Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Infarction: Formation of an infarct, which is NECROSIS in tissue due to local ISCHEMIA resulting from obstruction of BLOOD CIRCULATION, most commonly by a THROMBUS or EMBOLUS.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Malaria, Cerebral: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)Intracranial Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Anterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Brain Stem Infarctions: Infarctions that occur in the BRAIN STEM which is comprised of the MIDBRAIN; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA. There are several named syndromes characterized by their distinctive clinical manifestations and specific sites of ischemic injury.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.JapanMagnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Cerebral Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Technetium Tc 99m Exametazime: A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.Moyamoya Disease: A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Medicine, East Asian Traditional: Medical practice or discipline that is based on the knowledge, cultures, and beliefs of the people in EAST ASIA.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Intracranial Hemorrhages: Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Aphasia, Wernicke: Impairment in the comprehension of speech and meaning of words, both spoken and written, and of the meanings conveyed by their grammatical relationships in sentences. It is caused by lesions that primarily affect Wernicke's area, which lies in the posterior perisylvian region of the temporal lobe of the dominant hemisphere. (From Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p141; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p846)Organotechnetium Compounds: Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Splenic Infarction: Insufficiency of arterial or venous blood supply to the spleen due to emboli, thrombi, vascular torsion, or pressure that produces a macroscopic area of necrosis. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Encephalocele: Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction: MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION in which the anterior wall of the heart is involved. Anterior wall myocardial infarction is often caused by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. It can be categorized as anteroseptal or anterolateral wall myocardial infarction.Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Iofetamine: An amphetamine analog that is rapidly taken up by the lungs and from there redistributed primarily to the brain and liver. It is used in brain radionuclide scanning with I-123.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Reperfusion: Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Hypokinesia: Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; and other conditions.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Antipyrine: An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Batroxobin: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the venom of fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). It is used as a plasma clotting agent for fibrinogen and for the detection of fibrinogen degradation products. The presence of heparin does not interfere with the clotting test. Hemocoagulase is a mixture containing batroxobin and factor X activator. EC 3.4.21.-.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Streptokinase: Streptococcal fibrinolysin . An enzyme produced by hemolytic streptococci. It hydrolyzes amide linkages and serves as an activator of plasminogen. It is used in thrombolytic therapy and is used also in mixtures with streptodornase (STREPTODORNASE AND STREPTOKINASE). EC 3.4.-.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Intracranial Hemorrhage, Hypertensive: Bleeding within the SKULL that is caused by systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Solar Activity: Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Blood Coagulation Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.Pituitary Apoplexy: The sudden loss of blood supply to the PITUITARY GLAND, leading to tissue NECROSIS and loss of function (PANHYPOPITUITARISM). The most common cause is hemorrhage or INFARCTION of a PITUITARY ADENOMA. It can also result from acute hemorrhage into SELLA TURCICA due to HEAD TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; or other acute effects of central nervous system hemorrhage. Clinical signs include severe HEADACHE; HYPOTENSION; bilateral visual disturbances; UNCONSCIOUSNESS; and COMA.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Echo-Planar Imaging: A type of MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING that uses only one nuclear spin excitation per image and therefore can obtain images in a fraction of a second rather than the minutes required in traditional MRI techniques. It is used in a variety of medical and scientific applications.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Proteins: Scaffolding proteins that play an important role in the localization and activation of 5-LIPOXYGENASE.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Coronary Care Units: The hospital unit in which patients with acute cardiac disorders receive intensive care.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Nimodipine: A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Rose Bengal: A bright bluish pink compound that has been used as a dye, biological stain, and diagnostic aid.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Amphetamines: Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Arteritis: INFLAMMATION of any ARTERIES.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Decompressive Craniectomy: Excision of part of the skull. This procedure is used to treat elevated intracranial pressure that is unresponsive to conventional treatment.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Endarterectomy: Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Antiplatyhelmintic Agents: Agents used to treat cestode, trematode, or other flatworm infestations in man or animals.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Infarction, Anterior Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY system, including branches such as Heubner's artery. These arteries supply blood to the medial and superior parts of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, Infarction in the anterior cerebral artery usually results in sensory and motor impairment in the lower body.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Aneurysm, Dissecting: Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Aphasia, Broca: An aphasia characterized by impairment of expressive LANGUAGE (speech, writing, signs) and relative preservation of receptive language abilities (i.e., comprehension). This condition is caused by lesions of the motor association cortex in the FRONTAL LOBE (BROCA AREA and adjacent cortical and white matter regions).Angina, Unstable: Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Puerperal Disorders: Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Infarction, Posterior Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS induced by ISCHEMIA in the POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which supplies portions of the BRAIN STEM; the THALAMUS; TEMPORAL LOBE, and OCCIPITAL LOBE. Depending on the size and location of infarction, clinical features include OLFACTION DISORDERS and visual problems (AGNOSIA; ALEXIA; HEMIANOPSIA).Mechanical Thrombolysis: Procedures to cause the disintegration of THROMBI by physical interventions.Constriction: The act of constricting.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Cervical Rib Syndrome: A condition associated with compression of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS; SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY; and SUBCLAVIAN VEIN at the thoracic outlet and caused by a complete or incomplete anomalous CERVICAL RIB or fascial band connecting the tip of a cervical rib with the first thoracic rib. Clinical manifestations may include pain in the neck and shoulder which radiates into the upper extremity, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of brachial plexus innervated muscles; sensory loss; PARESTHESIAS; ISCHEMIA; and EDEMA. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p214)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Diatrizoate Meglumine: A versatile contrast medium used for DIAGNOSTIC X-RAY RADIOLOGY.Myocardial Revascularization: The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Inferior Wall Myocardial Infarction: MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION in which the inferior wall of the heart is involved. It is often caused by occlusion of the right coronary artery.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Coronary Thrombosis: Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Papio: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.

Transforming growth factor-alpha acting at the epidermal growth factor receptor reduces infarct volume after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. (1/3121)

Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) is a ligand for the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR), and is more abundant than EGF in the brain. The authors studied whether administration of exogenous TGF-alpha into the brain can protect neurons against ischemia in a model of permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in the rat, and whether any effect of TGF-alpha was mediated by EGFR by administering 4,5-dianilinophthalimide (DAPH), a protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitor with high selectivity for EGFR. Rats received either TGF-alpha (10 or 25 ng), DAPH (100 ng), DAPH plus TGF-alpha (25 ng), or vehicle in the ipsilateral first ventricle. Drugs were administered twice: 30 minutes before and 30 minutes after MCA occlusion, and infarct volume was evaluated 24 hours later. Transforming growth factor-alpha at the dose of 25 ng caused a statistically significant reduction of infarct volume (60%) in relation to ischemic rats administered vehicle. This reduction was no longer seen when TGF-alpha was administered in combination with DAPH. The present results show that TGF-alpha can protect neurons from ischemic damage, and that this effect is mediated by EGFR. It is suggested that activation of EGFR-mediated intracellular signalling pathways contributes to the survival of neural cells susceptible to ischemic injury.  (+info)

Synergistic protective effects of antioxidant and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in transient focal ischemia. (2/3121)

Both nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors and free radical scavengers have been shown to protect brain tissue in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Nitric oxide and superoxide anion act via distinct mechanisms and react together to form the highly deleterious peroxynitrite. Therefore the authors examined the effects and the interaction between the NOS inhibitor, NG nitro-L-arginine (LNA) and the antioxidant/superoxide scavenger, di-tert-butyl-hydroxybenzoic acid (DtBHB) in the rat submitted to 2 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion. Posttreatment was initiated 4 hours after the onset of ischemia and infarct volume was measured at 48 hours. The dose-related effect of LNA resulted in a bell-shaped curve: 15, 56, 65, and 33% reduction of total infarct for 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg (intravenously [IV]) respectively and 11% increase in infarct volume for 3 mg/kg (IV). Whereas DtBHB (20 mg/kg; intraperitoneally [IP]) was ineffective, the dose of 60 mg/kg produced 65% protection in infarct volume. The combination of a subthreshold dose of LNA (0.03 mg/kg; IV) and DtBHB (20 mg/kg; IP) resulted in significant reduction (49%) in infarct volume. These results show that LNA and DtBHB act synergistically to provide a consistent neuroprotection against ischemic injury when administered 4 hours after ischemia. This suggests that nitric oxide and free radicals are involved and interact in synergy in ischemia-reperfusion injury.  (+info)

N-Acetylaspartate distribution in rat brain striatum during acute brain ischemia. (3/3121)

Brain N-acetylaspartate (NAA) can be quantified by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and is used in clinical settings as a marker of neuronal density. It is, however, uncertain whether the change in brain NAA content in acute stroke is reliably measured by 1H-MRS and how NAA is distributed within the ischemic area. Rats were exposed to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Preischemic values of [NAA] in striatum were 11 mmol/L by 1H-MRS and 8 mmol/kg by HPLC. The methods showed a comparable reduction during the 8 hours of ischemia. The interstitial level of [NAA] ([NAA]e) was determined by microdialysis using [3H]NAA to assess in vivo recovery. After induction of ischemia, [NAA]e increased linearly from 70 micromol/L to a peak level of 2 mmol/L after 2 to 3 hours before declining to 0.7 mmol/L at 7 hours. For comparison, [NAA]e was measured in striatum during global ischemia, revealing that [NAA]e increased linearly to 4 mmol/L after 3 hours and this level was maintained for the next 4 h. From the change in in vivo recovery of the interstitial space volume marker [14C]mannitol, the relative amount of NAA distributed in the interstitial space was calculated to be 0.2% of the total brain NAA during normal conditions and only 2 to 6% during ischemia. It was concluded that the majority of brain NAA is intracellularly located during ischemia despite large increases of interstitial [NAA]. Thus, MR quantification of NAA during acute ischemia reflects primarily changes in intracellular levels of NAA.  (+info)

Early diagnosis of central nervous system aspergillosis with combination use of cerebral diffusion-weighted echo-planar magnetic resonance image and polymerase chain reaction of cerebrospinal fluid. (4/3121)

We treated a patient diagnosed as central nervous system (CNS) aspergillosis with the combined use of cerebral diffusion-weighted echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and polymerase chain reaction of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-PCR). DWI, a cutting-edge imaging modality to reveal the earliest changes of cerebral infarction, detected cerebral fungal embolization when the conventional computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging failed to reveal it. CSF-PCR demonstrated the presence of Aspergillus-specific DNA in the specimen, when the conventional examination and culture of CSF were nonspecific or negative. These diagnostic methods could be useful in the early diagnosis of CNS aspergillosis.  (+info)

Delayed increase in infarct volume after cerebral ischemia: correlations with thrombolytic treatment and clinical outcome. (5/3121)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Growing experimental evidence indicates that the development of cerebral ischemic damage is slower than previously believed. The aims of this work were (1) to study the evolution of CT hypoattenuation between 24 to 36 hours and 7 days in ischemic stroke patients; (2) to evaluate whether thrombolytic treatment given within 6 hours of stroke affects delayed infarction evolution; and (3) to investigate possible correlations between lesion volume changes over time and clinical outcome. METHODS: Of 620 patients included in the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study 1 (ECASS1), we selected 450 patients whose control CT scans at day 1 (CT1) and day 7 (CT7) were available. They had been randomly divided into 2 groups: 206 patients had been treated with rtPA and 244 with placebo. CT1 and CT7 were classified according to the location of the infarct. The volume of CT hypoattenuation was measured using the formula AxBxC/2 for irregular volumes. The 95% confidence interval of inter- and intrarater variability was used to determine whether significant changes in lesion volume had occurred between CT1 and CT7. Clinical severity was evaluated by means of the Scandinavian Stroke Scale (SSS) at entry (SSS0) and at day 30 (SSS30). RESULTS: Mean lesion volumes were significantly (P<0.0001) higher at day 7 than at day 1 in all the subgroups of patients and particularly in patients with a subcortical lesion. Of the 450 patients studied, 287 (64%) did not show any significant change in lesion volume between CT1 and CT7, 143 (32%) showed a significant increase and the remaining 20 (4%) a significant decrease. No significant correlation was observed between treatment and lesion evolution between CT1 and CT7. Both clinical scores (SSS0 and SSS30) and degree of neurological recovery were significantly (P<0.05) lower in the subgroup of patients with a significant lesion volume increase than in the other 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: In approximately two thirds of patients, infarct size is established 24 to 36 hours after stroke onset, whereas in the remaining one third, changes in lesion volume may occur later than the first 24 to 36 hours. Many factors may be responsible for delayed infarct enlargement and for a lower degree of clinical recovery, both of which may occur despite early recombinant tissue plasminogen activator treatment.  (+info)

Carotid endarterectomy and intracranial thrombolysis: simultaneous and staged procedures in ischemic stroke. (6/3121)

PURPOSE: The feasibility and safety of combining carotid surgery and thrombolysis for occlusions of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA), either as a simultaneous or as a staged procedure in acute ischemic strokes, was studied. METHODS: A nonrandomized clinical pilot study, which included patients who had severe hemispheric carotid-related ischemic strokes and acute occlusions of the MCA, was performed between January 1994 and January 1998. Exclusion criteria were cerebral coma and major infarction established by means of cerebral computed tomography scan. Clinical outcome was assessed with the modified Rankin scale. RESULTS: Carotid reconstruction and thrombolysis was performed in 14 of 845 patients (1.7%). The ICA was occluded in 11 patients; occlusions of the MCA (mainstem/major branches/distal branch) or the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) were found in 14 patients. In three of the 14 patients, thrombolysis was performed first, followed by carotid enarterectomy (CEA) after clinical improvement (6 to 21 days). In 11 of 14 patients, 0.15 to 1 mIU urokinase was administered intraoperatively, ie, emergency CEA for acute ischemic stroke (n = 5) or surgical reexploration after elective CEA complicated by perioperative intracerebral embolism (n = 6). Thirteen of 14 intracranial embolic occlusions and 10 of 11 ICA occlusions were recanalized successfully (confirmed with angiography or transcranial Doppler studies). Four patients recovered completely (Rankin 0), six patients sustained a minor stroke (Rankin 2/3), two patients had a major stroke (Rankin 4/5), and two patients died. In one patient, hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic infarction was detectable postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Combining carotid surgery with thrombolysis (simultaneous or staged procedure) offers a new therapeutic approach in the emergency management of an acute carotid-related stroke. Its efficacy should be evaluated in interdisciplinary studies.  (+info)

An 18-mer peptide fragment of prosaposin ameliorates place navigation disability, cortical infarction, and retrograde thalamic degeneration in rats with focal cerebral ischemia. (7/3121)

It was previously reported that prosaposin possesses neurotrophic activity that is ascribed to an 18-mer peptide comprising the hydrophilic sequence of the rat saposin C domain. To evaluate the effect of the 18-mer peptide on ischemic neuronal damage, the peptide was infused in the left lateral ventricle immediately after occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SP-SH) rats. The treatment ameliorated the ischemia-induced space navigation disability and cortical infarction and prevented secondary thalamic degeneration in a dose-dependent manner. In culture experiments, treatment with the 18-mer peptide attenuated free radical-induced neuronal injury at low concentrations (0.002 to 2 pg/mL), and the peptide at higher concentrations (0.2 to 20 ng/mL) protected neurons against hypoxic insult. Furthermore, a saposin C fragment comprising the 18-mer peptide bound to synaptosomal fractions of the cerebral cortex, and this binding decreased at the 1st day after MCA occlusion and recovered to the preischemic level at the 7th day after ischemia. These findings suggest that the 18-mer peptide ameliorates neuronal damage in vivo and in vitro through binding to the functional receptor, although the cDNA encoding prosaposin receptor has not been determined yet.  (+info)

Factor V Leiden and antibodies against phospholipids and protein S in a young woman with recurrent thromboses and abortion. (8/3121)

We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman who suffered two iliofemoral venous thromboses, a cerebral ischemic infarct and recurrent fetal loss. Initial studies showed high levels of antiphospholipid antibodies (APAs) and a moderate thrombocytopenia. After her second miscarriage, laboratory diagnosis revealed that the woman was heterozygous for the factor V Leiden mutation and had a functional protein S deficiency as well as anti-protein S and anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I antibodies. The impairment of the protein C pathway at various points could well explain the recurrent thromboses in the patient and supports the role of a disturbed protein C system in the pathophysiology of thrombosis in patients with APAs.  (+info)

*Cerebral infarction

A cerebral infarction is an area of necrotic tissue in the brain resulting from a blockage or narrowing in the arteries ... Cerebral artery gas embolism (e.g. during ascent from a SCUBA dive) is also a possible cause of infarction (Levvett & Millar, ... If cerebral infarction is caused by a thrombus occluding blood flow to an artery supplying the brain, definitive therapy is ... Whether a cerebral infarction is thrombotic or embolic based, its pathophysiology, or the observed conditions and underlying ...

*Near-death experience

... intracerebral hemorrhage or cerebral infarction; attempted suicide; near-drowning or asphyxia; apnea; and serious depression.[ ... Professor of neurology Terence Hines (2003) claimed that near-death experiences are hallucinations caused by cerebral anoxia, ... Clinical circumstances associated with near-death experiences include cardiac arrest in myocardial infarction (clinical death ... A wide range of physiological theories of the NDE have been put forward including those based upon cerebral hypoxia, anoxia, ...

*Disjunctive cognition

DePauw, K.; Szulecka, T.; Poltock, T. (1987). "Fregoli syndrome after cerebral infarction". Journal of Nervous and Mental ...

*Dense artery sign

Prognostic value in acute cerebral infarction". Eur. Neurol. 33 (3): 256-9. doi:10.1159/000116949. PMID 8467850. Launes J, ... The sign has been observed in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), posterior cerebral artery (PCA), vertebral artery, and basilar ... an indicator of poor outcome in middle cerebral artery area infarction". J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry. 50 (11): 1550-2. doi ... Through cerebral angiography, the sign has been demonstrated to correspond to embolic or atherosclerotic occlusion of an artery ...

*Yoga

Critchley, E. M. (June 1984). "Non-atheromatous causes of cerebral infarction" (PDF). Postgraduate Medical Journal. 60 (704): ...

*Kenneth Kwong

"MR diffusion imaging of cerebral infarction in humans". AJNR. 13 (4): 1097-1102. PMID 1636519. Moseley, ME; Cohen, Y; ... 1991). "Proton NMR imaging of cerebral blood flow using (H2O)-O17". Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 22 (1): 154-158. doi: ... they were the first to demonstrate in human subjects the early drop in diffusivity seen in acute infarction in cats by Moseley ... "Early detection of regional cerebral ischemia in cats: comparison of diffusion- and T2-weighted MRI and spectroscopy". Magnetic ...

*Perfusion MRI

In cerebral infarction, the penumbra has decreased perfusion. Another MRI sequence, diffusion weighted MRI, estimates the ...

*Willem Duys

In 1999, after a cerebral infarction, he retired. He worked for the AVRO for more than forty years. Willem Duys lived ...

*SERPINE2

2003). "Prothrombotic gene polymorphisms and atherothrombotic cerebral infarction". Acta Neurol. Scand. 108 (2): 109-13. doi: ...

*MRI sequence

In cerebral infarction, the penumbra has decreased perfusion. Another MRI sequence, diffusion weighted MRI, estimates the ... An, H.; Ford, A. L.; Vo, K.; Powers, W. J.; Lee, J.-M.; Lin, W. (2011). "Signal Evolution and Infarction Risk for Apparent ... Alternative techniques employ arterial spin labeling (ASL) or weighting the MRI signal by cerebral blood flow (CBF) and ... Coupled with imaging of cerebral perfusion, researchers can highlight regions of "perfusion/diffusion mismatch" that may ...

*Carotid artery dissection

Cerebral infarction causes irreversible damage to the brain. In one study of patients with carotid artery dissection, 60% had ... otherwise known as a cerebral infarction. Blood clots, or emboli, originating from the dissection are thought to be the cause ... of infarction in the majority of cases of stroke in the presence of carotid artery dissection. ...

*Thoracic outlet syndrome

... and embolic cerebral infarction. TOS can also lead to eye problems and vision loss as a circumstance of vertebral artery ... "Arterial thoracic outlet syndrome with embolic cerebral infarction. Report of a case". Panminerva medica. 42 (4): 295-7. PMID ...

*Atje Keulen-Deelstra

She died of a cerebral infarction in 2013. In the 1980s and early 1990s, her daughter Boukje Keulen (born 2 December 1963) also ...

*Basanti Dulal Nagchaudhuri

Nagchaudhuri died of a cerebral infarction on 25 June 2006. He was survived by his wife, Dipali Nag, his son and his family. " ...

*National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale

1989). "Measurements of acute cerebral infarction-a clinical examination scale". Stroke. 20: 864-70. doi:10.1161/01.str.20.7. ... Ischemic strokes are the result of blood clots that are preventing blood flow within a cerebral blood vessel. The goal of tPA ... Due to this emphasis, the NIHSS is a better predictor of lesion volume in the strokes occurring within the left cerebral ... Okuda B, Kawabata K, Tachibana H, Sugita M (1999). "Cerebral blood flow in pure dysarthria: role of frontal cortical ...

*Tessy María López Goerne

It is My First Prize After My Cerebral Infarction; I'm Still Alive']. Crónica (in Spanish). Retrieved November 8, 2017. " ... Torres Cruz, Isaac (October 28, 2014). "'Es mi primer premio después de mi infarto cerebral; sigo activa'" [' ...

*Watershed stroke

"Classification and natural history of clinically identifiable subtypes of cerebral infarction". The Lancet. 337 (8756): 1521-6 ... The most frequent location for a watershed stroke is the region between the anterior cerebral artery and middle cerebral artery ... middle cerebral artery (MCA), and posterior cerebral artery (PCA). Internal watershed strokes (IWS), or subcortical brain ... Damage to the cerebral cortex may lead to aphasia or confusion and damage to the cerebellum may lead to lack of motor movement ...

*Hans Jansen

Jansen died of a cerebral infarction at the age of 72. While his university studies Jansen was member of a leftist group and ...

*Diffusion MRI

For example, cerebral infarction leads to diffusion restriction, and the difference between images with various DWI weighing ... A decreased ADC may be detected minutes after a cerebral infarction. The high signal of infarcted tissue on conventional DWI is ... DWI showing necrosis (shown as brighter) in a cerebral infarction DWI showing restricted diffusion in the mesial dorsal thalami ... directly visualizes the ischemic necrosis in cerebral infarction in the form of a cytotoxic edema, appearing as a high DWI ...

*Cannabidiol

Mishima K, Hayakawa K, Abe K, Ikeda T, Egashira N, Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M (May 2005). "Cannabidiol prevents cerebral infarction ...

*Triflusal

... : a review of its use in cerebral infarction and myocardial infarction, and as thromboprophylaxis in atrial ... Prevention of cardiovascular events such as stroke Acute treatment of cerebral infarction, myocardial infarction ... Comparison of triflusal and aspirin for prevention of vascular events in patients after cerebral infarction. The TACIP study: a ... aspirin for prevention of cerebral infarction.A randomized stroke study. Neurology. 2004; 62:1073-1080 Guidelines for ...

*José Aguilar (boxer)

He died in Guantánamo on 4 April 2014 from a cerebral infarction. Defeated Martin Brerton (Ireland) TKO 1 Defeated Ryu Bun-Hwa ...

*Remote ischemic conditioning

Delayed cerebral infarction after subarachnoid hemorrhage is a major cause of morbidity. Two Phase I clinical trials have shown ... Reduced cerebral blood flow is an early finding in vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Cardiovascular risk factor control is ... Animal models of stroke (both open-skull and closed-skull models) show that RIC improves cerebral blood flow; reduces ischemic ... Compared with standard treatment, RIC increased tissue survival after one month and reduced the risk of infarction in high-risk ...

*Binswanger's disease

de Reuck, J. (1971). "The human periventricular arterial blood supply and anatomy of cerebral infarctions". European Neurology ... Indications include infarctions, lesions, or loss of intensity of central white matter and enlargement of ventricles, and ... Even with these errors, Olszewski concluded that Binswanger disease did exist as a subset of cerebral arteriosclerosis. Yet ... tissue death due to an infarction or loss of blood supply to the brain, and changes in the plasticity of the arteries. The ...

*Eating disorder

Scher, MS; Wiznitzer, M; Bangert, BA (2002). "Cerebral infarctions in the fetus and neonate: maternal-placental-fetal ... Some of this developmental risk as in the case of placental infarction, maternal anemia and cardiac problems may cause ... O'Brien, A; Hugo, P; Stapleton, S; Lask, B (2001). ""Anorexia saved my life": coincidental anorexia nervosa and cerebral ... Burke, CJ; Tannenberg, AE (1995). "Prenatal brain damage and placental infarction- an autopsy study". Developmental medicine ...

*List of ICD-9 codes 390-459: diseases of the circulatory system

Cerebral thrombosis with cerebral infarction (434.1) Cerebral embolism (434.10) Cerebral embolism without cerebral infarction ( ... Occlusion of cerebral arteries (434.0) Cerebral thrombosis (434.00) Cerebral thrombosis without cerebral infarction (434.01) ... 434.11) Cerebral embolism with cerebral infarction (435) Transient cerebral ischemia (435.0) Basilar artery syndrome (435.1) ... Cerebral aneurysm nonruptured (437.4) Cerebral arteritis (437.5) Moyamoya disease (437.6) Nonpyogenic thrombosis of ...
We previously reported that major depression developing during or after the presenile period is frequently combined with silent cerebral infarction and that these patients have a high risk of stroke. Therefore, we investigated whether the background factors and clinical symptoms of patients with major depression with silent cerebral infarction [SCI(+)] different from those in patients with major depression without silent cerebral infarction [SCI(-)] before medical treatment.. Patients with major depression with onset after 50 years of age were classified based on magnetic resonance imaging findings into the SCI(+) (n = 37) or SCI(-) (n = 20) group. The diagnostic criteria for major depression were those of the American Psychiatry Association (DSM-III-R). Patients with stroke or focal neurological symptoms were excluded. The SCI(+) group was subclassified according to whether the infarction area was perforating, cortical, or mixed artery. Family history of affective disorder, risk factors for ...
Background: Atherosclerotic middle cerebral artery (MCA) disease may produce subcortical infarction either in the upper part (corona radiata, CR) or in the lower area (internal capsule, IC) of the pyramidal tract. The study aimed to see whether the location of MCA stenosis (proximal vs distal) determines the location of subcortical infarction.. Methods: 62 consecutive patients who developed an acute (,72 h) infarction either on the CR or IC confirmed by diffusion-weighted MRI due to corresponding focal MCA M1 stenosis assessed by MR angiography were studied. The distance between the MCA origin and the centre of stenotic portion (S) and that between the MCA origin and its bifurcation site (M) were measured. Based on the S/M ratio, stenotic lesions were divided into "proximal and "distal. The relationship between the location of arterial stenosis and the location of infarcts was analysed.. Results: Thirteen of 31 patients (41.9%) with proximal M1 stenosis had IC lesions, while 26 (83.9%) of 31 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mortality in Acute Cerebral Infarction in Young Adults-A Ten-Year Experience. AU - Biller, José. AU - Adams, Harold P.. AU - Bruno, Askiel. AU - Love, Betsy B.. AU - Marsh, E. Eugene. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - We reviewed the one-month mortality among 213 patients aged fifteen to forty-five years (mean thirty-five) with acute cerebral infarction (CI) evaluated during the period July 1, 1977, to February 1, 1988. Atherosclerotic cerebral infarction (ACI) was diagnosed in 59 (27.7%) patients, 53 (24.9%) had non- atherosclerotic vasculopathies (NAV); 46 (21.6%) had cardioembolic infarcts (CEI). Hematologically related disorders were diagnosed in 30 (14.1%) patients; the cause of CI could not be established in 25 (11.7%) patients. Fourteen patients (9 men, 5 women, mean age 34.8 years), (6.6%) died within thirty days of their CI: 7 had CEI (7/46, 15.2%); 4 had ACI (4/59, 6.7%); and 3 had NAV (3/53, 5.6%). Our data suggest that young patients with acute CI have a thirty-day ...
Aim. The aims of the study were to evaluate prevalence of silent cerebral infarctions (SCI) and determine their clinical and echocardiographic predictors in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Patients and methods. In prospective cross sectional study we examined 134 patients with non-valvular AF. Clinical examination, laboratory tests, transoesophageal, transthoracic echocardiography and multislice computed tomography of the brain were performed for all patients. According to current guidelines, SCI was defined as imaging (≥3 mm) or neuropathological evidence of central nervous system infarction, without a history of acute neurological dysfunction attributable to the lesion. Results. Silent cerebral infarctions were detected in 34.3% (n = 46) of patients, and infarctions ≥ 15 mm (mean diameter 31.3 mm) were detected in 11.2% (n = 15) of patients. Superficial SCIwere found in 12.7%and basal SCI in 21.6% of cases. In multivariate analysis low creatinine clearance , 90 ml/min was ...
A cerebral infarction is a type of ischemic stroke resulting from a blockage in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain. It can be atherothrombotic or embolic. Stroke caused by cerebral infarction should be distinguished from two other kinds of stroke: cerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage. A cerebral infarction occurs when a blood vessel that supplies a part of the brain becomes blocked or leakage occurs outside the vessel walls. This loss of blood supply results in the death of tissue in that area. Cerebral infarctions vary in their severity with one third of the cases resulting in death. ...
A cerebral infarction is a type of ischemic stroke resulting from a blockage in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain. It can be atherothrombotic or embolic. Stroke caused by cerebral infarction should be distinguished from two other kinds of stroke: cerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage. A cerebral infarction occurs when a blood vessel that supplies a part of the brain becomes blocked or leakage occurs outside the vessel walls. This loss of blood supply results in the death of tissue in that area. Cerebral infarctions vary in their severity with one third of the cases resulting in death. ...
A previous study suggested that occlusive diseases of small penetrating arteries account for most anterior choroidal artery (AChA) territory infarcts, but half of the patients did not have an echocardiogram. Cases of AChA territory infarcts associated with internal carotid artery stenosis or atrial fibrillation suggest that this hypothesis may be wrong. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of 16 nonselected consecutive AChA territory infarcts.. The study population consisted of 8 men and 8 women aged 17 to 89 years. They underwent a computed tomographic scan at the acute stage, Doppler ultrasonography and B-mode echotomography of the cervical arteries, bidimensional transthoracic echocardiography, and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging, replaced by a second computed tomographic scan in 3 patients. Ten patients underwent cerebral angiography. We defined the presumed cause of stroke according to the criteria used in the trial of Org 10172 in acute stroke treatment.. The presumed ...
OBJECTIVE: To assess various aspects of visual function at school age in children with neonatal cerebral infarction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixteen children born at term, who had cerebral infarction of perinatal onset on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were assessed using a battery of visual tests. This included measures of crowding acuity (Cambridge Crowding Cards), stereopsis (TNO test), and visual fields. The results of the visual assessment were compared with the type and the extent of the lesion observed on neonatal MRI. RESULTS: Only six of the 16 children (28%) had some abnormalities of visual function on these tests. Visual abnormalities were more common in children with more extensive lesions involving the main branch of the middle cerebral artery and were less often associated with lesions in the territory of one of the cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery. The presence of visual abnormalities was not always associated with the involvement of optic radiations or occipital
Previous chronic cerebral infarction is predictive for new cerebral ischemia after carotid endarterectomy. - Mehmet Besir Akpinar, Veysel Sahin, Neslin Sahin, Ahmet Feyzi Abacilar, İlker Kiris, Ihsan Sami Uyar, Faik Fevzi Okur
Cerebral infarction is a major contributor to poor outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). While usually considered a complication of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), infarcts may also occur early, in relation to initial brain injury or aneurysm
Background: The role of each nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoform in the pathogenesis of cerebral infarction has been studied in individual NOS isoform-deficient mice. It has been reported that, in a model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), neuronal and inducible NOSs exacerbate cerebral infarction, whereas endothelial NOS conversely alleviates cerebral infarction. Although the role of the whole NOSs system in cerebral infarction has been examined in pharmacological studies with non-selective NOS inhibitors, the results are quit inconsistent, possibly because of non-specificity of the agents. In this study, we addressed this point in mice in which all three NOS genes are completely disrupted.. Method and Results: We newly generated triple NOSs-deficient mice and wild-type littermates by crossbreeding single NOS-/- mice. Transient (1 hour) and permanent MCAO was performed in male triple NOSs-/- and wild-type mice at 8-12 weeks of age (n=9-11). Cerebral infarct size was evaluated by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decreases in Electrocardiographic R-Wave Amplitude and QT Interval Predict Myocardial Ischemic Infarction in Rhesus Monkeys with Left Anterior Descending Artery Ligation. AU - Sun, Xiaorong. AU - Cai, Jindan. AU - Fan, Xin. AU - Han, Pengfei. AU - Xie, Yuping. AU - Chen, Jianmin. AU - Xiao, Ying. AU - Kang, Yujian. PY - 2013/8/13. Y1 - 2013/8/13. N2 - Clinical studies have demonstrated the predictive values of changes in electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters for the preexisting myocardial ischemic infarction. However, a simple and early predictor for the subsequent development of myocardial infarction during the ischemic phase is of significant value for the identification of ischemic patients at high risk. The present study was undertaken by using non-human primate model of myocardial ischemic infarction to fulfill this gap. Twenty male Rhesus monkeys at age of 2-3 years old were subjected to left anterior descending artery ligation. This ligation was performed at varying ...
The territory of the middle cerebral artery is well illustrated with this complete MCA territory infarct. The frequently associated hyperdense artery sign indicative of intra-arterial clot is also evident.
Treatment for Cerebral Infarction in Sai Snehdeep Hospital, Mumbai. Find Doctors Near You, Book Appointment, Consult Online, View Doctor Fees, Address, Phone Numbers and Reviews. Doctors for Cerebral Infarction in Sai Snehdeep Hospital, Mumbai | Lybrate
Diagnosis Code I63.39 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
A registry of consecutive patients who were admitted and diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction or acute cerebral infarction were conducted at the Guangdong General Hospital or the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Yue Bei Peoples Hospital, China, between January 2000 and December 2016. The adverse clinical outcomes, including all-cause mortality, were followed from the date of admission for acute myocardial infarction or acute cerebral infarction until study end (December 31, 2016). All-cause mortality, including the date of death, was identified from the electronic hospitalization data, phone follow-up, and confirmed by the household registration (HUKOU) system, a record of registration required by law in China. Baseline characteristics, including major treatment of acute myocardial infarction or acute cerebral infarction, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria, were collected. Demographic data were determined from the electronic ...
In this study, we considered that patients with multiple recent subcortical (lacunar) infarcts seen on DWI would be likely to have a proximal embolic source, but were able to find a definite embolic source in only one patient. Thus, embolic mechanisms would not be a likely explanation for the occurrence of multiple acute lacunar infarcts in most of our patients. This is consistent with previous clinical and epidemiological studies (summarised by Mead et al7) which found that, while some lacunar strokes might be attributed to cardiac or artery-to-artery emboli, the majority (,80%) occurred in the absence of a definite embolic source.5,7,12 Few of our patients gave any history of previous stroke or TIA, and it was generally a long time before the current presentation, indicating that most of the acute as well as the old small subcortical lesions were asymptomatic.. Four of the 10 patients were not classified clinically as having a lacunar syndrome (two posterior circulation and two partial ...
Diagnosis Code I63.01 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Cerebrovascular Disease - abnormality of the brain resulting from pathological processes of the blood vessels any lesions of the vessel wall, occlusion of vessel lumen by an embolus or thrombosis, rupture of the vessel, altered permeability of the vessel wall or increased viscosity or other changes of the blood quality. Equally important are the metabolic and chemical changes that occur within the brain. Minor Traumatic Brain Injury , ischemic cerebral infarction ...
A cerebral infarction is an area of necrotic tissue in the brain resulting from a blockage or narrowing in the arteries supplying blood and oxygen to the brain. The restricted oxygen due to the restricted blood supply causes an ischemic stroke that can result in an infarction if the blood flow is not restored within a relatively short period of time. The blockage can be due to a thrombus, an embolus or an atheromatous stenosis of one or more arteries. Which arteries are problematic will determine which areas of the brain are affected (infarcted). These varying infarcts will produce different symptoms and outcomes. About one third will prove fatal. There are various classification systems for a cerebral infarction. The Oxford Community Stroke Project classification (OCSP, also known as the Bamford or Oxford classification) relies primarily on the initial symptoms. Based on the extent of the symptoms, the stroke episode is classified as total anterior circulation infarct (TACI), partial anterior ...
Our findings indicate that, in children with MCA territory infarcts, although the functional sequelae of small lesions might be variable, infarction of more than 10% ICV is associated with pronounced residual deficits.. There are methodological constraints inherent in measuring infarct volumes in the manner described here. The reproducibility of measuring individual volumes in the our study was compromised by subjectively defining the lesion boundaries, both in the acute and chronic stages. This was especially difficult in the case of small lesions, as is apparent from the data presented in table 2, where relatively small absolute differences in measurement resulted in large percentage differences in repeated measurements. In contrast, the reproducibility of the ICV measurements was good.. The natural history of cerebral infarction on MRI is for signal hyperintensity and swelling on T2 weighted images to be apparent around six to 12 hours after symptom onset.11 Chronic infarcts show signal ...
One-hundred patients had attempted endovascular treatment. At procedure end, 23% were thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 0-1, 31% thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 2A, 28% thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 2B, and 18% thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 3. More favorable thrombolysis in cerebral infarction-reperfusion scores were associated with greater magnetic resonance imaging reperfusion (P , 0·001). thrombolysis in cerebral infarction scores correlated with 30-day favorable clinical response (P = 0·041) and 90-day modified Rankin Scale 0-2 (P = 0·008). These correlations were significant for target mismatch patients at 30 days (P = 0·034) and 90 days (P = 0·003). Infarct growth was strongly associated with poorer thrombolysis in cerebral infarction scores in target mismatch patients (P , 0·001). Patients with thrombolysis in cerebral infarctionnfarction 2A reperfusion had less magnetic resonance imaging reperfusion (P = 0·004) and poorer clinical outcome at 90 days (P = 0·01) ...
Editor-Christopher J Weir and colleagues conclude from their study of a cohort of 750 non-diabetic patients with stroke that hyperglycaemia (plasma glucose concentration ,8 mmol/l) during the acute phase has an adverse influence on outcome and that this is independent of severity of stroke.1 Stroke severity was assessed in a limited way using only the Oxfordshire community stroke project classification and time to resolution of symptoms (≤72 hours or ,72 hours), both of which are relatively inaccurate measures. When two variables are closely correlated-for example, stroke severity and glucose concentration-the one that is most accurately measured (glucose concentration) will always emerge as the strongest explanatory variable in multiple regression even if it is, in fact, less important.2. We have produced a series of validated models to predict the probability of survival and disability using the 530 patients from the Oxfordshire community stroke project who were seen within 30 days of their ...
In last decade, similar to myocardial infarction treatment, thrombolytic drugs were introduced in the therapy of cerebral infarction. The use of intravenous rtPA therapy can be advocated in patients who arrive to stroke unit and can be fully evaluated within 3 h of the onset.. If cerebral infarction is caused by a thrombus occluding blood flow to an artery supplying the brain, definitive therapy is aimed at removing the blockage by breaking the clot down (thrombolysis), or by removing it mechanically (thrombectomy). The more rapidly blood flow is restored to the brain, the fewer brain cells die. In increasing numbers of primary stroke centers, pharmacologic thrombolysis with the drug tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), is used to dissolve the clot and unblock the artery. Another intervention for acute cerebral ischaemia is removal of the offending thrombus directly. This is accomplished by inserting a catheter into the femoral artery, directing it into the cerebral circulation, and deploying a ...
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Translocator protein (TSPO) imaging can be used to detect neuroinflammation (including microglial activation) after acute cerebral infarction. However, longitudinal changes of TSPO binding after mild ischemia that induces selective neuronal loss (SNL) without acute infarction are not well understood. Here, we performed TSPO imaging with [18F]DPA-714 to determine the time course of neuroinflammation and SNL after mild focal ischemia. Mild focal ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 20 min. In MCAO rats without acute infarction investigated by 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, in vitro ARG revealed a significant increase of [18F]DPA-714 binding in the ipsilateral striatum compared with that in the contralateral side at 1, 2, 3, and 7 days after MCAO. Increased [18F]DPA-714 binding was observed in the cerebral cortex penumbra, reaching maximal values at 7 days after MCAO. Activation of striatal microglia and astrocytes was observed with immunohistochemistry
This is a first-in-human (FIH) study of 42037788 (referred to as CNTO 0007), a cell therapy being tested to see if it may be useful in treating patients with ischemic cerebral infarction also known as stroke. Patients will be randomized (assigned by chance) to receive a single dose of CNTO 0007 or placebo (identical in appearance to CNTO 0007 but does not contain cells) by intravenous (IV) infusion (injection directly into a vein). Patients and study staff will not know if patients are assigned CNTO 0007 or the placebo. The study will be conducted in 2 stages (Stage A and Stage B). In Stage A, the highest dose of CNTO 0007 that does not cause unacceptable side effects, referred to as the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) will be determined to and administered to patients in Stage B of the study. In Stage A, 5 (up to 7) cohorts (groups) of 4-8 patients each will be administered a single IV infusion of CNTO 0007 or placebo 1-5 days (depending on cohort) after stroke (the first cohort of patients will ...
A 64-year-old man visited our hospital with a chief complaint of appetite loss and epigastralgia. Upper GI series and an endoscopic examination revealed type 3 carcinoma on the upper third. Abdominal CT scan showed enlargement of the paraaortic lymph nodes that had invaded the pancreas. Preoperative diagnosis was cStage Ⅳ gastric cancer, and we considered a curative operation impossible. Therefore, chemotherapy with a combination therapy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and low-dose cisplatin (CDDP) was planned. After 19 days of administration, the patient without vascular risk factors suddenly exhibited diplopia and left-member weakness. Brain CT showed a low- density area at the occipital lobe. Though we diagnosed cerebral infarction and treated with anti-thrombus therapy, he died of multiple cerebral infarction on day 12 of the treatrnent ...
The thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) grading system was described in 2003 by Higashida et al. 1 as a tool for determining the response of thrombolytic therapy for ischaemic stroke. In neurointerventional radiology it is commonly used fo...
Cerebral infarction is the most common form of stroke (80% of strokes). Stroke is the first cause of acquired disability, and the 2nd cause of dementia and death. The only approved treatment in the first 4.5 hour is intravenous rt-PA thrombolysis (Actilyse ®) whose objective is recanalization of occluded artery and reperfusion of the brain parenchyma. Few patients are treated (1-5%) and they keep disability in 50-60% of cases. This handicap is mainly correlated to the final infarct size. The objective of neuroprotective treatments is to reduce the final size of the cerebral infarction. The per-conditioning remote ischemic (Per-CID) showed a neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia by reducing the final size of cerebral infarction animal models. The per-CID corresponds, in cases of cerebral ischemia, to iterative ischemia realization of a member with a cuff. In humans, the per-CID has shown a cardioprotective effect in a randomized control trial involving 250 patients within 6 first hours of ...
Background: It has been suggested that iron metabolism may be involvedin the pathogenesis of atherothrombotic cerebral infarction (ACI). The C282Y and H63D mutations in thehemochromatosis (HFE) gene are associated with increased serum iron levels and net iron accumulation.The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the C282Y and H63D mutations in the HFE gene arerisk factors for ACI in a Slovene population. Material/Methods: The C282Y and H63D HFE gene mutationswere tested in 96 Caucasian patients who had suffered an acute cerebral infarction, later confirmed asACI, and 115 control subjects. Genotypes were determined by electrophoresis of the DNA digestion productsfrom RsaI (C282Y) and MboI (H63D). Results: We failed to demonstrate that the C282Y and H63D mutationswere risk factors for ACI in Caucasians. The percentage of C282Y and H63D genotypes (dominant model)in ACI-cases (C282Y: 7.3%, n=7; H63D: 28.1%, n=27) did not differ significantly (P=0.9 and P=0.7 respectively)from that of ...
The frequencies of all adverse events observed during the observation period will be tabulated by symptom, type, and seriousness. In addition, the frequency of recurrence of cerebral infarction will be tabulated by time from first onset of cerebral infarction, risk factors for cerebral infarction, concomitant antihypertensive medications (if any), and concomitant antiplatelet/anticoagulant medications (if any).. Adverse events are defined as any unfavorable and unintended signs, symptoms or diseases temporally associated with administration of pioglitazone whether or not it was considered related to treatment. Among these, events that are considered as having a causal relationship with pioglitazone are defined as adverse drug reactions. ...
The interest in calculating acute infarct mass following occlusion of a coronary artery originates mainly from two sources: 1. Acute infarct mass is related not only to the short-term (hospital)...
2. CT-scan is positive in most cases of cerebral infarction (decreased density), but peruhahan these changes can only be seen in 24-48 hours after the onset of stroke symptoms. By penyengatan of contrast, infarct can mimic a tumor but penyengatan against the contrast of the cerebral infarction is generally not associated with significant mass effect as happened in tumors. In a few instances. maybe there is mass effect with infarction, which raises the question of whether not a tumor, in which case it is with MRI, CT scan and serial clinical observations may clarify the diagnosis. ...
Our phase I study is the first trial to use mature DCs pulsed with a mixture of three types of WT1 peptides restricted by MHC-I/II into one site in combination with chemotherapy.. The safety profile constituted the primary end point. One patient PDA-06 with multiple liver metastases showed rapid disease progression and died of a cerebral infarction. DTH to the WT1-I/II peptides was negative during all vaccination periods. Cerebral infarction, reported here as a severe adverse event, could be caused by the pancreatic cancer itself and/or the administration of gemcitabine, both of which are associated with a high risk of developing thrombotic disease (23). In particular, patients with PDA with metastatic disease are at the highest risk for cancer-associated thromboembolic stroke (24). The supervising Data Safety and Monitoring Board (DSMB) determined that the patient died of stroke induced by a cancer-related hypercoagulable state. Finally, the DSMB determined that the case was not related to the ...
Multiplanar magnetic resonance (MR) images of 77 discrete infarcts in the basal grey matter region from 71 patients were reviewed for their distribution and extent, in correlation with the...
Nimodipine is a 1,4-dihydropyridine derivative that shows a preferential cerebrovascular activity in experimental animals. Clinical data suggest that nimodipine has a beneficial effect on the neurologic outcome of patients suffering an acute ischemic stroke. Our double-blind placebo-controlled multi...
Looking for hemorrhagic infarct? Find out information about hemorrhagic infarct. Localized death of tissue that is caused by obstructed inflow of arterial blood. Also known as infarction. a focus of organ or tissue necrosis resulting... Explanation of hemorrhagic infarct
Large hemispheric infarction (LHI) is a severe form of stroke with high mortality and disability rates. The purpose of this study was to explore predictive indicators of the in-hospital mortality of LHI patients treated conservatively without decompressive hemicraniectomy. We performed a retrospective study of 187 consecutive patients with LHI between January 1, 2016 to May 31, 2019. The receiver operating curves were preformed to evaluate predictive performance of demographics factors, biomarkers and radiologic characteristics. Significant prognostic factors were combined to build a nomogram to predict the risk of in-hospital death of individual patients. One hundred fifty-eight patients with LHI were finally enrolled, 58 of which died. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we identified that independent prognostic factors for in-hospital death were age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.066; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.025-1.108; P = 0.001), midline shift (MLS, aOR = 1.330, 95% CI, 1.177
TY - JOUR. T1 - Shift of motor activation areas during recovery from hemiparesis after cerebral infarction. T2 - A longitudinal study with near-infrared spectroscopy. AU - Takeda, Kotaro. AU - Gomi, Yukihiro. AU - Imai, Itsuki. AU - Shimoda, Nobuaki. AU - Hiwatari, Masao. AU - Kato, Hiroyuki. PY - 2007/10/1. Y1 - 2007/10/1. N2 - Motor functional recovery after stroke may be attributable to cerebral reorganization. We used near-infrared spectroscopy, which measures non-invasively the changes in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations in response to neural activation, for monitoring cerebral activation in stroke patients, and investigated the longitudinal changes in functional laterality of activations in the primary sensorimotor cortex during unilateral audio-paced (1 Hz) hand movement. We examined five ischemic stroke patients (4 females and 1 male, 52-67 years old) with mild to moderate hemiparesis at acute stages and chronic stages at least 1 month later. Normal subjects (3 females and 2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of exercise and bryostatin-1 on serotonin dynamics after cerebral infarction. AU - Mizutani, Kenmei. AU - Sonoda, Shigeru. AU - Wakita, Hideaki. AU - Okazaki, Hideto. AU - Katoh, Yoshimitsu. AU - Chihara, Takeshi. AU - Shimpo, Kan. PY - 2016/6/15. Y1 - 2016/6/15. N2 - Although it has been suggested that the combination of exercise and bryostatin-1 administration may induce greater functional recovery than exercise alone, the detailed molecular mechanisms are not well known. Here, we examined the relationship between this combination treatment and monoamine dynamics in the cerebral cortex peri-infarction area to promote our understanding of these molecular mechanisms. Experimental cerebral cortex infarctions were produced by photothrombosis in rats. Voluntary exercise was initiated 2 days after surgery. Motor performance was then measured using the rotarod test. Monoamine concentrations in the perilesional cortex were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. In ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Juvenile-onset multiple brain infarcts localized in the posterior circulation. T2 - A case report. AU - Maruyama, Kenji. AU - Oya, Yasushi. AU - Shigeto, Hiroshi. AU - Ogawa, Masafumi. AU - Kawai, Mitsuru. PY - 2002/3/14. Y1 - 2002/3/14. N2 - We report a 37-year-old male patient with multiple brain infarcts due to arterial lesions localized in the posterior circulation, who developed a paramedian pontine infarct on the left side. He had been treated as schizophrenia for 20 years. A cranial CT performed one year before showed old small infarcts in the territories of the bilateral thalamo-perforating and left thalamo-geniculate arteries and the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery. The vertebral and basilar arteries were small in diameter on MRI and MR angiography (MRA). Cerebral angiography revealed a narrow smooth basilar artery. In addition, the P 2 segments of the bilateral posterior cerebral arteries were markedly narrow with irregular walls. Carotid arteriograms were ...
ObjectiveTo describe a patient who developed reversible segmental cerebral arterial vasospasm and cerebral infarction while taking excessive amounts of sumatrip
Detection of misery perfusion in the cerebral hemisphere with chronic unilateral major cerebral artery steno-occlusive disease using crossed cerebellar hypoperfusion: comparison of brain SPECT and PET imaging. Matsumoto, Yoshiyasu; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Saito, Hideo; Terasaki, Kazunori; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Ogasawara, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Yoshida, Kenji; Beppu, Takaaki; Kubo, Yoshitaka; Fujiwara, Shunrou; Tsushima, Eiki; Ogawa, Akira // European Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging;Oct2013, Vol. 40 Issue 10, p1573 Purpose: In patients with unilateral internal carotid or middle cerebral artery (ICA or MCA) occlusive disease, the degree of crossed cerebellar hypoperfusion that is evident within a few months after the onset of stroke may reflect cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen in the affected cerebral... ...
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction ...
Silent brain infarction is a frequent complication of cardiac surgery and is associated with mood changes and cognitive disruption. Microsphere embolism (ME) rodent models recapitulate both the diffuse ischemic infarcts and the delayed subtle behavioral disturbances characteristic to silent infarction (SI). Previously, we have shown that ME leads to increased hippocampal inflammation, weakening of the blood brain barrier, and the infiltration of peripherally circulating inflammatory cells in rats. Given long-term increases in inflammatory activity following SI, the current study tests the efficacy of anti-inflammatory versus anti-depressant treatment strategies to reduce the inflammatory and behavioral sequelae of injury. Adult rats were administered either chronic meloxicam (preferential COX-2 inhibitor) or fluoxetine (SSRI) beginning five days prior to ME surgeries. After a two week recovery, animals were tested for anxiety-like behaviors in the open field paradigm and the hippocampus was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Establishing final infarct volume. T2 - Stroke lesion evolution past 30 days is insignificant. AU - Gaudinski, Martin R.. AU - Henning, Erica C.. AU - Miracle, Aaron. AU - Luby, Marie. AU - Warach, Steven. AU - Latour, Lawrence L.. PY - 2008/10/1. Y1 - 2008/10/1. N2 - Background and Purpose: Lesion volume measured on MRI has been used as an objective surrogate marker for outcome in clinical trials. However, lesion volumes vary over time because of edema and tissue loss. This study aims to determine if lesion volumes measured at 30 and 90 days after ictus significantly differ. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 18 patients who had acute (,24 hours) DWI and follow-up fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging at 5, 30, and 90 days. Two expert readers segmented lesions and the mean volumes of both reads were used in all statistical analyses. Results: Patient age was 65.8 (SD, 13.7) years and median NIHSS at baseline was 11.5. Inter-rater variability for lesion volume ...
Dong Quai may aid in reducing incidences and severity of hot flashes during menopause.2 Dong Quai may improve conditions in ulcers and inflammation in the digestive tract (ulcerative colitis).3 Dong Quai supplementation may help improve blockages of blood vessels in the brain (acute cerebral infarction).4 It has been suggested in preclinical studies that Dong Quai may decrease inflammation and tumors growth in colorectal cancer.5. ...
In our previous study, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) was found to prolong survival time and to inhibit cerebral edema by improving energy metabolism in the hypoxia, anoxia and global cerebral ischemia models. In this study, the cerebroprotective effect of BHB was examined in rats with permanent (p)-occlusion and transient (t)-occlusion of middle cerebral artery (MCA). BHB (30 mg · kg,sup,−,/sup,,sup,1,/sup, · h,sup,−,/sup,,sup,1,/sup,) was continuously administered through the femoral vein. In rats with p-MCA occlusion, BHB significantly reduced infarct area at 24 h after the occlusion, but not at 72 h after the occlusion. In rats with 2-h t-MCA occlusion followed by 22-h reperfusion, BHB significantly reduced cerebral infarct area, edema formation, lipid peroxidation and neurological deficits. Moreover, in the t-MCA occlusion model, delayed administration of BHB started at 1 h after the initiation of the MCA occlusion also significantly reduced cerebral infarct area. Taking together the ...
Of 198 patients who underwent DC due to cerebral infarction, 12 patients underwent strokectomy as a second surgical procedure, with a median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 19 for patients with versus 16 for those without secondary strokectomy (p = 0.029). Either refractory increases of ICP , 20 mm Hg or dilated pupils in addition to herniation visible on CT images were triggers for strokectomy surgery. Ten of 12 (83%) patients had infarctions in more than one territory (p , 0.001). After 12 months, 43% of patients had a good outcome according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score (≤ 3). In the subgroup of patients suffering infarctions in more than one vascular territory, functional outcome after 12 months was better (mRS ≤ 3 in 40% of patients in comparison to 9%; p = 0.027). A 1:3 case-control analysis matched to age, side of infarction, sex, and vascular territory confirmed these results (mRS ≤ 3, 42% in comparison to 11%; p = 0.032). Age, NIHSS score on ...
A large spectrum of symptoms Stroke or cerebral infarction is a sudden neurological deficit caused by an infarction (80% cases) or a hemorrhage (20% cases)…
I was in an accident in April of 2011 and have had paralysis of the right side of my mouth for the past 6 months, also left arm and hand numbness. They just finally did an mri of my brain and found mu...
The amygdala, a small deep brain structure involved in behavioral processing through interactions with other brain regions, has garnered increased attention in recent years in relation to pain processing. As pain is a multidimensional experience that encompasses physical sensation, affect, and cognition, the amygdala is well suited to play a part in this process. Multiple…
... - Veja grátis o arquivo hidroterapia PC enviado para a disciplina de Hidro Paralisia Cerebral Categoria: Outros - 5 - Full Text Available O nascimento de
Various movement disorders associated with cerebral infarction have been introduced. However patients with anterior cerebral artery territory infarction presenting with hemichoreoballism have never been reported. We present a 64-year-old man with hemichoreoballism and frontal alien hand syndrome on his right hand. Diffusion weighted brain MRI revealed hyperintensities in anterior two third of corpus callosum and superior frontal gyrus. Hemichoreoballism was improved after one day treated by clonazepam. We report the case with hemichoreoballism after anterior cerebral artery territory infarction. ...
It is an object of the invention to present an input and display apparatus for handwritten characters capable of freely editing input handwritten characters. A handwritten character entered on a touch panel by using a pen is registered as one stroke data. The registered one stroke data is divided in two stroke data by using the pen, or two stroke data are combined into one stroke data. By combination of stroke data division and combination, partial deletion in stroke data, blank insertion in stroke data, and insertion of other stroke data into stroke data are realized.
The effect of the free radical spin-trap alpha-phenyl-butyl-tert-nitrone (alpha-PBN) in permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rats was examined in two series of experiments. In the first, rats were subjected to permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) and treated 1 h after occlusion with a single dose of alpha-PBN (100 mg/kg) or saline. Body temperature was measured and controlled for the first 24 h to obtain identical temperature curves in the two groups. Cortical infarct volumes were determined on histological sections 7 days later. alpha-PBN did not significantly reduce infarct volume (control: 28.3+/-16.3 mm3 vs. alpha-PBN 23.7+/-7.4 mm3). In the second series of experiments, periinfarct depolarizations (PIDs) were recorded with an extracellular DC electrode at two locations in the ischemic penumbra for the initial 3 h following MCAO. alpha-PBN (100 mg/kg, single dose in conjunction with occlusion) significantly reduced the total number (median value of 3 PIDs in the control ...
Cerebral infarction and cerebral thrombosis in younger men Chinese mainland doctors have noticed that cerebral infarction and cerebral thrombosis are occurring more frequently in younger men. They used to occur mostly among older men. They can lead to microstrokes or cerebrovascular accidents and partial physical paralyses. In general, cerebral hemorrhage accounts for only 15% while…
Background: Motor Imagery (MI) refers to mental simulation of a motor action without producing any overt movement. Previous studies showed that children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy (UCP) are impaired in implicit MI, as demonstrated by the performance of Hand Laterality Judgment tasks. The aim of this study was to examine the specificity of explicit MI deficits in UCP children.Methods: A group of UCP children (n = 10; aged 9-14) performed a mental chronometry task consisting in grasping an object and placing it into a container, or in imagining to perform the same action. As control, a group of typically developing (TD) children, matched by age, performed the same task. Movement durations for executed and imagined trials were recorded. A subgroup of 7 UCP children and 10 TD children also underwent a session of functional MRI to examine the activation of parieto-frontal areas typically associated to MI processes, during the imagination of reaching-grasping actions performed with the paretic hand
Objective: Cerebrovascular diseases are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality. The ischemic type is the most common and most fatal o among the all cerebrovasculer diseases. In patients having silent cerebral ischemia the incidence of ischemic infarction is ten times greater than in the normal population. The treatment modalities are not efficient after the cerebral infarct has occurred. For this reason academic studies are gaining importance for the determination of risk factors, primary and secondary prophylaxis, early diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation. Cerebrovascular diseases are also the most common major causes of death in hemodialysis patients. The effect of dialysis treatment and chronic renal failure disease on the development of cerebral ischemia and infarct has not been explained, In this study we analyzed the prevalence of silent cerebral ischemia and infarct in the cronic renal failure patients having hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis treatment, using magnetic ...
This study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the early diagnosis of pyramidal tract Wallerian degeneration (WD) and assessment of neurological recovery following cerebral infarction. This study included 23 patients with acute cerebral infarction and 10 healthy adult controls. All participants underwent both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DTI scans. DTI images were analyzed using the Functional MRI of the Brain Software Library to determine the regions of interest (ROI) and obtain the mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) value for each ROI. The correlation between FA or MD and postinfarction functional recovery of the nervous system was further analyzed to assess the feasibility of using a DTI scan in the evaluation of functional recovery of the nervous system in patients with cerebral infarction. DTI may be useful in detecting signals of early postinfarction pyramidal tract WD and is useful for the evaluation of postinfarction ...
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Lipoic acid (LA) is a naturally occurring compound and dietary supplement with powerful antioxidant properties. Although LA is neuroprotective in models of stroke, little is known about the cellular mechanisms by which it confers protection during the early stages of ischemia. Here, using a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), we demonstrated that administration of LA 30 min prior to stroke, reduces infarct volume in a dose dependent manner. Whole-cell patch clamp Show moreLipoic acid (LA) is a naturally occurring compound and dietary supplement with powerful antioxidant properties. Although LA is neuroprotective in models of stroke, little is known about the cellular mechanisms by which it confers protection during the early stages of ischemia. Here, using a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), we demonstrated that administration of LA 30 min prior to stroke, reduces infarct volume in a dose dependent manner. Whole-cell patch clamp ...
Ischemic stroke is a disease that occurs due to disruption of blood circulation to the brain due to blood clots in the brain. The blockage is called cerebral infarction. In diagnosing the presence of...
Antagonism of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) has been shown to elicit substantial neuroprotective properties when given immediately after cerebral ischemia. We asked whether the continuous application of a selective A2AR antagonist within a clinically relevant time window will be a feasible and effective approach to treat focal cerebral ischemia. To answer this question, we subjected 20 male spontaneously hypertensive rats to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion and randomized them equally to a verum and a control group. Two hours after stroke onset, the animals received a subcutaneous implantation of an osmotic minipump filled with 5 mg kg−1 day−1 8-(3-chlorostyryl) caffeine (CSC) or vehicle solution. The serum level of CSC was measured twice a day for three consecutive days. The infarct volume was determined at days 1 and 3 using magnetic resonance imaging. We found the serum level of CSC showing a bell-shaped curve with its maximum at 36 h. The infarct volume was not affected by ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The risks of falls and fractures increase after stroke. Little is known about the prognostic significance of previous falls and fractures after stroke. This study examined whether having a history of either event is associated with poststroke mortality. METHODS: We analyzed stroke register data collected prospectively between 2003 and 2015. Eight sex-specific models were analyzed, to which the following variables were incrementally added to examine their potential confounding effects: age, type of stroke, Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification, previous comorbidities, frailty as indicated by the prestroke modified Rankin Scale score, and acute illness parameters ...
Radiation therapy can cause cerebral arteriopahty, resulting in ischemic stroke. We document late-delayed cerebral arteriopathy by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) in a middle aged man who had cranial irradiation 19 years earlier. A 45-year-old man was diagnosed with frontal lobe glioma 19 years ago and was treated with radiation after surgical resection. He was admitted to our hospital with an acute cerebral infarction in November 8, 2017. Traditional MRI examination and HR-MRI (sagittal, reconstruction of coronal and axial) were performed at admission. He was treated with prednisone (30 mg/day) and clinical symptoms disappeared after 3 months by telephone follow-up. Our patient complained of dizziness and blurred vision and traditional MRI examination indicated acute ischemic stroke in temporal lobe and occipital lobe and microbleeds. In order to define the exact mechanism of stroke, blood tests, auto-immune screening and thrombophilia were performed and results were normal.
... is a new and revised edition of the 1995 book Lacunar and Other Subcortical Infarctions. The book reviews the considerable advances in our understanding of the stroke process as a result of advances in the fields of neurochemistry, imaging and genetics, as well as highlighting the implications for new therapeutic approaches.
Atrial fibrillation is an important and independent risk factor for cerebrovascular disease and vascular dementia. There is increasing evidence that atrial fibrillation is associated with an increased risk of asymptomatic or silent cerebral infarction and as a result may confer an increased risk of progressive cognitive impairment on a person. In this study we sought to determine whether this hypothesis could be explored in a prospective case controlled design. Twenty seven patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) and no history of stroke, transient ischaemic attack, dementia, and thyrotoxicosis were compared with 54 age and sex matched controls in sinus rhythm. All cases underwent clinical examination, ECG, and psychological assessment using a battery of nine neuropsychological tests. Between group analysis and a comparison of mean test scores of paired controls with cases were undertaken. The presence of atrial fibrillation was consistently associated with poorer performances on ...
Question - Venous thrombosis with hemorrhagic infarct. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Deep vein thrombosis, Ask a Neurologist
Since intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) is often associated with poor outcomes in hypertensive patients with severe acute cerebral infarction (ACI) due to occlusions of the internal carotid, basilar, or proximal middle cerebral artery, we evaluated whether multimodal intra-arterial treatment (IAT) might improve functional outcomes in this patient population. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of eligible patients who underwent multimodal IAT including intra-arterial thrombolysis, mechanical thrombectomy, balloon and/or stent angioplasty (IAT group) or IVT alone (IVT group). Outcomes included the revascularization rate 24 hours postprocedure, the frequency of survival at 7, 90, and 180 days postonset, and a measure of functional outcomes using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). The IAT group included 62 patients and the IVT group included 31 patients. Multimodal IAT increased the revascularization rate at 24 hours (p,0.001) and the frequency of survival and functional independence (mRS ≤2) at 7 ...
The most common etiology of bilateral AIS in patients in our stroke registry is cardioembolic stroke. Cardioembolic stroke occurs when a formed clot, typically in the left atrium, embolizes and travels into multiple vascular territories of the brain, effectively showering emboli throughout multiple parenchymal regions. We diagnosed etiology as cardioembolic per the Causative Classification of Stroke System[14], using TTE and/or TEE to identify potential cardiac sources of infarction. However, despite a higher rate of cardioembolic classification in patients suffering bilateral AIS than unilateral AIS, bilateral AIS did not increase the odds of cardioembolic stroke etiology. Yet, our results show that TEE was performed significantly more during workup of bilateral AIS etiology (Table 4), suggesting possible overutilization of resources and presenting an opportunity to reduce invasive workup, cost, and hospital length of stay.. Consistent with a previous study showing an association between ...
|b||i|Background:|/i||/b| Plasma D-dimer level may reflect the activity of thrombus formation in the left atrium of patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillati
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The drug edaravone (EDA) is prescribed for the treatment of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or after an acute cerebral infarction. This synthetic pyrazolone derivative is a potent scavenger of oxygen free radicals and also functions as a modulator of transcription factors, repressing NFκB and activating Nrf2, to regulate oxidative stress. EDA displays complementary anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. The injectable small molecule is currently investigated for the treatment of several non-neurological diseases. The potential interest of EDA in oncology is reviewed here. EDA is a mild antiproliferative agent but has been found to enhance significantly the anticancer and antimetastatic activities of irinotecan in a colon cancer model. Anticancer derivatives of EDA have been designed but they generally display a limited antiproliferative activity. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of EDA can be best exploited to protect non-tumor cells from damages induced by ...
The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of 4-methylcyclopentadecanone (4-MCPC) in rats suffering from a cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R) injury. In this study, the focal cerebral ischemia in rats was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h, and the rats were treated with 4-MCPC (8 mg/kg) just 0.5 h before reperfusion. The ischemic infarct volume was recorded 24 h after the MCAO. In addition, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and TNF-α and IL-1β levels in the ischemic cerebral cortex were determined by ELISA, while nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit and expression of p-IκBα were investigated by western blotting ...
MCA territory infarct with haemorrhagic transformation has developed with further patchy change in the anterior cerebral artery territories, bilaterally. ...
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM Z86.73 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
RESULTS: Overall, 24 patients were treated. The mean age was 67.2 years; mean occlusion time, 230.2 minutes. On admission, the median NIHSS score was 18. In all patients, the Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score was zero before the procedure. Stent implantation was feasible in all cases. In 15 patients (62.5%), a Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score ≥ 2b could be achieved. Six patients (25%) improved ≥10 NIHSS points between admission and discharge. After 90 days, the median mRS score was 3.0. Seven patients (29.2%) had a good clinical outcome (mRS 0-2), and 4 patients (16.6%) died, 1 due to fatal intracranial hemorrhage. Overall, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 4 patients (16.6%). ...
Results We found that M2 occlusions can lead to massive strokes defined by hypoperfused and infarcted volumes as well as death or moderate to severe disability in nearly 50% of patients at discharge. Compared with M1 occlusions, M2 occlusions achieved similar Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) 2b/3 recanalization rates, with significantly less hemorrhage. M2 occlusions presented with smaller infarct and hypoperfused volumes and had smaller final infarct volumes regardless of recanalization. TICI 2b/3 recanalization of M2 occlusions was associated with smaller infarct volumes compared with TICI 0-2a recanalization, as well as less infarct expansion, in patients who received IV tissue plasminogen activator as well as those that did not. Successful reperfusion of M2 occlusions was associated with improved discharge modified Rankin scale.. ...
Standard techniques of cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurement provide information on both global and regional flow in patients with cerebral ischaemia or infarction. Recent availability of positron emission tomography (PET), recording oxygen and glucose metabolism, as well as blood flow and blood volume, gives a more detailed and accurate understanding of pathophysiological changes after stroke.. Changes in cerebral infarction. NON-ISCHAEMIC HEMISPHERE. Mild reduction in global CBF - perhaps due to transneuronal depression of metabolism in the unaffected hemisphere - diaschisis.. In the normal brain, cerebral blood flow to a particular part varies depending on the metabolic requirements, i.e. the supply of 02 and glucose is coupled to the tissue needs. After infarction, between areas of reduced flow and areas of luxury perfusion, lie areas of relative luxury perfusion where reduced flow exceeds the tissue requirements, i.e. uncoupling of flow and metabolism has occurred.. Studies with SPECT ...
Cerebral or brain ischemia occurs when there is not enough blood flow to the brain. This reduction in blood flow restricts oxygen to the brain and may result in dead brain tissue, cerebral infarction...
Of 880 patients admitted consecutively to a coronary-care unit with acute myocardial infarction, 200 had had a previous infarction. The mortality-rate in the first twenty-eight days after infarction was higher in the group with recurrent infarction (26 per cent) than in the group with first infarctions (16.9 per cent). When ...
Systems and associated methods position arrays of multiple emitters of ablating energy in straight or curvilinear positions in contact with tissue to form elongated lesion patterns. The elongated lesion patterns can continuous or interrupted, depending upon the orientation of the energy emitters.
Clinical signs and symptoms are extremely important in both suspicion and diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI). The type of pain, its distribution, and its response to nitroglycerin may be very characteristic. However, it may not be easy to differentiate the pain of angina from that of acute infarct; in addition, 20%-30% (literature range, 1%-60%) of acute MIs have been reported to occur without chest pain. This is said to be more frequent in diabetics. Even when diagnosis is virtually certain on clinical grounds alone, the physician often will want laboratory confirmation, and this becomes more important when symptoms are atypical or minimal.. ...
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Hi all-- Can you please comment to help me confirm the appropriate 36000 series for this given cerebral angiogram scenario? Patient is normal arch art
Reflexology Research for Brain Pathologies, Paralysis, Stroke, Cerebral Hemorrhage, Cerebral Infarction, from around the world, courtesy of the American Academy of Reflexology, your complete source for Beginning, Professional Reflexology Certification, and Continuing Education classes, foot reflexology, hand reflexology, ear reflexology, reflexology courses, reflexology workshops, reflexology certification, Reflexology School Los Angeles, Los Angeles Reflexology School, Reflexology School CA, Reflexology School California, Reflexology School USA.
Reflexology Research for Brain Pathologies, Paralysis, Stroke, Cerebral Hemorrhage, Cerebral Infarction, from around the world, courtesy of the American Academy of Reflexology, your complete source for Beginning, Professional Reflexology Certification, and Continuing Education classes, foot reflexology, hand reflexology, ear reflexology, reflexology courses, reflexology workshops, reflexology certification, Reflexology School Los Angeles, Los Angeles Reflexology School, Reflexology School CA, Reflexology School California, Reflexology School USA.
BACKGROUND: Early risk of stroke after a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) can be reliably predicted with risk scores based on clinical features of the patient and the event, but it is unclear how these features correlate with findings on brain imaging and few studies have investigated this in the subacute phase. METHODS: Two hundred consecutive patients attending a specialist clinic underwent diffusion-weighted brain imaging (DWI) on the day of the clinic (| or =3 days after a TIA) and the presence of recent lesions (positive DWI) was related to the presence of clinical features associated with a high stroke risk and to 2 validated risk scores (ABCD and California). RESULTS: Thirty-one patients (16%) had positive DWI. Increasing ABCD and California scores were associated with positive DWI (p = 0.02 for both) independent of the delay from TIA to scan. CONCLUSION: Presence of recent ischaemic lesions on DWI correlates with validated clinical scores for risk of stroke after TIA in patients scanned
article{9de2abff-f47f-4162-a674-c049bfc0c1fb, abstract = {,p,BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute lesions in patients with transient ischaemic attack (TIA) are important as they are associated with increased risk for recurrence. Characteristics associated with acute lesions in young TIA patients were therefore investigated.,/p,,p,METHODS: The sifap1 study prospectively recruited a multinational European cohort (n = 5023) of patients aged 18-55 years with acute cerebrovascular event. The detection of acute ischaemic lesions was based on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The frequency of DWI lesions was assessed in 829 TIA patients who met the criteria of symptom duration <24 h and their association with demographic, clinical and imaging variables was analysed.,/p,,p,RESULTS: The median age was 46 years (interquartile range 40-51 years); 45% of the patients were female. In 121 patients (15%) ≥1 acute DWI lesion was detected. In 92 patients, DWI lesions were found in the anterior circulation, mostly ...
A watershed stroke or watershed infarct is defined as ischemia that is localized to the vulnerable border zones between the tissues supplied via the Anterior, Posterior and Middle Cerebral arteries.(Note that the actual blood stream blockage/restriction site can be located far away from the infarcts. See "Pathogenesis" followed.) Watershed locations are those border-zone regions in the brain supplied by the major cerebral arteries where blood supply is decreased. Watershed strokes are a concern because they comprise approximately 10% of all ischemic stroke cases. The watershed zones themselves are particularly susceptible to infarction from global ischemia as the distal nature of the vasculature predisposes these areas to be most sensitive to profound hypoperfusion. Watershed strokes are localized to two primary regions of the brain, and are termed cortical watersheds (CWS) and internal watersheds (IWS). Patients with many different cardiovascular diseases have a higher likelihood of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recurrent cerebral ischemia during hypertransfusion therapy in sickle cell anemia. AU - Buchanan, George R.. AU - Bowman, W. Paul. AU - Smith, Susan J.. PY - 1983/12. Y1 - 1983/12. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0021021104&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/S0022-3476(83)80716-1. DO - 10.1016/S0022-3476(83)80716-1. M3 - Article. C2 - 6644427. AN - SCOPUS:0021021104. VL - 103. SP - 921. EP - 923. JO - The Journal of Pediatrics. JF - The Journal of Pediatrics. SN - 0022-3476. IS - 6. ER - ...
It is crucial to establish an MCAO/R animal model according to the clinical characteristics of a human cerebral natural infarct. The model characteristics are as follows: i) single damage mechanism that is easy to study; ii) simple method, small wound, easy to control condition, stable infarct site, and distinct symptomatic reaction and high achievement ratio; iii) uniformity of cerebral infarction and good reproducibility; and iv) necrotic brain tissue following injury, with a similar pathophysiological process to clinical cerebral ischemia. In this study, a rat cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury model was established according to the Zea-Longa method (4). Following cerebral ischemia for 1 h, the rats developed severe nervous and behavioral functional impairment symptoms, indicating the establishment of a successful model.. The Bederson (5) score method was employed for qualitative and semiquantitative evaluation, with particular emphasis on motor function evaluation. The balance beam walking ...
Global Markets Directs, Ischemic Cerebral Stroke - Pipeline Review, H2 2014, provides an overview of the Ischemic Cerebral Strokes therapeutic pipeline. This report provides
Inflammation is increasingly being understood to be a key component to the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular lesions. Ferumoxytol, an iron oxide nanoparticle coated by a carbohydrate shell, has been used in MRI studies as an inflammatory marker because it is cleared by macrophages. Ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI has emerged as an important tool for noninvasive assessment of the inflammatory status of cerebrovascular lesions, namely aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. Moreover, preliminary evidence suggests that ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI could be applied as a non-invasive tool to differentiate
Results Mean follow-up duration was 10.7 years. Cut-off levels of Lp(a) for tertiles were 10 mg/dl and 23 mg/dl. Risks for all stroke were 1.34 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.74) and 1.00 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.31) in the lower and the higher Lp(a) group, respectively, with reference to the middle group after adjustment for age, smoking status, drinking status, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index. Risks for cerebral haemorrhage (lower tertile 2.25, 95% CI 1.28 to 3.94 and higher tertile 0.93, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.77), were similar to all stroke and no significant relationships were seen between Lp(a) and cerebral infarction (lower tertile 1.15, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.60 and higher tertile 1.02, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.41),or subarachnoid haemorrhage (lower tertile 1.04, 95% CI 0.52 to 2.09 and higher tertile 0.96, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.90). ...
With each figure, taking many, many hours to execute, the artist offers insight into how each one is crafted on his various social media channels, a small window into the confounding results hes able to get out of wood. "We live from day to day with contradictions that do not yield any answers and conflicting emotions and pretend to be unaware of them," the artist has said. "I would like you to take a look into the depths of your heart.". See more of Kanemakis recent work below.. ...
Problem statement: At present, the therapeutic outcome of cerebral ischemia is still not in the satisfaction level. Therefore, the preventive strategy is considered. Based on the protective effect against oxidative damage of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves extract, we hypothesized that this plant extract might protect against cerebral ischemia, one of the challenge problems nowadays. In order to test this hypothesis, we aimed to determine the protective effect of M.oleifera leaves extract in animal model of focal cerebral ischemia induced by permanent occlusion of right middle cerebral artery. Approach: Male Wistar rats, weighing 300-350 g, were orally given the extract once daily at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 BW at a period of 2 weeks, then, they were permanently occluded the right Middle Cerebral Artery (MCAO). The animals were assessed the cerebral infarction volume and oxidative damage markers including MDA level and the activities of SOD, CAT and GSHPx enzymes at 24 h after occlusion. Results:
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intraluminal suture occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in spontaneously hypertensive rats. AU - Dogan, Aclan. AU - Başkaya, Mustafa K.. AU - Rao, V. L Raghavendra. AU - Rao, A. Muralikrishna. AU - Dempsey, Robert J.. PY - 1998/4. Y1 - 1998/4. N2 - In models of middle cerebral artery occlusion using intraluminal suture, the size and the distribution of ischemic injury vary considerably among laboratories. In transcranial models of cerebral ischemia, a more consistent cerebral ischemic lesion is seen in Spontaneously Hypertensive rats (SHR). In the present study, we performed intraluminal suture occlusion of the MCA in SHR and compared its reproducibility with those in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Male SHR and SD rats were anesthetized with halothane and subjected to 2 h of temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion by an intraluminal suture. Comparisons of regional cerebral blood flow figures taken throughout the experiment and lesion volume figures taken at 24 h after ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Outcome following decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction in children. AU - Smith, Sabrina E.. AU - Kirkham, Fenella J.. AU - Deveber, Gabrielle. AU - Millman, Guy. AU - Dirks, Peter B.. AU - Wirrell, Elaine C. AU - Telfeian, Albert E.. AU - Sykes, Kim. AU - Barlow, Karen. AU - Ichord, Rebecca. PY - 2011/1. Y1 - 2011/1. N2 - Aim: Mortality from malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI) approaches 80% in adult series. Although decompressive craniectomy decreases mortality and leads to an acceptable outcome in selected adult patients, there are few data on MMCAI in children with stroke. This study evaluated the frequency of MMCAI and the use of decompressive craniectomy in children. Method: We retrospectively reviewed cases of MMCAI from five pediatric tertiary care centers. Results: Ten children (two females, eight males; median age 9y 10mo, range 22mo-14y) had MMCAI, with a median Glasgow Coma Scale score of 6 (range 3-9). MMCAI ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bilateral anterior cerebral artery infarction resulting from explosion-type injury to the head and neck. AU - Lipschutz, Joshua H.. AU - Pascuzzi, Robert. AU - Bognanno, James. AU - Putty, Tim. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - A 43-year-old woman suffered a blast-type injury to the head and neck. She subsequently developed bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion and bilateral anterior cerebral artery infarction not demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging scan 24 hours after the explosion, but confirmed by a second scan 8 days after the explosion. In patients with blast-type injury to the head and neck who develop coma with a nonfocal neurological exam, the possibility of bilateral carotid artery occlusion and bilateral ischemic infarction should be considered.. AB - A 43-year-old woman suffered a blast-type injury to the head and neck. She subsequently developed bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion and bilateral anterior cerebral artery infarction not demonstrated by ...
This study investigated the effects of 2-(1-chloro-4-hydroxyisoquinoline-3-carboxamido) acetic acid (IOX3), a selective small molecule inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylases, on mouse brains subject to transient focal cerebral ischaemia. Male, 8- to 12-week-old C57/B6 mice were subjected to 45 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) either immediately or 24 h after receiving IOX3. Mice receiving IOX3 at 20 mg/kg 24 h prior to the MCAO had better neuroscores and smaller blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and infarct volumes than mice receiving the vehicle, whereas those having IOX3 at 60 mg/kg showed no significant changes. IOX3 treatment immediately before MCAO was not neuroprotective. IOX3 up-regulated HIF-1α, and increased EPO expression in mouse brains. In an in vitro BBB model (RBE4 cell line), IOX3 up-regulated HIF-1α and delocalized ZO-1. Pre-treating IOX3 on RBE4 cells 24 h before oxygen-glucose deprivation had a protective effect on endothelial barrier
Ischemic lesions within the territory of the anterior cerebral artery present with a variety of clinical signs and symptoms. Among these, frontal alien hand syndrome is rare and easily overlooked in the acute clinical setting, but significantly impacts on functional activities of daily life. Given its rareness, very little is known about its long-term outcome. To shade some more light onto this issue, clinical presentation, course of rehabilitation and outcome of two illustrative cases of frontal alien hand syndrome following anterior cerebral artery stroke are presented. Within seven and nine months from symptom onset, respectively, the clinical symptoms of frontal alien hand had resolved completely in both cases. We conclude that frontal alien hand syndrome has a favourable long-term outcome.

Hemichoreoballism with Anterior Cerebral Artery Territory InfarctionHemichoreoballism with Anterior Cerebral Artery Territory Infarction

Anterior Cerebral Artery Brain Cerebral Infarction Clonazepam Corpus Callosum Diffusion Hand Humans Infarction Magnetic ... Anterior cerebral artery territory infarction Alien hand syndrome MeSH Terms expand_less. expand_more. Alien Hand Syndrome ... Various movement disorders associated with cerebral infarction have been introduced. However patients with anterior cerebral ... Hemichoreoballism with Anterior Cerebral Artery Territory Infarction.. Bae YJ , Lee JT , Kim EH , Lee HW , Jung DK , Suh CK , ...
more infohttps://koreamed.org/article/2031JKNA/2005.23.2.271

Outcome following decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction in children<...Outcome following decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction in children<...

Outcome following decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction in children. / Smith, Sabrina E.; ... Outcome following decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction in children. In: Developmental ... Outcome following decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction in children. Developmental Medicine ... Aim: Mortality from malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI) approaches 80% in adult series. Although decompressive ...
more infohttps://mayoclinic.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/outcome-following-decompressive-craniectomy-for-malignant-middle-

Preconditioning effect on cerebral vasospasm in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage<...Preconditioning effect on cerebral vasospasm in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage<...

... and vasospasm-related delayed cerebral infarction and the secondary end point of discharge modified Rankin Scale score. Results ... and vasospasm-related delayed cerebral infarction and the secondary end point of discharge modified Rankin Scale score. Results ... and vasospasm-related delayed cerebral infarction and the secondary end point of discharge modified Rankin Scale score. Results ... and vasospasm-related delayed cerebral infarction and the secondary end point of discharge modified Rankin Scale score. Results ...
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Predictors and outcomes of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in patients with aneurysmal sub-arachnoid hemorrhage | BMC Surgery |...Predictors and outcomes of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in patients with aneurysmal sub-arachnoid hemorrhage | BMC Surgery |...

The diagnosis of acute symptomatic cerebral infarction following aneurysmal SAH was based on both new-onset cerebral ... infarctions (on follow-up brain CT) and the presence of acute neurologic deficits causally related to the cerebral infarction. ... Patients were considered to have multiple infarctions if at least two locations with infarctions were found. Re-bleeding was ... Accuracy of trans-cranial Doppler sonography for predicting cerebral infarction in aneurysmal sub-arachnoid hemorrhage. J Clin ...
more infohttps://bmcsurg.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2482-12-12

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Systemic hypotension should be avoided when administering the drug to patients who have sustained an acute cerebral infarction ... Nimodipine improves cerebral blood flow and neurologic recovery after complete cerebral ischemia in the dog. J Cereb Blood Flow ... Florence G, Bonvento G, Roucher P, Charbonne R, Seylaz J "Effect of nimodipine on the autoregulation of cerebral blood flow ... Effect of the calcium antagonist nimodipine on local cerebral blood flow: relationship to arterial blood pressure. J Cereb ...
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Longitudinally extensive spinal cord infarction in CADASIL | Practical NeurologyLongitudinally extensive spinal cord infarction in CADASIL | Practical Neurology

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy in an Israeli family. Neuropsychiatr ... Spinal cord infarction represents only around 1% of ischaemic strokes. The vascular anatomy of the spinal cord consists of one ... In a UK cohort of 200 patients, there were no cases of spinal cord infarction.1 An anterior spinal cord infarct occurred in an ... Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a hereditary small- ...
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What factors predict bleeding from cerebral amyloid angiopathy? - Neurochecklists BlogWhat factors predict bleeding from cerebral amyloid angiopathy? - Neurochecklists Blog

Abstract BACKGROUND: Identification of lobar spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy ... The Edinburgh CT and genetic diagnostic criteria for lobar intracerebral haemorrhage associated with cerebral amyloid ... Is multiple sclerosis a risk factor for myocardial infarction? * What are the manifestations of late onset Huntingtons disease ... Categories VasculopathyTags CAA, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, intracerebral haemorrhage, Lancet Neurol, Lerpiniere C, Rodrigues ...
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What is a Cerebral Infarction? (with pictures)What is a Cerebral Infarction? (with pictures)

A cerebral infarction is a situation in which the blood vessels supplying the brain are disturbed and blood flow is interrupted ... Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, in which blood vessels that drain the brain become blocked, may result in cerebral infarction ... Brain infarction is often associated with atherosclerosis or high blood pressure.. Cerebral infarction occurs when the blood ... Cerebral infarction, also known as ischemic stroke, occurs when the blood vessels that supply the brain are disturbed so that ...
more infohttps://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-cerebral-infarction.htm

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Infarction. general: Anemic infarct · Hemorrhagic infarct. regional: Myocardial infarction · Splenic infarction · Cerebral ... Symptoms of cerebral infarction are determined by topographical localisation of cerebral lesion. If it is located in primary ... cerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage. A cerebral infarction (stroke) occurs when a blood vessel that supplies a part ... A cerebral infarction is the ischemic kind of stroke due to a disturbance in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain. It ...
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How thalidomide is effective against cerebral infarction | EurekAlert! Science NewsHow thalidomide is effective against cerebral infarction | EurekAlert! Science News

How thalidomide is effective against cerebral infarction. Waseda University. Journal. Nature Scientific Reports. Keywords. * ... How thalidomide is effective against cerebral infarction Scientists reveal that this dangerous drug could suppress nerve cell ... Specifically, Sawamuras research group used cerebral ischemia model rats of the cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R ... "to better treat diseases such as cerebral infarction, a type of stroke which is a major cause of death worldwide." ...
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Focal Cerebral Ischemia Model by Endovascular Suture Occlusion of the Middle Cerebral Artery in the Rat, Rose Bengal ... Embolic Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) for Ischemic Stroke with Homologous Blood Clots in Rats, Permanent Cerebral ... Isolation and Cannulation of Cerebral Parenchymal Arterioles, Endothelin-1 Induced Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model for ... Cerebral Infarct Evaluation by Cresyl Violet Staining, A Versatile Murine Model of Subcortical White Matter Stroke for the ...
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Fat embolism and cerebral infarction after use of methylmethacrylic cement. | The BMJFat embolism and cerebral infarction after use of methylmethacrylic cement. | The BMJ

Fat embolism and cerebral infarction after use of methylmethacrylic cement. Br Med J 1972; 3 :740 ... Fat embolism and cerebral infarction after use of methylmethacrylic cement.. Br Med J 1972; 3 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj. ...
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Cerebral infarction associated with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage | SpringerLinkCerebral infarction associated with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage | SpringerLink

Cerebral infarction is a common complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), but usually occurs several days after ... Ohkuma H, Manabe H, Tanaka M, Suzuki S. Impact of cerebral microcirculatory changes on cerebral blood flow during cerebral ... Early cerebral infarction on CT is a rare but devastating complication of acute SAH. The observed associations with coma, ... Cerebral infarction is a common complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), but usually occurs several days after ...
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Surgical Decompression for Space-Occupying Cerebral Infarction | StrokeSurgical Decompression for Space-Occupying Cerebral Infarction | Stroke

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Clinical Research in Cerebral Infarction (Brain Infarction) in H1, 2017Clinical Research in Cerebral Infarction (Brain Infarction) in H1, 2017

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Cerebral Infarction | Profiles RNSCerebral Infarction | Profiles RNS

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more infohttps://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/106016

Large Cerebral Infarction During Praziquantel Therapy in Neurocysticercosis | StrokeLarge Cerebral Infarction During Praziquantel Therapy in Neurocysticercosis | Stroke

NCC is a rare cause of large cerebral infarction.4 5 6 7 8 9 10 It is documented that subarachnoid cysticerci produce abnormal ... Large Cerebral Infarction During Praziquantel Therapy in Neurocysticercosis. Oh Young Bang, Ji Hoe Heo, Sun Ah Choi, Dong Ik ... Large Cerebral Infarction During Praziquantel Therapy in Neurocysticercosis. Oh Young Bang, Ji Hoe Heo, Sun Ah Choi and Dong Ik ... Large Cerebral Infarction During Praziquantel Therapy in Neurocysticercosis. Oh Young Bang, Ji Hoe Heo, Sun Ah Choi and Dong Ik ...
more infohttp://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/28/1/211

Meta-Analysis of the Clinical Effectiveness and Safety of Ligustrazine in Cerebral InfarctionMeta-Analysis of the Clinical Effectiveness and Safety of Ligustrazine in Cerebral Infarction

G. X. Cao, W. Lu, and Q. S. Hu, "Effect of tetramethylpyrazine on 72 cases of cerebral infarction," Journal of Hubei Institute ... C. R. Xu, P. Guo, and L. M. Liu, "High dose ligustrazine in the treatment of 94 cases of acute cerebral infarction," Shandong ... G. B. Hou, "Ligustrazine injection in the treatment of 70 cases of cerebral infarction," Guangming Journal of Chinese Medicine ... X. J. Huang, "Ligustrazine in the treatment of 56 cases of cerebral infarction," Shanxi Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 29, ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3595946/ref/

Cerebral Infarction in Children with Sickle Cell Disease: A Concise Overview.Cerebral Infarction in Children with Sickle Cell Disease: A Concise Overview.

In this article we overview the current knowledge of cerebral infarction in this patient population and d ... Cerebral infarction is a common complication in sickle cell disease. Both overt and silent infarcts evident on neuroimaging ... Cerebral infarction is a common complication in sickle cell disease. Both overt and silent infarcts evident on neuroimaging ... In this article we overview the current knowledge of cerebral infarction in this patient population and discuss recent updates ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Cerebral-Infarction-in-Children-with/21967673.html

Early vs. Delayed Cerebral Infarction Following Aneurysm Repair after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.Early vs. Delayed Cerebral Infarction Following Aneurysm Repair after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

While usually considered a complication of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), infarcts may also occur early, in relation to ... Cerebral infarction is a major contributor to poor outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). ... BACKGROUND:: Cerebral infarction is a major contributor to poor outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). While usually ... CONCLUSION:: Early infarction occurs frequently after SAH and contributes as much as DCI to infarct burden and hospital outcome ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Early-vs-Delayed-Cerebral-Infarction/23787882.html
  • Cerebral infarction, also known as ischemic stroke, occurs when the blood vessels that supply the brain are disturbed so that blood flow is interrupted. (wisegeek.com)
  • A cerebral infarction is the ischemic kind of stroke due to a disturbance in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain. (thefullwiki.org)
  • A cerebral infarction (stroke) occurs when a blood vessel that supplies a part of the brain becomes blocked or leakage occurs outside the vessel walls. (thefullwiki.org)
  • We hope that our findings will help with the development of new and safer thalidomide derivatives," says Naoya Sawamura , associate professor of neuropharmacology at Waseda University and leading author of this study, "to better treat diseases such as cerebral infarction, a type of stroke which is a major cause of death worldwide. (eurekalert.org)
  • Methods- Patients with space-occupying hemispheric infarction, who were enrolled in the Hemicraniectomy After Middle cerebral artery infarction with Life-threatening Edema Trial within 4 days after stroke onset, were followed up at 3 years. (ahajournals.org)
  • The restricted oxygen due to the restricted blood supply causes an ischemic stroke that can result in an infarction if the blood flow is not restored within a relatively short period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computed X-ray tomography (CT) scan of the brain of woman aged 48 years, revealing an area of cerebral infarction - the result of a stroke. (sciencephoto.com)
  • If cerebral infarction is caused by a thrombus occluding blood flow to an artery supplying the brain, definitive therapy is aimed at removing the blockage by breaking the clot down ( thrombolysis ), or by removing it mechanically ( thrombectomy ). (thefullwiki.org)
  • This is accomplished by inserting a catheter into the femoral artery , directing it into the cerebral circulation , and deploying a corkscrew-like device to ensnare the clot, which is then withdrawn from the body. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Cerebral artery gas embolism (e.g. during ascent from a SCUBA dive) is also a possible cause of infarction (Levvett & Millar, 2008) Computed tomography (CT) and MRI scanning will show damaged area in the brain, showing that the symptoms were not caused by a tumor, subdural hematoma or other brain disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • The observed associations with coma, global cerebral edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and loss of consciousness at onset suggest that intracranial circulatory arrest may play a role in the pathogenesis of this disorder. (springer.com)
  • In subacute infarction there is gyral edema which exerts positive mass effect, gyral enhancement and hemorrhagic transformation. (radiopaedia.org)
  • 0.001), coma on presentation ( P = 0.001), intraventricular hemorrhage ( P = 0.002), elevated APACHE-II physiological subscores ( P = 0.026) and loss of consciousness at onset ( P = 0.029) were associated with early cerebral infarction. (springer.com)
  • Further study is required to determine the relationship between Sophora japonica -mediated reduction in cerebral infarction size and the effects of Sophora japonica on platelet aggregation and cardiovascular function. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The most frequent site of the SCI lesion was basal ganglia, after which the periventricular white matter, cerebral cortex, and thalamus were the most frequent sites. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cerebral Infarction" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • Mortality ( P = 0.003) and death or moderate-to-severe disability (mRS 4-6, P = 0.01) occurred more frequently in the early cerebral infarction group. (springer.com)
  • In this article we overview the current knowledge of cerebral infarction in this patient population and discuss recent updates on the role of preventive intervention. (biomedsearch.com)
  • and that therapeutic intervention at this stage of the disease could significantly reduce the subsequent occurrence of cerebral infarction. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • J. Z. Xu, "Status quo of traditional Chinese medicine treatment of cerebral infarction," Chinese Medicine Mordern Diatance Education of China , vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 192-194, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • G. B. Hou, "Ligustrazine injection in the treatment of 70 cases of cerebral infarction," Guangming Journal of Chinese Medicine , vol. 25, no. 7, p. 1198, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • X. J. Huang, "Ligustrazine in the treatment of 56 cases of cerebral infarction," Shanxi Traditional Chinese Medicine , vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 169-170, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • A follow-up MRI obtained immediately after his cerebral infarction demonstrated notable decrease in the size of the cysts and more prominent enhancement around the peripheral margins of the cysts and the major vessels in comparison with the initial MRI. (ahajournals.org)
  • Infarctions will result in weakness and loss of sensation on the opposite side of the body . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Sophora japonica reduces cerebral infarction partly as a result of its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Subjects with evidence of prior cerebral infarction on MRI, whether symptomatic or asymptomatic, were randomized to receive either chronic transfusion therapy alone ('standard therapy') or chronic transfusion therapy plus ticlopidine, in order to determine whether ticlopidine could significantly increase the efficacy of standard therapy in preventing recurrent cerebral infarction in SCA. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To this end, we searched the English language databases namely Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Chinese language database namely China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) between 1980 and 2009, using Sophora japonica (OR quercetin OR rutin) AND cerebral infarction as the English keywords and Huaihua as the Chinese one. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The objective of this study was to determine the time course of signal intensity changes on diffusion-weighted MR images after cerebral infarction. (nih.gov)
  • G. X. Cao, W. Lu, and Q. S. Hu, "Effect of tetramethylpyrazine on 72 cases of cerebral infarction," Journal of Hubei Institute for Nationalities (Medical Edition) , vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 19-21, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • L. J. Guo and Z. Y. Yang, "Curative effect observation on 36 cases of cerebral infarction treated with Ligustrazine Injection," Journal of Community Medicine , vol. 7, no. 14, pp. 24-25, 2009. (hindawi.com)