Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Intracranial Hypertension: Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Meningitis, Bacterial: Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.Infarction: Formation of an infarct, which is NECROSIS in tissue due to local ISCHEMIA resulting from obstruction of BLOOD CIRCULATION, most commonly by a THROMBUS or EMBOLUS.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Meningitis, Pneumococcal: An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Meningitis, Aseptic: A syndrome characterized by headache, neck stiffness, low grade fever, and CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis in the absence of an acute bacterial pathogen. Viral meningitis is the most frequent cause although MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; RICKETTSIA INFECTIONS; diagnostic or therapeutic procedures; NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES; septic perimeningeal foci; and other conditions may result in this syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p745)Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Meningitis, Viral: Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Glasgow Coma Scale: A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.Pseudotumor Cerebri: A condition marked by raised intracranial pressure and characterized clinically by HEADACHES; NAUSEA; PAPILLEDEMA, peripheral constriction of the visual fields, transient visual obscurations, and pulsatile TINNITUS. OBESITY is frequently associated with this condition, which primarily affects women between 20 and 44 years of age. Chronic PAPILLEDEMA may lead to optic nerve injury (see OPTIC NERVE DISEASES) and visual loss (see BLINDNESS).Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Meningitis, Fungal: Meningitis caused by fungal agents which may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.Meningitis, Cryptococcal: Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Decompressive Craniectomy: Excision of part of the skull. This procedure is used to treat elevated intracranial pressure that is unresponsive to conventional treatment.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Meningitis, Haemophilus: Infections of the nervous system caused by bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS, and marked by prominent inflammation of the MENINGES. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Meningitis, Meningococcal: A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Papilledema: Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Glasgow Outcome Scale: A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Spinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Tuberculosis, Meningeal: A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Stroke, Lacunar: Stroke caused by lacunar infarction or other small vessel diseases of the brain. It features hemiparesis (see PARESIS), hemisensory, or hemisensory motor loss.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Head Injuries, Closed: Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)Diffuse Axonal Injury: A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Diuretics, Osmotic: Compounds that increase urine volume by increasing the amount of osmotically active solute in the urine. Osmotic diuretics also increase the osmolarity of plasma.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts: Tubes inserted to create communication between a cerebral ventricle and the internal jugular vein. Their emplacement permits draining of cerebrospinal fluid for relief of hydrocephalus or other condition leading to fluid accumulation in the ventricles.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Leukoaraiosis: Non-specific white matter changes in the BRAIN, often seen after age 65. Changes include loss of AXONS; MYELIN pallor, GLIOSIS, loss of ependymal cells, and enlarged perivascular spaces. Leukoaraiosis is a risk factor for DEMENTIA and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Ventriculostomy: Surgical creation of an opening in a cerebral ventricle.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Blast Injuries: Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Encephalocele: Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.JapanPrognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Transducers, Pressure: Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.Post-Concussion Syndrome: The organic and psychogenic disturbances observed after closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED). Post-concussion syndrome includes subjective physical complaints (i.e. headache, dizziness), cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes. These disturbances can be chronic, permanent, or late emerging.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Brain Stem Infarctions: Infarctions that occur in the BRAIN STEM which is comprised of the MIDBRAIN; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA. There are several named syndromes characterized by their distinctive clinical manifestations and specific sites of ischemic injury.Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Hydrostatic Pressure: The pressure due to the weight of fluid.Brain Hemorrhage, Traumatic: Bleeding within the brain as a result of penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Traumatically induced hemorrhages may occur in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM (see BRAIN STEM HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC); and CEREBELLUM.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Cranial Sinuses: Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Meningitis, Listeria: Inflammation of the meninges caused by LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES infection, usually occurring in individuals under the age of 3 years or over the age of 50 years. It may occur at any age in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, altered mentation, HEADACHE, meningeal signs, focal neurologic signs, and SEIZURES. (From Medicine 1998 Sep;77(5):313-36)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Intracranial Hemorrhages: Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Subdural Space: Potential cavity which separates the ARACHNOID MATER from the DURA MATER.Malaria, Cerebral: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Splenic Infarction: Insufficiency of arterial or venous blood supply to the spleen due to emboli, thrombi, vascular torsion, or pressure that produces a macroscopic area of necrosis. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cerebral Ventriculography: Radiography of the ventricular system of the brain after injection of air or other contrast medium directly into the cerebral ventricles. It is used also for x-ray computed tomography of the cerebral ventricles.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Papio: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction: MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION in which the anterior wall of the heart is involved. Anterior wall myocardial infarction is often caused by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. It can be categorized as anteroseptal or anterolateral wall myocardial infarction.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Meningitis, Escherichia coli: A form of gram-negative meningitis that tends to occur in neonates, in association with anatomical abnormalities (which feature communication between the meninges and cutaneous structures) or as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS in association with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. In premature neonates the clinical presentation may be limited to ANOREXIA; VOMITING; lethargy; or respiratory distress. Full-term infants may have as additional features FEVER; SEIZURES; and bulging of the anterior fontanelle. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp398-400)Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Mice, Inbred C57BLMyocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Arterial Pressure: The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.Intracranial Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Technetium Tc 99m Exametazime: A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Blood Pressure Determination: Techniques for measuring blood pressure.Organotechnetium Compounds: Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Anterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Cerebral Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.Percussion: Act of striking a part with short, sharp blows as an aid in diagnosing the condition beneath the sound obtained.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Hematoma, Subdural: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Streptokinase: Streptococcal fibrinolysin . An enzyme produced by hemolytic streptococci. It hydrolyzes amide linkages and serves as an activator of plasminogen. It is used in thrombolytic therapy and is used also in mixtures with streptodornase (STREPTODORNASE AND STREPTOKINASE). EC 3.4.-.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Aquaporin 4: Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Neurosurgery: A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure: A form of compensated hydrocephalus characterized clinically by a slowly progressive gait disorder (see GAIT DISORDERS, NEUROLOGIC), progressive intellectual decline, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. Spinal fluid pressure tends to be in the high normal range. This condition may result from processes which interfere with the absorption of CSF including SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, chronic MENINGITIS, and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp631-3)Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
This results in widespread reduction in cerebral flow and perfusion, eventually leading to ischemia and brain infarction. ... Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. Firstgov. Accessed January 4, 2007. Intracranial Pressure at ... increased CSF production can occur in meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or choroid plexus tumor. Idiopathic or unknown cause ... An increase in pressure, most commonly due to head injury leading to intracranial hematoma or cerebral edema, can crush brain ...
... intracerebral infarction, and ischemia (stroke), or other traumatic brain injury. Diagnosis may be delayed for several months ... production by the choroid plexus of cerebrospinal fluid that is inadequately reabsorbed causing increased intracranial pressure ... Hydranencephaly is a condition in which the brain's cerebral hemispheres are absent to varying degrees and the remaining ... it can occur as a postnatal diagnosis in the aftermath of meningitis, ...
... cerebral infarction) Headache attributed to transient ischaemic attack (TIA) Headache attributed to non-traumatic intracranial ... meningitis Headache attributed to lymphocytic meningitis Headache attributed to encephalitis Headache attributed to brain ... to lymphocytic hypophysitis Headache attributed to intracranial neoplasm Headache attributed to increased intracranial pressure ... Acute post-traumatic headache Acute post-traumatic headache attributed to moderate or severe head injury Acute post-traumatic ...
It is performed on victims of traumatic brain injury, stroke and other conditions associated with raised intracranial pressure ... 2007). "Early decompressive surgery in malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery: a pooled analysis of three ... Infections such as meningitis or brain abscess can occur after decompressive craniectomy. In severely head injured children, a ... "Decompressive craniectomy for the treatment of refractory high intracranial pressure in traumatic brain injury". Cochrane ...
ISBN 978-0-323-02845-5. Karakitsos D, Karabinis A (September 2008). "Hypothermia therapy after traumatic brain injury in ... infarction, crush syndrome, rhabdomyolysis, cerebral bleeding, etc. Reaction to incompatible blood products Cancers, most ... This includes viral, bacterial and parasitic infections such as the common cold, urinary tract infections, meningitis, malaria ... The most common cause of hyperpyrexia is an intracranial hemorrhage. Other possible causes include sepsis, Kawasaki syndrome, ...
This creates an abnormal pressure gradient and movement of water into the brain, which can cause progressive cerebral edema, ... For example, Gao and Ang used the finite element method to study changes in intracranial pressure during craniotomy operations ... Gao CP, Ang BT (2008). "Biomechanical modeling of decompressive craniectomy in traumatic brain injury". Acta Neurochirurgica. ... or brain inflammation due to meningitis or encephalitis. Vasogenic edema caused by amyloid-modifying treatments, such as ...
... brain stem hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C10.228.140.300.535.450.200.750 --- cerebral hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C10.228.140.300. ... infarction, posterior cerebral artery MeSH C10.228.140.300.510.200.450 --- intracranial aneurysm MeSH C10.228.140.300.510.200. ... meningitis, bacterial MeSH C10.228.228.180.500.350 --- meningitis, escherichia coli MeSH C10.228.228.180.500.425 --- meningitis ... normal pressure MeSH C10.228.140.617 --- hypothalamic diseases MeSH C10.228.140.617.200 --- bardet-biedl syndrome MeSH C10.228. ...
A generalized increase in intracranial pressure - hydrocephalus, pseudotumor cerebri, hemorrhage, edema - will affect the ... Hind- and mid-brains; postero-lateral view. Dissection showing origins of right ocular muscles, and nerves entering by the ... It passes between the posterior cerebral artery and the superior cerebellar artery, and then pierces the dura just under free ... 2004;45:729-738 Hoya K, Kirino T. Traumatic Trochlear Nerve Palsy Following Minor Occipital Impact. Neurol Med Chir 40:358-360 ...
... and blood byproducts that increase intracranial pressure and may increase the risk for cerebral vasospasm. ... February 2002). "Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage: demographic and clinical study of 750 patients from the European brain ... such as meningitis, migraine, and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Intracerebral hemorrhage, in which bleeding occurs ... "Effect of oral nimodipine on cerebral infarction and outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage: British aneurysm nimodipine trial" ...
... meningitis or subarachnoid hemorrhage). This is the examination of the cerebrospinal fluid that envelops the brain and the ... where the pituitary undergoes infarction as a result of prolonged very low blood pressure, particularly when caused by bleeding ... traumatic brain injury, pregnancy (during which the pituitary enlarges) and treatment with estrogens. Hormonal stimulation ... Intracranial aneurysm. *Intracranial berry aneurysm. *Carotid artery dissection. *Vertebral artery dissection. *Familial aortic ...
Intracranial pressure, Lupus anticoagulant, Mast cell, Muscle, Norovirus (T), Parvovirus B19 (T), Platelet, Porphyrin, ... Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome, Cerebral vasculitis (got onto DYK), Cholesterol embolism (got onto DYK), Chronic granulomatous ... Meningitis (T / featured since 9 March 2009), Metabolic syndrome (T), Middle back pain (T), Motor neurone disease, Multiple ... Diagnostic tests - Brain biopsy (T), C-reactive protein, CSF tap test (T), CT pulmonary angiogram, Des-gamma carboxyprothrombin ...
Brain ischemia/. cerebral infarction. (ischemic stroke/TIA). TACI, PACI. *precerebral: Carotid artery stenosis ... G06) Intracranial and intraspinal abscess and granuloma. *(G07) Intracranial and intraspinal abscess and granuloma in diseases ... It covers conditions such as meningitis, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy and cerebral palsy. However; neoplastic conditions, such ... G44.3) Chronic post-traumatic headache. *(G44.4) Drug-induced headache, not elsewhere classified ...
These include intracranial or parameningeal infection (meningitis, encephalitis, brain abscess); malignancy; intracranial ... Diseases causing acute onset of raised intracranial pressure or diffuse/multifocal cerebral dysfunction resemble CVT. ... Compared with other forms of acute brain injury such as encephalopathy after cardiac arrest or traumatic brain injury, the ... B) Magnetic resoance imaging of the brain showing large hemorrhagic infarction (arrow) in patient with transverse sinus ...
Fact sheet examines Hydranencephaly a condition where the brain cerebral hemispheres are absent and replaced by sacs filled ... intra-cerebral infarction, and ischemia (stroke), or other traumatic brain injury (Dubey, Gobinathan, et.al, 2002).. ... production by the choroid plexus of cerebrospinal fluid that is inadequately reabsorbed causing increased intracranial pressure ... 4 - Viral Meningitis Facts and General Information , Wendy Taormina-Weiss (2012/01/26)*. 5 - Paresthesia: Causes, Symptoms, ...
Frontal cerebral vulnerability and executive deficits from raised intracranial pressure in child traumatic brain injury. J ... Combined lung injury, meningitis and cerebral edema: how permissive can hypercapnia be? Intensive Care Med. 1998 Jun; 24(6):616 ... Paediatric neurointensive care and decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction. Dev Med Child ... Analgesia, Sedation, and Intracranial Pressure: Questioning Our Approach in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury. Crit Care Med. ...
... generalized increased intracranial pressure, and unilateral cerebral disease causing herniation such as infarction, hemorrhage ... Secondary brain injury is defined as those processes that occur later that contribute to overall traumatic brain injury: from ... Overwhelming sepsis, meningitis, peritonitis, and encephalitis are among infectious causes to be considered. ... Elevated intracranial pressure may cause brain shift and compression through the tentorial opening, inducing brain herniation. ...
Vaccination Intracranial Pressure Intracranial Stenosis Ischemia (Stroke And Transient Ischemic Attack) (See Also The ... Seizure Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Therapeutic Appendix Chemotherapy: Common Neuro-Oncologic Drugs Chorea (Movement Disorder ... Intracranial Hemorrhage, Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Cerebral Palsy Cerebral Salt-Wasting Syndrome Cerebrospinal Fluid ... Melas Memory Meningitis (See Also Neurologic Emergency Appendix) Mental Status Testing Metabolic Diseases Of Childhood ...
d) CSF and its disturbances : cerebral edema, raised intracranial pressure. e) Cerebrovascular diseases : Atherosclerosis, ... b) Inflammatory disorders : Pyogenic and tuberculous meningitis, brain abscess, tuberculoma. c) CNS tumors - primary : glioma ... d) Infarction : Types, common sites, Gangrene. e) Shock : Pathogenesis, Types, Morphologic changes. f) Derangements of Fluid ... h) Traumatic lesions of CNS See the entire syllabus. See more information. ...
... traumatic brain injury, cerebral infarction, and meningitis, and would continue to be classified to code 331.3, Communicating ... Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) A new code has been proposed for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus in category 331, ... This is accomplished by implanting a shunt to drain cerebrospinal fluid either from the intracranial ventricular system or the ... or traumatic brain injury. The difference between the temperature management system described by the proposed code and other ...
... is the pressure exerted by the cranium on the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the brains ... This results in widespread reduction in cerebral flow and perfusion, eventually leading to ischemia and brain infarction. ... "Overview of Adult Traumatic Brain Injuries." Accessed September 6, 2007.. *^ Dawodu S. 2005. "Traumatic Brain Injury: ... increased CSF production can occur in meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or choroid plexus tumor. ...
Hydrocephalus ex-vacuo refers to ventricular dilation that occurs as a result of brain substance loss from CEREBRAL INFARCTION ... and often associated with increased intracranial pressure (ICP). We .... The Brain Structure and Neural Network Changing the ... most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). ... chronic MENINGITIS, and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp631-3) ...
Onset (e.g. thunderclap) • Pattern (e.g. worse in the morning = increased intracranial pressure [ICP]) • Preceding symptoms/ ... Early onset, static, suggestive habitus e.g. Hydrocephalus, cerebral palsy. Traumatic. Focal, pain, tenderness e.g. SDH, ... 7.3 Brain Tumors. • Commonly present with: ǞǞ Progressive focal neurological deficits ǞǞ Headache: worse in the morning, ... Acute, diffuse, headache, fever, nuchal rigidity, back pain e.g. Meningitis, encephalitis, osteomyelitis, discitis ...
... metabolism and intracranial pressure. *Pathophysiology and treatment of increased intracranial pressure, altered cerebral blood ... Fellows receive training in the diagnosis and treatment of cerebral infarction, transient brain ischemia, brain hemorrhage, and ... traumatic brain injury, brain injury after cardiac arrest, seizures, spinal cord injury, neuromuscular disorders, and many ... Encephalitis/meningitis/brain abscess. *Acute neuromuscular illness. *Peri-operative care after neurosurgical or interventional ...
Increased intracranial pressure Causes of cerebral edema: focal and generalized Types of herniation: cingulate, uncal, ... Shearing of brain vessels, high impact Diffuse Axonal Injury: Shearing of axons results in post-traumatic neurologic deficits ... Harbinger of cerebral infarction www.indiandentalacademy.com * 33. Summary: Strokes due to ischemia/infarction ... ASEPTIC (VIRAL) MENINGITIS www.indiandentalacademy.com * 60. Cerebral Abscess Localized (contained) infection ...
Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) answers are found in the Diagnosaurus powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, ... Meningitis. *Cerebral edema, eg, trauma, encephalitis, infarction. *Malignant hypertension. *Venous sinus thrombosis ... Brain Abscess. Related Topics. *Encephalitis, Viral. *Sheehan Syndrome. *Brain Injury, Traumatic. *Neural Tube Defects ... Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is a topic covered in the Diagnosaurus. To view the entire topic, please sign in or ...
... was related to improvement of cerebral metabolism and reduction of intracranial pressure in patients with traumatic brain ... 15 global cerebral oedema on follow-up CT, hydrocephalus, intracranial pressure crisis, meningitis, pneumonia or pulmonary ... or development of new cerebral infarction which is not explained by other causes such as hydrocephalus, seizures, intracranial ... Normobaric hyperoxia-induced improvement in cerebral metabolism and reduction in intracranial pressure in patients with severe ...
This results in widespread reduction in cerebral flow and perfusion, eventually leading to ischemia and brain infarction. ... Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. Firstgov. Accessed January 4, 2007. Intracranial Pressure at ... increased CSF production can occur in meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or choroid plexus tumor. Idiopathic or unknown cause ... An increase in pressure, most commonly due to head injury leading to intracranial hematoma or cerebral edema, can crush brain ...
Hydrocephalus that results from head trauma, brain tumors, intracranial hemorrhage, or meningitis. ... hydrocephalus ex-vacuo refers to ventricular dilation that occurs as a result of brain substance loss from cerebral infarction ... G91.2 (Idiopathic) normal pressure hydrocephalus G91.3 Post-traumatic hydrocephalus, unspecified G91.4 Hydrocephalus in ... Normally, this fluid cushions your brain. When you have too much, though, it puts harmful pressure on your brain.there are two ...
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Long-Term Stroke Risk After Traumatic Brain Injury.. Neurohospitalist. 7(3):122-126. ... Neurological complications after tuberculous meningitis in a multi-state cohort in the United States.. J Neurol Sci. 375:460- ... Response by Merkler et al to Letter Regarding Article, "Risk of Pulmonary Embolism After Cerebral Venous Thrombosis".. Stroke. ... Rollercoaster Blood Pressure: An Alzheimer Disease Risk Factor? Circulation. 136(6):526-528. ...
... intracerebral infarction, and ischemia (stroke), or other traumatic brain injury. Diagnosis may be delayed for several months ... production by the choroid plexus of cerebrospinal fluid that is inadequately reabsorbed causing increased intracranial pressure ... Hydranencephaly is a condition in which the brains cerebral hemispheres are absent to varying degrees and the remaining ... it can occur as a postnatal diagnosis in the aftermath of meningitis, ...
Cerebral Infarction / Stroke. *Anoxic / Hypoxic Encephalopathy. *Increased Intracranial Pressure. *Hydrocephalus. *Contusions. ... However, brain injury is a more specific term. Most traumatic brain injuries occur in association with accidents or physical ... Infections, such as meningitis, brain tumors, an overdose of medications, and certain diseases can also result in injury to the ... Increased Intracranial Pressure Patients symptoms following a brain injury are often a direct result of a build-up of pressure ...
Paroxysmal autonomic instability with dystonia is normally associated with severe traumatic brain injury. A 69-year-old man of ... A lumbar puncture revealed no evidence of meningitis. He was then transferred to our hospital. At that time, initial cultures ... In patients with (tuberculous) meningitis and episodes of extreme hypertension and fever, paroxysmal autonomic instability with ... report describes an extremely rare combination of paroxysmal autonomic instability with dystonia and tuberculous meningitis. ...
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Long-Term Stroke Risk After Traumatic Brain Injury.. Neurohospitalist. 7(3):122-126. ... Misdiagnosis of Cerebral Vein Thrombosis in the Emergency Department.. Stroke. Parikh NS, Chatterjee A, Díaz I, Pandya A, ... Neurological complications after tuberculous meningitis in a multi-state cohort in the United States.. J Neurol Sci. 375:460- ... Risk of Ischemic Stroke after Intracranial Hemorrhage in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.. PLoS One. 10(12):e0145579. ...
... patients with MS and other brain and central nervous system disorders and diseases. ... Care should be taken to identify patients at risk for herniation due to increased intracranial pressure, such as those with ... Varicella zoster encephalitis may be associated with cerebral large vessel arteritis, ischemic or hemorrhagic infarctions, and ... Any inflammation of the brain constitutes encephalitis, whether caused by direct invasion of the brain by an infectious agent ( ...
Cerebral Haemorrhage Foetal, Cerebral Haemorrhage Neonatal, Cerebral Infarction, Cerebral Ischaemia, Cerebral Palsy, Cerebral ... Traumatic Brain Injury, Traumatic Haematoma, Treatment Noncompliance, Tremor, Tremor Neonatal, Tricuspid Valve Incompetence, ... Intracranial Aneurysm, Intraocular Pressure Increased, Intra-Uterine Death, Iron Deficiency Anaemia, Irritability, Irritable ... Meningitis, Meningocele, Meningomyelocele, Menopause, Menorrhagia, Menstrual Discomfort, Menstrual Disorder, Menstruation ...
CNS: headache, malaise, vertigo, psychiatric disturbances, increased intracranial pressure, seizures. CV: hypotension, ... Cerebral edema. Adults: Initially, 10 mg (sodium phosphate) I.V., followed by 4 mg I.M. q 6 hours. Then reduce dosage gradually ... A synthetic CORTICOSTEROID drug used for its anti-inflammatory action and for its value in reducing OEDEMA of the brain. It is ... A drug which inhibits or suppresses most inflammatory responses of an allergic, bacterial, traumatic or anaphylactic origin, as ...
HemorrhageEncephalitisMyocardial infarctionSubarachnoidCerebrospinalTumorsAneurysmsHEADACHEVasospasmOcclusionEdema and elevated intracranial pressureHerniationHematomaNeurologicalThrombosisPalsyCortexAbscessIdiopathicVascularPerfusion pressureComplicationsDysfunctionInfectionsRuptureLesionsBlood vesselsInfectionAseptic meningitisDiagnosisNeurologicIschemicComaMalignantVesselsOccurArteryVasogenicTumorTumoursSpinal cordDevelopment of delayed cerebralOutcome
- Signs and symptoms of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) are variable depending on patient age, thrombosis location, and associated infarction or hemorrhage. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- This condition may result from processes which interfere with the absorption of CSF including SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, chronic MENINGITIS, and other conditions. (bioportfolio.com)
- Restarting Anticoagulant Therapy After Intracranial Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. (cornell.edu)
- Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Long-Term Stroke Risk After Traumatic Brain Injury. (cornell.edu)
- Risk of Ischemic Stroke after Intracranial Hemorrhage in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation. (cornell.edu)
- Zheng H, Chen C, Zhang J, Hu Z. Mechanism and therapy of brain edema after intracerebral hemorrhage. (springer.com)
- Cerebral hemorrhage is a brain parenchymal nontraumatic hematoma that is primarily caused by hypertension and the subsequent clogging of arteries. (hindawi.com)
- however, the blood sometimes penetrates the brain parenchyma, which results in intraventricular and subarachnoid hemorrhage. (hindawi.com)
- Computed tomography scanning of the brain: In infants, helps to identify congenital malformations, intracranial hemorrhage, and periventricular leukomalacia or early craniosynostosis. (medscape.com)
- Intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and spinal subdural hematoma (SDH) are rare complications of spine surgery, thought to be precipitated by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] At the time of admission, he was found drowsy with global aphasia, stiff neck, right hemiparesis and right Babinski's sign . (symptoma.com)
- Precision medicine of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia. (mayo.edu)
- Cerebral Venous Thrombosis Associated with Intracranial Hemorrhage and Timing of Anticoagulation after Hemicraniectomy. (mayo.edu)
- Does Intracranial Venous Thrombosis Cause Subdural Hemorrhage in the Pediatric Population? (ajnr.org)
- The head trauma may also cause associated brain hematomas or contusions, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and diffuse axonal injury. (topneurodocs.com)
- A subarachnoid hemorrhage is an abnormal and very dangerous condition in which blood collects beneath the arachnoid mater, a membrane that covers the brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The immediate danger due to subarachnoid hemorrhage, whether traumatic or spontaneous, is ischemia . (thefreedictionary.com)
- meningitis, encephalitis - hemorrhage - malignancy - demyelinating disease 2. (slidegur.com)
- intracranial mass lesion (brain herniation) - large brain abscess - brain tumor - subdural hematoma - intracranial hemorrhage 3. (slidegur.com)
- Restricted diffusion, however, is not specific for acute brain ischemia and has been reported in cases of herpes encephalitis, cortical spreading depression, hyperacute hemorrhage, traumatic axonal injury, Creutzfeld-Jakob syndrome, and, in rare cases, acute multiple sclerosis ( 1 ). (ajnr.org)
- Noncontrast CT demonstrated no brain mass, intracranial hemorrhage, or extraaxial fluid, although frontal and bilateral ethmoid mucosal thickening was noted. (ajnr.org)
- DC with or without hematoma evacuation might reduce mortality in patients with large supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage who are in coma or have refractory intracranial hypertension. (csnn.eu)
- Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may be complicated by delayed cerebral ischemia, which is a major cause of unfavorable clinical outcome and death in SAH-patients. (beds.ac.uk)
- Non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a major cause of stroke accounting for approximately 1-7% of cases. (beds.ac.uk)
- First, they may experience a further, often more severe, hemorrhage, and second, they may suffer delayed neurologic deterioration (DND) caused by delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). (beds.ac.uk)
- Any inflammation of the brain constitutes encephalitis, whether caused by direct invasion of the brain by an infectious agent (primary encephalitis), by immune response to an infectious process (parainfectious or post-infectious encephalitis), or by a process with no known connection to an infectious etiology (e.g., auto-immune encephalitis or paraneoplastic encephalitis). (neurologyadvisor.com)
- Lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination Lumbar puncture (LP) is central to the diagnosis of meningitis and encephalitis, but is also helpful in the diagnosis of other conditions, such as multiple sclerosis, neurosyphilis, sarcoidosis and Behget's disease. (com.vn)
- seizure, encephalitis / meningitis, HSV? (wordpress.com)
- Cerebral edema can result from brain trauma or from nontraumatic causes such as ischemic stroke , cancer , or brain inflammation due to meningitis or encephalitis . (wikipedia.org)
- Common complications of herpes simplex encephalitis include meningitis , increased intracranial pressure , and coma . (wikidoc.org)
- It is believed that herpes simplex encephalitis is caused by the retrograde transmission of the virus from a peripheral site on the face to the brain along a nerve axon following HSV-1 reactivation. (wikidoc.org)
- Herpes simplex encephalitis must be differentiated from other causes of headache, altered mental status and seizures such as brain tumors and delirium trmemns. (wikidoc.org)
- Collateral flow may avoid myocardial infarction, despite the chronic total occlusion. (ahima.org)
- There is increased risk of myocardial infarction or death. (ahima.org)
- It was recommended that a default be provided when a total occlusion (without myocardial infarction) is documented but is not specified as acute or chronic. (ahima.org)
- His medical history included tuberculosis in his youth, which was left untreated, ulcerative colitis and a myocardial infarction. (biomedcentral.com)
- Non-significant rate reductions were seen for all stroke (hazard ratio 0·81, 95% CI 0·64-1·03, p=0·08), disabling or fatal stroke (0·81, 0·53-1·23, p=0·32), and the composite outcome of myocardial infarction or vascular death (0·84, 0·68-1·04, p=0·32) with the lower target. (noninvasiveicp.com)
- Atrial fibrillation (irregular, rapid heartbeats), a damaged heart valve, or a recent myocardial infarction (heart attack) can cause clots in the heart that may migrate to the brain. (enetmd.com)
- Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. (bioportfolio.com)
- Objective To determine the association between exposure to hyperoxia and the risk of delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI) after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). (bmj.com)
- This is accomplished by implanting a shunt to drain CSF from either the intracranial ventricular system or the lumbar subarachnoid space to a distal site, such as the peritoneal or pleural cavity or the venous system, where the CSF can be reabsorbed. (wordpress.com)
- A decreasing concentration of red blood cells from bottles 1 to 3 indi-cates a traumatic tap, rather than blood in the CSF (indicating subarachnoid haemorrhage). (com.vn)
- Additionally, subarachnoid hemorrhages may cause permanent brain damage and a number of harmful biochemical events in the brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Subarachnoid hemorrhages are classified into two general categories: traumatic and spontaneous. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhages occur with little or no warning and are frequently caused by ruptured aneurysms or blood vessel abnormalities in the brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Exact statistics are not available on traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhages, but several large clinical studies have found an incidence of 23-39% in relation to severe head injury . (thefreedictionary.com)
- Furthermore, subarachnoid hemorrhages have been described in the medical literature as the most common brain injury found during autopsy investigations of head trauma. (thefreedictionary.com)
- METHODS Ninety nine consecutive patients who presented with or developed one or two FDPs, were split into three groups according to the respective aetiology: 46 patients had a trauma, 41 patients a stroke (subarachnoid or intracerebral haemorrhage), and 12 patients had undergone previous elective intracranial surgery. (bmj.com)
- Once the needle is properly positioned in the subarachnoid space (the space between the spinal cord and its covering, the meninges), pressures can be measured and fluid can be collected for testing. (rnpedia.com)
- Spontaneous SAH is usually due to aneurysmal rupture but traumatic brain injury is a more common cause of blood in the subarachnoid space. (patient.info)
- Subarachnoid blood can be detected on CT scanning in as many as 60% of people with traumatic brain injury. (patient.info)
- Main outcome measures Subarachnoid haemorrhage was defined by any of subarachnoid blood on computed tomography, xanthochromia in cerebrospinal fluid, or any red blood cells in final tube of cerebrospinal fluid collected with positive results on cerebral angiography. (bmj.com)
- It is for this reason that nature itself intended to place the brain not only in the bone box, which is the skull, but also in a special liquid medium that provides its protection (liquid subarachnoid spaces act as such a medium) in combination with liquid cavities also located in the bone box. (detonic.shop)
- Outline: Fact sheet examines Hydranencephaly a condition where the brain cerebral hemispheres are absent and replaced by sacs filled with cerebrospinal fluid. (disabled-world.com)
- Hydranencephaly is an extreme form of porencephaly (another rare disorder of the central nervous system which involves the existence of a cyst or cavity within the cerebral hemisphere) in which the cerebral hemispheres are absent and replaced by sacs filled with cerebrospinal fluid (NINDS, 2007) and remains the most severe form of bilateral cerebral cortical destruction. (disabled-world.com)
- Differential diagnoses include bilaterally symmetric schizencephaly (a less destructive developmental process on the brain), severe hydrocephalus (cerebrospinal fluid excess within the skull), and alobar holoprosencephaly (a neurological developmental anomaly). (disabled-world.com)
- Though the cerebral cortex is absent, in most cases the fetal head remains enlarged due to the continued production by the choroid plexus of cerebrospinal fluid that is inadequately reabsorbed causing increased intracranial pressure (Kurtz & Johnson, 1999). (disabled-world.com)
- Intracranial pressure , ( ICP ), is the pressure exerted by the cranium on the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the brain's circulating blood volume. (bionity.com)
- The purpose of this study is to test and compare the efficacy of Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy with shunting of Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)for treatment for patients of Normal pressure Hy. (bioportfolio.com)
- hye-dro-sef-uh-lus) the abnormal buildup of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain. (icd10data.com)
- A disorder characterized by an abnormal increase of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain. (icd10data.com)
- Hydrocephalus is the buildup of too much cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. (icd10data.com)
- Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). (wikipedia.org)
- Hydranencephaly is a condition in which the brain's cerebral hemispheres are absent to varying degrees and the remaining cranial cavity is filled with cerebrospinal fluid. (wikipedia.org)
- This should not be confused with hydrocephalus, which is an accumulation of excess cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
- This sometimes proves to provide a misdiagnosis of differential diagnoses including bilaterally symmetric schizencephaly (a less destructive developmental process on the brain), severe hydrocephalus (cerebrospinal fluid excess within the skull), and alobar holoprosencephaly (a neurological developmental anomaly). (wikipedia.org)
- Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a syndrome characterized by gait impairment, cognitive decline, and urinary incontinence, and is associated with ventriculomegaly in the absence of elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. (wordpress.com)
- Cerebrospinal fluid is analyzed to determine the diagnosis and the type of meningitis. (rnpedia.com)
- The blood-brain barrier (BBB) or the blood- cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier may break down, allowing fluid to accumulate in the brain's extracellular space. (wikipedia.org)
- As a result, the statement of the fact that the brain is in suspension in the cerebrospinal fluid (or cerebrospinal fluid) will be true. (detonic.shop)
- That is, the pressure exerted by the cerebrospinal fluid is the intracranial pressure that interests us. (detonic.shop)
- The ventricles and fluid spaces existing in the brain are interconnected by ducts, while the cerebrospinal fluid is in constant circulation. (detonic.shop)
- So, its isolation occurs in some brain departments, after which it flows through the cerebrospinal ducts to other brain departments and it is here that they are absorbed directly into the bloodstream. (detonic.shop)
- With an excess of cerebrospinal fluid accumulation, accordingly, an increase in pressure from its side occurs, which specifically affects the substance of the brain. (detonic.shop)
- Infections, such as meningitis, brain tumors, an overdose of medications, and certain diseases can also result in injury to the brain. (finr.net)
- Radiotherapy is the standard treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and various brain tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
- They demonstrated the deleterious effects of the cyst fluid on various cell types within the tumors originating region of the brain and its surroundings for the first time. (neurosurgery.directory)
- Ultrastructural results suggest focal pathological disturbances and an altered microenvironment surrounding the tumor-brain junction, with an enhanced presence of RFs in human tumors. (neurosurgery.directory)
- The natural history is not well defined but these tend to be as aggressive as their corresponding tumors in the brain. (ormedmedical.us)
- A rupture of the cyst presents with sudden headache, seizure, or with more serious complications such as chemical meningitis, vasospasm, and cerebral infarction. (polradiol.com)
- However, up to one-third of patients presenting to emergency rooms with a chief complaint of abrupt onset headache, may have potentially fatal or disabling intracranial pathology ( 4 ). (antimicrobe.org)
- Headache may localize to the infected sinus or ear and vomiting may occur as increased intracranial pressure develops. (neurologyadvisor.com)
- While fever and headache are usually present, patients may often feel well enough to delay seeking medical attention until the epidural abscess has become complicated by subdural empyema, brain abscess, or meningitis. (neurologyadvisor.com)
- Heart-Shaped Bilateral Medullary Pyramidal Infarction as a Pathognomonic Finding of Anterior Spinal Artery Occlusion. (mayo.edu)
- Does intravenous rtPA benefit patients in the absence of CT angiographically visible intracranial occlusion? (journaldatabase.info)
- METHODS: We retrospectively analysed data from 130 non-disabled, medically treated patients with either symptomatic extracranial carotid occlusion or intracranial stenosis or occlusion of the carotid artery or middle cerebral arteries. (noninvasiveicp.com)
- Atherothrombosis is the main cause of occlusion of major arteries in the brain, typically by embolism from a source in the carotid artery, aorta, or heart. (enetmd.com)
- Whether occlusion of an artery supplying brain tissue actually leads to ischaemia depends on collateral pathways, which may be by (1) circle of Willis, (2) connections between extracranial and intracranial vessels, (3) leptomeningeal anastomoses. (enetmd.com)
- A unilateral hemisphere lesion will not result in coma unless there is secondary brain stem compression, caused by herniation, compromising the ascending reticular activating system. (scribd.com)
- c diVuse or extensive processes aVecting the whole brain c supratentorial mass lesions causing tentorial herniation with brain stem compression (associated with other neurological signs such as third nerve palsy and crossed hemiparesis) c brain stem lesions-for example, compression from posterior fossa mass lesions such as cerebellar haemorrhage/infarction and disorders primarily aVecting the brain stem (for example, basilar artery thrombosis). (scribd.com)
- If brain herniation occurs, respiratory symptoms or respiratory arrest can also occur due to compression of the respiratory centres in the pons and medulla oblongata . (wikipedia.org)
- Herniation occurs as the brain tissue is forcibly shifted from the compartment of greater pressure to a one of lesser pressure. (studystack.com)
- cerebellar or tentorial herniation :increase intracranial pressure 3. (slidegur.com)
- A subdural hematoma (SDH) is a collection of blood below the inner layer of the dura but external to the brain and arachnoid membrane. (topneurodocs.com)
- Subdural hematoma is the most common type of traumatic intracranial mass lesion. (topneurodocs.com)
- Acute subdural hematoma is the most common type of traumatic intracranial hematoma, occurring in 24% of patients who present comatose. (topneurodocs.com)
- Neurological complications after tuberculous meningitis in a multi-state cohort in the United States. (cornell.edu)
- The extended transsphenoidal approach was planned avoiding the low perfusion pressure region, with only conventional methods of maintaining blood pressure and PaCO2 rather than performing prophylactic vascular reconstruction surgery, and successful tumor removals were achieved without causing further neurological or radiological deficits. (noninvasiveicp.com)
- In brain trauma, brain surgeries, and brain dysfunction of all sorts the neurological system is damaged. (braininjuryselfrehabilitation.com)
- Neurological diseases are defined as disorders to the central and peripheral nervous systems including, but not limited to the brain, spinal chord, nerves and muscles. (nrf2.com)
- in 1950, cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is a clinical condition characterised by renal loss of sodium causing dehydration and hyponatraemia in patients with intracranial neurological disorders. (jnaccjournal.org)
- however, rebound intracranial pressure elevation and neurological deterioration may occur during rewarming. (noninvasiveicp.com)
- Are you sure your patient has cerebral venous thrombosis? (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- 2017. Response by Merkler et al to Letter Regarding Article, "Risk of Pulmonary Embolism After Cerebral Venous Thrombosis". . (cornell.edu)
- 2017. Risk of Pulmonary Embolism After Cerebral Venous Thrombosis. . (cornell.edu)
- 2018. Misdiagnosis of Cerebral Vein Thrombosis in the Emergency Department. . (cornell.edu)
- Urine analysis a common haplotype, and even cavernous sinus thrombosis meningitis and the kidney am j physiol f a f felder r a oxygen by mask ask the hmo and your nephrologist. (junoon.com)
- The most common cause is blockage of a cerebral artery by a blood clot, which may have formed in the artery (thrombosis) or may have been carried in the circulation from another part of the body (embolism). (enetmd.com)
- Cerebral palsy is the leading cause of childhood disability affecting function and development. (medscape.com)
- The magnetic resonance image (MRI) below illustrates the findings in a 16-month-old boy with cerebral palsy. (medscape.com)
- Examination findings were consistent with a spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy with asymmetry (more prominent right-sided deficits). (medscape.com)
- children with cerebral palsy may have an early period of hypotonia followed by hypertonia. (medscape.com)
- The diagnosis of cerebral palsy is generally made based on the clinical picture. (medscape.com)
- Cerebral palsy is a motor disorder caused by damage to the brain at or around the time of birth or up to one year of age. (abclawcenters.com)
- Cerebral palsy is a the most common cause of childhood disability in the U.S. It is a health condition that affects the brain and nervous system, causing muscle tone, movement, and motor skills problems. (abclawcenters.com)
- While the severity of cerebral palsy varies, it can alter a child's life and capabilities. (abclawcenters.com)
- In children with severe cerebral palsy, an attempted voluntary movement may induce a primitive reflex, co-contraction of one type of muscle against another, and mass movements. (abclawcenters.com)
- Unfortunately, many cases of cerebral palsy are due to the negligence of a medical professional during labor and delivery. (abclawcenters.com)
- Spastic cerebral palsy is the most common type of cerebral palsy, affecting 70-90% of all children who have CP. (abclawcenters.com)
- The muscles in children with spastic cerebral palsy are constantly rigid or spastic, which means movement is stiff and jerky. (abclawcenters.com)
- Ataxic cerebral palsy occurs in about 10% of all cases. (abclawcenters.com)
- Some children with ataxic cerebral palsy have hypotonia (low muscle tone) and tremors. (abclawcenters.com)
- Children with ataxic cerebral palsy also usually have difficulty with seeing and hearing. (abclawcenters.com)
- Athetoid cerebral palsy or dyskinetic cerebral palsy is characterized by mixed muscle tone (both hypertonia and hypotonia) and involuntary motions. (abclawcenters.com)
- Children with athetoid cerebral palsy have trouble holding themselves in an upright, steady position while sitting or walking, and they often have involuntary motions. (abclawcenters.com)
- In newborn babies, improperly treated jaundice (high bilirubin levels in the blood) can lead to brain damage in the basal ganglia ( kernicterus ), which can cause athetoid cerebral palsy. (abclawcenters.com)
- Mixed cerebral palsy has features of multiple types of cerebral palsy. (abclawcenters.com)
- Cerebral palsy can affect gross and fine motor skills in both the legs and the arms (quadriparesis), either the legs or the arms (diplegia), or one side of the body (hemiparesis). (abclawcenters.com)
- Regardless of its particular manifestation, children with cerebral palsy have special needs for costly medical, therapeutic and educational services. (abclawcenters.com)
- One medical journal reports hydranencephaly as an autosomal inherited disorder with an unknown mode of transmission, where an unknown blockage of the carotid artery where it enters the cranium causes obstruction and damage to the cerebral cortex. (disabled-world.com)
- Coma is caused by disordered arousal rather than impairment of the content of consciousness, this being the sum of cognitive and aVective mental function, dependent on an intact cerebral cortex. (scribd.com)
- Denny-Brown, D., Theoretical deductions from the physiology of the cerebral cortex, J. Neurol. (ipfw.edu)
- We report a case of fungal cerebritis in which water diffusion was more restricted than that of normal contralateral brain and the measured diffusion coefficient was in the range of that reported for pyogenic brain abscess. (ajnr.org)
- Abnormal DW imaging has also been reported in cases of pyogenic brain abscess and is attributed to restricted water diffusion in purulent fluid ( 2 ). (ajnr.org)
- However, MR imaging in earlier stages of brain abscess, before capsule formation, has not been widely reported. (ajnr.org)
- On hospital day 9, MR imaging ( Fig 2 ) demonstrated faint, thin peripheral contrast-enhancement around the left orbitofrontal mass, consistent with late cerebritis or early brain abscess. (ajnr.org)
- Suppurative intracranial thrombophlebitis may arise from the intracranial veins or venous sinuses, or as a consequence of spread from paranasal sinusitis, otitis media, mastoiditis, dental abscess, orbital cellulitis, or infection of the scalp or face. (neurologyadvisor.com)
- If left untreated with an enlarging abscess confined to the epidural space, a significant amount of mass effect may produce papilledema or other signs of increased intracranial pressure. (neurologyadvisor.com)
- CONCLUSION: If the surgical route is planned to avoid the distribution of stenotic vessels and low perfusion pressure, prophylactic vascular reconstruction surgery would be unnecessary. (noninvasiveicp.com)
- Although more experiences based on sub-classified etiology for internal carotid artery stenosis are required, various types of operations including intracranial-extracranial vascular surgery might be justified based on this principle. (noninvasiveicp.com)
- Cancerous glial cells ( glioma ) of the brain can increase secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which weakens the junctions of the blood-brain barrier . (wikipedia.org)
- Vascular malformations involving the brain are divided into subgroups, including arteriovenous malformations (AVM), developmental venous anomalies (DVA), cavernous malformations and capillary telangiectasias. (jaocr.org)
- The surrounding brain may develop gliosis resulting from vascular steal related to the AVM. (jaocr.org)
- An increase in intracranial pressure is a serious danger, since such a deviation can provoke the development of life-threatening complications, including ruptures of the walls of blood vessels, accompanied by hemorrhages in the tissue. (detonic.shop)
- They had no cases of aseptic meningitis, nor any complications, from use of the described technique. (neurosurgery.directory)
- Diseases causing acute onset of raised intracranial pressure or diffuse/multifocal cerebral dysfunction resemble CVT. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- Brain edema usually amplifies the dysfunction of the lesioned tissue and the burden of cerebral edema correlates with increased morbidity and mortality across diseases. (springer.com)
- This will lead to a condition called cerebral energy dysfunction which is an important determinant factor toward worse outcome. (asianjns.org)
- It is believed that dermoid cysts rupture secondarily to the production of hair and oils from internal dermal elements, which results in increasing pressure . (polradiol.com)
- Rupture of intracranial dermoid cysts is relatively uncommon, but the precise incidence of this phenomenon is not clearly known. (polradiol.com)
- 1 cm) or lesions with the same attenuation as bone or brain (e.g. plaques of multiple sclerosis, isodense subdural haematoma) are poorly seen. (com.vn)
- Brain imaging (CT or MRI) should be performed before LP in patients who have clinical features that increase the likelihood of having intracranial mass lesions or increase in CSF pressure which would preclude LP: immunosuppression, bleeding tendency, focal neuro-logical signs, papilloedema, loss of consciousness or seizure. (com.vn)
- Many of these patients harbor intracranial mass lesions. (topneurodocs.com)
- In other words, to make a diagnosis of MS, there must be evidence of at least two separate affected areas in the brain and spinal cord, and the lesions must have occurred at least at two different times separated by at least 1 month. (vertigoexercises.us)
- Smaller lesions may be difficult to visualize on non-contrast CT since they are filled with flowing blood that is isoattenuating to slightly hyperattenuating to normal brain. (jaocr.org)
- The body's response to a decrease in CPP is to raise blood pressure and dilate blood vessels in the brain. (bionity.com)
- As the object travels through the brain, it disrupts blood vessels, causing bleeding. (finr.net)
- This causes brain tissue to accelerate or decelerate relative to the fixed dural structures, tearing blood vessels. (topneurodocs.com)
- Damage to cerebral blood vessels. (slideserve.com)
- TIA incorrect clinical diagnosis in 25% (may be completed infarct, ICH, migraine, seizure), 1/3 have later infarction (20% within 1/12) or have infarct on DWI (despite resolution of Sx). (radnotes.co.nz)
- In the proper clinical setting, cerebritis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an ill-defined focal brain mass associated with markedly restricted water diffusion. (ajnr.org)
- The diagnosis of meningitis was made, and intravenous therapy with ceftriaxone was begun. (ajnr.org)
- This bleeding may increase pressure inside the skull, leading to coma and, in serious cases, death. (finr.net)
- For long-term coma, adjunctive treatment includes passive range-of-motion exercises, enteral feedings, and measures to prevent pressure ulcers. (wordpress.com)
- Brain death is loss of function of the entire cerebrum and brain stem, resulting in coma, no spontaneous respiration, and loss of all brain stem reflexes. (wordpress.com)
- Hyperventilation can occur when the brain stem or tegmentum is damaged. (wikipedia.org)
- Brain- none CSF- redistributed into compliant paraspinal CSF space Blood- venous blood forced into internal jugular veins When compensatory mechanisms are exhausted, ICP rises more rapidly Eventually, the compensatory mechanisms are exhausted and a sharp rise in ICP will occur. (slideplayer.com)
- Fig. 2) AVMs occur anywhere in the brain or spinal cord, but the majority are supratentorial. (jaocr.org)
- Our modern-day approach to the medical management of cerebral edema has largely revolved around, an increasingly artificial distinction between cytotoxic and vasogenic cerebral edema. (springer.com)
- Cerebral edema cytotoxic edema vasogenic edema hyperosmolar therapy elevated ICP. (springer.com)
- Vasogenic edema occurs due to a breakdown of the tight endothelial junctions that make up the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
- Part two, to be published in February 2014, outlines the features and management of brain tumours and intracranial bleeds. (noninvasiveicp.com)
- They account for approximately 0.5% of all primary intracranial tumours and are thought to be slightly more common in females . (polradiol.com)
- Computed tomography (CT) (p. 822) is of value in identifying cerebral tumours, intracerebral haemorrhage and infarction, subdural and extradural haematoma, midline shift of intracranial structures and cerebral atrophy. (com.vn)
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (p. 826) is of particular value in imaging tumours, infarction, haemorrhage, clot, multiple sclerosis plaques, the posterior fossa, the foramen magnum and the spinal cord. (com.vn)
- 2017. Rates of Spinal Cord Infarction After Repair of Aortic Aneurysm or Dissection. . (cornell.edu)
- CNS diseases manifest mainly at the neural tube, neural crest, spinal cord, and brain. (hindawi.com)
- Meningitis is inflammation of the arachnoid and pia mater of the brain and spinal cord. (rnpedia.com)
- The central nervous system communicates with the body by means of nerves that exit the CNS from the brain (cranial nerves) and spinal cord (spinal nerves). (ormedmedical.us)