Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Cerebral Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Reperfusion: Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Anterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Infarction: Formation of an infarct, which is NECROSIS in tissue due to local ISCHEMIA resulting from obstruction of BLOOD CIRCULATION, most commonly by a THROMBUS or EMBOLUS.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Constriction: The act of constricting.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Infarction, Anterior Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY system, including branches such as Heubner's artery. These arteries supply blood to the medial and superior parts of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, Infarction in the anterior cerebral artery usually results in sensory and motor impairment in the lower body.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Pia Mater: The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Intracranial Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Malaria, Cerebral: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Nimodipine: A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.Ischemic Preconditioning: A technique in which tissue is rendered resistant to the deleterious effects of prolonged ISCHEMIA and REPERFUSION by prior exposure to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion. (Am J Physiol 1995 May;268(5 Pt 2):H2063-7, Abstract)Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Papio: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Mice, Inbred C57BLVasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Moyamoya Disease: A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Tetrazolium Salts: Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Infarction, Posterior Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS induced by ISCHEMIA in the POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which supplies portions of the BRAIN STEM; the THALAMUS; TEMPORAL LOBE, and OCCIPITAL LOBE. Depending on the size and location of infarction, clinical features include OLFACTION DISORDERS and visual problems (AGNOSIA; ALEXIA; HEMIANOPSIA).Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Echoencephalography: Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Hypocapnia: Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Antipyrine: An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Pregnatrienes: Pregnane derivatives containing three double bonds in the ring structures.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Ear, Middle: The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain: A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Endarterectomy, Carotid: The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Dizocilpine Maleate: A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Technetium Tc 99m Exametazime: A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Cortical Spreading Depression: The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
... ischemia Endothelin-1-induced constriction of arteries and veins Middle cerebral artery occlusion Spontaneous brain infarction ... in spontaneously hypertensive rats) Macrosphere embolization Multifocal cerebral ischemia Blood clot embolization Microsphere ... MCAO avoiding craniotomy Embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion Endovascular filament middle cerebral artery occlusion ( ... MCAO involving craniotomy Permanent transcranial middle cerebral artery occlusion Transient transcranial middle cerebral artery ...
Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Infarction: Clinical Course and Prognostic Signs". Archives of Neurology. 53 (4): 309-315. doi ... This type of edema may result from trauma, tumors, focal inflammation, late stages of cerebral ischemia and hypertensive ... High altitude cerebral edema High altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a severe and sometimes fatal form of altitude sickness that ... Hydrostatic cerebral edema This form of cerebral edema is seen in acute malignant hypertension. It is thought to result from ...
... renal artery thrombosis. The impairment of cerebral blood flow that underlies hypertensive encephalopathy is still ... which results in cerebral ischemia and cytotoxic edema. According to the autoregulation breakthrough conception, cerebral ... Hypertensive encephalopathy is most commonly encountered in young and middle-aged people who have hypertension. Overall, the ... The major risk with oral agents is ischemic symptoms (e.g., angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, or stroke) due to an ...
... infarction, anterior cerebral artery MeSH C14.907.253.560.200.387 --- infarction, middle cerebral artery MeSH C14.907.253.560. ... vertebral artery dissection MeSH C14.907.253.545 --- hypoxia-ischemia, brain MeSH C14.907.253.545.200 --- brain ischemia MeSH ... cerebral hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C14.907.253.573.350 --- intracranial hemorrhage, hypertensive MeSH C14.907.253.573.400 --- ... infarction, anterior cerebral artery MeSH C14.907.253.337.562 --- infarction, middle cerebral artery MeSH C14.907.253.337.656 ...
... infarction, anterior cerebral artery MeSH C10.228.140.300.301.200.200.450 --- infarction, middle cerebral artery MeSH C10.228. ... anterior spinal artery syndrome MeSH C10.228.854.785.650 --- spinal cord ischemia MeSH C10.228.854.785.650.100 --- anterior ... cerebral hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C10.228.140.300.535.325 --- intracranial hemorrhage, hypertensive MeSH C10.228.140.300. ... infarction, anterior cerebral artery MeSH C10.228.140.300.510.200.387 --- infarction, middle cerebral artery MeSH C10.228. ...
... not resulting in cerebral infarction (I66.0) Occlusion and stenosis of middle cerebral artery (I66.1) Occlusion and stenosis of ... Hypertensive heart disease (I12) Hypertensive renal disease Hypertensive nephropathy (I13) Hypertensive heart disease and ... Coronary artery aneurysm (I25.5) Ischaemic cardiomyopathy (I25.6) Silent myocardial ischaemia (I25.8) Other forms of chronic ... Cerebral infarction due to thrombosis of cerebral arteries (I63.4) Cerebral infarction due to embolism of cerebral arteries ( ...
Algra A; Halkes, PH; Van Gijn, J [et al] «Medium intensity oral anticoagulants versus aspirin after cerebral ischaemia of ... Yerman T, Gan WQ, Sin DD «The influence of gender on the effects of aspirin in preventing myocardial infarction». BMC Med, 5, ... Wannamethee SG, Shaper AG, Whincup PH, Walker M «Smoking cessation and the risk of stroke in middle-aged men». JAMA, 274, 2, ... Ringleb PA, Chatellier G, Hacke W, et al. «Safety of endovascular treatment of carotid artery stenosis compared with surgical ...
As the left and right coronary arteries run on the surface of the heart, they can be called epicardial coronary arteries. These ... It is the most common type of hypertension, affecting 95% of hypertensive patients, it tends to be familial and is likely to be ... These include the great cardiac vein, the middle cardiac vein, the small cardiac vein and the anterior cardiac veins. ... Hypertension can increase the risk of cerebral, cardiac, and renal events. Secondary hypertension is a type of hypertension ...
... the main artery of the heart, thereby raising risk of coronary artery disease.[63] ... "Trans fatty acids in adipose tissue and the food supply are associated with myocardial infarction". The Journal of Nutrition. ... It has been found that trans fats impaired memory and learning in middle-age rats. The trans-fat eating rats' brains had fewer ... Hypertensive emergency. *Hypertensive nephropathy. *Essential hypertension. *Secondary hypertension *Renovascular hypertension ...
Brain ischemia/. cerebral infarction. (ischemic stroke/TIA). TACI, PACI. *precerebral: Carotid artery stenosis ... Middle cerebral artery. *Internal carotid artery. *Tip of basilar artery. Saccular aneurysms tend to have a lack of tunica ... Hypertensive emergency. *Hypertensive nephropathy. *Essential hypertension. *Secondary hypertension *Renovascular hypertension ... Aneurysms in the posterior circulation (basilar artery, vertebral arteries and posterior communicating artery) have a higher ...
... and chronic leukemia is comparable to the prognosis for the patient ailing from myocardial infarction and cerebral infarction. ... development of brain infarction resulting from complications due to hypertensive crisis in patients suffering from hypertension ... transmural myocardial infarction and massive thromboembolism of pulmonary artery, caused by phlebemphraxis of lower limbs). For ... among middle aged people and up to 98% patients of older age groups. At the same time the number of chronic diseases varies ...
Coronary artery diseaseEdit. Main article: Coronary artery disease. Coronary artery disease, also known as "ischemic heart ... It is the most common type of hypertension, affecting 95% of hypertensive patients,[26][27][28][29] it tends to be familial and ... As per WHO, 37% of all premature deaths are due to cardiovascular diseases and out of this, 82% are in low and middle income ... Cardiac disorders such as coronary heart disease, including myocardial infarction, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and ...
The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is one of a pair of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the posterior aspect of the brain (occipital lobe) in human anatomy. It arises near the intersection of the posterior communicating artery and the basilar artery and connects with the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) and internal carotid artery via the posterior communicating artery (PCommA). The development of the PCA in fetal brain comes relatively late and arises from the fusion of several embryonic vessels near the caudal end of the PCommA supplying the mesencephalon and diencephalon of the fetus. The PCA begins as such, as a continuation of the PCommA in the fetus with only 10-30% of fetuses having a prominent basilar origin. The fetal carotid origin of the PCA usually regresses as the vertebral and basilar ...
The left and right internal carotid arteries arise from the left and right common carotid arteries. The posterior communicating artery is given off as a branch of the internal carotid artery just before it divides into its terminal branches - the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The anterior cerebral artery forms the anterolateral portion of the circle of Willis, while the middle cerebral artery does not contribute to the circle. The right and left posterior cerebral arteries arise from the basilar artery, which is formed by the left and right vertebral arteries. The vertebral arteries arise from the subclavian arteries. The anterior communicating artery connects the two anterior cerebral arteries and ...
A watershed stroke or watershed infarct is defined as ischemia that is localized to the vulnerable border zones between the tissues supplied via the Anterior, Posterior and Middle Cerebral arteries.(Note that the actual blood stream blockage/restriction site can be located far away from the infarcts. See "Pathogenesis" followed.) Watershed locations are those border-zone regions in the brain supplied by the major cerebral arteries where blood supply is decreased. Watershed strokes are a concern because they comprise approximately 10% of all ischemic stroke cases. The watershed zones themselves are particularly susceptible to infarction from global ischemia as the distal nature of the vasculature predisposes these areas to be most sensitive to profound hypoperfusion. Watershed strokes are localized to two primary regions of the brain, and are termed cortical watersheds (CWS) ...
當美國著名流行歌手克莉絲汀·阿奎萊拉把"同性戀"維多利亞女王的原畫,連同另外兩幅Banksy畫作以25,000鎊購入之後[25],Banksy的藝術作品拍賣紀錄於2006年10月19日創出新高,那是一套六張超級名模姬·摩絲的絲紡畫像,風格類近於安迪·華荷操刀的瑪麗蓮·夢露肖像;它在倫敦的蘇富比拍賣會上以50,400鎊的價碼銷出,成交價較拍賣的底價足足高出了五倍。然後在同一個拍賣會上,Banksy一幀綠中掛紅的《蒙羅麗莎》變調之作又以57,600鎊被有心人投得[26]。在12月,倫敦CNN國際新聞網絡的專欄作家马克斯·福斯特(英语:Max Foster)開始稱這股旋風為「Banksy效應」,來形容在他個人的成功背後,以往總是寂寂無聞的一眾街頭藝術家也終於漸漸引起社會上廣泛的注目[27]。 2007年2月21日,倫敦蘇富比拍賣行再次刷新Banksy作品的最高售出單價:價值102,000鎊的《Bombing Middle ...
A watershed stroke or watershed infarct is defined as ischemia that is localized to the vulnerable border zones between the tissues supplied via the Anterior, Posterior and Middle Cerebral arteries.(Note that the actual blood stream blockage/restriction site can be located far away from the infarcts. See "Pathogenesis" followed.) Watershed locations are those border-zone regions in the brain supplied by the major cerebral arteries where blood supply is decreased. Watershed strokes are a concern because they comprise approximately 10% of all ischemic stroke cases. The watershed zones themselves are particularly susceptible to infarction from global ischemia as the distal nature of the vasculature predisposes these areas to be most sensitive to profound hypoperfusion. Watershed strokes are localized to two primary regions of the brain, and are termed cortical watersheds (CWS) ...
當美國著名流行歌手克莉絲汀·阿奎萊拉把"同性戀"維多利亞女王的原畫,連同另外兩幅Banksy畫作以25,000鎊購入之後[25],Banksy的藝術作品拍賣紀錄於2006年10月19日創出新高,那是一套六張超級名模姬·摩絲的絲紡畫像,風格類近於安迪·華荷操刀的瑪麗蓮·夢露肖像;它在倫敦的蘇富比拍賣會上以50,400鎊的價碼銷出,成交價較拍賣的底價足足高出了五倍。然後在同一個拍賣會上,Banksy一幀綠中掛紅的《蒙羅麗莎》變調之作又以57,600鎊被有心人投得[26]。在12月,倫敦CNN國際新聞網絡的專欄作家马克斯·福斯特(英语:Max Foster)開始稱這股旋風為「Banksy效應」,來形容在他個人的成功背後,以往總是寂寂無聞的一眾街頭藝術家也終於漸漸引起社會上廣泛的注目[27]。 2007年2月21日,倫敦蘇富比拍賣行再次刷新Banksy作品的最高售出單價:價值102,000鎊的《Bombing Middle ...
... is a type of atherosclerosis where build-up of plaque in the blood vessels of the brain occurs. Some of the main components of the plaques are connective tissue, extracellular matrix, including collagen, proteoglycans, fibronectin, and elastic fibers; crystalline cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and phospholipids; cells such as monocyte derived macrophages, T-lymphocytes, and smooth muscle cells. The plaque that builds up can lead to further complications such as stroke, as the plaque disrupts blood flow within the intracranial arterioles. This causes the downstream sections of the brain that would normally be supplied by the blocked artery to suffer from ischemia. Diagnosis of the disease is normally done through imaging technology such as angiograms or magnetic resonance imaging. The risk of cerebral atherosclerosis and its associated diseases appears to increase with increasing age; however there are numerous factors that can be ...
The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is one of a pair of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the posterior aspect of the brain (occipital lobe) in human anatomy. It arises near the intersection of the posterior communicating artery and the basilar artery and connects with the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) and internal carotid artery via the posterior communicating artery (PCommA). The development of the PCA in fetal brain comes relatively late and arises from the fusion of several embryonic vessels near the caudal end of the PCommA supplying the mesencephalon and diencephalon of the fetus. The PCA begins as such, as a continuation of the PCommA in the fetus with only 10-30% of fetuses having a prominent basilar origin. The fetal carotid origin of the PCA usually regresses as the vertebral and basilar ...
The left and right internal carotid arteries arise from the left and right common carotid arteries. The posterior communicating artery is given off as a branch of the internal carotid artery just before it divides into its terminal branches - the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The anterior cerebral artery forms the anterolateral portion of the circle of Willis, while the middle cerebral artery does not contribute to the circle. The right and left posterior cerebral arteries arise from the basilar artery, which is formed by the left and right vertebral arteries. The vertebral arteries arise from the subclavian arteries. The anterior communicating artery connects the two anterior cerebral arteries and ...
The deep artery of the thigh, (profunda femoris artery or deep femoral artery) is a branch of the femoral artery that, as its name suggests, travels more deeply (posteriorly) than the rest of the femoral artery. The deep artery of the thigh branches off the femoral artery soon after its origin. It travels down the thigh closer to the femur than the femoral artery, running between the pectineus and the adductor longus, and running on the posterior side of adductor longus. The deep femoral artery does not leave the thigh. The deep artery of the thigh gives off the following branches: Lateral circumflex femoral artery Medial circumflex femoral artery 3 Perforating arteries - perforate the adductor magnus muscle to the posterior and medial compartments of the thigh. Cross-section through the ...
A watershed stroke or watershed infarct is defined as ischemia that is localized to the vulnerable border zones between the tissues supplied via the Anterior, Posterior and Middle Cerebral arteries.(Note that the actual blood stream blockage/restriction site can be located far away from the infarcts. See "Pathogenesis" followed.) Watershed locations are those border-zone regions in the brain supplied by the major cerebral arteries where blood supply is decreased. Watershed strokes are a concern because they comprise approximately 10% of all ischemic stroke cases. The watershed zones themselves are particularly susceptible to infarction from global ischemia as the distal nature of the vasculature predisposes these areas to be most sensitive to profound hypoperfusion. Watershed strokes are localized to two primary regions of the brain, and are termed cortical watersheds (CWS) ...
Lacunes are caused by occlusion of a single deep penetrating artery that arises directly from the constituents of the Circle of Willis, cerebellar arteries, and basilar artery. The corresponding lesions occur in the deep nuclei of the brain (37% putamen, 14% thalamus, and 10% caudate) as well as the pons (16%) or the posterior limb of the internal capsule (10%). They occur less commonly in the deep cerebral white matter, the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and the cerebellum. The two proposed mechanisms are microatheroma and lipohyalinosis.[4] At the beginning, lipohyalinosis was thought to be the main small vessel pathology, but microatheroma now is thought to be the most common mechanism of arterial occlusion (or stenosis). Occasionally, atheroma in the parent artery blocks the orifice of the penetrating artery (luminal atheroma), or atheroma involves the origin of the penetrating ...
ഹൃദയത്തിൽ നിന്നു വർദ്ധിച്ച മർദത്തിൽ പമ്പുചെയ്തു പുറത്തേയ്ക്കു വിടുന്ന രക്തം ഉൾക്കൊള്ളുന്നതിന് ബലവും കനവുമുള്ള ഭിത്തികൾ ധമനി (artery) കൾക്കു കൂടിയേ കഴിയൂ. ഏറ്റവും അകവശത്തായി കാണപ്പെടുന്നതും നേർമയേറിയതുമായ എൻഡോതീലിയം, ബലവും ഇലാസ്തികത (elasticity) യുമുള്ള പേശികളാൽ നിർമിതമായ മധ്യസ്തരം (ധമനിയുടെ വികാസസങ്കോചങ്ങൾക്കു കാരണം ഈ ഭാഗമാണ്), സം‌‌യോജകകലകൊണ്ടു നിർമിതമായ അഡ്‌‌വന്റീഷ്യ എന്ന ...
Nimodipine improves cerebral blood flow and neurologic recovery after complete cerebral ischemia in the dog. J Cereb Blood Flow ... Systemic hypotension should be avoided when administering the drug to patients who have sustained an acute cerebral infarction ... The erodible barrier layers and the hydrogel middle layer provide for the controlled release of the drug. buy prednisone uk ... calcium antagonists on contractions induced by potassium and prostaglandin F 2α in isolated cerebral and mesenteric arteries of ...
Neuroprotection by progesterone after transient cerebral ischemia in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Download ... AnimalsApoptosisBlood PressureInfarction, Middle Cerebral ArteryIschemic Attack, TransientMaleMicrogliaNeuroprotective Agents ... Focal Ischemic Injury with Complex Middle Cerebral Artery in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats with Loss-Of-Function ... factor-α inhibition attenuates middle cerebral artery remodeling but increases cerebral ischemic damage in hypertensive rats. ...
... the proximal middle cerebral artery, the anterior cerebral artery, and the anterior communicating artery, as follows:. * The ... Vasospasm can lead to impaired cerebral autoregulation and may progress to cerebral ischemia and infarction. Most often, the ... If vasospasm becomes symptomatic, most authors advocate the use of hypertensive, hypervolemic, and hemodilutional (HHH) therapy ... the anterior communicating artery or anterior cerebral artery, and the middle cerebral artery were 0%, 2.6%, 14.5%, and 40% for ...
... ischemia Endothelin-1-induced constriction of arteries and veins Middle cerebral artery occlusion Spontaneous brain infarction ... in spontaneously hypertensive rats) Macrosphere embolization Multifocal cerebral ischemia Blood clot embolization Microsphere ... MCAO avoiding craniotomy Embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion Endovascular filament middle cerebral artery occlusion ( ... MCAO involving craniotomy Permanent transcranial middle cerebral artery occlusion Transient transcranial middle cerebral artery ...
"Hypertension and acute focal cerebral ischemia. Infarction and edema after occlusion of a middle cerebral artery in cats," ... evaluated the effect of SAC in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats, demonstrating that SAC (5%, 28 day of diet period ... The effects of AGE on brain ischemia have been evaluated using different administration schemes in the middle cerebral artery ... neuronal cell death in CA1 region and inhibited the activity of ERK induced by focal ischemia in a middle cerebral artery ...
Spontaneously Hypertensive rats were subjected to 90minutes of transient intraluminal thread middle cerebral artery occlusion ( ... DESIGN: Prospective case-control study with intraindividual comparison of myocardial ischaemia during two 2-min coronary artery ... hypothermia alone and when combined with magnesium in a transient focal cerebral ischemia rat model. ... Myocardial infarction (MI) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Rapid advances in the treatment of acute ...
Cerebral infarction following bilateral carotid artery ligation in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats: a ... internal carotid artery; MCA, middle cerebral artery; OA, occipital artery; PCA, posterior cerebral artery; PComA, posterior ... Focal Cerebral Ischemia Model by Endovascular Suture Occlusion of the Middle Cerebral Artery in the Rat. doi: 10.3791/1978 ... Here we demonstrate the induction of focal cerebral ischemia by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Visualization of the ...
Cerebral infarction following bilateral carotid artery ligation in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats: a ... Focal Cerebral Ischemia Model by Endovascular Suture Occlusion of the Middle Cerebral Artery in the Rat. J. Vis. Exp. (48), ... Optimized System for Cerebral Perfusion Monitoring in the Rat Stroke Model of Intraluminal Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion… ... Intraluminal suture occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in Spontaneously Hypertensive rats. Neurol Res. 20, 265-270 (1998). ...
Also using a graded bioassay that employs a curve-fitting computer program (ALLFIT) to correlate duration of ischemia with ... Untreated or N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist (CNS-1102)-treated spontaneously hypertensive rats underwent 45, 60, 90, ... or 120 min of tandem middle cerebral and common carotid artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. We then evaluated the extent ... We tested the hypothesis that increasing durations of focal ischemia that have been shown to result in enlargement of cortical ...
Spontaneously hypertensive rats were also subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion and either pretreated with ... in spontaneously hypertensive rats (p less than 0.05) (experiment 2) but did not reduce infarction after permanent ischemia ... were subjected to 2 hours of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 22 hours of reperfusion and pretreated with ... in rodent models of neocortical infarction induced by transient and permanent focal cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Wistar rats ( ...
Subramaniam S, Hill MD (2009) Decompressive hemicraniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction: an update. ... Mechanical versus embolic focal ischemia in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Stroke 33: 2711-2717. ... 2000) Neurological sequelae and long-term behavioural assessment of rats with transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. J ... showed the tagged cells as putative neurons and endothelial cells following middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion [ ...
Allopurinol and dimethyltiourea reduce brain infarction following middle cerebral artery occusion in rats MARTZ D. ... Focal cerebral ischemia in the rat : 1. Description of technique and early neuropathological consequences following middle ... Effect of allopurinol on ischemic and reperfusion-induced cerebral injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats ITOH T. ... YM90K, an AMPA receptor antagonist, protects against ischemic damage caused by permanent and transient middle cerebral artery ...
Arterial baroreflex function is an important determinant of acute cerebral ischemia in rats with middle cerebral artery ... 1. Okamoto K, Aoki K. Development of a strain of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Jpn Circ J. 1963;27:282-93. [ Links ]. ... Exercise-induced increase in baroreflex sensitivity predicts improved prognosis after myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2002; ... Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP ...
... stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats (RHRSP) with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) at different time points, and ... Vertebral Artery , Lateral Medullary Syndrome , Medulla Oblongata , Cerebral Infarction , Cranial Fossa, Posterior ... protein expression in the cerebral cortex, the medulla oblongata, and the spinal cord of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) ... and the spinal cord of hypertensive rats after cerebral infarction / 中国中西医结合杂志 ...
... stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats (RHRSP) with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) at different time points, and ... These patients were admitted to hospitals due to the occurrence of cerebral infarction. The hypertensive nephropathy was ... protein expression in the cerebral cortex, the medulla oblongata, and the spinal cord of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) ... Effects of meteorological elements on admission rates of cerebral infarction patients with hypertensive nephropathy from nine ...
... stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats (RHRSP) with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) at different time points, and ... In this study, we demonstrate a neuroprotective effect of pyrroloquinoline quinone in an in vivo cerebral hypoxia/ischemia ... to investigate its possible mechanisms for remote-organ injury of acute cerebral infarction (ACI). ... ECP treatment and a breath-holding test combined with transcranial Doppler monitoring on bilateral middle cerebral arteries was ...
Aged (≈50 weeks) and young (≈18 weeks) spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were subjected to ischemia by middle cerebral ... Changes in cerebral blood flow during middle cerebral artery occlusion were similar between groups, with both having poor ... PAI-1 inhibition reduced infarction in both groups of SHR that possibly due, in part, to increased collateral perfusion. ... Changes in middle cerebral artery and collateral perfusion territories were measured by multisite laser Doppler. Reactivity to ...
Cerebral hemispheres synonyms, Cerebral hemispheres pronunciation, Cerebral hemispheres translation, English dictionary ... definition of Cerebral hemispheres. See Brain. See also: Hemisphere ... To determine the difference in the frequency of middle cerebral artery (MCA) ischemic strokes between left and right cerebral ... with MRI illustrating subcortical edema in the posterior regions of the cerebral hemispheres without infarction [1].. Rare Case ...
Infarction within the anterior choroidal artery could induce hippocampal ischemia and increase NPC proliferation profoundly. ... proliferation after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) in rats. This study aimed: (1) to investigate ... differences in hippocampal NPC proliferation in outbred male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Sprague-Dawley rats ( ... of the anterior choroidal and hypothalamic arteries in several animals from both strains and the anterior cerebral artery in ...
... which relates to penumbra region reperfusion in cases of ischemia-infarction. Thus, when interpreting values of CTP parameters ... Majority of the study population with MBI were hypertensive; 61.7% as compared to 23.2% in the MBI group. The variation of ... Malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction is a clinical entity affecting up to 10% of all patients diagnosed with ... 10. Hacke W, Schwab S, Horn M, Spranger M, De Georgia M, von Kummer R. "Malignant" middle cerebral artery territory infarction ...
Mechanical ischemia/reperfusion was achieved with the use of an intraluminal filament to occlude the middle cerebral artery for ... The CBF threshold and dynamics for focal cerebral infarction in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1992 ... artery and advanced into the internal carotid artery until the tip occluded the proximal stem of the middle cerebral artery. ... Evolution of brain infarction after transient focal cerebral ischemia in mice. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2000; 20: 937-946. ...
In our lab, we are focused on studying how ischemia and reperfusion influences the normal behavior of the cerebral arteries and ... We use an established model of stroke - the middle cerebral artery occlusion model MCAO) - to investigate underlying mechanisms ... The major cerebrovascular changes that occur have been shown to be similar to hypertensive encephalopathy in which an acute ... infarction and a 4- to 5-fold increased risk of stroke. Importantly, former preeclamptic and eclamptic women have poorer ...
9-13 Occlusion of Middle and Anterior. Cerebral Arteries, 212. 9-14 Diagnosis of Internal Carotid ... ANTERIOR CIRCULATION ISCHEMIA. 9-10 Common Sites of Cerebrovascular. Occlusive Disease, 209 ... Attack (TIA) and Completed Infarction. (CI), 205. 9-7 Clinical Evaluation and Therapeutic ... 9-28 Hypertensive Encephalopathy, 227. 9-29 Hypoxia, 228. COAGULOPATHIES. 9-30 Role of Platelets in Arterial ...
... is characterized histopathologically by amyloid fibrils in the small to middle-sized blood vessels usually the arteries of the ... studies on thrombolysis in patients with myocardial infarction have shown that where cerebral hemorrhage occurs as a ... Microbleeds occurring during antiplatelet treatment are more often associated with ICH than with cerebral ischemia (23). ... after thrombolysis did not include the distribution patterns of microbleeds and so failed to differentiate between hypertensive ...
... or regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using laser Doppler. Ishcemia induced by 60-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO ... After evaluation of neurological disabilities, rats were slaughtered under deep anesthesia to assess cerebral infarction volume ... METHODS: Rats were made acutely hypertensive by aortic coarctation. After 7 days, the rats were randomly selected for the ... Cerebralcare Granule® attenuates blood-brain barrier disruption after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Ping Huang, ...
  • Moreover, PKC activation and following vascular hurdle dysfunction could be mixed up in improvement of circulatory disorders connected with atherosclerosis (21), ischemia/reperfusion damage (22), SQLE and diabetic retinopathy (23). (angiogenesis-blog.com)
  • Isaeff, W. B. Ophthalmic findings in 322 patients with a cerebral vascular accident. (springer.com)
  • It has been reported that ischemic damage due to cerebral circulatory failure may cause disruption of nerve activation, alteration of vasoactive metabolites, and vascular dysfunction ( Faraci and Heistad, 1990 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • F.M. Faraci and D. Heistad, Biology of Cerebral Vascular Muscle. (bookdepository.com)
  • It highlights the characteristic for the diagnosis of multi-infarction dementia, strategic single infarct dementia, small vessel disease with dementia, mixed dementia, and vascular mild cognitive impairment. (elsevier.es)
  • This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the effect of CO 2 on cerebral physiology, focusing first on mechanisms of CO 2 -induced alteration of vascular tone, then on the effect of CO 2 on cerebral vascular regulation, and finally on CO 2 manipulation in patient care. (asahq.org)
  • This section summarizes information regarding the site of action of CO 2 on the cerebral circulation and cellular mechanisms important in CO 2 -mediated changes in cerebral vascular tone. (asahq.org)
  • The effect of pH on cerebral vascular tone is mediated by nitric oxide (NO), prostanoids, cyclic nucleotides, potassium channels, and intracellular calcium. (asahq.org)
  • However, contradictory data exist, and there is no comprehensive understanding of how these mediators interact to control cerebral vascular tone. (asahq.org)
  • Increased carbon dioxide tension (P CO 2 ) relaxes cerebral arteries in vitro, which indicates that CO 2 can cause cerebral vascular relaxation independent of extravascular cells. (asahq.org)
  • [1,In vivo, cerebral arteries respond to highly localized perivascular alteration of P CO 2 and pH, which indicates that the mechanisms that affect cerebral vascular tone are localized to the area of the blood vessel wall. (asahq.org)
  • [3-Cellular elements that could contribute to the cerebral vascular response to CO 2 include vascular cells (endothelium and smooth muscle) and extravascular cells (perivascular nerves, parenchymal neurons, and glia). (asahq.org)
  • When cerebral vascular tone is altered by a change in P CO 2 , it is possible that CO 2 itself, a CO 2 -mediated change in pH, or both are signals leading to a change in vascular tone. (asahq.org)
  • Lacunar infarctions are associated with a kind of vascular damage caused by chronic high blood pressure called lipohyalinosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • D. Prominent leptomeningeal vessel at the middle and posterior cerebral artery watershed zone indicative of pial-pial collateralization across vascular territories (most posterior arrow). (ispub.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is a disease of large and medium-sized muscular arteries and is characterized by endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation, and the buildup of lipids, cholesterol, calcium, and cellular debris within the intima of the vessel wall. (blogspot.com)
  • In this study, we demonstrate a neuroprotective effect of pyrroloquinoline quinone in an in vivo cerebral hypoxia/ischemia model in the rodent. (statescale.cf)
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1-Alpha Reduces Infarction and Attenuates Progression of Cardiac Dysfunction After Myocardial Infarction in the Mouse. (creative-bioarray.com)
  • Mironov V, MA Hritz, JC LaManna, AG Hudetz, and SI Harik: Architectural alterations in rat cerebral microvessels after hypobaric hypoxia. (springer.com)
  • Harik N, SI Harik, N-T Kuo, K Sakai, RJ Przybylski, and JC LaManna: Time course and reversibility of the hypoxia-induced alterations in cerebral vascularity and cerebral capillary glucose transporter density. (springer.com)
  • Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) which is a member of matrix metalloproteinases family that normally remodel the extracellular matrix, has been shown to play an important role in both animal models of cerebral ischemia and human stroke. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To explore this question, in 42 AIS patients with moderate to severe white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden, we characterized WMH and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) diffusivity anisotropy metrics in the hemisphere contralateral to acute ischemia in relation to ischemic tissue and early functional outcomes. (harvard.edu)
  • Aetiological factors important in pregnancy include hypercoagulability due to maternal physiological changes, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, cerebral venous thrombosis, paradoxical embolism, postpartum cerebral angiopathy and peripartum cardiomyopathy. (bmj.com)
  • To evaluate the utility of this new approach for preventing cerebrovascular thrombosis, we examined the effect of RBC/tPA in animal models of cerebrovascular thromboembolism and ischemia. (elsevier.com)
  • The hippocampal neurons in SHRSP/IZM are innately vulnerable to ischemia, but Ca 2+ channel blockers prevent neuronal cell death in SHRSP [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • [7,Tetrodotoxin, which blocks sodium channels and prevents neuronal depolarization, does not reduce CO 2 -mediated cerebral vasodilation, indicating that depolarization of perivascular nerves or parenchymal neurons is not important. (asahq.org)
  • Although these data in adults suggest that the endothelium, parenchymal neurons, and perivascular nerves are not important during hypercapnia-induced cerebral vasodilation, it is also possible that these cells produce overlapping vasodilator messengers, and removal of an individual messenger is not sufficient to alter the response. (asahq.org)