between genes harboring rare damaging variants from their cerebral palsy cohort with known neurodevelopmental disorder risk genes and found substantial overlap between their cerebral palsy candidate gene list and disorders such as epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder, or intellectual disability. (genomeweb.com)
  • Cerebral palsy describes a group of chronic disorders that involve movement and posture development, often accompanied by epilepsy, secondary musculoskeletal problems and disturbances of sensation, perception, cognition, communication and behavior. (bvsalud.org)
  • This, they added, indicates "that genomic mutations represent an important, independent contributor to [cerebral palsy] etiology that historically has been overlooked. (genomeweb.com)
  • Etiology of cerebral palsy is multifactorial, and a specific cause is sometimes hard to establish. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In term infants, clinical chorioamnionitis is highly associated with cerebral palsy. (cdc.gov)
  • In preterm infants, clinical chorioamnionitis is less strongly and consistently associated with cerebral palsy. (cdc.gov)
  • Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, the first part of the name, cerebral, means having to do with the brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The brain condition causing cerebral palsy doesn't change with time. (mayoclinic.org)
  • While there are no actual cures for cerebral palsy, natural remedies can help support brain and muscle function. (earthclinic.com)
  • Cerebral palsy (CP) is an early-childhood brain injury that occurs around birth. (ottobock.com)
  • Cerebral palsy (CP) is also known as infantile cerebral palsy (ICP) and is defined as an injury to the brain that occurs before, during or after birth up to about two years of age due to a variety of causes. (ottobock.com)
  • Cerebral palsy does not progress, which means the brain injury will not get worse. (ottobock.com)
  • this early-childhood brain injury is often referred to as infantile cerebral palsy (ICP). (ottobock.com)
  • These errors may lead to brain injuries, lack of oxygen or blood flow to the brain, and kernicterus, all of which are common causes of cerebral palsy. (sokolovelaw.com)
  • Cerebral palsy is caused by brain injury or brain malformation that occurs during fetal development, at birth, or after birth while the brain is still developing. (originsofcerebralpalsy.com)
  • At Sokolove Law, our cerebral palsy lawyers in Georgia have spent over 45 years helping families pursue compensation for their child's injury. (sokolovelaw.com)
  • If you have a case, our Georgia cerebral palsy lawyers will handle every step of the legal process for you , so you can focus on your child's well-being. (sokolovelaw.com)
  • There are eight primary types of orthopedic surgery for cerebral palsy. (healthline.com)
  • The second part, palsy, means weakness or problems with using the muscles. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Spinal deformities- scoliosis (curvature), kyphosis (humpback), and lordosis (saddleback) frequently occur along with cerebral palsy. (brainandspinalcord.org)
  • The cohort-wide enrichment of [ de novo mutations] we detected is consistent with the observation that most cases of [cerebral palsy] occur sporadically," the authors wrote, adding that they estimate 75 genes to contribute to cerebral palsy through a de novo mechanism. (genomeweb.com)
  • The findings provided evidence for genetically mediated dysregulation of early neuronal connectivity in cerebral palsy. (genomeweb.com)
  • Our Georgia cerebral palsy lawyers will gather medical documents, witness testimony, and other evidence to show that malpractice or negligence was involved. (sokolovelaw.com)
  • The effects of cerebral palsy fall on a continuum of motor dysfunction, which may range from slight clumsiness at the mild end of the spectrum to impairments so severe that they render coordinated movement virtually impossible at the other end of the spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Megan has cerebral palsy with athetoid movements, is profoundly deaf and has epilepsy. (cpsport.org)
  • Researchers have found that even one session of vibration training, also referred to as "body vibration", could be a tool in broader wellness programs, potentially aiding in overall physical comfort and mobility for cerebral palsy patients, with results lasting up to 30 minutes after training. (powerplate.com)
  • Vogtle will lead the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine. (uab.edu)
  • Laura Vogtle, Ph.D., OTR/L, FAOTA, has been elected as director at large of the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine . (uab.edu)
  • Common indicators of cerebral palsy are directly linked to developmental progress as well as motor movement. (earthclinic.com)
  • Cerebral palsy refers to a group of nonprogressive conditions characterized by impaired voluntary movement or posture and resulting from prenatal developmental malformations or perinatal or postnatal central nervous system damage. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In order to determine whether genomic factors may underlie cerebral palsy - along with the well-known environmental factors, such as prematurity, infection, hypoxia-ischemia, and pre- and perinatal stroke - an international team of researchers performed whole-exome sequencing on 250 cerebral palsy parent-offspring trios. (genomeweb.com)
  • For their analysis, the researchers compared the exomes of 250 cerebral palsy family trios with those of 1,789 control trios. (genomeweb.com)
  • Her recent research has focused on the use of physical activity interventions for the prevention of secondary conditions, particularly pain and fatigue, in adults with cerebral palsy. (uab.edu)
  • Only two randomised trials, both published more than 25 years ago, have compared cerebral palsy rates in births monitored electronically or by intermittent auscultation. (bmj.com)
  • present a useful systematic review of studies of risk factors for cerebral palsy (CP) in term births. (cdc.gov)
  • Cerebral palsy is characterized by abnormal muscle tone, reflexes, or motor development and coordination. (wikipedia.org)
  • A total of 28.9 percent of cerebral palsy risk genes overlapped with genes linked to intellectual disability, 11.1 percent with genes involved in epilepsy, and 6.3 percent with genes implicated in autism spectrum disorder. (genomeweb.com)
  • This is the most common movement condition related to cerebral palsy. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Abnormalities of the spine and hips are associated with cerebral palsy and can make it difficult to sit, stand and walk, as well as cause chronic pain. (originsofcerebralpalsy.com)
  • Worries and questions about their future then often dominate thoughts: What effects will cerebral palsy have on the physical and mental development of my child? (ottobock.com)
  • At the same time, however, cerebral palsy is not curable, and the physical and mental consequences of the disease may get worse if not treated early and permanently. (ottobock.com)
  • The commonly held definition for cerebral palsy is that it is a condition or disorder of movement, muscle tone, or posture. (earthclinic.com)
  • Public health indicators for cerebral palsy: A European collaborative study of the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe network. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cerebral palsy (CP) is a non-progressive encephalopathy that causes changes in muscle tone, posture and movement. (bvsalud.org)
  • Rehabilitation, virtual reality, cerebral palsy. (bvsalud.org)
  • These findings are most likely the sequelae of a neonatal insult (eg, periventricular leukomalacia with a superimposed left-sided cerebral infarct). (medscape.com)
  • Early advocates of electronic fetal monitoring expected that early detection of asphyxia in labour would largely eliminate cerebral palsy. (bmj.com)
  • Cerebral palsy is a group of conditions that affect movement and posture. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The term infantile cerebral palsy is now considered outdated, as it implies that the condition occurs in early infancy and is a postnatal development, i.e., develops after birth. (ottobock.com)
  • The magnetic resonance image (MRI) below illustrates the findings in a 16-month-old boy with cerebral palsy. (medscape.com)
  • Acupuncture is an ancient form of therapy and is considered an effective complementary medicine for cerebral palsy. (earthclinic.com)
  • Who is at risk for cerebral palsy (CP)? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Risk factors for cerebral palsy: current knowledge and future causal inference. (cdc.gov)
  • A 2018 review of 28 studies concluded that vibration training can lead to "significant improvements in daily living" for cerebral palsy patients by reducing impairments in motor control and strength. (powerplate.com)
  • We've secured more than $905 Million for those impacted by birth injuries like cerebral palsy, helping families nationwide pay for treatment costs and other expenses. (sokolovelaw.com)