Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.
Bleeding within the SKULL that is caused by systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.
The susceptibility of CAPILLARIES, under conditions of increased stress, to leakage.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
A familial disorder marked by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES.
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.
Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.
Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)
A vascular anomaly composed of a collection of large, thin walled tortuous VEINS that can occur in any part of the central nervous system but lack intervening nervous tissue. Familial occurrence is common and has been associated with a number of genes mapped to 7q, 7p and 3q. Clinical features include SEIZURES; HEADACHE; STROKE; and progressive neurological deficit.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES due to TRAUMA. Hemorrhage may involve any part of the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the BASAL GANGLIA. Depending on the severity of bleeding, clinical features may include SEIZURES; APHASIA; VISION DISORDERS; MOVEMENT DISORDERS; PARALYSIS; and COMA.
A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.
Impairment in the comprehension of speech and meaning of words, both spoken and written, and of the meanings conveyed by their grammatical relationships in sentences. It is caused by lesions that primarily affect Wernicke's area, which lies in the posterior perisylvian region of the temporal lobe of the dominant hemisphere. (From Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p141; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p846)
A homologous group of endogenous CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS. The cystatins inhibit most CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES such as PAPAIN, and other peptidases which have a sulfhydryl group at the active site.
Excess blood loss from uterine bleeding associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH. It is defined as blood loss greater than 500 ml or of the amount that adversely affects the maternal physiology, such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEMATOCRIT. Postpartum hemorrhage is divided into two categories, immediate (within first 24 hours after birth) or delayed (after 24 hours postpartum).
Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is the most frequently seen isolate of that group, has a proclivity for abscess formation, and is most often isolated from the blood, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tract.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.
Hemorrhage into the VITREOUS BODY.
Intraocular hemorrhage from the vessels of various tissues of the eye.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
A syndrome associated with damage to the spinal cord above the mid thoracic level (see SPINAL CORD INJURIES) characterized by a marked increase in the sympathetic response to minor stimuli such as bladder or rectal distention. Manifestations include HYPERTENSION; TACHYCARDIA (or reflex bradycardia); FEVER; FLUSHING; and HYPERHIDROSIS. Extreme hypertension may be associated with a STROKE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp538 and 1232; J Spinal Cord Med 1997;20(3):355-60)
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.
Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).
Veins draining the cerebrum.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
Agents that prevent clotting.
Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.
An extracellular cystatin subtype that is abundantly expressed in bodily fluids. It may play a role in the inhibition of interstitial CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Bleeding within the subcortical regions of cerebral hemispheres (BASAL GANGLIA). It is often associated with HYPERTENSION or ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS. Clinical manifestations may include HEADACHE; DYSKINESIAS; and HEMIPARESIS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.
Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
Hemorrhage from the vessels of the choroid.
Bleeding from a PEPTIC ULCER that can be located in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Intracranial bleeding into the PUTAMEN, a BASAL GANGLIA nucleus. This is associated with HYPERTENSION and lipohyalinosis of small blood vessels in the putamen. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of hemorrhage, but include HEMIPARESIS; HEADACHE; and alterations of consciousness.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.
Hemorrhage within the orbital cavity, posterior to the eyeball.
Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Radiography of the ventricular system of the brain after injection of air or other contrast medium directly into the cerebral ventricles. It is used also for x-ray computed tomography of the cerebral ventricles.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
Bleeding within the brain as a result of penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Traumatically induced hemorrhages may occur in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM (see BRAIN STEM HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC); and CEREBELLUM.
Acute hemorrhage or excessive fluid loss resulting in HYPOVOLEMIA.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.

Suicide after traumatic brain injury: a population study. (1/39)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the rates of suicide among patients who have had a traumatic brain injury. METHODS: From a Danish population register of admissions to hospital covering the years 1979-93 patients were selected who had had either a concussion (n=126 114), a cranial fracture (n=7560), or a cerebral contusion or traumatic intracranial haemorrhage (n=11 766). All cases of deaths by the end of the study period were identified. RESULTS: In the three diagnostic groups there had been 750 (0.59%), 46 (0.61%), and 99 (0.84%) cases of suicide respectively. Standardised mortality ratios, stratified by sex and age, showed that the incidence of suicide among the three diagnostic groups was increased relative to the general population (3.0, 2.7, and 4.1 respectively). In all diagnosis groups the ratios were higher for females than for males, and lower for patients injured before the age of 21 or after the age of 60. The presence of a codiagnosis relating to substance misuse was associated with increased suicide rates in all diagnosis groups. There was a tendency, among patients with cerebral contusions or traumatic intracranial haemorrhages, for suicide risk to increase with duration of stay in hospital. Cox regression analyses for proportional hazards confirmed that there was a significantly greater risk of suicide among patients with cerebral contusions or traumatic intracranial haemorrhages than among patients with concussion or cranial fractures (hazard ratios=1.42 and 1.50 respectively). There was, however, no evidence of a specific risk period for suicide after injury. CONCLUSION: The increased risk of suicide among patients who had a mild traumatic brain injury may result from concomitant risk factors such as psychiatric conditions and psychosocial disadvantage. The greater risk among the more serious cases implicates additionally the physical, psychological, and social consequences of the injuries as directly contributing to the suicides.  (+info)

The structural basis of moderate disability after traumatic brain damage. (2/39)

The objective was to discover the nature of brain damage in survivors of head injury who are left with moderate disability. Macroscopic and microscopic examination was carried out on the brains of 20 persons who had died long after a head injury that had been treated in a neurosurgical unit. All had become independent but had various disabilities (moderate disability on the Glasgow outcome scale) Most deaths had been sudden, which had led to their referral from forensic pathologists. Post-traumatic epilepsy was a feature in 75%. An intracranial haematoma had been evacuated in 75%, and in 11 of the 15 with epilepsy. Diffuse axonal injury was found in six patients, five of the mildest type (grade 1) and one of grade 2. No patient had diffuse thalamic damage but one had a small focal ischaemic lesion in the thalamus. No patient had severe ischaemic brain damage, but three had moderate lesions which were bilateral in only one. No patient had severe cortical contusions. In conclusion, the dominant lesion was focal damage from an evacuated intracranial haematoma. Severe diffuse damage was not found, with diffuse axonal injury only mild and thalamic damage in only one patient.  (+info)

Giant cell glioblastoma manifesting as traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage--case report. (3/39)

A 33-year-old male presented with intracerebral hemorrhage in the left temporoparietal region after a traffic accident. Ten months later, the traumatic hemorrhage was found to originate in an underlying giant cell glioblastoma. Our case indicates that non-traumatic underlying pathologies, such as vasculopathies, coagulopathies, or tumors, should be considered in the differential diagnoses of intracerebral hemorrhage occurring in unusual locations after traumatic accidents.  (+info)

Magnetization transfer MR imaging in patients with posttraumatic epilepsy. (4/39)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intractable epilepsy is a well-recognized complication following head trauma, and many factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis. This study was performed to determine the severity of tissue damage after severe head injury as assessed with magnetization transfer (MT) MR imaging and the relationship of this damage with seizure intractability. METHODS: Forty-four patients, 13 without seizures (disease controls) and 31 with seizures, underwent T1-weighted MT MR imaging 1-10 years after head trauma. Phase-corrected gradient-echo (GRE) imaging was also performed in all patients to look for the presence of hemosiderin. All patients were evaluated for the presence of an MT abnormality beyond an abnormality seen on T2-weighted images, an MT abnormality within a T2 abnormality, and hemosiderin deposition. RESULTS: Patients with an MT abnormality beyond a T2 abnormality had a significantly higher intractability of seizures compared with those with an MT abnormality within a T2 abnormality (P <.05). In addition, the mere presence of hemosiderin deposit was not associated with seizure intractability; however, gliosis around the hemosiderin as seen on T1-weighted MT images was associated with seizure intractability. CONCLUSIONS: T1-weighted MT imaging may be of value in predicting the intractability of the seizure in delayed posttraumatic epilepsy.  (+info)

Acute fatal haemorrhage during percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. (5/39)

Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) is associated with a number of life-threatening complications. We present a case of massive and fatal arterial haemorrhage that occurred in the intensive care unit during an elective PDT on an 86-year-old woman following earlier evacuation of a traumatic subdural haematoma. An avulsed right subclavian artery was found at post mortem. Previous thyroid surgery and aberrant arterial anatomy contributed to the fatal outcome.  (+info)

Low doses of dexamethasone decrease brain water content of collagenase-induced cerebral hematoma. (6/39)

Different doses of dexamethasone were evaluated for the treatment of cerebral trauma using a rat model of cerebral hematoma induced by intracerebral (IC) stereotaxic injections of collagenase. Control animals received an intracerebral collagenase injection followed by intraperitoneal (IP) saline injection. Sham operated animals received saline only (IC, IP). Forty-eight hours following the surgeries, the brains were removed from the euthanized animals. Cerebral hemispheres were separated and the 4 coronal sections (antero-posterior plane) were weighed. Each slice was dried for 24 h (100 degrees C) and weighed again to establish brain water content. In hematoma-induced saline treated rats, significant differences in brain water content were observed when compared to sham operated animals. Rats treated with 1 mg/kg dexamethasone had a significant brain water content decrease; however, no significant differences were observed with higher doses of dexamethasone. In conclusion, low doses of dexamethasone seem to be beneficial for the treatment of cerebral trauma.  (+info)

Diffuse axonal injury associated with chronic traumatic brain injury: evidence from T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging at 3 T. (7/39)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diffuse axonal injury is frequently accompanied by tissue tear hemorrhages. We examined whether high field strength T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging performed during the chronic stage of traumatic brain injury may have advantages in the evaluation of diffuse axonal injury as compared with T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging. METHODS: Prospective MR imaging of 66 patients (age range, 17-57 years) was performed using a 3-T system 3 to 292 months (median, 23.5 months) after traumatic brain injury. T1-, T2-, T2*-hypointense and T2-hyperintense foci of 1- to 15-mm diameter were registered in 10 brain regions by two readers separately. Foci that appeared hypointense both on the T1- and T2- and/or on the T2*-weighted images were defined as traumatic microbleeds. RESULTS: For 46 (69.7%) of the patients, T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging revealed traumatic microbleeds. Hyperintense foci were observed on the T2-weighted images of only 15 (22.7%) patients. T2*-weighted imaging showed significantly more traumatic microbleeds (P =.000) than did T1- and T2-weighted imaging. Interobserver agreement was strong (kappa = 0.79, tau = 0.749, P =.000). For 14 (21.2%) of the patients, T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging revealed traumatic microbleeds in the corpus callosum, whereas for only two (3%), hyperintense callosal lesions were seen on the T2-weighted images. Although a significant correlation existed between the total amount and callosal appearance of traumatic microbleeds and Glasgow Coma Scale scores (P =.000), no correlation existed with extended Glasgow Outcome Scale scores. CONCLUSION: T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging at high field strength is a useful tool for the evaluation of diffuse axonal injury during the chronic stage of traumatic brain injury. Diffuse axonal injury-related brain lesions are mainly hemorrhagic. The relevance of diffuse axonal injury for long-term clinical outcome is uncertain.  (+info)

Endovascular management of intracranial pial arterio-venous fistulas. (8/39)

From 1996-2002 we treated 5 consecutive cases of pial fistula. There were 3 patients with a single hole-single channel pial fistula and two patients had a complex pial fistula. Three patients presented with intracerebral hematoma and had a focal neurological deficit. One patient presented with history of seizures and 1 patient had headache. The results of the treatment were analyzed both clinically and angiographically. The follow-up period ranged from 6 months to 6 years. All fistulas were treated with concentrated glue. The glue cast included the distal part of the feeding artery, A-V connection and the proximal part of the vein. Post-embolisation angiography showed complete occlusion of two single-hole fistulas and one complex pial A-V fistula and near total occlusion of one single-hole and one complex pial A-V fistula. Four patients had excellent clinical outcome. One patient with single-hole fistula had a hemorrhagic venous infarct resulting in transient hemiparesis.  (+info)

121 Introduction: Serial changes in cerebral blood flow after intracerebral hemorrhage may influence tissue viability in regions surrounding the hematoma. Non invasive monitoring may assist titration of systolic blood pressure. Purpose: To determine if continuous quantitative electroencephalography percent alpha variability(EEGPAV)can discriminate areas of critically reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF). Methods:Ten patients with traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage underwent combined monitoring of cerebral microdialysis, EEGPAV, and intermittent xenon-computerized tomograhpy to determine if EEGPAV monitoring could determine and monitor cellular distress in the context of oligemia. Critical oligemia was defined as CBF , 25. Time and regional matched samples of EEG, microdialysis and CBF were used to correlate across modalities. Regions adjacent to the hematoma only were studied. Results:Six patients had regional CBF , 25 and 4 , 30 cc/100gm/min. In the low CBF group, the mean regional EEGPAV was 0.11 ...
phdthesis{74ce6a0f-c52f-44ef-87f8-43a867a9df8a, abstract = {[abstract missing]}, author = {Engström, Martin}, isbn = {91-85439-92-4}, issn = {1652-8220}, language = {eng}, publisher = {Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University}, school = {Lund University}, series = {Lund University Faculty of Medicine Doctoral Dissertation Series}, title = {Progressive Traumatic Intracerebral Contusions - Studies of the correlation to the biochemical environment and the coagulation system.}, volume = {2005:90}, year = {2005 ...
A small number of patients with an apparently minor head injury will develop a life-threatening intracranial hematoma that must be rapidly detected and removed. To assess the risk of a significant intracranial neurosurgical complication after apparently minor head injury, the authors collected data prospectively on 610 patients who had sustained a transient posttraumatic loss of consciousness or other neurological function and who had a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13, 14, or 15 in the emergency room. Skull x-ray films were obtained in 583 patients, 66 of whom (10.8% of the study population) had cranial fractures. Eighteen of the 610 patients (3.0%) required a neurosurgical procedure. Three acute subdural hematomas, one epidural hematoma, and one traumatic intracerebral hematoma required craniotomy. Of the 66 patients who had skull fracture, 7.6% required a craniotomy for intracranial hematoma. Thirteen (19.7%) of the 66 patients with skull fracture required an operative procedure as ...
Author(s): Mendelow DA, Gregson BA, Rowan EN, Francis R, Mitchell P. Publication type: Conference Proceedings (inc. Abstract). Publication status: Published. Conference Name: 11th Symposium of the International Neurotrauma Society Year of Conference: 2014. Pages: A30-A30. ISSN: 1557-9042. Publisher: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers URL: http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1089/neu.2014.9937. Series Title: Journal of Neurotrauma. ...
Definition of the term Traumatic Cerebral Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the CEREBRAL CORTEX; CORPUS CALLOSUM; BASAL GANGLIA, or subcortical white matter following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY, cerebral
A 66-year-old male patient, with an unremarkable past medical history, was admitted via the emergency department with blunt trauma. He presented in shock with an open wound of his left thigh and massive bleeding, suggestive of left femoral vessel injury, along with a traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage, a left femoral mid-shaft fracture and left hip dislocation. His initial blood pressure was 50/20mm Hg and pulse rate was 130/minute. Our trauma team decided to perform REBOA using a RESCUE balloonTM catheter (Tokai Medical Products, Aichi, Japan) and 7 Fr. Radiofocus® Introducer II (Terumo, Tokyo, Japan) via his right common femoral artery, targeting zone III. After performing total inflation of the balloon using normal saline, we checked its position using portable X-ray, and found that the catheter was placed at zone II (Fig. 1). We planned to reposition the REBOA catheter to zone III in the emergency room, however, the patients vital signs worsened and we decided to reposition the catheter in ...
Cayuga Biotech is a startup company developing novel hemostatic drugs and devices to treat uncontrollable bleeding episodes. We envision our product as a universal agent able to generate clots in all bleeding scenarios while minimizing the risk of side effects.. Trauma and hemorrhage are intertwined conditions that account for the number one cause of death and disability worldwide. We are developing treatments that promote hemostasis for both trauma-related hemorrhage and rare, inherited bleeding disorders.. Live to tell the story.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decompressive craniectomy as the primary surgical intervention for hemorrhagic contusion. AU - Huang, Abel Po Hao. AU - Tu, Yong Kwang. AU - Tsai, Yi Hsin. AU - Chen, Yuan Shen. AU - Hong, Wei Chen. AU - Yang, Chi Cheng. AU - Kuo, Lu Ting. AU - Su, I. Chang. AU - Huang, She Hao. AU - Huang, Sheng Jean. PY - 2008/11/1. Y1 - 2008/11/1. N2 - The standard surgical treatment of hemorrhagic cerebral contusion is craniotomy with evacuation of the focal lesion. We assessed the safety and feasibility of performing decompressive craniectomy and duraplasty as the primary surgical intervention in this group of patients. Fifty-four consecutive patients with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of less than or equal to 8, a frontal or temporal hemorrhagic contusion greater than 20 cm3 in volume, and a midline shift of at least 5 mm or cisternal compression on computer tomography (CT) scan were studied. Sixteen (29.7%) underwent traditional craniotomy with hematoma evacuation, and 38 (70.4%) ...
Intracerebral haemorrhage may be visible indefinitely on MRI, due to persistence of haemosiderin in macrophages around the lesion, but it is not clear whether all haemorrhages produce haemosiderin or,
There are no documented side effects of Lutein but it is recommended that you do not Is Beta Carotene Good For Tanning Eye Headlight Lazy Ruckus take too much of the nutrient as it can possibly Hemophilia and color blindness are recessive disorders. Data Cataracts In Infants Related Articles. Is Beta Carotene Good For Tanning Eye Headlight Lazy Ruckus ocular surface disease. Since glaucoma usually causes no symptoms other than vision loss Vision loss caused by glaucoma is permanent. diffuse axonal injury ; cavernoma: Cereal hemorrhagic contusion; Hemorrhagic cereal contusion; Hemorrhagic cereal contusions; This is particularly useful when treating lazy eye in children as they are sometimes reluctant to wear an eye patch.. The consumption of food and medicinal plants with antioxidant properties have proven their efficacy against skin aging and damage from the sun. Porn game: Dream Job The Interview. Ophthalmologist Portland OR - The Eye Clinic P.. Visit our site or call today to learn more about ...
This patient attended after a series of falls. He displayed ongoing confusion and behavioural change while rehabilitating in hospital. The case was discussed with neurosurgery but was managed conservatively. --- Thanks to Dr Gilly Fleming for...
This one took a bit longer to finish, because I have been busy with work and other things, but I will keep going with the 90s ...
Radiographs demonstrating a left orbit floor fracture and associated opacification of the maxillary sinus (hemosinus). These findings were confirmed on CT, which also demonstrated multiple small foci of brain haemorrhagic contusions.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surgery for intracerebral hematoma. T2 - The search for the elusive right candidate. AU - Rabinstein, Alejandro A.. AU - Wijdicks, Eelco F.M.. PY - 2006/9/1. Y1 - 2006/9/1. N2 - The value of surgery for patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains a topic of debate. Although several studies have been unable to prove the benefit of surgical intervention of ICH, there is available evidence to suggest that some patients may experience favorable outcome with surgery. Identifying optimal candidates and the timing of surgery for the treatment of ICH are crucial issues. Studies have explored the value of early and ultra-early surgical intervention, as well as the role of stereotactic hematoma evacuation. The International Surgical Trial in Intracerebral Hemorrhage suggested that favorable surgical outcome was more likely for patients with superficial hematomas, and patients who underwent craniotomy in the trial seemed to fare better than those treated with other surgical ...
Diffuse axonal injury is a severe form of brain injury which occurs in some traumatic brain injury patients. It results from shearing forces that damage axons.
No diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study has yet investigated ataxia in diffuse axonal injury (DAI). In the current study, we used DTI to investigate cerebellar peduncle lesions of patients who showed severe ataxia following DAI. Six patients with sev
Intracerebral hematoma (ICH) are socially significant disease with high mortality or severe disability. The classic method of surgical treatment of ICH is wide craniotomy / craniectomy with open evacuation. As a possible ...
Hello. Thanks for writing to us. The sick leave depends on the extent of contusion and if any late symptoms are expected or not. The area of contusion is also very important. The best judgement would be of your treating doctors as he knows how much the damage is. From your symptoms it seems that...
Diffuse axonal injury Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is one of the most common and devastating types of brain injury (Iwata et al., 2004), occurring in almost
Histology in DAI. A number of histological techniques are available to appreciate sequential pathological changes in axons in diffuse axonal injury. These are primarily aimed at shortening the duration at which the axonal changes are seen and to put them in context to various traumatic and non traumatic conditions so as to differentiate the causative mechanism. Axonal swellings or retraction balls, representing transected axons, are the histological hallmark of axonal injury but are usually not visible before 24 to 36 hours by routine H & E staining or with a myelin stain like Luxol fast blue [2]. Silver staining method can reliably demonstrate axonal swellings within 12 to 18 hours [27]. The method has been found to be more sensitive and reliable as compare to H & E staining. However diffuse staining of axons by silver stains may occasionally make differentiation of injured and irregular axons difficult thereby limiting their practical utility [28]. Injuries to the axons may be detected even ...
Cerebrospinal Fluid Protein Increased & Hypertension & Intracerebral Hematoma Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Cerebral Hemorrhage. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
This months cases include stroke and intracerebral hematoma in a postpartum woman and bacterial meningitis in a 10-year-old girl.
Management Strategies of Intracerebral Hematomas - click here to listen In this podcast, topic editor Dr. Marc Mayberg of The Swedish Neuroscience Institute, Seattle, Washington, speaks with Dr. David Newell, also of The Swedish Neuroscience Institute. They discuss Dr. Newell and colleagues article Minimally Invasive Treatment of Intracranial Hemorrhage which appears in this months issue.
Cerebral contusion, Latin contusio cerebri, a form of traumatic brain injury, is a bruise of the brain tissue. Like bruises in other tissues, cerebral contusion can be associated with multiple microhemorrhages, small blood vessel leaks into brain tissue. Contusion occurs in 20-30% of severe head injuries. A cerebral laceration is a similar injury except that, according to their respective definitions, the pia-arachnoid membranes are torn over the site of injury in laceration and are not torn in contusion. The injury can cause a decline in mental function in the long term and in the emergency setting may result in brain herniation, a life-threatening condition in which parts of the brain are squeezed past parts of the skull. Thus treatment aims to prevent dangerous rises in intracranial pressure, the pressure within the skull. ...
Traumatic brain injuries are one of the most serious types of injuries caused by car accidents. Every year, over a million people suffer a traumatic brain injury.
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Seventy cases of intracerebral hematomas were analysed, forty-six of spontaneous origin and remainder of traumatic one, which had been experienced in Seoul National University Hospital between March, 1970 and June, 1975. The results were as follows: A. Among forth-six cases of spontaneous intracerebral hematomas, twenty-six cases(52%) were primary intracerebral hematomas, normotensive or hypertensive, seven aneurismal ruptures(15%), seven arteriovenous malformations(15%), two cerebral rete mirabilies, one tumor bleeding, one leukemia, one idiopathic thrombocytopenic and one due to other blood dyscrasia. 1. Among twenty-six cases of primary intracerebral hematomas, angiography was performed in all and fourteen cases were operated. The sites of hemorrhage were as follows: a. Putaminal hemorrhage:17 cases(65%)(two cases associated with intraventricular hematoma). b. Thalamic hemorrhage:5 cases(19%)(two cases associated with intraventricular hematoma). c. Subcortical hemorrhage:4 cases(16%). 2. ...
Mycotic aneurysms are produced by an infected embolus from vegetations on the heart valves in bacterial endocarditis, which breaks off and lodges in the cerebral blood vessels. The wall of the embolized vessel becomes infected, invasion by inflammatory cells and necrosis of the wall are often followed by rupture and formation of a aneurysmal sac. These aneurysms are very are in incidence and are usually located more peripherally in the vascular tree than berry aneurysms, are more irregular in shape and are not necessarily located at bifurcations. Recently we experienced a case of mycotic aneurysm with intracerebral hematoma which had developed in a subacute bacteria endocarditis patient. The patient was 44 years old male patient with dilated right pupil and left hemiplegia. He was treated surgically by evacuation of intracerebral hematoma and excision of mycotic aneurysm. We also experienced another case of mycotic aneurysm with intracerebral hematoma in 17 years old male patient who had been ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Early elective surgical exploration of spontaneous intracerebral hematomas of unknown origin. T2 - Clinical article. AU - Elhammady, Mohamed. AU - Baskaya, Mustafa K.. AU - Heros, Roberto. PY - 2008/12/1. Y1 - 2008/12/1. N2 - Object. The management of non-life threatening spontaneous intraparenchymal hemorrhage with no obvious medical etiology in patients and the lack of findings on images has not been clearly defined. In general, the current practice is to treat these patients conservatively and repeat studies to rule out a treatable cause 6 weeks to 3 months later; more often than not these repeated studies fail to reveal any findings, and the patient is treated conservatively. For years, the senior author (R.C.H.) has treated these patients with early surgical exploration. This study was undertaken prospectively to ascertain the frequency of positive findings during surgical exploration. Methods. Between 2000 and 2007, the authors prospectively collected data from 9 cases (4 ...
Cerebrospinal Fluid Protein Increased & Intracerebral Hematoma Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Cerebral Hemorrhage & Cerebral Thrombosis & Stroke. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
Cerebral contusion, Latin contusio cerebri, a form of traumatic brain injury, is a bruise of the brain tissue. Like bruises in other tissues, cerebral contusion can be associated with multiple microhemorrhages, small blood vessel leaks into brain tissue. Contusion occurs in 20-30% of severe head injuries. A cerebral laceration is a similar injury except that, according to their respective definitions, the pia-arachnoid membranes are torn over the site of injury in laceration and are not torn in contusion. The injury can cause a decline in mental function in the long term and in the emergency setting may result in brain herniation, a life-threatening condition in which parts of the brain are squeezed past parts of the skull. Thus treatment aims to prevent dangerous rises in intracranial pressure, the pressure within the skull. ...
Mostly it will prolapse during the passing of stool. Styplon is also found as a haemostatic drug in conjunction with herbal formulation cayenne pepper green tea for hemorrhoids If youre constipated, your GP may prescribe a laxative Laxatives are a type of medicine that can help you empty your bowels. You can simply take a cotton ball and soak it with apple cider vinegar and later apply it directly on the hemorrhoids to get rid of hemorrhoids.
Diffuse Axonal Injury is a brain injury associated most closely with the rotation and disruption of your brain within the cranium. This can cut away, shear or sever the brain axons, which are connecting nerve fibers. Damage such as this is typically difficult to analyze. It is also accompanied by microscopic tears that are difficult to locate from the get go.. If doctors diagnose your case as a mild brain injury you may notice that thus the wounds heal over time. But often, a DAI results in permanent disabilities from loss of consciousness to lifetime coma. Eventually, a fatality could be the nexus of a future wrongful death claim in civil court and even a murder case in criminal court.. Currently, medical science has not discovered a methodology to treat diffuse axonal injuries. But medical experts have observed in some studies that the damage to axons occurs in the first 12 to 24 hours after the head impact. Many are confident that modern advances in science will be able to treat and/or slow ...
How does the Anabaptist movement mesh with other reformation events? This presentation focuses on the benefits of using a timeline to keep Anabaptist history in the correct context.. ...
Care guide for Contusion In Children. Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a well-established treatment to reduce tremor, notably in Parkinson disease. DBS may also be effective in post-traumatic tremor, one of the most common movement disorders caused by head injury. However, the cohorts of patients often have multiple lesions that may impact the outcome depending on which fiber tracts are affected. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 20-year-old man presented after road traffic accident with severe closed head injury and polytrauma. Computed tomography scan showed left frontal and basal ganglia hemorrhagic contusions and intraventricular hemorrhage. A disabling tremor evolved in step with motor recovery. Despite high-intensity signals in the intended thalamic target, a visual analysis of the preoperative diffusion tensor imaging revealed preservation of connectivity of the intended target, ventralis oralis posterior thalamic nucleus (VOP). This was confirmed by the postoperative tractography study presented here. DBS of the VOP/zona incerta was
Objectives: We sought to describe the frequency and location of headache in intracerebral hematoma (ICH) and to analyze its clinical and CT predictors by means of multivariate analysis. Background: Headache is more common in intracerebral hemorrhage than in ischemic stroke, and its frequency varies with hematoma location, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms of headache associated with ICH are not fully known. Methods: We examined a cohort of 289 patients with ICH during a 14-month period in a university hospital. Clinical, including the presence and location of headache, and CT features were collected by two neurologists. Results: One hundred and sixty-five (57%) patients with ICH had a headache at the onset of their stroke. Headache was more common in cerebellar and lobar hemorrhages than in deep ones (thalamic, caudate, capsuloputaminal, brainstem). Headache was also more common in women, patients younger than 70 years, those who vomited, and those with meningeal signs, a Glasgow Coma Scale ...
Proposal for standardized preanalytical and analytical conditions for measuring thrombin generation in hemophilia. Readouts from the thrombin generation (TG) assay (TGA) have been used to predict the effects of hemostatic drugs in hemophilic patients [1]. There is better correlation between an individuals bleeding tendency and his or her TG capacity compared with factor levels measured using routine assays [2, 3]. However, the clinical utility of TGA has not yet been validated in multicenter studies because of lack of standardization. This report aims to highlight variables that may impact directly on TGA reliability and steps to reduce TGA variability within and between laboratories to improve precision of results. Read more.. ...
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An emerging field of research focuses on using biomarkers as a different non-invasive clinical approach for diagnosis of DAI. These markers could be detected in CSFsamples due to the breakdown products of neurons and diffusion through the damaged blood brain barrier of traumatic brain injury patients. Possible biomarkers could include proteins associated with primary structural damage or with the cellular and molecular cascade involved in secondary axonomy. Axonal and glial biomarkers include neurofilaments (NF), microtubule-associated protein tau, and α-II Spectrin, and myelin basic protein. These are all critical components of the cytoskeleton or myelin that are dephosphorylated, degraded, depolymerized, and form protein bundles upon injury due to the action of proteolytic enzymes. Biomarkers associated with the molecular cascade during secondary axonomy include β-Amyloid precursor protein, an axoplasmic transport protein that accumulates in the retraction balls, amyloid β, FE65, and ...
Diffuse Axonal Injury (DAI). Trauma professionals tend to focus on the two extremes of TBI: mild concussive injury because we see so much of it, and very severe injury that we have to work so hard to keep the patient alive. Today Ill write about the one in the middle, diffuse axonal injury (DAI). People dont talk about it nearly as much, and it seems kind of mysterious.. DAI is also known as a shear injury, because thats what we think happens to the brain at the time of injury. Officially, it is diagnosed when a patient remains in a coma for more than 6 hours without a demonstrable mass lesion from bleeding seen on CT. It is seen in about 15% of trauma ICU patients with head injury. Essentially the substance of the brain moves around enough to disrupt a critical mass of axonal connections that results in prolonged unconsciousness. It then takes time to try to rebuild those connections and restore consciousness and some degree of cognition. Mechanisms which result in sudden acceleration or ...
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Guidelines for the management of severe head injury in adults as evolved by the European Brain Injury Consortium are presented and discussed. The importance of preventing and treating secondary...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intensive care monitoring of severe head injury. AU - Rafferty, C.. AU - Hansen, S.. AU - Bullock, Ross. AU - Teasdale, G. M.. AU - Fitch, W.. AU - Jamal, G. A.. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0026696761&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0026696761&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0026696761. VL - 3. JO - Clinical Intensive Care. JF - Clinical Intensive Care. SN - 0956-3075. IS - 2 SUPPL.. ER - ...
Scheid, R.; Preul, C.; Gruber, O.; Wiggins, C.; von Cramon, D. Y.: Diffuse axonal injury associated with chronic traumatic brain injury: Evidence from T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging at 3 T. Meeting of the Deutschen-Gesellschaft-fur-Neurologie, Meeting of the Deutschen-Gesellschaft-fur-Neurologie, 27. September 2009. American Journal of Neuroradiology 24 (6), S. 1049 - 1056 (2004 ...
Can you die from post concussive syndrome - Can you die from post concussive syndrome? Not likely. Post concussive syndrome should not be fatal. Although this is one of the disorders under traumatic brain injury, concussion should not show abnormalities on ct scan or the diagnosis changes to something more severe such as diffuse axonal injury.
Calcium, Concentration, Membrane, Axonal Transport, Axons, Brain, Brain Injury, Calpain, Cell Death, Cytoskeleton, Death, Diffuse Axonal Injury, Future, Injury, Mitochondria, Neurons, Permeability, Poloxamer, Poloxamer 188, Therapeutic
They dont think at this point, that Cale is ever going to be able to care for himself. Theyre hoping that when he starts walking (which could be this week!) that he can get to the point of being aware enough that he can hold a conversation and know whats going on around him. The last 10 weeks its been them saying they dont know, they just dont know. Now, theyve diagnosed Cale with severe diffuse axonal injury. I KNOW God is still in control and works miracles. Im not giving up or loosing hope, Im just realizing that its not just me saying anymore that Cale might be like this forever, its reality. As of today they are still estimating 5 weeks left in this program, but at this point are not thinking hes going to make it to rehab and that I should start making plans for our life this way. When they first brought up nursing homes at Pitt, I said no, and that I didnt think it was Gods plan. Then, it was just a lightly brought up possibility, now Im supposed to be making plans. God had ...
I was very proud of this essay which I wrote as part of my Masters degree. It got me a first. Please dont use sections from it in your own work without proper referencing. The issue of women in history has been neglected until relatively recently. Hence the historiography on the effects of the Reformation…
We must always remember that the devil has his miracles. A vague and incorrect understanding of God is ignorance of Him. When God pours out His radiance or reveals even a particle of it to us, then everything that has been the brightest in the world until now will be immersed in darkness compared to Him.. ...

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