Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Intracranial Hypertension: Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Infarction: Formation of an infarct, which is NECROSIS in tissue due to local ISCHEMIA resulting from obstruction of BLOOD CIRCULATION, most commonly by a THROMBUS or EMBOLUS.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Pseudotumor Cerebri: A condition marked by raised intracranial pressure and characterized clinically by HEADACHES; NAUSEA; PAPILLEDEMA, peripheral constriction of the visual fields, transient visual obscurations, and pulsatile TINNITUS. OBESITY is frequently associated with this condition, which primarily affects women between 20 and 44 years of age. Chronic PAPILLEDEMA may lead to optic nerve injury (see OPTIC NERVE DISEASES) and visual loss (see BLINDNESS).Glasgow Coma Scale: A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Decompressive Craniectomy: Excision of part of the skull. This procedure is used to treat elevated intracranial pressure that is unresponsive to conventional treatment.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Papilledema: Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)Glasgow Outcome Scale: A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Diffuse Axonal Injury: A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Head Injuries, Closed: Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts: Tubes inserted to create communication between a cerebral ventricle and the internal jugular vein. Their emplacement permits draining of cerebrospinal fluid for relief of hydrocephalus or other condition leading to fluid accumulation in the ventricles.Stroke, Lacunar: Stroke caused by lacunar infarction or other small vessel diseases of the brain. It features hemiparesis (see PARESIS), hemisensory, or hemisensory motor loss.Diuretics, Osmotic: Compounds that increase urine volume by increasing the amount of osmotically active solute in the urine. Osmotic diuretics also increase the osmolarity of plasma.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Leukoaraiosis: Non-specific white matter changes in the BRAIN, often seen after age 65. Changes include loss of AXONS; MYELIN pallor, GLIOSIS, loss of ependymal cells, and enlarged perivascular spaces. Leukoaraiosis is a risk factor for DEMENTIA and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Ventriculostomy: Surgical creation of an opening in a cerebral ventricle.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Blast Injuries: Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Transducers, Pressure: Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Post-Concussion Syndrome: The organic and psychogenic disturbances observed after closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED). Post-concussion syndrome includes subjective physical complaints (i.e. headache, dizziness), cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes. These disturbances can be chronic, permanent, or late emerging.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Hydrostatic Pressure: The pressure due to the weight of fluid.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.Brain Hemorrhage, Traumatic: Bleeding within the brain as a result of penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Traumatically induced hemorrhages may occur in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM (see BRAIN STEM HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC); and CEREBELLUM.Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Spinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Cranial Sinuses: Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Splenic Infarction: Insufficiency of arterial or venous blood supply to the spleen due to emboli, thrombi, vascular torsion, or pressure that produces a macroscopic area of necrosis. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Subdural Space: Potential cavity which separates the ARACHNOID MATER from the DURA MATER.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction: MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION in which the anterior wall of the heart is involved. Anterior wall myocardial infarction is often caused by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. It can be categorized as anteroseptal or anterolateral wall myocardial infarction.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Cerebral Ventriculography: Radiography of the ventricular system of the brain after injection of air or other contrast medium directly into the cerebral ventricles. It is used also for x-ray computed tomography of the cerebral ventricles.Malaria, Cerebral: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Arterial Pressure: The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Brain Stem Infarctions: Infarctions that occur in the BRAIN STEM which is comprised of the MIDBRAIN; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA. There are several named syndromes characterized by their distinctive clinical manifestations and specific sites of ischemic injury.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Papio: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Encephalocele: Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Blood Pressure Determination: Techniques for measuring blood pressure.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.JapanVentricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Percussion: Act of striking a part with short, sharp blows as an aid in diagnosing the condition beneath the sound obtained.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Streptokinase: Streptococcal fibrinolysin . An enzyme produced by hemolytic streptococci. It hydrolyzes amide linkages and serves as an activator of plasminogen. It is used in thrombolytic therapy and is used also in mixtures with streptodornase (STREPTODORNASE AND STREPTOKINASE). EC 3.4.-.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Hematoma, Subdural: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure: A form of compensated hydrocephalus characterized clinically by a slowly progressive gait disorder (see GAIT DISORDERS, NEUROLOGIC), progressive intellectual decline, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. Spinal fluid pressure tends to be in the high normal range. This condition may result from processes which interfere with the absorption of CSF including SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, chronic MENINGITIS, and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp631-3)Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Mice, Inbred C57BLIntraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Aquaporin 4: Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Central Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.Cerebral Aqueduct: Narrow channel in the MESENCEPHALON that connects the third and fourth CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Coronary Care Units: The hospital unit in which patients with acute cardiac disorders receive intensive care.Neurosurgery: A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Arachnoid: A delicate membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord. It lies between the PIA MATER and the DURA MATER. It is separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid cavity which is filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Intracranial Hemorrhages: Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.Pia Mater: The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.Cerebral Hemorrhage, Traumatic: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES due to TRAUMA. Hemorrhage may involve any part of the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the BASAL GANGLIA. Depending on the severity of bleeding, clinical features may include SEIZURES; APHASIA; VISION DISORDERS; MOVEMENT DISORDERS; PARALYSIS; and COMA.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Intracranial Hypotension: Reduction of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID pressure characterized clinically by HEADACHE which is maximal in an upright posture and occasionally by an abducens nerve palsy (see ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES), neck stiffness, hearing loss (see DEAFNESS); NAUSEA; and other symptoms. This condition may be spontaneous or secondary to SPINAL PUNCTURE; NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; DEHYDRATION; UREMIA; trauma (see also CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA); and other processes. Chronic hypotension may be associated with subdural hematomas (see HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL) or hygromas. (From Semin Neurol 1996 Mar;16(1):5-10; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp637-8)Neuroendoscopy: PROCEDURES that use NEUROENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Neuroendoscopy, generally an integration of the neuroendoscope with a computer-assisted NEURONAVIGATION system, provides guidance in NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES.Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Pulse: The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Third Ventricle: A narrow cleft inferior to the CORPUS CALLOSUM, within the DIENCEPHALON, between the paired thalami. Its floor is formed by the HYPOTHALAMUS, its anterior wall by the lamina terminalis, and its roof by EPENDYMA. It communicates with the FOURTH VENTRICLE by the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT, and with the LATERAL VENTRICLES by the interventricular foramina.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the CRANIAL SINUSES, large endothelium-lined venous channels situated within the SKULL. Intracranial sinuses, also called cranial venous sinuses, include the superior sagittal, cavernous, lateral, petrous sinuses, and many others. Cranial sinus thrombosis can lead to severe HEADACHE; SEIZURE; and other neurological defects.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Critical Care: Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
... can result from brain trauma or from nontraumatic causes such as ischemic stroke, cancer, or brain inflammation ... "Hypertonic saline for treating raised intracranial pressure: literature review with meta-analysis". Journal of Neurosurgery. ... Gao CP, Ang BT (2008). "Biomechanical modeling of decompressive craniectomy in traumatic brain injury". Acta Neurochirurgica. ... Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Infarction: Clinical Course and Prognostic Signs". Archives of Neurology. 53 (4): 309-315. doi ...
... pressure reactivity allows determination of optimal cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with traumatic brain injury". ... "Prediction of late ischemic complications after cerebral aneurysm surgery by the intraoperative measurement of cerebral blood ... a trustee of the Brain Research Trust and was the first patron of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) UK. Pickard's ... "Effect of oral nimodipine on cerebral infarction and outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage: British aneurysm nimodipine trial ...
This results in widespread reduction in cerebral flow and perfusion, eventually leading to ischemia and brain infarction. ... Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. Firstgov. Accessed January 4, 2007. Intracranial Pressure at ... but the induced constriction of blood vessels limits blood flow to the brain at a time when the brain may already be ischemic- ... An increase in pressure, most commonly due to head injury leading to intracranial hematoma or cerebral edema, can crush brain ...
CT evidence of extensive middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction (sulcal effacement or blurring of grey-white ... or central nervous system damage within 1 year Head trauma within 3 weeks or brain surgery within 6 months Known intracranial ... Hypertension: systolic blood pressure ≥ 185mmHg; or diastolic blood pressure >110mmHg on repeated measures prior to study. (if ... Stroke: Thrombolysis reduces major disability or death when given within 3 hours (or perhaps even 6 hours) of ischaemic stroke ...
Raised intracranial pressure can ultimately result in the shifting or crushing of brain tissue, which is detrimental to the ... The blood pressure can be expected to stay higher than the pressure of the raised cerebral spinal fluid to continue to allow ... If the increase in blood pressure is not sufficient to compensate for the compression on the artery, infarction occurs. Raised ... Traumatic brain injury Bainbridge reflex Ayling, J (2002). "Managing head bangles". Emergency Medical Services. 31 (8): 42. ...
... cerebral infarction) Headache attributed to transient ischaemic attack (TIA) Headache attributed to non-traumatic intracranial ... to lymphocytic hypophysitis Headache attributed to intracranial neoplasm Headache attributed to increased intracranial pressure ... meningitis Headache attributed to lymphocytic meningitis Headache attributed to encephalitis Headache attributed to brain ... Acute post-traumatic headache Acute post-traumatic headache attributed to moderate or severe head injury Acute post-traumatic ...
"SOD1 nanozyme salvages ischemic brain by locally protecting cerebral vasculature". Journal of Controlled Release. 213: 36-44. ... These inflammatory responses cause intracranial pressure, pressure which leads to cell injury and in some situations cell death ... This same process of mitochondrial destruction through the opening of the MPT pore is implicated in making traumatic brain ... Le Lamer S (Feb 2014). "Translation of TRO40303 from myocardial infarction models to demonstration of safety and tolerance in a ...
Also, as a result of inadequate blood flow to the brain (cerebral perfusion), the patient will quickly become unconscious and ... Myocardial infarction) - Heart attack Thromboembolism (Pulmonary embolism) - A blood clot in the lung Traumatic cardiac arrest ... This is most commonly the result of longstanding high blood pressure which has caused secondary damage to the wall of the main ... With the prime causes of cardiac arrest being ischemic heart disease, efforts to promote a healthy diet, exercise, and smoking ...
The use of hypothermia to control intracranial pressure (ICP) after an ischemic stroke was found to be both safe and practical ... Doctor Rosomoff demonstrated in dogs the positive effects of mild hypothermia after brain ischemia and traumatic brain injury. ... "Moderate Hypothermia in the Treatment of Patients with Severe Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction". Stroke. 29 (12): 2461-6. doi: ... "Cooling for acute ischemic brain damage (cool aid): An open pilot study of induced hypothermia in acute ischemic stroke". ...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) shares many pathophysiological pathways with acute stroke, and ischemic preconditioning increases ... Delayed cerebral infarction after subarachnoid hemorrhage is a major cause of morbidity. Two Phase I clinical trials have shown ... Remote ischemic conditioning on the limb is mostly done by healthcare professionals, using a manual blood-pressure cuff and a ... "Upper limb ischemic preconditioning prevents recurrent stroke in intracranial arterial stenosis". Neurology. 79 (18): 1853-1861 ...
... brain stem hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C10.228.140.300.535.450.200.750 --- cerebral hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C10.228.140.300. ... ischemic attack, transient MeSH C10.228.140.300.451.400 --- hypoxia, brain MeSH C10.228.140.300.510 --- intracranial arterial ... brain infarction MeSH C10.228.140.300.301.200.100 --- brain stem infarctions MeSH C10.228.140.300.301.200.100.500 --- lateral ... normal pressure MeSH C10.228.140.617 --- hypothalamic diseases MeSH C10.228.140.617.200 --- bardet-biedl syndrome MeSH C10.228. ...
... and blood byproducts that increase intracranial pressure and may increase the risk for cerebral vasospasm. Efforts to keep a ... It can cause ischemic brain injury (referred to as "delayed ischemia") and permanent brain damage due to lack of oxygen in ... Subarachnoid blood can be detected on CT scanning in as many as 60 percent of people with traumatic brain injury. Traumatic SAH ... March 1989). "Effect of oral nimodipine on cerebral infarction and outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage: British aneurysm ...
Brain ischemia/. cerebral infarction. (ischemic stroke/TIA). TACI, PACI. *precerebral: Carotid artery stenosis ... Repeated lumbar punctures are used widely to reduce the effects in increased intracranial pressure and an alternative to ... "Traumatic Brain Injury: Definition, Epidemiology, Pathophysiology" Emedicine.com. Retrieved on June 19, 2007. ... of moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries.[3] Thus the hemorrhage usually does not occur without extensive associated ...
Brain ischemia/. cerebral infarction. (ischemic stroke/TIA). TACI, PACI. *precerebral: Carotid artery stenosis ... Other symptoms include those that indicate a rise in intracranial pressure caused by a large mass putting pressure on the brain ... "Overview of Adult Traumatic Brain Injuries." Archived 2008-02-27 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 2008-01-16. ... Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), also known as cerebral bleed, is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the brain ...
"Ischaemic cerebral injury, intrauterine growth retardation, and placental infarction". Developmental medicine and child ... Maladaptive levels of certain traits may be acquired as a result of anoxic or traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative ... These pressures and ideas that another homosexual male may desire a mate who is thinner or muscular can possibly lead to eating ... 2002), "intracranial pathology should also be considered however certain is the diagnosis of early-onset anorexia nervosa. ...
Intracranial pressure, Lupus anticoagulant, Mast cell, Muscle, Norovirus (T), Parvovirus B19 (T), Platelet, Porphyrin, ... Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome, Cerebral vasculitis (got onto DYK), Cholesterol embolism (got onto DYK), Chronic granulomatous ... Diagnostic tests - Brain biopsy (T), C-reactive protein, CSF tap test (T), CT pulmonary angiogram, Des-gamma carboxyprothrombin ... Ischaemic heart disease, Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (T), Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome (T), Lactic acidosis (T), ...
Brain ischemia/. cerebral infarction. (ischemic stroke/TIA). TACI, PACI. *precerebral: Carotid artery stenosis ... G06) Intracranial and intraspinal abscess and granuloma. *(G07) Intracranial and intraspinal abscess and granuloma in diseases ... G44.3) Chronic post-traumatic headache. *(G44.4) Drug-induced headache, not elsewhere classified ... G45.8) Other transient cerebral ischaemic attacks and related syndromes. *(G45.9) Transient cerebral ischaemic attack, ...
A cerebral infarction is an area of necrotic tissue in the brain resulting from a blockage or narrowing in the arteries supplying blood and oxygen to the brain. The restricted oxygen due to the restricted blood supply causes an ischemic stroke that can result in an infarction if the blood flow is not restored within a relatively short period of time. The blockage can be due to a thrombus, an embolus or an atheromatous stenosis of one or more arteries. Which arteries are problematic will determine which areas of the brain are affected (infarcted). These varying infarcts will produce different symptoms and outcomes. About one third will prove fatal. There are various classification systems for a cerebral infarction. The Oxford Community Stroke Project ...
... or lacunar infarct (LACI) is the most common type of stroke, and results from the occlusion of small penetrating arteries that provide blood to the brain's deep structures. Patients who present with symptoms of a lacunar stroke, but who have not yet had diagnostic imaging performed, may be described as suffering from lacunar stroke syndrome (LACS). Much of the current knowledge of lacunar strokes comes from C. Miller Fisher's cadaver dissections of post-mortem stroke patients. He observed "lacunae" (empty spaces) in the deep brain structures after occlusion of 200-800 μm penetrating arteries and connected them with five classic syndromes. These syndromes are still noted today, though lacunar infarcts are diagnosed based on clinical judgment and radiologic imaging. Each of the 5 classical lacunar syndromes has a relatively distinct symptom complex. Symptoms may occur suddenly, progressively, or in a fluctuating (e.g., the capsular ...
A watershed stroke or watershed infarct is defined as ischemia that is localized to the vulnerable border zones between the tissues supplied via the Anterior, Posterior and Middle Cerebral arteries.(Note that the actual blood stream blockage/restriction site can be located far away from the infarcts. See "Pathogenesis" followed.) Watershed locations are those border-zone regions in the brain supplied by the major cerebral arteries where blood supply is decreased. Watershed strokes are a concern because they comprise approximately 10% of all ischemic stroke cases. The watershed zones themselves are particularly susceptible to infarction from global ischemia as the distal nature of the vasculature predisposes these areas to be most sensitive to profound hypoperfusion. Watershed strokes are localized to two primary regions of the brain, and are termed cortical ...
... (a.k.a. cerebral ischemia, cerebrovascular ischemia) is a condition in which there is insufficient blood flow to the brain to meet metabolic demand. This leads to poor oxygen supply or cerebral hypoxia and thus to the death of brain tissue or cerebral infarction / ischemic stroke. It is a sub-type of stroke along with subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage. Ischemia leads to alterations in brain metabolism, reduction in metabolic rates, and energy crisis. There are two types of ischemia: focal ischemia, which is confined to a specific region of the brain; and global ischemia, which encompasses wide areas of brain tissue. The main symptoms involve impairments in vision, body movement, and speaking. The ...
Lacunes are caused by occlusion of a single deep penetrating artery that arises directly from the constituents of the Circle of Willis, cerebellar arteries, and basilar artery. The corresponding lesions occur in the deep nuclei of the brain (37% putamen, 14% thalamus, and 10% caudate) as well as the pons (16%) or the posterior limb of the internal capsule (10%). They occur less commonly in the deep cerebral white matter, the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and the cerebellum. The two proposed mechanisms are microatheroma and lipohyalinosis.[4] At the beginning, lipohyalinosis was thought to be the main small vessel pathology, but microatheroma now is thought to be the most common mechanism of arterial occlusion (or stenosis). Occasionally, atheroma in the parent artery blocks the orifice of the penetrating artery (luminal atheroma), or atheroma involves the origin of the penetrating artery (junctional atheroma). Alternatively, hypoperfusion is ...
A silent stroke is a stroke that does not have any outward symptoms associated with stroke, and the patient is typically unaware they have suffered a stroke. Despite not causing identifiable symptoms a silent stroke still causes damage to the brain, and places the patient at increased risk for both transient ischemic attack and major stroke in the future. In a broad study in 1998, more than 11 million people were estimated to have experienced a stroke in the United States. Approximately 770,000 of these strokes were symptomatic and 11 million were first-ever silent MRI infarcts or hemorrhages. Silent strokes typically cause lesions which are detected via the use of neuroimaging such as MRI. The risk of silent stroke increases with age but may also affect younger adults. Women appear to be at increased risk for silent stroke, with hypertension and current cigarette smoking being amongst the predisposing factors. These types of strokes include lacunar and ...
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... (IIH) is a condition characterized by increased intracranial pressure (pressure around the brain) without a detectable cause. The main symptoms are headache, vision problems, ringing in the ears with the heartbeat, and shoulder pain. Complications may include vision loss. Risk factors include being overweight or a recent increase in weight. Tetracycline may also trigger the condition. The diagnosis is based on symptoms and a high intracranial pressure founding during a lumbar puncture with no specific cause found on a brain scan. Treatment includes a healthy diet, salt restriction, and exercise. Bariatric surgery may also be used to help with weight loss. The medication acetazolamide may also be used along with the above measures. A small percentage of people may require surgery to relieve the pressure. About 2 per 100,000 people are ...
... is a potentially deadly side effect of very high pressure within the skull that occurs when a part of the brain is squeezed across structures within the skull. The brain can shift across such structures as the falx cerebri, the tentorium cerebelli, and even through the foramen magnum (the hole in the base of the skull through which the spinal cord connects with the brain). Herniation can be caused by a number of factors that cause a mass effect and increase intracranial pressure (ICP): these include traumatic brain injury, intracranial hemorrhage, or brain tumor. Herniation can also occur in the absence of high ICP when mass lesions such as hematomas occur at the borders of brain compartments. In such cases local ...
... (DWS) is a rare group of congenital human brain malformations. There are three subtypes which affect multiple organs to varying degrees, but the fundamental abnormalities involve the cerebellum which controls muscle coordination. The adjacent fourth ventricle is often affected, which can alter the flow of cerebrospinal fluid, increase intracranial pressure, and lead to multiple other brain function problems. The degree of disability varies but is typically lifelong. Treatment may involve physical therapy, special education, or surgical placement of a cerebral shunt. It is named for Walter Dandy and Arthur Earl Walker. In the majority of individuals with Dandy-Walker malformation, signs and symptoms caused by abnormal brain development are present at birth or develop within the first year of life. Some children have a buildup of fluid in the ...
It is quite common that, when one person vomits, others nearby become nauseated, particularly when smelling the vomit of others, often to the point of vomiting themselves. It is believed that this is an evolved trait among primates. Many primates in the wild tend to browse for food in small groups. Should one member of the party react adversely to some ingested food, it may be advantageous (in a survival sense) for other members of the party to also vomit. This tendency in human populations has been observed at drinking parties, where excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages may cause a number of party members to vomit nearly simultaneously, this being triggered by the initial vomiting of a single member of the party. This phenomenon has been touched on in popular culture: notorious instances appear in the films Monty Python's The Meaning of Life (1983) and Stand By Me (1986).[19] Intense vomiting in ayahuasca ceremonies is a common phenomenon. However, people who experience "la purga" after ...
The most common symptom of IIH is headache, which occurs in almost all (92-94%) cases. It is characteristically worse in the morning, generalized in character and throbbing in nature. It may be associated with nausea and vomiting. The headache can be made worse by any activity that further increases the intracranial pressure, such as coughing and sneezing. The pain may also be experienced in the neck and shoulders.[5] Many have pulsatile tinnitus, a whooshing sensation in one or both ears (64-87%); this sound is synchronous with the pulse.[5][6] Various other symptoms, such as numbness of the extremities, generalized weakness, loss of smell, and loss of coordination, are reported more rarely; none are specific for IIH.[5] In children, numerous nonspecific signs and symptoms may be present.[7] The increased pressure leads to compression and traction of the cranial nerves, a group of nerves that arise from the brain stem and ...
The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body. The a-vO2 diff and cardiac output are the main factors that allow variation in the body's total oxygen consumption, and are important in measuring VO2. The a-vO2 diff is usually measured in millilitres of oxygen per 100 millilitres of blood (mL/100 mL). The arteriovenous oxygen difference is usually taken by comparing the difference in the oxygen concentration of oxygenated blood in the femoral, brachial, or radial artery and the oxygen concentration in the deoxygenated blood from the mixed supply found in the pulmonary artery (as an indicator of the typical mixed venous supply). Put in simple terms: a-vO2 diff = Ca - Cv where: Ca = the oxygen concentration of arterial blood (oxygenated blood) Cv = the oxygen concentration of ...
... cerebral edema, brain if intracranial pressure, traumatic brain, brain infarction. FAQ. Medical Information Search ... cerebral ischemic infarction, cerebral edema, brain if intracranial pressure, traumatic brain, brain infarction". Clic on a ...
This contributed volume is focused on subjects related to cerebral veins under normal conditions and after brain injuries, ... elevation of intracranial pressure during and after ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke events, traumatic brain injury, ... elevation of venous pressure during cranial hypertension, all lead to fatal insults such as venous infarction and hemorrhage. ... Cerebral Venous System in Acute and Chronic Brain Injuries. Editors: Lou, M., Zhang, J., Wang, Y., Qu, Y., Feng, W., Ji, X., ...
... raised intracranial pressure (ICP), and subsequent cerebral ischemic infarction.. Reduction in CBF below a critical threshold ... In traumatic brain injury, episodes of low cerebral oxygenation are also associated with poor outcome.6,7 Brain tissue oxygen ... Methods- Continuous monitoring of arterial blood pressure, intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, brain tissue ... brain tissue pH, and brain tissue oxygen was seen together with a decrease in intracranial pressure (P,0.05). Intracranial ...
CPP: Cerebral perfusion pressure. CVR: Cerebral vascular resistance. MAP: Mean arterial pressure. ICP: Intracranial pressure. ... these ischemic changes will become irreversible and lead to brain tissue infarction. Increases in cerebral oxygen delivery ... Cerebral blood flow, CERO2 = Cerebral extraction ratio of oxygen, CBV = Cerebral blood volume, ICP = Intracranial pressure ... Cerebral perfusion pressure is determined by the mean arterial pressure (MAP), and ICP, thus CPP is equal to (MAP - ICP). Under ...
Ischemic brain damage in traumatic brain injury (TBI), extradural, subdural, and intracerebral hematomas and cerebral ... 1. Intracranial pressure monitoring in cerebrovascular disease -- 2. Cerebral blood flow -- 3. Brain tissue oxygen monitoring ... 1.2 million myocardial infarctions occurred last year in the U.S., and 480,000 patients died following complications of ... Blood pressure management in acute ischemic stroke -- 20. Management of intracranial hemorrhage, early expansion and second ...
As traumatic brain injury is rather a syndrome comprising a range of different affections to the brain and as, e.g., age- ... Major goals include all measurements to prevent secondary brain injury due to secondary brain insults and to optimize frame ... Moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries (TBI) require treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU) in close collaboration of a ... Cerebral perfusion pressure and intracranial pressure are not surrogates for brain tissue oxygenation in traumatic brain injury ...
Cerebral edema can result from brain trauma or from nontraumatic causes such as ischemic stroke, cancer, or brain inflammation ... "Hypertonic saline for treating raised intracranial pressure: literature review with meta-analysis". Journal of Neurosurgery. ... Gao CP, Ang BT (2008). "Biomechanical modeling of decompressive craniectomy in traumatic brain injury". Acta Neurochirurgica. ... Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Infarction: Clinical Course and Prognostic Signs". Archives of Neurology. 53 (4): 309-315. doi ...
Intracranial pressure and cerebral haemodynamics. Publication date: Available online 29 March 2017 Source:Anaesthesia & ... and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although the primary damage to brain tissue may be irreversible, aggressive early treatment ... Hypoxic -ischaemic brain injury following cardiac arrest. Publication date: Available online 30 March 2017 Source:Anaesthesia ... They include hypotension, hypertension, myocardial ischaemia/infarction, arrhythmias, and; cardiac arrest. These incidents ...
... pressure reactivity allows determination of optimal cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with traumatic brain injury". ... "Prediction of late ischemic complications after cerebral aneurysm surgery by the intraoperative measurement of cerebral blood ... a trustee of the Brain Research Trust and was the first patron of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) UK. Pickards ... "Effect of oral nimodipine on cerebral infarction and outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage: British aneurysm nimodipine trial ...
... treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals. ... decompress the brain if intracranial pressure is increased, or remove intracranial hematomas. In the first few days after the ... Injured venous sinuses can later thrombose and cause cerebral infarction.. * Fractures that involve the carotid canal: These ... When CPP falls below 50 mm Hg, the brain may become ischemic. Ischemia and edema may trigger various secondary mechanisms of ...
Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is a significant problem in several forms of ischemic brain injury including stroke, ... to evaluate the extent of cerebral infarction8. Medicine, Issue 51, Cerebral ischemia, mouse, middle cerebral artery occlusion ... traumatic brain injury and cardiac arrest. This elevation may result in further neurological injury, in the form of ... Medicine, Issue 62, Neuroscience, brain, rat, intracranial pressure, epidural, fibre-optic transducer, ischemic injury ...
Vaccination Intracranial Pressure Intracranial Stenosis Ischemia (Stroke And Transient Ischemic Attack) (See Also The ... Seizure Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Therapeutic Appendix Chemotherapy: Common Neuro-Oncologic Drugs Chorea (Movement Disorder ... Intracranial Hemorrhage, Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Cerebral Palsy Cerebral Salt-Wasting Syndrome Cerebrospinal Fluid ... Spinal Cord Infarction Spinal Epidural Abscesses Spinocerebellar Ataxia (See Also Ataxia) Spinocerebellar Degeneration ( ...
Diseases causing acute onset of raised intracranial pressure or diffuse/multifocal cerebral dysfunction resemble CVT. These ... Compared with other forms of acute brain injury such as encephalopathy after cardiac arrest or traumatic brain injury, the ... B) Magnetic resoance imaging of the brain showing large hemorrhagic infarction (arrow) in patient with transverse sinus ... Focal or unilateral superficial dural sinus thrombosis without ischemic or hemorrhagic changes ...
The role of NO in the regulation of cerebral blood flow, pathogenesis, and treatment of cerebral vasospasm and delayed ischemic ... Many factors including elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP), release of vasoactive substances during erythrocyte lysis, ... hypoxia-ischemia induced brain injury, and traumatic brain injury [53]. In the experimental SAH model, it is suggested that ... Previous study suggested that cerebral infarction contributed to poor outcome by vasospasm-independent effects after SAH [44, ...
The most common lesions were diffuse is- chemic injuries (29). edema (13). cerebral infarctions (11) and intracerebral hematoma ... Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability. An early and accurate assessment ... using multi-modal monitoring to detect harmful secondary insults such as increased intra cranial pressure. In addition to ... The sensitivity and role of protein S100B in detecting secondary injuries after traumatic brain injury in humans. Thelin, Eric ...
Brain perfusion (ie, cerebral perfusion pressure) is the difference between the mean arterial pressure and intracranial ... Intracranial pressure monitoring and outcomes after traumatic brain injury. Can J Surg. 2000 Dec. 43(6):442-8. [Medline]. ... The intracranial pressure is increased in head injury by intracranial bleeding, cell death, and secondary hypoxic and ischemic ... Finally, posttraumatic cerebral infarction occurs in up to 12% of patients with moderate and severe head injuries and is ...
In addition, brain edema and increased intracranial pressure may contribute to neuronal impairment of excitability.33 34 35 ... Tactile exploration of shape after subcortical ischemic infarction studied with positron emission tomography. Brain. 1994;117: ... Correlation between regional cerebral blood flow and EEG frequency of the contralateral hemisphere in acute cerebral infarction ... Neuroplasticity following traumatic brain injury: a study of GABAergic terminal loss and recovery in the cat dorsal lateral ...
... containing gas at normobaric pressure and a f ... of its use for the treatment or prevention of an acute ischemic ... In the case of ischemic brain infarction (stroke), or ischemia of the brain or spinal cord, re-establishment of blood flow is ... In patients with cerebral ischemia due to raised intracranial pressure, cerebral blood flow can be augmented by decreasing the ... can be administered in the treatment of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by, e.g., an automobile accident. For ...
The sign can be caused by conditions including traumatic brain injury, ischemic strokeintracranial hematomaor birth deformity ... Note the large infarction in the distribution of the left middle cerebral and​. Controversy surrounds the issue of whether ... that leads to a raised intracranial pressure. A midline shift occurs when the pressure exerted by the buildup of blood and ... Midline shift (MLS) of the brain is an important feature that can be known that intracranial mass can cause brain shift, ...
... metabolism and intracranial pressure. *Pathophysiology and treatment of increased intracranial pressure, altered cerebral blood ... Nick Murray is a neurocritical care fellow with research interests in predictors of ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury ... Fellows receive training in the diagnosis and treatment of cerebral infarction, transient brain ischemia, brain hemorrhage, and ... Spinal cord infarction. *Complications of vascular disease, including raised intracranial pressure, infections, and deep venous ...
... may effectively decrease intracranial pressure (ICP) and increase cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in traumatic brain injury ( ... Cerebral infarction is a common complication of sickle cell disease (SCD) and may manifest as overt stroke or cognitive ... Neurologic complications in sickle cell disease include silent cerebral ischemia, ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke, moyamoya ... may effectively decrease intracranial pressure (ICP) and increase cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in traumatic brain injury ( ...
The efficacy of hypothermia in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and traumatic brain injury (TBI), however, is not well studied. ... The efficacy of hypothermia in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and traumatic brain injury (TBI), however, is not well studied. ... is considered to improve survival with favorable neurological outcome in the case of global cerebral ischemia after cardiac ... is considered to improve survival with favorable neurological outcome in the case of global cerebral ischemia after cardiac ...
Intracranial pressure responsiveness to positive end-expiratory pressure is influenced by chest wall elastance: a physiological ... Is traumatic brain injury a risk factor for neurodegeneration? A meta-analysis of population-based studies. Chi-Hsien Huang, ... "Recurrent multiple cerebral infarctions related to the progression of adenomyosis: a case report". Yasuhiro Aso, Ryo Chikazawa ... Right-to-left shunt and subclinical ischemic brain lesions in Chinese migraineurs: a multicentre MRI study. Xiao-han Jiang, Si- ...
... is the pressure exerted by the cranium on the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the brains ... This results in widespread reduction in cerebral flow and perfusion, eventually leading to ischemia and brain infarction. ... "Overview of Adult Traumatic Brain Injuries." Accessed September 6, 2007.. *^ Dawodu S. 2005. "Traumatic Brain Injury: ... cause the brain to herniate, and restrict blood supply to the brain, leading to an ischemic cascade.[4] ...
OBrain D, ODell MW, Eversol A. Delayed traumatic cerebral aneurysm after brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1997;78:883-885 ... Increased laxity of vascular walls during pregnancy, combined with fluctuations of blood pressure and intracranial pressure ... Iodine Extravasation Quantification on Dual-Energy CT of the Brain Performed after Mechanical Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic ... Distribution of intracranial aneurysms. In: Suzuki, J, ed. Cerebral Aneurysms. Neuron (Tokyo) 1979;14-19. ...
  • Ropper reported that horizontal brain shift caused by acute unilateral mass lesions correlated closely with consciousness, and suggested that recovery of consciousness was unlikely to occur after surgical evacuation if the shift was insufficient to explain the observed diminution of consciousness. (macphilly.com)
  • Likewise, diffuse axonal injuries (DAIs) that result in small brain lesions go undetected on CT. (ajnr.org)
  • They emphasized the role of transtentorial and lateral shifts of the brain in the management of those patients harboring space-occupying lesions. (asahq.org)
  • However, as shown in the hitherto neglected figure 7 of the classical article by Kernohan and Woltman, 2 only half of the patients with supratentorial lesions (35 patients total) developed the ominous pyramidal signs ipsilateral to the tumor, whereas all of them showed notching of the contralateral cerebral peduncle ( i.e. , only 17 of 35 had ipsilateral pyramidal signs). (asahq.org)
  • Subendocardial haemorrhages associated with intracranial lesions. (healthdocbox.com)
  • 1980;52(3): Crompton MR. Hypothalamic lesions following the rupture of cerebral berry aneurysms. (healthdocbox.com)
  • Investigation of the CT brain may show intracranial mass lesions, including subdural hematoma, epidural hematoma, or intracerebral hematoma. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS Patient population Low attenuated lesions in well-defined arterial distribution on brain computed tomography (CT) after head trauma were defined as PTCI (Fig. 1). (spotidoc.com)
  • It seems to be a promising non-pharmaceutical and non-surgical therapy for preventing and treating age-related systemic vascular diseases such as combined lesions in the brain, heart and kidney, and also arteriosclerosis-induced neurodegenerative disorders. (aging-us.com)
  • The first chapter of the book provides an up-to-date review on the brain mechanisms that maintain a conscious state in humans, and how lesions that damage these mechanisms cause loss of consciousness or coma. (oupjapan.co.jp)
  • Neoplasms and other intracranial space-occupying lesions. (homoeopathic.in)
  • Abnormal yawning with !3 yawns/15min without obvious cause arises from lesions of brain areas involved in the yawning zone, its trajectories causing a disconnection syndrome, or from alteration of network activity by physical or metabolic etiologies including medication. (baillement.com)
  • Many of these patients harbor intracranial mass lesions. (medscape.com)
  • Could this hemosiderin correspond for example to those cases where we see iron deposition with SWI in lesions in the brain (14)? (ms-mri.com)
  • develops from destructive lesions or trauma to brain tissue resulting in cerebral hypoxia or anoxia, sodium depletion, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion. (studystack.com)
  • Figure 1-1 is a schematic diagram of the kind of respiratory pattern that would be expected with bilateral lesions at various rostro-caudal levels in the brain stem. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Medullary or upper spinal cord lesions often drop blood pressure to very low levels. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Brain-tissue shifts associated with drowsiness, stupor, and coma were studied by clinical examination and CT scanning in 24 patients with acute unilateral cerebral masses. (macphilly.com)
  • With colleagues, Pickard established and was the first chairman and clinical director of the Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre (WBIC), a division of the University of Cambridge's Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Pickard, in his capacity with the WBIC, worked with patients who were critically ill, the morbidly obese and patients with acute mental health and addiction problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Standard monitoring methods in today's neurointensive care include clinical observation, intracranial pressure monitoring and repeated brain CT scans. (prolekare.cz)
  • As a clinical neurologist with interest in laterality of motor control, I read the review by Leffert and Schwamm 1 regarding neuroaxial anesthesia in parturients with intracranial pathology. (asahq.org)
  • Given possible difficulties in initially identifying an infant as having been abusively shaken and the variability of the syndrome itself, physicians must be extremely vigilant when dealing with any brain trauma in infants and be familiar with radiologic and clinical findings that support the diagnosis of shaken baby syndrome. (aappublications.org)
  • For determination of clinical and radiographic parameters that may aid in identification of PTCI patients who are at high risk for fatal brain swelling, we conducted an evaluation of early clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics associated with PTCI including malignant PTCI in consecutive PTCI patients admitted to our institution. (spotidoc.com)
  • For clinical purposes, the pressure must equal or exceed 1.4 ATA while breathing near 100% oxygen. (uhms.org)
  • Yawning is a clinical sign of the activity of various supra- and infratentorial brain regions including the putative brainstem motor pattern, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, probably the insula and limbic structures that are interconnected via a fiber network. (baillement.com)
  • He also presented evidence to demonstrate an age-dependent vulnerability of different brain structures to hypoxia, with similar insults producing different clinical outcomes depending on the age of gestation. (asahq.org)
  • Few cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) may appear after acute SAH with similar clinical manifestations as aneurysm bleeding, raising difficulties for SAH diagnosis in clinics. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare and distinct cerebrovascular disorder with highly variable clinical presentations [ 1 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • This approach advocates the use of initial monotherapy to reach the desired blood pressure, and the subsequent use of additional drugs with complementary modes of action, until the target BP is achieved. (stanford.edu)
  • CSD provoked in healthy, normally perfused neural tissue does not induce persistent metabolic stress or cellular damage, and indeed such induction of CSD in animal experiments may confer protection against the adverse effects of a subsequent ischaemic insult (Kobayashi, S. et al. (strokecenter.org)
  • Recently, attention has been focused on an innovative approach, termed as ischemic conditioning (IC), particularly remote ischemic conditioning (RIC), knowing that repetitive, transient and sublethal series of IR bursts can trigger endogenous protection and tolerance against subsequent ischemic threats [ 3 ]. (aging-us.com)
  • The results of transmission electron microscopy and double immunofluorescence staining showed that the hippocampal neuronal necrosis in the ischemic penumbra decreased whereas the immunopositivity of new neuronal-specific protein doublecortin and the percentage of Ki67/doublecortin positive cells increased in CEGI-treated rats compared with untreated rats. (nrronline.org)
  • The penumbra can also evolve into a larger area of infarction. (vetbloom.com)
  • A physiologic role for H 2 S in regulating blood pressure, its potent neuroprotective [ 5 ], and anti-inflammatory effects support a hypothesis that H 2 S might act as an effective agent that may have therapeutic potential against brain damage induced by oxidative stress, inflammation, hypoxic vasoconstriction, and other factors. (hindawi.com)
  • Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC), delivered via transient, repetitive noninvasive IR interventions to distant organs or tissues, is regarded as an innovative approach against IRI. (aging-us.com)
  • In the present study we addressed the question of whether in brain areas contralateral to a photochemically induced cortical infarction alteration of excitability can be observed as an indication of the effects of diaschisis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Despite these encouraging results, several currently applied therapies remain to be properly evaluated in well-designed trials and new pharmacological strategies to control ICP, improve cerebral oxygenation, and reduce morbidity and mortality are still needed to further improve patient outcomes. (simstat.com)
  • 5. Kellie, G. An account of the appearance observed in the dissection of two of three individuals presumed to have perished in the storm of the 3D and whose bodies were discovered in the vicinity of Leith on the morning of the 4th November 1821, with some reflections on the pathology of the brain. (prolekare.cz)
  • 12) who harbor significant intracranial pathology and/or require acute surgical intervention have been problematic. (ajnr.org)
  • Brain- none CSF- redistributed into compliant paraspinal CSF space Blood- venous blood forced into internal jugular veins When compensatory mechanisms are exhausted, ICP rises more rapidly Eventually, the compensatory mechanisms are exhausted and a sharp rise in ICP will occur. (slideplayer.com)