Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.
Bleeding within the SKULL that is caused by systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.
The susceptibility of CAPILLARIES, under conditions of increased stress, to leakage.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
A familial disorder marked by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES.
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.
Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.
Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)
A vascular anomaly composed of a collection of large, thin walled tortuous VEINS that can occur in any part of the central nervous system but lack intervening nervous tissue. Familial occurrence is common and has been associated with a number of genes mapped to 7q, 7p and 3q. Clinical features include SEIZURES; HEADACHE; STROKE; and progressive neurological deficit.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES due to TRAUMA. Hemorrhage may involve any part of the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the BASAL GANGLIA. Depending on the severity of bleeding, clinical features may include SEIZURES; APHASIA; VISION DISORDERS; MOVEMENT DISORDERS; PARALYSIS; and COMA.
A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.
Impairment in the comprehension of speech and meaning of words, both spoken and written, and of the meanings conveyed by their grammatical relationships in sentences. It is caused by lesions that primarily affect Wernicke's area, which lies in the posterior perisylvian region of the temporal lobe of the dominant hemisphere. (From Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p141; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p846)
A homologous group of endogenous CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS. The cystatins inhibit most CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES such as PAPAIN, and other peptidases which have a sulfhydryl group at the active site.
Excess blood loss from uterine bleeding associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH. It is defined as blood loss greater than 500 ml or of the amount that adversely affects the maternal physiology, such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEMATOCRIT. Postpartum hemorrhage is divided into two categories, immediate (within first 24 hours after birth) or delayed (after 24 hours postpartum).
Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
## I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Japan" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Asia, known as Nihon-koku or Nippon-koku in Japanese, and is renowned for its unique culture, advanced technology, and rich history. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is the most frequently seen isolate of that group, has a proclivity for abscess formation, and is most often isolated from the blood, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tract.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.
Hemorrhage into the VITREOUS BODY.
Intraocular hemorrhage from the vessels of various tissues of the eye.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
A syndrome associated with damage to the spinal cord above the mid thoracic level (see SPINAL CORD INJURIES) characterized by a marked increase in the sympathetic response to minor stimuli such as bladder or rectal distention. Manifestations include HYPERTENSION; TACHYCARDIA (or reflex bradycardia); FEVER; FLUSHING; and HYPERHIDROSIS. Extreme hypertension may be associated with a STROKE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp538 and 1232; J Spinal Cord Med 1997;20(3):355-60)
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.
Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).
Veins draining the cerebrum.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
Agents that prevent clotting.
Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.
An extracellular cystatin subtype that is abundantly expressed in bodily fluids. It may play a role in the inhibition of interstitial CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Bleeding within the subcortical regions of cerebral hemispheres (BASAL GANGLIA). It is often associated with HYPERTENSION or ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS. Clinical manifestations may include HEADACHE; DYSKINESIAS; and HEMIPARESIS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.
Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
Hemorrhage from the vessels of the choroid.
Bleeding from a PEPTIC ULCER that can be located in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Intracranial bleeding into the PUTAMEN, a BASAL GANGLIA nucleus. This is associated with HYPERTENSION and lipohyalinosis of small blood vessels in the putamen. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of hemorrhage, but include HEMIPARESIS; HEADACHE; and alterations of consciousness.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.
Hemorrhage within the orbital cavity, posterior to the eyeball.
Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Radiography of the ventricular system of the brain after injection of air or other contrast medium directly into the cerebral ventricles. It is used also for x-ray computed tomography of the cerebral ventricles.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
Bleeding within the brain as a result of penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Traumatically induced hemorrhages may occur in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM (see BRAIN STEM HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC); and CEREBELLUM.
Acute hemorrhage or excessive fluid loss resulting in HYPOVOLEMIA.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.

Intracranial arteriovenous malformations. Observations after experience with computerised tomography. (1/3145)

Thirty-six patients with angiographically confirmed intracranial arteriovenous malformations have had computerised tomographic scans performed as part of their investigation. This study demonstrates the incidence of haematoma formation after haemorrhage, the frequency of calcification not visible on plain radiographs, and describes the possible causes for a complicating hydrocephalus. Further information has been gained from the intravenous injection of sodium iothalamate (Conray 420), with comparison of the scans taken before and after the injection.  (+info)

Intracerebral hemorrhage in young people: analysis of risk factors, location, causes, and prognosis. (2/3145)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The frequency of intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) in people aged 31 years (odds ratio, 3.48), and those with ICH that resulted from arteriovenous malformations were aged <20 years (odds ratio, 2.80). The final outcome was considered favorable in 60%. CONCLUSIONS: ICHs in young people are mainly lobar in location and result from vascular malformation. Hypertension causes most cases in which the ICH is located in the basal ganglia. Mortality and morbidity in the acute phase are low and are related to hypertension as the cause of ICH.  (+info)

Increased platelet activation in the chronic phase after cerebral ischemia and intracerebral hemorrhage. (3/3145)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Enhanced thromboxane (TX) biosynthesis has previously been reported in the acute phase after ischemic stroke. We investigated whether enhanced urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-TXB2, a noninvasive index of platelet activation, was present in the chronic phase after a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke, including intracerebral hemorrhage. METHODS: We obtained a single urinary sample from 92 patients between 3 and 9 months after onset of stroke or TIA. The urinary excretion of the major enzymatic metabolite of TXA2, 11-dehydro-TXB2, was measured by a previously validated radioimmunoassay. The excretion rates were compared with those of 20 control patients with nonvascular neurological diseases. RESULTS: Urinary 11-dehydro-TXB2 averaged 294+/-139, 413+/-419, and 557+/-432 pmol/mmol creatinine for patients with TIA, ischemic stroke, and intracerebral hemorrhage, respectively; the values were higher in all subgroups (P<0.01) than that in control patients (119+/-66 pmol/mmol). Increased 11-dehydro-TXB2 excretion was present in 59% of all patients, in 60% (P<0.001) of patients with TIA, in 56% (P<0.001) of patients with ischemic stroke, and in 73% (P<0.001) of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Atrial fibrillation, no aspirin use, and severity of symptoms at follow-up contributed independently to the level of 11-dehydro-TXB2 excretion in a multiple linear regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Platelet activation is often present in patients in the chronic phase after stroke, including those with intracerebral hemorrhage. Persistent platelet activation, which is associated with atrial fibrillation and poor stroke outcome, can be substantially suppressed by aspirin treatment.  (+info)

Intensive care management of stroke patients. (4/3145)

Two hundred eighty patients were admitted to an intensive care stroke unit over a one-year period. Subsequent investigation indicated that only 199 of these patients actually had cerebral ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions, 10 had other cerebrovascular lesions, and the remaining 71 patients had unrelated diseases, predominantly seizures. Detailed analysis of 103 stroke patients revealed an overall incidence of 59% hypertension, and 72% had hypertensive, ischemic or valvular heart disease. Fifty percent of the patients had various cardiac arrhythmias, some of which were responsible for the acute cerebrovascular lesion. Fourteen patients died during the acute phase, 11 from apparently irreversible cerebral selling, mainly due to cerebral hemorrhage. Secondary complications such as pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, pressure sores and urinary infection were almost nonexistent, but beneficial effects on the primary cerebral lesions were more difficult to demonstrate.  (+info)

A prospective study of cerebrovascular disease in Japanese rural communities, Akabane and Asahi. Part 1: evaluation of risk factors in the occurrence of cerebral hemorrhage and thrombosis. (5/3145)

An epidemiological study of cerebrovascular disease in Akabane and Asahi, Japan, was made. (These cities are located near Nagoy, Japan.) The study population included 4,737 men and women aged 40 to 79 at the time of entry into the study. There were 4,186 persons who were examined and, of these, 264 cases of cerebrovascular attacks were observed between 1964 and 1970. The incidence rate of stroke in those persons not responding to the survey was 15.9 times higher than in those persons examined according to person-year observation in Akabane. The risk factors for cerebral hemorrhage and thrombosis were evaluated by age-adjusted and sex-adjusted relative risks. The predisposing factors to cerebral hemorrhage appeared to be high blood pressure, high left R wave, ST depression, T abnormality, capillary fragility counts, previous medical history of stroke and albuminuria. For cerebral thrombosis, the predisposing factors appeared to be high blood pressure, ST depression and funduscopic sclerotic findings, and those factors assumed to be significant were glycosuria and smoking habits. Ocular funduscopic abnormality was the most prominent risk factor for cerebral thrombosis, while high blood pressure and ECG abnormalities were highly related to cerebral hemorrhage. It was suggested that those subjects with a relatively higher blood pressure may have a higher relative risk of cerebral hemorrhage than those with a lower (normal range) blood pressure. A previous or family history of stroke also appeared significantly related to cerebral hemorrhage.  (+info)

Primary non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage. A municipal emergency hospital viewpoint. (6/3145)

The devastating natural history of 138 consecutive admissions for non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage to a major emergency care municipal hospital is reviewed. Sixty-four percent of the patients had demonstrable intracranial hematomas while 36% had mainly subarachnoid hemorrhage. Hypertension was a related condition in 43% of the parenchymal hematoma patients, while proved aneurysms accounted for 74% of the subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. There was only a 14% survivorship for patients requiring emergent surgery. All operated hematoma patients survived delayed surgery with improved level of responsiveness. The overall mortality was 74% for intracranial hematoma patients and 58% for aneurysm-caused subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.  (+info)

Angiographical extravasation of contrast medium in hemorrhagic infarction. Case report. (7/3145)

Leakage of the contrast medium was noted on angiograms of a patient whose autopsied brain disclosed typical pathological findings of hemorrhagic infarction. The case was a 63-year old woman with mitral valve failure, who suddenly had loss of consciousness and right-sided hemiplegia. The left carotid angiography performed six hours after onset demonstrated middle cerebral arterial axis occlusion, and the second angiography performed three days after onset displayed recanalization of the initially occluded artery as well as extravasation of the contrast medium. Fourteen days after onset the patient died and an autopsy was performed. The brain demonstrated perivascular punctate hemorrhages in the area supplied by the middle cerebral artery, and neither hematoma nor microaneurysm was disclosed pathologically. A short discussion is given on the possible relationship between recanalization and hemorrhagic infarction. The clinical assessment of hemorrhagic infarction has not been established successfully.  (+info)

Pure apraxic agraphia with abnormal writing stroke sequences: report of a Japanese patient with a left superior parietal haemorrhage. (8/3145)

A 67 year old Japanese male patient had pure agraphia after a haemorrhage in the left superior parietal lobule. He developed difficulty in letter formation but showed no linguistic errors, consistent with the criteria of apraxic agraphia. He manifested a selective disorder of sequencing writing strokes, although he was able to orally state the correct sequences. The patient's complete recovery after 1 month, without new learning, showed that he had manifested a selective disorder of writing stroke sequences. These findings indicate that the final stage of the execution of writing according to acquired sequential memory shown as a stroke sequence can be selectively disturbed, and should be considered to be distinct from the ability of character imagery and the knowledge of the writing stroke sequence itself. This case also indicates that the left superior parietal lobule plays an important part in the execution of writing.  (+info)

A cerebral hemorrhage, also known as an intracranial hemorrhage or intracerebral hemorrhage, is a type of stroke that results from bleeding within the brain tissue. It occurs when a weakened blood vessel bursts and causes localized bleeding in the brain. This bleeding can increase pressure in the skull, damage nearby brain cells, and release toxic substances that further harm brain tissues.

Cerebral hemorrhages are often caused by chronic conditions like hypertension (high blood pressure) or cerebral amyloid angiopathy, which weakens the walls of blood vessels over time. Other potential causes include trauma, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, illicit drug use, and brain tumors. Symptoms may include sudden headache, weakness, numbness, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, loss of balance, and altered level of consciousness. Immediate medical attention is required to diagnose and manage cerebral hemorrhage through imaging techniques, supportive care, and possible surgical interventions.

A subarachnoid hemorrhage is a type of stroke that results from bleeding into the space surrounding the brain, specifically within the subarachnoid space which contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This space is located between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater, two of the three layers that make up the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord.

The bleeding typically originates from a ruptured aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of a cerebral artery, or less commonly from arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) or head trauma. The sudden influx of blood into the CSF-filled space can cause increased intracranial pressure, irritation to the brain, and vasospasms, leading to further ischemia and potential additional neurological damage.

Symptoms of a subarachnoid hemorrhage may include sudden onset of severe headache (often described as "the worst headache of my life"), neck stiffness, altered mental status, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and focal neurological deficits. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent further complications and improve the chances of recovery.

Cerebral infarction, also known as a "stroke" or "brain attack," is the sudden death of brain cells caused by the interruption of their blood supply. It is most commonly caused by a blockage in one of the blood vessels supplying the brain (an ischemic stroke), but can also result from a hemorrhage in or around the brain (a hemorrhagic stroke).

Ischemic strokes occur when a blood clot or other particle blocks a cerebral artery, cutting off blood flow to a part of the brain. The lack of oxygen and nutrients causes nearby brain cells to die. Hemorrhagic strokes occur when a weakened blood vessel ruptures, causing bleeding within or around the brain. This bleeding can put pressure on surrounding brain tissues, leading to cell death.

Symptoms of cerebral infarction depend on the location and extent of the affected brain tissue but may include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; loss of balance or coordination; and severe headache with no known cause. Immediate medical attention is crucial for proper diagnosis and treatment to minimize potential long-term damage or disability.

Hemorrhage is defined in the medical context as an excessive loss of blood from the circulatory system, which can occur due to various reasons such as injury, surgery, or underlying health conditions that affect blood clotting or the integrity of blood vessels. The bleeding may be internal, external, visible, or concealed, and it can vary in severity from minor to life-threatening, depending on the location and extent of the bleeding. Hemorrhage is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate attention and treatment to prevent further blood loss, organ damage, and potential death.

Cerebral arteries refer to the blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the brain. These arteries branch off from the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries, which combine to form the basilar artery. The major cerebral arteries include:

1. Anterior cerebral artery (ACA): This artery supplies blood to the frontal lobes of the brain, including the motor and sensory cortices responsible for movement and sensation in the lower limbs.
2. Middle cerebral artery (MCA): The MCA is the largest of the cerebral arteries and supplies blood to the lateral surface of the brain, including the temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. It is responsible for providing blood to areas involved in motor function, sensory perception, speech, memory, and vision.
3. Posterior cerebral artery (PCA): The PCA supplies blood to the occipital lobe, which is responsible for visual processing, as well as parts of the temporal and parietal lobes.
4. Anterior communicating artery (ACoA) and posterior communicating arteries (PComAs): These are small arteries that connect the major cerebral arteries, forming an important circulatory network called the Circle of Willis. The ACoA connects the two ACAs, while the PComAs connect the ICA with the PCA and the basilar artery.

These cerebral arteries play a crucial role in maintaining proper brain function by delivering oxygenated blood to various regions of the brain. Any damage or obstruction to these arteries can lead to serious neurological conditions, such as strokes or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs).

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of beta-amyloid protein in the walls of small to medium-sized blood vessels in the brain. This protein buildup can cause damage to the vessel walls, leading to bleeding (cerebral hemorrhage), cognitive decline, and other neurological symptoms.

CAA is often associated with aging and is a common finding in older adults. It can also be seen in people with Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia. The exact cause of CAA is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from the abnormal processing and clearance of beta-amyloid protein in the brain.

The diagnosis of CAA typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans, and sometimes cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Treatment for CAA is generally supportive and focused on managing symptoms and preventing complications. There are currently no approved disease-modifying treatments for CAA.

Cerebrovascular disorders are a group of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain. These disorders can be caused by narrowing, blockage, or rupture of the blood vessels, leading to decreased blood flow and oxygen supply to the brain. The most common types of cerebrovascular disorders include:

1. Stroke: A stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked or bursts, causing a lack of oxygen and nutrients to reach brain cells. This can lead to permanent damage or death of brain tissue.
2. Transient ischemic attack (TIA): Also known as a "mini-stroke," a TIA occurs when blood flow to the brain is temporarily blocked, often by a blood clot. Symptoms may last only a few minutes to a few hours and typically resolve on their own. However, a TIA is a serious warning sign that a full-blown stroke may occur in the future.
3. Aneurysm: An aneurysm is a weakened or bulging area in the wall of a blood vessel. If left untreated, an aneurysm can rupture and cause bleeding in the brain.
4. Arteriovenous malformation (AVM): An AVM is a tangled mass of abnormal blood vessels that connect arteries and veins. This can lead to bleeding in the brain or stroke.
5. Carotid stenosis: Carotid stenosis occurs when the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain, become narrowed or blocked due to plaque buildup. This can increase the risk of stroke.
6. Vertebrobasilar insufficiency: This condition occurs when the vertebral and basilar arteries, which supply blood to the back of the brain, become narrowed or blocked. This can lead to symptoms such as dizziness, vertigo, and difficulty swallowing.

Cerebrovascular disorders are a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Risk factors for these conditions include age, high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, high cholesterol, and family history. Treatment may involve medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of further complications.

Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a type of stroke caused by bleeding within the brain or its surrounding tissues. It's a serious medical emergency that requires immediate attention and treatment. The bleeding can occur in various locations:

1. Epidural hematoma: Bleeding between the dura mater (the outermost protective covering of the brain) and the skull. This is often caused by trauma, such as a head injury.
2. Subdural hematoma: Bleeding between the dura mater and the brain's surface, which can also be caused by trauma.
3. Subarachnoid hemorrhage: Bleeding in the subarachnoid space, which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and surrounds the brain. This type of ICH is commonly caused by the rupture of an intracranial aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation.
4. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage: Bleeding within the brain tissue itself, which can be caused by hypertension (high blood pressure), amyloid angiopathy, or trauma.
5. Intraventricular hemorrhage: Bleeding into the brain's ventricular system, which contains CSF and communicates with the subarachnoid space. This type of ICH is often seen in premature infants but can also be caused by head trauma or aneurysm rupture in adults.

Symptoms of intracranial hemorrhage may include sudden severe headache, vomiting, altered consciousness, confusion, seizures, weakness, numbness, or paralysis on one side of the body, vision changes, or difficulty speaking or understanding speech. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent further brain damage and potential long-term disabilities or death.

Intracranial hemorrhage, hypertensive is a type of intracranial hemorrhage that occurs due to the rupture of blood vessels in the brain as a result of chronic high blood pressure (hypertension). It is also known as hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.

Hypertension can weaken and damage the walls of the small arteries and arterioles in the brain over time, making them more susceptible to rupture. When these blood vessels burst, they cause bleeding into the surrounding brain tissue, forming a hematoma that can compress and damage brain cells.

Intracranial hemorrhage, hypertensive is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. Symptoms may include sudden severe headache, weakness or numbness in the face or limbs, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision changes, loss of balance or coordination, and altered level of consciousness.

The diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage, hypertensive is typically made through imaging tests such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Treatment may involve medications to reduce blood pressure, surgery to remove the hematoma, and supportive care to manage complications such as brain swelling or seizures.

Capillary fragility refers to the susceptibility of the small blood vessels, or capillaries, to damage and rupture. Capillaries are tiny, hair-like vessels that form a network between arteries and veins, allowing oxygenated blood to flow from the heart to the rest of the body, and deoxygenated blood to return to the heart.

Capillary fragility can be caused by various factors, including genetics, aging, certain medical conditions (such as hypertension, diabetes, and vitamin C deficiency), and medications (such as corticosteroids). When capillaries become fragile, they may rupture easily, leading to bleeding under the skin, bruising, or other symptoms.

In clinical settings, capillary fragility is often assessed through a test called the "tourniquet test," which measures the time it takes for bruising to appear after applying pressure to a small area of the skin. A longer-than-normal time may indicate capillary fragility. However, this test has limitations and is not always reliable in diagnosing capillary fragility.

Cerebral angiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the blood vessels in the brain after injecting a contrast dye into them. This procedure helps doctors to diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the blood vessels in the brain, such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and stenosis (narrowing of the blood vessels).

During the procedure, a catheter is inserted into an artery in the leg and threaded through the body to the blood vessels in the neck or brain. The contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken to visualize the blood flow through the brain's blood vessels.

Cerebral angiography provides detailed images of the blood vessels in the brain, allowing doctors to identify any abnormalities or blockages that may be causing symptoms or increasing the risk of stroke. Based on the results of the cerebral angiography, doctors can develop a treatment plan to address these issues and prevent further complications.

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), familial type, is a genetic disorder characterized by the buildup of beta-amyloid protein in the walls of blood vessels in the brain. This accumulation can lead to bleeding in the brain (cerebral hemorrhage) and cognitive decline. It is caused by mutations in genes associated with the production or clearance of beta-amyloid, such as the APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 genes. These genetic mutations are typically inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that a child has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutation from a parent who carries it. The presence of these mutations leads to an increased production or decreased clearance of beta-amyloid, resulting in its accumulation in the blood vessel walls and subsequent complications.

The Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) is one of the main blood vessels that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. It arises from the internal carotid artery and divides into several branches, which supply the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere, including the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes.

The MCA is responsible for providing blood flow to critical areas of the brain, such as the primary motor and sensory cortices, Broca's area (associated with speech production), Wernicke's area (associated with language comprehension), and the visual association cortex.

Damage to the MCA or its branches can result in a variety of neurological deficits, depending on the specific location and extent of the injury. These may include weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, sensory loss, language impairment, and visual field cuts.

Cerebrovascular circulation refers to the network of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood and nutrients to the brain tissue, and remove waste products. It includes the internal carotid arteries, vertebral arteries, circle of Willis, and the intracranial arteries that branch off from them.

The internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries merge to form the circle of Willis, a polygonal network of vessels located at the base of the brain. The anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, posterior cerebral artery, and communicating arteries are the major vessels that branch off from the circle of Willis and supply blood to different regions of the brain.

Interruptions or abnormalities in the cerebrovascular circulation can lead to various neurological conditions such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and vascular dementia.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Amyloidosis is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of insoluble proteins called amyloid in various tissues and organs throughout the body. These misfolded protein deposits can disrupt the normal function of affected organs, leading to a range of symptoms depending on the location and extent of the amyloid deposition.

There are different types of amyloidosis, classified based on the specific proteins involved:

1. Primary (AL) Amyloidosis: This is the most common form, accounting for around 80% of cases. It results from the overproduction and misfolding of immunoglobulin light chains, typically by clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow. The amyloid deposits can affect various organs, including the heart, kidneys, liver, and nervous system.
2. Secondary (AA) Amyloidosis: This form is associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis, or familial Mediterranean fever. The amyloid fibrils are composed of serum amyloid A protein (SAA), an acute-phase reactant produced during the inflammatory response. The kidneys are commonly affected in this type of amyloidosis.
3. Hereditary or Familial Amyloidosis: These forms are caused by genetic mutations that result in the production of abnormal proteins prone to misfolding and amyloid formation. Examples include transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis, fibrinogen amyloidosis, and apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis. These forms can affect various organs, including the heart, nerves, and kidneys.
4. Dialysis-Related Amyloidosis: This form is seen in patients undergoing long-term dialysis for chronic kidney disease. The amyloid fibrils are composed of beta-2 microglobulin, a protein that accumulates due to impaired clearance during dialysis. The joints and bones are commonly affected in this type of amyloidosis.

The diagnosis of amyloidosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and tissue biopsy with the demonstration of amyloid deposition using special stains (e.g., Congo red). Treatment depends on the specific type and extent of organ involvement and may include supportive care, medications to target the underlying cause (e.g., chemotherapy, immunomodulatory agents), and organ transplantation in some cases.

Brain ischemia is the medical term used to describe a reduction or interruption of blood flow to the brain, leading to a lack of oxygen and glucose delivery to brain tissue. This can result in brain damage or death of brain cells, known as infarction. Brain ischemia can be caused by various conditions such as thrombosis (blood clot formation), embolism (obstruction of a blood vessel by a foreign material), or hypoperfusion (reduced blood flow). The severity and duration of the ischemia determine the extent of brain damage. Symptoms can range from mild, such as transient ischemic attacks (TIAs or "mini-strokes"), to severe, including paralysis, speech difficulties, loss of consciousness, and even death. Immediate medical attention is required for proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent further damage and potential long-term complications.

1. Intracranial Embolism: This is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot or other particle (embolus) formed elsewhere in the body, travels through the bloodstream and lodges itself in the intracranial blood vessels, blocking the flow of blood to a part of the brain. This can lead to various neurological symptoms such as weakness, numbness, speech difficulties, or even loss of consciousness, depending on the severity and location of the blockage.

2. Intracranial Thrombosis: This is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) forms within the intracranial blood vessels. The clot can partially or completely obstruct the flow of blood, leading to various symptoms such as headache, confusion, seizures, or neurological deficits, depending on the severity and location of the thrombosis. Intracranial thrombosis can occur due to various factors including atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, and other medical conditions that increase the risk of blood clot formation.

A stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is a serious medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, leading to deprivation of oxygen and nutrients to brain cells. This can result in the death of brain tissue and cause permanent damage or temporary impairment to cognitive functions, speech, memory, movement, and other body functions controlled by the affected area of the brain.

Strokes can be caused by either a blockage in an artery that supplies blood to the brain (ischemic stroke) or the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). A transient ischemic attack (TIA), also known as a "mini-stroke," is a temporary disruption of blood flow to the brain that lasts only a few minutes and does not cause permanent damage.

Symptoms of a stroke may include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; loss of balance or coordination; severe headache with no known cause; and confusion or disorientation. Immediate medical attention is crucial for stroke patients to receive appropriate treatment and prevent long-term complications.

A hematoma is defined as a localized accumulation of blood in a tissue, organ, or body space caused by a break in the wall of a blood vessel. This can result from various causes such as trauma, surgery, or certain medical conditions that affect coagulation. The severity and size of a hematoma may vary depending on the location and extent of the bleeding. Symptoms can include swelling, pain, bruising, and decreased mobility in the affected area. Treatment options depend on the size and location of the hematoma but may include observation, compression, ice, elevation, or in some cases, surgical intervention.

A retinal hemorrhage is a type of bleeding that occurs in the blood vessels of the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue located at the back of the eye. This condition can result from various underlying causes, including diabetes, high blood pressure, age-related macular degeneration, or trauma to the eye. Retinal hemorrhages can be categorized into different types based on their location and appearance, such as dot and blot hemorrhages, flame-shaped hemorrhages, or subhyaloid hemorrhages. Depending on the severity and cause of the hemorrhage, treatment options may vary from monitoring to laser therapy, medication, or even surgery. It is essential to consult an ophthalmologist for a proper evaluation and management plan if you suspect a retinal hemorrhage.

An intracranial aneurysm is a localized, blood-filled dilation or bulging in the wall of a cerebral artery within the skull (intracranial). These aneurysms typically occur at weak points in the arterial walls, often at branching points where the vessel divides into smaller branches. Over time, the repeated pressure from blood flow can cause the vessel wall to weaken and balloon out, forming a sac-like structure. Intracranial aneurysms can vary in size, ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter.

There are three main types of intracranial aneurysms:

1. Saccular (berry) aneurysm: This is the most common type, characterized by a round or oval shape with a narrow neck and a bulging sac. They usually develop at branching points in the arteries due to congenital weaknesses in the vessel wall.
2. Fusiform aneurysm: These aneurysms have a dilated segment along the length of the artery, forming a cigar-shaped or spindle-like structure. They are often caused by atherosclerosis and can affect any part of the cerebral arteries.
3. Dissecting aneurysm: This type occurs when there is a tear in the inner lining (intima) of the artery, allowing blood to flow between the layers of the vessel wall. It can lead to narrowing or complete blockage of the affected artery and may cause subarachnoid hemorrhage if it ruptures.

Intracranial aneurysms can be asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during imaging studies for other conditions. However, when they grow larger or rupture, they can lead to severe complications such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke, or even death. Treatment options include surgical clipping, endovascular coiling, or flow diversion techniques to prevent further growth and potential rupture of the aneurysm.

A cavernous hemangioma in the central nervous system (CNS) refers to a type of benign vascular tumor that is made up of dilated and thin-walled blood vessels. These tumors are called "cavernous" because they are filled with blood-filled sacs or "caverns."

When these hemangiomas occur in the CNS, which includes the brain and spinal cord, they can cause various neurological symptoms depending on their size and location. Small hemangiomas may not cause any symptoms at all, while larger ones can cause seizures, headaches, weakness, or sensory changes.

Cavernous hemangiomas in the CNS are typically congenital, meaning that they are present at birth. However, they may not become symptomatic until later in life. Treatment options for cavernous hemangiomas in the CNS include observation, surgery, or radiation therapy, depending on the size, location, and symptoms caused by the tumor.

A traumatic cerebral hemorrhage is a type of brain injury that results from a trauma or external force to the head, which causes bleeding in the brain. This condition is also known as an intracranial hemorrhage or epidural or subdural hematoma, depending on the location and extent of the bleeding.

The trauma can cause blood vessels in the brain to rupture, leading to the accumulation of blood in the skull and increased pressure on the brain. This can result in various symptoms such as headache, confusion, seizures, vomiting, weakness or numbness in the limbs, loss of consciousness, and even death if not treated promptly.

Traumatic cerebral hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention and treatment. Treatment options may include surgery to relieve pressure on the brain, medication to control seizures and reduce swelling, and rehabilitation to help with recovery. The prognosis for traumatic cerebral hemorrhage depends on various factors such as the severity of the injury, location of the bleeding, age and overall health of the patient, and timeliness of treatment.

Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) is a thrombolytic enzyme, which means it dissolves blood clots. It is naturally produced by the endothelial cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels. tPA activates plasminogen, a zymogen, to convert it into plasmin, a protease that breaks down fibrin, the structural protein in blood clots. This enzyme is used medically as a thrombolytic drug under various brand names, such as Activase and Alteplase, to treat conditions like acute ischemic stroke, pulmonary embolism, and deep vein thrombosis by dissolving the clots and restoring blood flow.

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and maintain balance and posture. According to the Mayo Clinic, CP is caused by abnormal brain development or damage to the developing brain that affects a child's ability to control movement.

The symptoms of cerebral palsy can vary in severity and may include:

* Spasticity (stiff or tight muscles)
* Rigidity (resistance to passive movement)
* Poor coordination and balance
* Weakness or paralysis
* Tremors or involuntary movements
* Abnormal gait or difficulty walking
* Difficulty with fine motor skills, such as writing or using utensils
* Speech and language difficulties
* Vision, hearing, or swallowing problems

It's important to note that cerebral palsy is not a progressive condition, meaning that it does not worsen over time. However, the symptoms may change over time, and some individuals with CP may experience additional medical conditions as they age.

Cerebral palsy is usually caused by brain damage that occurs before or during birth, but it can also be caused by brain injuries that occur in the first few years of life. Some possible causes of cerebral palsy include:

* Infections during pregnancy
* Lack of oxygen to the brain during delivery
* Traumatic head injury during birth
* Brain bleeding or stroke in the newborn period
* Genetic disorders
* Maternal illness or infection during pregnancy

There is no cure for cerebral palsy, but early intervention and treatment can help improve outcomes and quality of life. Treatment may include physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, medications to manage symptoms, surgery, and assistive devices such as braces or wheelchairs.

Intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal, tangled connections between the arteries and veins in the brain. These connections bypass the capillary system, which can lead to high-flow shunting and potential complications such as hemorrhage, stroke, or neurological deficits. AVMs are congenital conditions, meaning they are present at birth, although symptoms may not appear until later in life. They are relatively rare, affecting approximately 0.1% of the population. Treatment options for AVMs include surgery, radiation therapy, and endovascular embolization, depending on the size, location, and specific characteristics of the malformation.

Wernicke's aphasia is a type of fluent aphasia, also known as receptive or sensory aphasia. It is named after the neurologist Carl Wernicke. This type of aphasia is caused by damage to the posterior portion of the left superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area) in the dominant hemisphere of the brain, typically as a result of stroke or head injury.

Individuals with Wernicke's aphasia have difficulty understanding spoken or written language. They may speak in long, grammatically correct sentences that are filled with incorrect or made-up words (neologisms) and have little meaning. They are often unaware of their errors and have poor comprehension of both spoken and written language. This can lead to significant difficulties in communication and can be very frustrating for the person with aphasia and their communication partners.

Treatment for Wernicke's aphasia typically involves speech-language therapy, which may focus on improving comprehension, expression, reading, and writing skills. The prognosis for recovery varies depending on the severity of the brain injury and the individual's overall health and cognitive status.

Cystatins are a group of proteins that inhibit cysteine proteases, which are enzymes that break down other proteins. Cystatins are found in various biological fluids and tissues, including tears, saliva, seminal plasma, and urine. They play an important role in regulating protein catabolism and protecting cells from excessive protease activity. There are three main types of cystatins: type 1 (cystatin C), type 2 (cystatin M, cystatin N, and fetuin), and type 3 (kininogens). Abnormal levels of cystatins have been associated with various pathological conditions, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory disorders.

Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a significant obstetrical complication defined as the loss of more than 500 milliliters of blood within the first 24 hours after childbirth, whether it occurs vaginally or through cesarean section. It can also be defined as a blood loss of more than 1000 mL in relation to the amount of blood lost during the procedure and the patient's baseline hematocrit level.

Postpartum hemorrhage is classified into two types: primary (early) PPH, which occurs within the first 24 hours after delivery, and secondary (late) PPH, which happens between 24 hours and 12 weeks postpartum. The most common causes of PPH are uterine atony, trauma to the genital tract, retained placental tissue, and coagulopathy.

Uterine atony is the inability of the uterus to contract effectively after delivery, leading to excessive bleeding. Trauma to the genital tract can occur during childbirth, causing lacerations or tears that may result in bleeding. Retained placental tissue refers to the remnants of the placenta left inside the uterus, which can cause infection and heavy bleeding. Coagulopathy is a condition where the blood has difficulty clotting, leading to uncontrolled bleeding.

Symptoms of PPH include excessive vaginal bleeding, low blood pressure, increased heart rate, decreased urine output, and signs of shock such as confusion, rapid breathing, and pale skin. Treatment for PPH includes uterotonics, manual removal of retained placental tissue, repair of genital tract lacerations, blood transfusions, and surgery if necessary.

Preventing PPH involves proper antenatal care, monitoring high-risk pregnancies, active management of the third stage of labor, and prompt recognition and treatment of any bleeding complications during or after delivery.

Spontaneous rupture in medical terms refers to the sudden breaking or tearing of an organ, tissue, or structure within the body without any identifiable trauma or injury. This event can occur due to various reasons such as weakening of the tissue over time because of disease or degeneration, or excessive pressure on the tissue.

For instance, a spontaneous rupture of the appendix is called an "appendiceal rupture," which can lead to peritonitis, a serious inflammation of the abdominal cavity. Similarly, a spontaneous rupture of a blood vessel, like an aortic aneurysm, can result in life-threatening internal bleeding.

Spontaneous ruptures are often medical emergencies and require immediate medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.

A Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA), also known as a "mini-stroke," is a temporary period of symptoms similar to those you'd get if you were having a stroke. A TIA doesn't cause permanent damage and is often caused by a temporary decrease in blood supply to part of your brain, which may last as little as five minutes.

Like an ischemic stroke, a TIA occurs when a clot or debris blocks blood flow to part of your nervous system. However, unlike a stroke, a TIA doesn't leave lasting damage because the blockage is temporary.

Symptoms of a TIA can include sudden onset of weakness, numbness or paralysis in your face, arm or leg, typically on one side of your body. You could also experience slurred or garbled speech, or difficulty understanding others. Other symptoms can include blindness in one or both eyes, dizziness, or a severe headache with no known cause.

Even though TIAs usually last only a few minutes, they are a serious condition and should not be ignored. If you suspect you or someone else is experiencing a TIA, seek immediate medical attention. TIAs can be a warning sign that a full-blown stroke is imminent.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Japan" is not a medical term. Japan is the name of a country, officially known as Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku in Japanese, and is located in East Asia. It is an island nation in the Pacific Ocean with a population of about 126 million people.

If you have any medical questions or terms that you would like me to define, please let me know!

Brain edema is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the brain, leading to an increase in intracranial pressure. This can result from various causes, such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, infection, brain tumors, or inflammation. The swelling of the brain can compress vital structures, impair blood flow, and cause neurological symptoms, which may range from mild headaches to severe cognitive impairment, seizures, coma, or even death if not treated promptly and effectively.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage is a term used to describe any bleeding that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum. The bleeding can range from mild to severe and can produce symptoms such as vomiting blood, passing black or tarry stools, or having low blood pressure.

GI hemorrhage can be classified as either upper or lower, depending on the location of the bleed. Upper GI hemorrhage refers to bleeding that occurs above the ligament of Treitz, which is a point in the small intestine where it becomes narrower and turns a corner. Common causes of upper GI hemorrhage include gastritis, ulcers, esophageal varices, and Mallory-Weiss tears.

Lower GI hemorrhage refers to bleeding that occurs below the ligament of Treitz. Common causes of lower GI hemorrhage include diverticulosis, colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and vascular abnormalities such as angiodysplasia.

The diagnosis of GI hemorrhage is often made based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as endoscopy, CT scan, or radionuclide scanning. Treatment depends on the severity and cause of the bleeding and may include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

Streptococcus anginosus, also known as Streptococcus milleri, is a species of Gram-positive cocci bacteria that belongs to the viridans group of streptococci. These bacteria are part of the normal flora in the mouth, upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and female genital tract. However, they can cause opportunistic infections when they enter normally sterile areas of the body, such as the bloodstream, brain, or abdomen.

S. anginosus infections are often associated with abscesses, endocarditis, meningitis, and septicemia. They are known for their ability to cause invasive and aggressive infections that can be difficult to treat due to their resistance to antibiotics. S. anginosus infections can occur in people of all ages but are more common in those with weakened immune systems, such as patients with cancer, HIV/AIDS, or diabetes.

The name "anginosus" comes from the Latin word for "painful," which reflects the fact that these bacteria can cause painful infections. The alternative name "milleri" was given to honor the British bacteriologist Alfred Milton Miller, who first described the species in 1902.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Hypertension is a medical term used to describe abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries, often defined as consistently having systolic blood pressure (the top number in a blood pressure reading) over 130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) over 80 mmHg. It is also commonly referred to as high blood pressure.

Hypertension can be classified into two types: primary or essential hypertension, which has no identifiable cause and accounts for about 95% of cases, and secondary hypertension, which is caused by underlying medical conditions such as kidney disease, hormonal disorders, or use of certain medications.

If left untreated, hypertension can lead to serious health complications such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, it is important for individuals with hypertension to manage their condition through lifestyle modifications (such as healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management) and medication if necessary, under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Fibrinolytic agents are medications that dissolve or break down blood clots by activating plasminogen, which is converted into plasmin. Plasmin is a proteolytic enzyme that degrades fibrin, the structural protein in blood clots. Fibrinolytic agents are used medically to treat conditions such as acute ischemic stroke, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and myocardial infarction (heart attack) by restoring blood flow in occluded vessels. Examples of fibrinolytic agents include alteplase, reteplase, and tenecteplase. It is important to note that these medications carry a risk of bleeding complications and should be administered with caution.

A Vitreous Hemorrhage is a medical condition where there is bleeding into the vitreous cavity of the eye. The vitreous cavity is the space in the eye that is filled with a clear, gel-like substance called the vitreous humor. This substance helps to maintain the shape of the eye and transmit light to the retina.

When a vitreous hemorrhage occurs, blood cells from the bleeding mix with the vitreous humor, causing it to become cloudy or hazy. As a result, vision can become significantly impaired, ranging from mildly blurry to complete loss of vision depending on the severity of the bleed.

Vitreous hemorrhages can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, retinal tears or detachments, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and other eye conditions that affect the blood vessels in the eye. Treatment for vitreous hemorrhage depends on the underlying cause and may include observation, laser surgery, or vitrectomy (a surgical procedure to remove the vitreous humor and stop the bleeding).

An eye hemorrhage, also known as subconjunctival hemorrhage, is a condition where there is bleeding in the eye, specifically under the conjunctiva which is the clear membrane that covers the white part of the eye (sclera). This membrane has tiny blood vessels that can rupture and cause blood to accumulate, leading to a visible red patch on the surface of the eye.

Eye hemorrhages are usually painless and harmless, and they often resolve on their own within 1-2 weeks without any treatment. However, if they occur frequently or are accompanied by other symptoms such as vision changes, pain, or sensitivity to light, it is important to seek medical attention as they could indicate a more serious underlying condition. Common causes of eye hemorrhages include trauma, high blood pressure, blood thinners, and aging.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

A neurological examination is a series of tests used to evaluate the functioning of the nervous system, including both the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system (the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body). It is typically performed by a healthcare professional such as a neurologist or a primary care physician with specialized training in neurology.

During a neurological examination, the healthcare provider will assess various aspects of neurological function, including:

1. Mental status: This involves evaluating a person's level of consciousness, orientation, memory, and cognitive abilities.
2. Cranial nerves: There are 12 cranial nerves that control functions such as vision, hearing, smell, taste, and movement of the face and neck. The healthcare provider will test each of these nerves to ensure they are functioning properly.
3. Motor function: This involves assessing muscle strength, tone, coordination, and reflexes. The healthcare provider may ask the person to perform certain movements or tasks to evaluate these functions.
4. Sensory function: The healthcare provider will test a person's ability to feel different types of sensations, such as touch, pain, temperature, vibration, and proprioception (the sense of where your body is in space).
5. Coordination and balance: The healthcare provider may assess a person's ability to perform coordinated movements, such as touching their finger to their nose or walking heel-to-toe.
6. Reflexes: The healthcare provider will test various reflexes throughout the body using a reflex hammer.

The results of a neurological examination can help healthcare providers diagnose and monitor conditions that affect the nervous system, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, or peripheral neuropathy.

Autonomic dysreflexia is a medical condition that primarily affects individuals with spinal cord injuries at level T6 or above. It is characterized by an overactive autonomic nervous system response, leading to potentially life-threatening symptoms. This occurs when there is a stimulus below the level of the spinal cord injury that triggers a reflexive sympathetic nervous system response, causing a rapid and significant increase in blood pressure and heart rate.

Common triggers for autonomic dysreflexia include bladder distention, bowel distension or constipation, skin irritation, pressure sores, infection, or sexual activity. Symptoms of autonomic dysreflexia may include severe headaches, sweating above the level of injury, flushing or pallor, goosebumps, nasal congestion, and blurred vision. If left untreated, it can lead to seizures, stroke, or even cardiac arrest.

Management of autonomic dysreflexia involves identifying and removing the underlying trigger, as well as managing symptoms through medications such as antihypertensives, and monitoring vital signs closely. Prevention strategies include regular bladder and bowel management, skin checks, and prompt treatment of infections or other potential triggers.

Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) infarction is a type of ischemic stroke that occurs when there is an obstruction in the blood supply to the middle cerebral artery, which is one of the major blood vessels that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. The MCA supplies blood to a large portion of the brain, including the motor and sensory cortex, parts of the temporal and parietal lobes, and the basal ganglia.

An infarction is the death of tissue due to the lack of blood supply, which can lead to damage or loss of function in the affected areas of the brain. Symptoms of MCA infarction may include weakness or numbness on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, and altered levels of consciousness.

MCA infarctions can be caused by various factors, including embolism (a blood clot that travels to the brain from another part of the body), thrombosis (a blood clot that forms in the MCA itself), or stenosis (narrowing of the artery due to atherosclerosis or other conditions). Treatment for MCA infarction may include medications to dissolve blood clots, surgery to remove the obstruction, or rehabilitation to help regain lost function.

Moyamoya Disease is a rare, progressive cerebrovascular disorder characterized by the narrowing or occlusion (blockage) of the internal carotid artery and its main branches. The name "moyamoya" means "puff of smoke" in Japanese and describes the look of the tangle of tiny vessels formed to compensate for the blockage. Over time, these fragile vessels can become less effective or rupture, leading to transient ischemic attacks (mini-strokes), strokes, bleeding in the brain, or cognitive decline. The exact cause of moyamoya disease is unknown, but it may be associated with genetic factors and certain medical conditions such as Down syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1, and sickle cell anemia. Treatment options include surgical procedures to improve blood flow to the brain.

Intracranial vasospasm is a medical condition characterized by the narrowing or constriction of the intracranial arteries, which are the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain. This narrowing is usually caused by the contraction or spasming of the smooth muscle in the walls of the arteries, leading to reduced blood flow and oxygen delivery to the brain tissue.

Intracranial vasospasm is often associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a type of stroke caused by bleeding in the space surrounding the brain. SAH can cause the release of blood components, such as hemoglobin and iron, which can irritate and damage the walls of the arteries. This irritation can trigger an inflammatory response that leads to the contraction of the smooth muscle in the artery walls, causing vasospasm.

Vasospasm can cause further ischemia (reduced blood flow) or infarction (tissue death) in the brain, leading to serious neurological deficits or even death. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and treatment of intracranial vasospasm are crucial for improving patient outcomes. Treatment options may include medications to dilate the blood vessels, angioplasty (balloon dilation) or stenting procedures to mechanically open up the arteries, or surgical intervention to relieve pressure on the brain.

Cerebral veins are the blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the brain to the dural venous sinuses, which are located between the layers of tissue covering the brain. The largest cerebral vein is the superior sagittal sinus, which runs along the top of the brain. Other major cerebral veins include the straight sinus, transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, and cavernous sinus. These veins receive blood from smaller veins called venules that drain the surface and deep structures of the brain. The cerebral veins play an important role in maintaining normal circulation and pressure within the brain.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Cerebral malaria is a severe form of malaria that affects the brain. It is caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasites, which are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. In cerebral malaria, the parasites infect and destroy red blood cells, leading to their accumulation in small blood vessels in the brain. This can cause swelling of the brain, impaired consciousness, seizures, coma, and even death if left untreated.

The medical definition of cerebral malaria is:

A severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasites that affects the brain and results in altered mental status, seizures, coma, or other neurological symptoms. It is characterized by the sequestration of infected red blood cells in the cerebral microvasculature, leading to inflammation, endothelial activation, and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Cerebral malaria can cause long-term neurological deficits or death if not promptly diagnosed and treated with appropriate antimalarial therapy.

Amyloid beta-peptides (Aβ) are small protein fragments that are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. They are derived from a larger transmembrane protein called the amyloid precursor protein (APP) through a series of proteolytic cleavage events.

The two primary forms of Aβ peptides are Aβ40 and Aβ42, which differ in length by two amino acids. While both forms can be harmful, Aβ42 is more prone to aggregation and is considered to be the more pathogenic form. These peptides have the tendency to misfold and accumulate into oligomers, fibrils, and eventually insoluble plaques that deposit in various areas of the brain, most notably the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

The accumulation of Aβ peptides is believed to initiate a cascade of events leading to neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, synaptic dysfunction, and neuronal death, which are all hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Although the exact role of Aβ in the onset and progression of Alzheimer's is still under investigation, it is widely accepted that they play a central part in the development of this debilitating neurodegenerative disorder.

Anticoagulants are a class of medications that work to prevent the formation of blood clots in the body. They do this by inhibiting the coagulation cascade, which is a series of chemical reactions that lead to the formation of a clot. Anticoagulants can be given orally, intravenously, or subcutaneously, depending on the specific drug and the individual patient's needs.

There are several different types of anticoagulants, including:

1. Heparin: This is a naturally occurring anticoagulant that is often used in hospitalized patients who require immediate anticoagulation. It works by activating an enzyme called antithrombin III, which inhibits the formation of clots.
2. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH): LMWH is a form of heparin that has been broken down into smaller molecules. It has a longer half-life than standard heparin and can be given once or twice daily by subcutaneous injection.
3. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs): These are newer oral anticoagulants that work by directly inhibiting specific clotting factors in the coagulation cascade. Examples include apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran.
4. Vitamin K antagonists: These are older oral anticoagulants that work by inhibiting the action of vitamin K, which is necessary for the formation of clotting factors. Warfarin is an example of a vitamin K antagonist.

Anticoagulants are used to prevent and treat a variety of conditions, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), atrial fibrillation, and prosthetic heart valve thrombosis. It is important to note that anticoagulants can increase the risk of bleeding, so they must be used with caution and regular monitoring of blood clotting times may be required.

Thrombolytic therapy, also known as thrombolysis, is a medical treatment that uses medications called thrombolytics or fibrinolytics to dissolve or break down blood clots (thrombi) in blood vessels. These clots can obstruct the flow of blood to vital organs such as the heart, lungs, or brain, leading to serious conditions like myocardial infarction (heart attack), pulmonary embolism, or ischemic stroke.

The goal of thrombolytic therapy is to restore blood flow as quickly and efficiently as possible to prevent further damage to the affected organ and potentially save lives. Commonly used thrombolytic drugs include alteplase (tPA), reteplase, and tenecteplase. It's essential to administer these medications as soon as possible after the onset of symptoms for optimal treatment outcomes. However, there are risks associated with thrombolytic therapy, such as an increased chance of bleeding complications, which must be carefully weighed against its benefits in each individual case.

Cystatin C is a protein produced by many cells in the body, including all types of nucleated cells. It is a member of the cysteine protease inhibitor family and functions as an endogenous inhibitor of cathepsins, which are proteases involved in various physiological and pathological processes such as extracellular matrix degradation, antigen presentation, and cell death.

Cystatin C is freely filtered by the glomeruli in the kidneys and almost completely reabsorbed and catabolized by the proximal tubules. Therefore, its serum concentration is a reliable marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and can be used to estimate kidney function.

Increased levels of cystatin C in the blood may indicate impaired kidney function or kidney disease, while decreased levels are less common and may be associated with hyperfiltration or overproduction of cystatin C. Measuring cystatin C levels can complement or supplement traditional methods for assessing kidney function, such as estimating GFR based on serum creatinine levels.

Amyloid is a term used in medicine to describe abnormally folded protein deposits that can accumulate in various tissues and organs of the body. These misfolded proteins can form aggregates known as amyloid fibrils, which have a characteristic beta-pleated sheet structure. Amyloid deposits can be composed of different types of proteins, depending on the specific disease associated with the deposit.

In some cases, amyloid deposits can cause damage to organs and tissues, leading to various clinical symptoms. Some examples of diseases associated with amyloidosis include Alzheimer's disease (where amyloid-beta protein accumulates in the brain), systemic amyloidosis (where amyloid fibrils deposit in various organs such as the heart, kidneys, and liver), and type 2 diabetes (where amyloid deposits form in the pancreas).

It's important to note that not all amyloid deposits are harmful or associated with disease. However, when they do cause problems, treatment typically involves managing the underlying condition that is leading to the abnormal protein accumulation.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

An intracranial embolism is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot or other foreign material (embolus) forms elsewhere in the body and travels to the blood vessels within the brain. This embolus then blocks the flow of blood in the cerebral arteries, leading to potential damage or death of brain tissue. Common sources of intracranial emboli include heart conditions such as atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease, or following a heart attack; or from large-vessel atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries. Symptoms can vary depending on the location and size of the obstruction, but may include sudden weakness or numbness, confusion, difficulty speaking, vision loss, severe headache, or even loss of consciousness. Immediate medical attention is required to diagnose and treat intracranial embolism, often involving anticoagulation therapy, endovascular procedures, or surgery.

The cerebral ventricles are a system of interconnected fluid-filled cavities within the brain. They are located in the center of the brain and are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which provides protection to the brain by cushioning it from impacts and helping to maintain its stability within the skull.

There are four ventricles in total: two lateral ventricles, one third ventricle, and one fourth ventricle. The lateral ventricles are located in each cerebral hemisphere, while the third ventricle is located between the thalami of the two hemispheres. The fourth ventricle is located at the base of the brain, above the spinal cord.

CSF flows from the lateral ventricles into the third ventricle through narrow passageways called the interventricular foramen. From there, it flows into the fourth ventricle through another narrow passageway called the cerebral aqueduct. CSF then leaves the fourth ventricle and enters the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain and spinal cord, where it can be absorbed into the bloodstream.

Abnormalities in the size or shape of the cerebral ventricles can indicate underlying neurological conditions, such as hydrocephalus (excessive accumulation of CSF) or atrophy (shrinkage) of brain tissue. Imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are often used to assess the size and shape of the cerebral ventricles in clinical settings.

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder that causes brain cells to waste away (degenerate) and die. It's the most common cause of dementia — a continuous decline in thinking, behavioral and social skills that disrupts a person's ability to function independently.

The early signs of the disease include forgetting recent events or conversations. As the disease progresses, a person with Alzheimer's disease will develop severe memory impairment and lose the ability to carry out everyday tasks.

Currently, there's no cure for Alzheimer's disease. However, treatments can temporarily slow the worsening of dementia symptoms and improve quality of life.

A basal ganglia hemorrhage is a type of intracranial hemorrhage, which is defined as bleeding within the skull or brain. Specifically, a basal ganglia hemorrhage involves bleeding into the basal ganglia, which are clusters of neurons located deep within the forebrain and are involved in regulating movement, cognition, and emotion.

Basal ganglia hemorrhages can result from various factors, including hypertension (high blood pressure), cerebral amyloid angiopathy, illicit drug use (such as cocaine or amphetamines), and head trauma. Symptoms of a basal ganglia hemorrhage may include sudden onset of severe headache, altered consciousness, weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, and visual disturbances.

Diagnosis of a basal ganglia hemorrhage typically involves imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment may include supportive care, medications to control symptoms, and surgical intervention in some cases. The prognosis for individuals with a basal ganglia hemorrhage varies depending on the severity of the bleed, the presence of underlying medical conditions, and the timeliness and effectiveness of treatment.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

The Amyloid Beta-Protein Precursor (AβPP) is a type of transmembrane protein that is widely expressed in various tissues and organs, including the brain. It plays a crucial role in normal physiological processes, such as neuronal development, synaptic plasticity, and repair.

AβPP undergoes proteolytic processing by enzymes called secretases, resulting in the production of several protein fragments, including the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide. Aβ is a small peptide that can aggregate and form insoluble fibrils, which are the main component of amyloid plaques found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD).

The accumulation of Aβ plaques is believed to contribute to the neurodegeneration and cognitive decline observed in AD. Therefore, AβPP and its proteolytic processing have been the focus of extensive research aimed at understanding the pathogenesis of AD and developing potential therapies.

Postoperative hemorrhage is a medical term that refers to bleeding that occurs after a surgical procedure. This condition can range from minor oozing to severe, life-threatening bleeding. Postoperative hemorrhage can occur soon after surgery or even several days later, as the surgical site begins to heal.

The causes of postoperative hemorrhage can vary, but some common factors include:

1. Inadequate hemostasis during surgery: This means that all bleeding was not properly controlled during the procedure, leading to bleeding after surgery.
2. Blood vessel injury: During surgery, blood vessels may be accidentally cut or damaged, causing bleeding after the procedure.
3. Coagulopathy: This is a condition in which the body has difficulty forming blood clots, increasing the risk of postoperative hemorrhage.
4. Use of anticoagulant medications: Medications that prevent blood clots can increase the risk of bleeding after surgery.
5. Infection: An infection at the surgical site can cause inflammation and bleeding.

Symptoms of postoperative hemorrhage may include swelling, pain, warmth, or discoloration around the surgical site, as well as signs of shock such as rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, and confusion. Treatment for postoperative hemorrhage depends on the severity of the bleeding and may include medications to control bleeding, transfusions of blood products, or additional surgery to stop the bleeding.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

In the context of medicine, risk is the probability or likelihood of an adverse health effect or the occurrence of a negative event related to treatment or exposure to certain hazards. It is usually expressed as a ratio or percentage and can be influenced by various factors such as age, gender, lifestyle, genetics, and environmental conditions. Risk assessment involves identifying, quantifying, and prioritizing risks to make informed decisions about prevention, mitigation, or treatment strategies.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

A ruptured aneurysm is a serious medical condition that occurs when the wall of an artery or a blood vessel weakens and bulges out, forming an aneurysm, which then bursts, causing bleeding into the surrounding tissue. This can lead to internal hemorrhage, organ damage, and even death, depending on the location and severity of the rupture.

Ruptured aneurysms are often caused by factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, aging, and genetic predisposition. They can occur in any part of the body but are most common in the aorta (the largest artery in the body) and the cerebral arteries (in the brain).

Symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm may include sudden and severe pain, weakness or paralysis, difficulty breathing, confusion, loss of consciousness, and shock. Immediate medical attention is required to prevent further complications and increase the chances of survival. Treatment options for a ruptured aneurysm may include surgery, endovascular repair, or medication to manage symptoms and prevent further bleeding.

The basilar artery is a major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brainstem and cerebellum. It is formed by the union of two vertebral arteries at the lower part of the brainstem, near the junction of the medulla oblongata and pons.

The basilar artery runs upward through the center of the brainstem and divides into two posterior cerebral arteries at the upper part of the brainstem, near the midbrain. The basilar artery gives off several branches that supply blood to various parts of the brainstem, including the pons, medulla oblongata, and midbrain, as well as to the cerebellum.

The basilar artery is an important part of the circle of Willis, a network of arteries at the base of the brain that ensures continuous blood flow to the brain even if one of the arteries becomes blocked or narrowed.

A choroid hemorrhage is a type of hemorrhage that occurs in the choroid layer of the eye. The choroid is a part of the uveal tract, which is located between the retina and the sclera (the white outer coat of the eye). It contains numerous blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the retina.

A choroid hemorrhage occurs when there is bleeding in the choroid layer, which can cause sudden vision loss or other visual symptoms. The bleeding may result from various causes, such as trauma, hypertension, blood disorders, or inflammatory conditions affecting the eye. In some cases, the exact cause of a choroid hemorrhage may be difficult to determine.

Treatment for a choroid hemorrhage depends on the underlying cause and severity of the bleeding. In some cases, observation and monitoring may be sufficient, while in other cases, medical or surgical intervention may be necessary to manage the condition and prevent further vision loss.

Peptic ulcer hemorrhage is a medical condition characterized by bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract due to a peptic ulcer. Peptic ulcers are open sores that develop on the lining of the stomach, lower esophagus, or small intestine. They are usually caused by infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

When a peptic ulcer bleeds, it can cause symptoms such as vomiting blood or passing black, tarry stools. In severe cases, the bleeding can lead to shock, which is a life-threatening condition characterized by a rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, and confusion. Peptic ulcer hemorrhage is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. Treatment may include medications to reduce stomach acid, antibiotics to eliminate H. pylori infection, and endoscopic procedures to stop the bleeding. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the ulcer or remove damaged tissue.

Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and is typically measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). It's the measurement of the pressure exerted by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, and brain tissue within the confined space of the skull.

Normal ICP ranges from 5 to 15 mmHg in adults when lying down. Intracranial pressure may increase due to various reasons such as bleeding in the brain, swelling of the brain, increased production or decreased absorption of CSF, and brain tumors. Elevated ICP is a serious medical emergency that can lead to brain damage or even death if not promptly treated. Symptoms of high ICP may include severe headache, vomiting, altered consciousness, and visual changes.

The Anterior Cerebral Artery (ACA) is a paired set of arteries that originate from the internal carotid artery or its branch, the posterior communicating artery. They supply oxygenated blood to the frontal lobes and parts of the parietal lobes of the brain.

The ACA runs along the medial side of each hemisphere, anterior to the corpus callosum, which is the largest bundle of nerve fibers connecting the two hemispheres of the brain. It gives off branches that supply the motor and sensory areas of the lower extremities, as well as the areas responsible for higher cognitive functions such as language, memory, and emotion.

The ACA is divided into several segments: A1, A2, A3, and A4. The A1 segment runs from its origin at the internal carotid artery to the anterior communicating artery, which connects the two ACAs. The A2 segment extends from the anterior communicating artery to the bifurcation of the ACA into its terminal branches. The A3 and A4 segments are the distal branches that supply the frontal and parietal lobes.

Interruptions or blockages in the flow of blood through the ACA can lead to various neurological deficits, including weakness or paralysis of the lower extremities, language impairment, and changes in cognitive function.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

The Posterior Cerebral Artery (PCA) is one of the major arteries that supplies blood to the brain. It is a branch of the basilar artery, which is formed by the union of the two vertebral arteries. The PCA supplies oxygenated blood to the occipital lobe (responsible for visual processing), the temporal lobe (involved in auditory and memory functions), and the thalamus and midbrain (relay station for sensory and motor signals).

The PCA has two segments: the precommunicating segment (P1) and the postcommunicating segment (P2). The P1 segment runs posteriorly along the cerebral peduncle, while the P2 segment courses around the midbrain to reach the occipital lobe.

Atherosclerosis, embolism, or other vascular conditions can affect the PCA and lead to a variety of neurological symptoms, including visual loss, memory impairment, and difficulty with language processing.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

A putaminal hemorrhage is a type of intracranial hemorrhage, which is defined as bleeding within the brain. Specifically, it refers to bleeding that occurs in the putamen, which is a region located deep within the forebrain and is part of the basal ganglia.

Putaminal hemorrhages are often caused by hypertension (high blood pressure) or rupture of small aneurysms (weakened areas in the walls of blood vessels). Symptoms can vary depending on the severity and location of the bleed, but may include sudden onset of headache, altered consciousness, weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, and visual disturbances.

Diagnosis is typically made using imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment may involve supportive care, medications to control blood pressure and prevent seizures, and surgical intervention in some cases. The prognosis for putaminal hemorrhage depends on various factors, including the patient's age, overall health status, and the severity of the bleed.

Brain diseases, also known as neurological disorders, refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the brain and nervous system. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as genetics, infections, injuries, degeneration, or structural abnormalities. They can affect different parts of the brain, leading to a variety of symptoms and complications.

Some examples of brain diseases include:

1. Alzheimer's disease - a progressive degenerative disorder that affects memory and cognitive function.
2. Parkinson's disease - a movement disorder characterized by tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with coordination and balance.
3. Multiple sclerosis - a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the nervous system and can cause a range of symptoms such as vision loss, muscle weakness, and cognitive impairment.
4. Epilepsy - a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures.
5. Brain tumors - abnormal growths in the brain that can be benign or malignant.
6. Stroke - a sudden interruption of blood flow to the brain, which can cause paralysis, speech difficulties, and other neurological symptoms.
7. Meningitis - an infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
8. Encephalitis - an inflammation of the brain that can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or autoimmune disorders.
9. Huntington's disease - a genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination, cognitive function, and mental health.
10. Migraine - a neurological condition characterized by severe headaches, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.

Brain diseases can range from mild to severe and may be treatable or incurable. They can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, and early diagnosis and treatment are essential for improving outcomes and quality of life.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Hydrocephalus is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain, leading to an increase in intracranial pressure and potentially causing damage to the brain tissues. This excessive buildup of CSF can result from either overproduction or impaired absorption of the fluid, which typically causes the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) inside the brain to expand and put pressure on surrounding brain structures.

The condition can be congenital, present at birth due to genetic factors or abnormalities during fetal development, or acquired later in life as a result of injuries, infections, tumors, or other disorders affecting the brain's ability to regulate CSF flow and absorption. Symptoms may vary depending on age, severity, and duration but often include headaches, vomiting, balance problems, vision issues, cognitive impairment, and changes in behavior or personality.

Treatment for hydrocephalus typically involves surgically implanting a shunt system that diverts the excess CSF from the brain to another part of the body where it can be absorbed, such as the abdominal cavity. In some cases, endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) might be an alternative treatment option, creating a new pathway for CSF flow within the brain. Regular follow-ups with neurosurgeons and other healthcare professionals are essential to monitor the condition and make any necessary adjustments to the treatment plan.

Blood flow velocity is the speed at which blood travels through a specific part of the vascular system. It is typically measured in units of distance per time, such as centimeters per second (cm/s) or meters per second (m/s). Blood flow velocity can be affected by various factors, including cardiac output, vessel diameter, and viscosity of the blood. Measuring blood flow velocity is important in diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, such as heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.

A subdural hematoma is a type of hematoma (a collection of blood) that occurs between the dura mater, which is the outermost protective covering of the brain, and the brain itself. It is usually caused by bleeding from the veins located in this potential space, often as a result of a head injury or trauma.

Subdural hematomas can be classified as acute, subacute, or chronic based on their rate of symptom progression and the time course of their appearance on imaging studies. Acute subdural hematomas typically develop and cause symptoms rapidly, often within hours of the head injury. Subacute subdural hematomas have a more gradual onset of symptoms, which can occur over several days to a week after the trauma. Chronic subdural hematomas may take weeks to months to develop and are often seen in older adults or individuals with chronic alcohol abuse, even after minor head injuries.

Symptoms of a subdural hematoma can vary widely depending on the size and location of the hematoma, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Common symptoms include headache, altered mental status, confusion, memory loss, weakness or numbness, seizures, and in severe cases, coma or even death. Treatment typically involves surgical evacuation of the hematoma, along with management of any underlying conditions that may have contributed to its development.

A retrobulbar hemorrhage is a rare but serious condition that involves the accumulation of blood in the retrobulbar space, which is the area between the back surface of the eyeball (the globe) and the front part of the bony socket (orbit) that contains it. This space is normally filled with fatty tissue and various supportive structures like muscles, nerves, and blood vessels.

Retrobulbar hemorrhage typically occurs as a result of trauma or surgery to the eye or orbit, causing damage to the blood vessels in this area. The bleeding can lead to increased pressure within the orbit, which may compress the optic nerve and restrict the flow of blood and oxygen to the eye. This can result in rapid vision loss, proptosis (forward displacement of the eyeball), pain, and other ocular dysfunctions.

Immediate medical attention is required for retrobulbar hemorrhage, as it can lead to permanent visual impairment or blindness if not treated promptly. Treatment options may include observation, medication, or surgical intervention to relieve the pressure and restore blood flow to the eye.

Cerebral revascularization is a surgical procedure aimed at restoring blood flow to the brain. This is often performed in cases where there is narrowing or blockage of the cerebral arteries, a condition known as cerebrovascular disease. The most common type of cerebral revascularization is called carotid endarterectomy, which involves removing plaque buildup from the carotid artery in the neck to improve blood flow to the brain. Another type is extracranial-intracranial bypass, where a new connection is created between an external carotid artery and an intracranial artery to bypass a blockage.

Blood volume refers to the total amount of blood present in an individual's circulatory system at any given time. It is the combined volume of both the plasma (the liquid component of blood) and the formed elements (such as red and white blood cells and platelets) in the blood. In a healthy adult human, the average blood volume is approximately 5 liters (or about 1 gallon). However, blood volume can vary depending on several factors, including age, sex, body weight, and overall health status.

Blood volume plays a critical role in maintaining proper cardiovascular function, as it affects blood pressure, heart rate, and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues throughout the body. Changes in blood volume can have significant impacts on an individual's health and may be associated with various medical conditions, such as dehydration, hemorrhage, heart failure, and liver disease. Accurate measurement of blood volume is essential for diagnosing and managing these conditions, as well as for guiding treatment decisions in clinical settings.

Therapeutic embolization is a medical procedure that involves intentionally blocking or obstructing blood vessels to stop excessive bleeding or block the flow of blood to a tumor or abnormal tissue. This is typically accomplished by injecting small particles, such as microspheres or coils, into the targeted blood vessel through a catheter, which is inserted into a larger blood vessel and guided to the desired location using imaging techniques like X-ray or CT scanning. The goal of therapeutic embolization is to reduce the size of a tumor, control bleeding, or block off abnormal blood vessels that are causing problems.

A craniotomy is a surgical procedure where a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain. This procedure is typically performed to treat various neurological conditions, such as brain tumors, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, or traumatic brain injuries. After the underlying brain condition is addressed, the bone flap is usually replaced and secured back in place with plates and screws. The purpose of a craniotomy is to provide access to the brain for diagnostic or therapeutic interventions while minimizing potential damage to surrounding tissues.

Cerebral ventriculography is a medical imaging technique that involves the injection of a contrast material into the cerebral ventricles, which are fluid-filled spaces within the brain. The purpose of this procedure is to produce detailed images of the ventricular system and the surrounding structures in order to diagnose and evaluate various neurological conditions, such as hydrocephalus (excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles), tumors, or other abnormalities that may be causing obstruction or compression of the ventricular system.

The procedure typically involves inserting a thin, flexible tube called a catheter into the lateral ventricle of the brain through a small hole drilled in the skull. The contrast material is then injected through the catheter and X-ray images are taken as the contrast material flows through the ventricular system. These images can help to identify any abnormalities or blockages that may be present.

Cerebral ventriculography has largely been replaced by non-invasive imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which provide similar information without the need for invasive procedures. However, cerebral ventriculography may still be used in certain cases where these other methods are not sufficient to make a definitive diagnosis.

Cerebral dominance is a concept in neuropsychology that refers to the specialization of one hemisphere of the brain over the other for certain cognitive functions. In most people, the left hemisphere is dominant for language functions such as speaking and understanding spoken or written language, while the right hemisphere is dominant for non-verbal functions such as spatial ability, face recognition, and artistic ability.

Cerebral dominance does not mean that the non-dominant hemisphere is incapable of performing the functions of the dominant hemisphere, but rather that it is less efficient or specialized in those areas. The concept of cerebral dominance has been used to explain individual differences in cognitive abilities and learning styles, as well as the laterality of brain damage and its effects on cognition and behavior.

It's important to note that cerebral dominance is a complex phenomenon that can vary between individuals and can be influenced by various factors such as genetics, environment, and experience. Additionally, recent research has challenged the strict lateralization of functions and suggested that there is more functional overlap and interaction between the two hemispheres than previously thought.

A traumatic brain hemorrhage is a type of bleeding that occurs within the brain or in the spaces surrounding the brain as a result of trauma or injury. This condition can range from mild to severe, and it is often a medical emergency.

Trauma can cause blood vessels in the brain to rupture, leading to the leakage of blood into the brain tissue or the spaces surrounding the brain. The buildup of blood puts pressure on the delicate tissues of the brain, which can cause damage and result in various symptoms.

There are several types of traumatic brain hemorrhages, including:

1. Epidural hematoma: This occurs when blood accumulates between the skull and the dura mater, the tough outer covering of the brain. It is often caused by a skull fracture that damages an artery or vein.
2. Subdural hematoma: In this type, bleeding occurs between the dura mater and the next inner covering of the brain, called the arachnoid membrane. Subdural hematomas are usually caused by venous injuries but can also result from arterial damage.
3. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage: This refers to bleeding within the brain tissue itself, often due to the rupture of small blood vessels.
4. Subarachnoid hemorrhage: Bleeding occurs in the space between the arachnoid membrane and the innermost covering of the brain, called the pia mater. This type of hemorrhage is commonly caused by an aneurysm or a head injury.

Symptoms of a traumatic brain hemorrhage may include:

* Sudden severe headache
* Nausea and vomiting
* Confusion or disorientation
* Vision changes, such as double vision or blurred vision
* Balance problems or difficulty walking
* Slurred speech or difficulty communicating
* Seizures
* Loss of consciousness
* Weakness or numbness in the face, arms, or legs

Immediate medical attention is necessary if a traumatic brain hemorrhage is suspected. Treatment may involve surgery to relieve pressure on the brain and stop the bleeding, as well as medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications. The prognosis for a traumatic brain hemorrhage depends on various factors, including the location and severity of the bleed, the patient's age and overall health, and the promptness and effectiveness of treatment.

Hemorrhagic shock is a type of shock that occurs when there is significant blood loss leading to inadequate perfusion of tissues and organs. It is characterized by hypovolemia (low blood volume), hypotension (low blood pressure), tachycardia (rapid heart rate), and decreased urine output. Hemorrhagic shock can be classified into four stages based on the amount of blood loss and hemodynamic changes. In severe cases, it can lead to multi-organ dysfunction and death if not treated promptly and effectively.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Neuroprotective agents are substances that protect neurons or nerve cells from damage, degeneration, or death caused by various factors such as trauma, inflammation, oxidative stress, or excitotoxicity. These agents work through different mechanisms, including reducing the production of free radicals, inhibiting the release of glutamate (a neurotransmitter that can cause cell damage in high concentrations), promoting the growth and survival of neurons, and preventing apoptosis (programmed cell death). Neuroprotective agents have been studied for their potential to treat various neurological disorders, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. However, more research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and to develop effective therapies.

Intracranial thrombosis refers to the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) within the intracranial vessels, which supply blood to the brain. This condition can occur in any of the cerebral arteries or veins and can lead to serious complications such as ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or venous sinus thrombosis.

The formation of an intracranial thrombus can be caused by various factors, including atherosclerosis, cardiac embolism, vasculitis, sickle cell disease, hypercoagulable states, and head trauma. Symptoms may vary depending on the location and extent of the thrombosis but often include sudden onset of headache, weakness or numbness in the face or limbs, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision changes, and loss of balance or coordination.

Diagnosis of intracranial thrombosis typically involves imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) angiography, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), or digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Treatment options may include anticoagulation therapy, thrombolysis, endovascular intervention, or surgical intervention, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.

The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain, located in the frontal part of the skull. It is divided into two hemispheres, right and left, which are connected by a band of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. The cerebrum is responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, perception, and consciousness.

The outer layer of the cerebrum is called the cerebral cortex, which is made up of gray matter containing billions of neurons. This region is responsible for processing sensory information, generating motor commands, and performing higher-level cognitive functions. The cerebrum also contains several subcortical structures such as the thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala, which play important roles in various brain functions.

Damage to different parts of the cerebrum can result in a range of neurological symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the injury. For example, damage to the left hemisphere may affect language function, while damage to the right hemisphere may affect spatial perception and visual-spatial skills.

The Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) is a highly specialized, selective interface between the central nervous system (CNS) and the circulating blood. It is formed by unique endothelial cells that line the brain's capillaries, along with tight junctions, astrocytic foot processes, and pericytes, which together restrict the passage of substances from the bloodstream into the CNS. This barrier serves to protect the brain from harmful agents and maintain a stable environment for proper neural function. However, it also poses a challenge in delivering therapeutics to the CNS, as most large and hydrophilic molecules cannot cross the BBB.

Intracranial hypertension is a medical condition characterized by an increased pressure within the skull (intracranial space) that contains the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and blood. Normally, the pressure inside the skull is carefully regulated to maintain a balance between the formation and absorption of CSF. However, when the production of CSF exceeds its absorption or when there is an obstruction in the flow of CSF, the pressure inside the skull can rise, leading to intracranial hypertension.

The symptoms of intracranial hypertension may include severe headaches, nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances such as blurred vision or double vision, and papilledema (swelling of the optic nerve disc). In some cases, intracranial hypertension can lead to serious complications such as vision loss, brain herniation, and even death if left untreated.

Intracranial hypertension can be idiopathic, meaning that there is no identifiable cause, or secondary to other underlying medical conditions such as brain tumors, meningitis, hydrocephalus, or certain medications. The diagnosis of intracranial hypertension typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as MRI or CT scans), and lumbar puncture to measure the pressure inside the skull and assess the CSF composition. Treatment options may include medications to reduce CSF production, surgery to relieve pressure on the brain, or shunting procedures to drain excess CSF from the intracranial space.

Brain hypoxia is a medical condition characterized by a reduced supply of oxygen to the brain. The brain requires a continuous supply of oxygen to function properly, and even a brief period of hypoxia can cause significant damage to brain cells.

Hypoxia can result from various conditions, such as cardiac arrest, respiratory failure, carbon monoxide poisoning, or high altitude exposure. When the brain is deprived of oxygen, it can lead to a range of symptoms, including confusion, disorientation, seizures, loss of consciousness, and ultimately, brain death.

Brain hypoxia is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment to prevent long-term neurological damage or death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of hypoxia, such as administering oxygen therapy, resuscitating the heart, or treating respiratory failure. In some cases, more invasive treatments, such as therapeutic hypothermia or mechanical ventilation, may be necessary to prevent further brain damage.

The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a standardized tool used by healthcare professionals to assess the level of consciousness and neurological response in a person who has suffered a brain injury or illness. It evaluates three aspects of a patient's responsiveness: eye opening, verbal response, and motor response. The scores from these three categories are then added together to provide an overall GCS score, which can range from 3 (indicating deep unconsciousness) to 15 (indicating a normal level of consciousness). This scale helps medical professionals to quickly and consistently communicate the severity of a patient's condition and monitor their progress over time.

Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) is a non-invasive medical imaging technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the blood vessels or arteries within the body. It is a type of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) that focuses specifically on the circulatory system.

MRA can be used to diagnose and evaluate various conditions related to the blood vessels, such as aneurysms, stenosis (narrowing of the vessel), or the presence of plaques or tumors. It can also be used to plan for surgeries or other treatments related to the vascular system. The procedure does not use radiation and is generally considered safe, although people with certain implants like pacemakers may not be able to have an MRA due to safety concerns.

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Duranty, Walter (January 23, 1924). "Lenin Dies Of Cerebral Hemorrhage; Moscow Throngs Overcome With Grief; Trotsky Departs Ill ...
"Cerebral Hemorrhage Fatal To Actress". The Knoxville Journal. Associated Press. July 3, 1955. Retrieved March 7, 2021 - via ... having died of a cerebral hemorrhage. Clark, ad-libbing, put his arm around Bonner and said "Ann, speak to me. Is something the ...
Duranty, Walter (January 23, 1924). "Lenin Dies Of Cerebral Hemorrhage; Moscow Throngs Overcome With Grief; Trotsky Departs Ill ...
He died of cerebral hemorrhage. Orgocka started to work as a director right after school in the Andon Zako Çajupi theater of ...
Dies of a cerebral hemorrhage. (Paul Rosilli, 1981-82) Wants to steal the treasures of Malcuth. Hypnotizes Laura Spencer and ...
CORNELIUS VANDERBILT DEAD; Succumbed Suddenly Yesterday to Cerebral Hemorrhage. DUE TO STROKE OF PARALYSIS Wife and Daughter ...
He died of a cerebral hemorrhage. His wife of 52 years, Linda Ascher Singer survived him. They had three children together, ...
He died of a cerebral hemorrhage. The 1998 Chinese film Rhapsody of Spring directed by Teng Wenji is a slightly fictionalized ...
She died of a cerebral hemorrhage. Her death was described as "a national loss" by Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz, the former ...
Alice Vanderbilt's husband died of a cerebral hemorrhage on September 12, 1899, in their New York home at 1 West 57th Street. ... CORNELIUS VANDERBILT DEAD; Succumbed Suddenly Yesterday to Cerebral Hemorrhage. DUE TO STROKE OF PARALYSIS Wife and Daughter ... Great-Grandson and Namesake of Commodore Succumbs in Miami to Brain Hemorrhage. Family With Him At End. He Won Distinction as ...
"Aß is targeted to the vasculature in a mouse model of hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis". Herzig MC, Winkler DT, ... "Cerebral hemorrhage following anti-Aß-immunotherapy". Pfeifer M, Boncristiano S, Bondolfi L, Stalder A, Deller T, Staufenbiel M ... "Peripherally applied Aß-containing inoculates induce cerebral β-amyloidosis". Eisele YS, Obermueller U, Heilbronner G, Baumann ...
He died of a cerebral hemorrhage shortly after 6 a.m. on September 12, 1899, at his home on West Fifty-seventh Street in ... CORNELIUS VANDERBILT DEAD; Succumbed Suddenly Yesterday to Cerebral Hemorrhage. DUE TO STROKE OF PARALYSIS Wife and Daughter ... Great-Grandson and Namesake of Commodore Succumbs in Miami to Brain Hemorrhage. Family With Him at End. He Won Distinction as ...
Then she dies from cerebral hemorrhage. Her brothers are in shock. They don't know what to do. Meanwhile, Fatma Hanim waits for ...
Cause of death cholelithiasis, cerebral hemorrhage. Randolph Thomas Edwards, known as Thomas R Edwards at the University of ...
He died of a cerebral hemorrhage. Japanese literature List of Japanese authors Fujioka, Takeo. Seimei no sakebi Ito Sachio. ...
An autopsy revealed that he had died of a cerebral hemorrhage and that he also suffered from severe damage to his cerebral ... He had suffered a cerebral hemorrhage. Stalin died on 5 March 1953. ...
Ebara is also remembered as the founder of Azabu High School (then a middle school). Ebara died of a cerebral hemorrhage. ...
Wilhelm Brinkmann, 80, German Olympic handball player (1936). Liu Chieh, 83, Taiwanese diplomat, cerebral hemorrhage. Norman ... Liu Chi-Sheng, 76, Chinese pilot, intracerebral hemorrhage. Francesc de Borja Moll i Casasnovas, 87, Spanish linguist. Eugene ... Shingo Kanemoto, 58, Japanese voice actor, intracerebral hemorrhage. Stewart Morris, 81, British Olympic sailor (1948). Webb ... Daigoro Kondo, 83, Japanese footballer, intracranial hemorrhage. Fatma Memik, 87-88, Turkish politician. Arkady Migdal, 79, ...
Aurora de Albornoz, 64, Spanish academic, cerebral hemorrhage. Mato Dukovac, 71, Yugoslav flying ace during World War II . ... Zheng Yanfen, 88, Taiwanese politician, cerebral hemorrhage. Ilya Frank, 81, Soviet nuclear physicist, Nobel Prize recipient ( ...
Osman Durmuş, 73, Turkish politician, Minister of Health (1999-2002) and MP (1999-2002, 2007-2011), cerebral hemorrhage. Glenn ... cerebral hemorrhage. Travis Roy, 45, American philanthropist and hockey player (Boston University Terriers), complications of ... Ab Krook, 76, Dutch speed skating coach, cerebral infarction. Marisa de Leza, 87, Spanish actress (I'm Not Mata Hari, Under the ... dies at 77 Fallece el artista plástico Arturo Rivera de una hemorragia cerebral (in Spanish) Philanthropist and Former-Hockey ...
Gerda Nicolson, 54, Australian actress, cerebral hemorrhage. Renié, 90, American costume designer (Cleopatra, The President's ... Mikhail Tal, 55, Latvian chess player, esophageal hemorrhage. Pierre Billotte, 86, French soldier and war hero during World War ...
Serhiy Perkhun, 23, Ukrainian footballer, cerebral hemorrhage. Remy Presas, 64, Filipino martial artist and founder of Modern ... Floyd Spence, 73, American attorney and a politician, cerebral thrombosis. Sidney Tillim, 76, American artist and art critic. ... Ginzō Matsuo, 50, Japanese voice actor, subarachnoid hemorrhage. John L. Nelson, 85, American jazz musician, songwriter and ...
Jurjaan Koolen, 81, Dutch Olympic volleyball player (1964). Li Zhensheng, 79, Chinese photojournalist, cerebral hemorrhage. ... Nurul Haque Manik, 55, Bangladeshi footballer (Brothers Union, national team), brain hemorrhage. Arunkumar Mehta, 80, Indian ...
He died suddenly of a cerebral hemorrhage. R. Yekusiel Zishe Heschel, second son of r. Moshe Mordechai, is the current ...
Masahisa Fukase, 78, Japanese photographer, cerebral hemorrhage. Paul Jenkins, 88, American abstract expressionist painter. ... Krishna Bhusan Bal, 64, Nepalese poet, intracerebral hemorrhage. Shigemitsu Dandō, 98, Japanese jurist and Supreme Court judge ...
In 1941, Lufei died of cerebral hemorrhage. [1] Lufei Kui Library at Tongxiang, Zhejiang 中国出版家陆费逵,周其厚,人民出版社,2016 (Chinese ...
encoded search term (Cerebral Vasospasm After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage) and Cerebral Vasospasm After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage ... Impaired cerebral autoregulation is associated with vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke ... Impairment of cerebral autoregulation predicts delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a prospective ... Cerebral Vasospasm After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Updated: Sep 12, 2022 * Author: William W Ashley, Jr, MD, PhD, MBA; Chief ...
encoded search term (Cerebral Vasospasm After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage) and Cerebral Vasospasm After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage ... Impaired cerebral autoregulation is associated with vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke ... Impairment of cerebral autoregulation predicts delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a prospective ... Cerebral Vasospasm After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Workup. Updated: Sep 12, 2022 * Author: William W Ashley, Jr, MD, PhD, MBA; ...
... of patients with a cerebral hemorrhage or hematoma, one in four had ... cerebral hemorrhage, including intra-cerebral hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage among other forms), from ... A more detailed analysis of the relationship of seizures in the acute setting of cerebral hemorrhage and patient outcome is ... Lead investigator Jeffrey M. Politsky, M.D., and colleagues report that, "The fact that 700 patients with cerebral hemorrhage ...
Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism in Subarachnoid Haemorrhage J Rowe; J Rowe ... J Rowe, N Soper, C Rae, C B T Adams, G K Radda, B Rajagopalan; Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism in Subarachnoid Haemorrhage. ...
Dementia in hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type is associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy but is ...
... kinetic therapy lead to a reduction of cerebral vasospasm and better outcome in patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage ... The influence of cisternal and ventricular lavage on cerebral vasospasm in patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage: ... kinetic therapy lead to a reduction of cerebral vasospasm and better outcome in patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage ... the effectiveness of cisternal and ventricular lavage on cerebral vasospasm in patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage ...
011 Multifocal intracranial haemorrhage as a manifestation of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome ... 011 Multifocal intracranial haemorrhage as a manifestation of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome ... followed by intracerebral haemorrhage. Subdural haemorrhage is a less well reported manifestation occurring in just 2% of ... Admission imaging also demonstrated subarachnoid blood in over the right superior cerebral convexities. MR imaging revealed a ...
Cerebral Hemorrhage mixed drink recipe containing Coffee Liqueur, Peach Schnapps, Irish Cream and Grenadine ...
... intracerebral hemorrhages, intracerebral haemorrhage, cerebral haemorrhages, cerebral hemorrhages, Brain haemorrhage More ... cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral bleeding, cerebral haemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, ... Cerebral haemorrhage. Definition: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL ...
Use of consensus term and definition for delayed cerebral ischaemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. View ORCID ... Use of consensus term and definition for delayed cerebral ischaemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage ... Use of consensus term and definition for delayed cerebral ischaemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage ... Use of consensus term and definition for delayed cerebral ischaemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage ...
... of Magnetic Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging and Routine Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy Hemorrhage, G ... Clinical value of 1.5T MRI DWI and SWI sequence in the diagnosis of cerebral infarction and cerebral hemorrhage. J Clin Med ... Analysis of MRI diagnosis for cerebral amyloidosis cerebral hemorrhage patients clinical effect. Chin Health Nutr 2016;26:16. ... resonance imaging in cerebral amyloid angiopathy hemorrhage. A total of 64 patients with suspected cerebral amyloid angiopathy ...
Hemorrhage or Cerebral Infarction measure and should be reviewed along with the Intracranial Hemorrhage or Cerebral Infarction ... Hemorrhage or Cerebral Infarction measure and should be reviewed along with the Intracranial Hemorrhage or Cerebral Infarction ... inpatient treatment for cerebral infarction or intracranial hemorrhage that triggers an Intracranial Hemorrhage or Cerebral ... The Intracranial Hemorrhage or Cerebral Infarction cost measure uses the following data sources:. *Medicare Parts A and B ...
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage from Posterior Cerebral Artery Aneurysm during Puerperium - Case Report and Review of Literature ... Subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH) due to true aneurysms of the Posterior Cerebral Artery (PCA) during puerperium in young and ... Subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH) due to true aneurysms of the Posterior Cerebral Artery (PCA) during puerperium in young and ... Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Puerperium; Posterior cerebral artery aneurysm. Dewey Decimal Classification:. 600 Technology , 610 ...
However, the term delayed cerebral ischemia was used only in 131/527 (25%) of papers and only 14/81 (17%) of clinical trials/ ... Between 2010 and 2017, 527 papers were published with delayed cerebral ischemia, or another term to describe the same ... following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). We assessed the use of this term and its definition as an endpoint in ... a multidisciplinary research group proposed a consensus term and definition for the complication of delayed cerebral ischaemia ...
Cerebral hemorrhage. A cerebral hemorrhage occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures and bleeds into the surrounding ... A cerebral hemorrhage (bleeding in the brain) causes stroke symptoms by depriving blood and oxygen to parts of the brain in a ... Edema and the accumulation of blood from a cerebral hemorrhage increases pressure within the skull and causes further damage by ... Subarachnoid hemorrhage. In a subarachnoid hemorrhage, blood accumulates in the space beneath the arachnoid membrane that lines ...
"Cerebral Hemorrhage, Traumatic" by people in this website by year, and whether "Cerebral Hemorrhage, Traumatic" was a major or ... Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES due to TRAUMA. Hemorrhage may involve any part of the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the ... "Cerebral Hemorrhage, Traumatic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Cerebral Hemorrhage, Traumatic" by people in Profiles. ...
Small incision, removal of the hematoma with the Endoscope and the Microscope. Vascular neurosurgery can deal with any of the diseases of the blood vessels of the brain. Strokes, either ischemic or hemorrhagic, brain aneurysms, vascular malformations, are some of the diseases modern vascular neurosurgery deals with.. Hemorrhagic strokes are potentially a fatal condition. hey are usually treated surgically,since they affect the patient neurologically and exert pressure on the brain. It is important to treat them in a timely manner in order to avoid causing permanent and serious damage to the brain.. Today there is a new technique for removing these hematomas, using the methods of mini craniotomy , endoscopy and the use of special small tubes , through which the hematomas are removed. With this technique, we have faster , less traumatic removal of the hematoma, decompression of the brain and a better neurological outcome.. Our experience shows that even elderly patients or patients with worse ...
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy with and without hemorrhage: Evidence for different disease phenotypes Academic Article ... OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into different cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) phenotypes and mechanisms, we investigated cortical ... who presented with and without intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: MRI scans of 105 patients with CAA pathologic ...
List of the top 1 Belgian music stars who died in Cerebral hemorrhage ... Cerebral hemorrhage Here are 1 famous musicians from Belgium died in Cerebral hemorrhage:. Django Reinhardt. Django Reinhardt ( ...
Hereditary Cerebral Hemorrhage with Amyloidosis global patient forecast by country & sub-typing. ... 10-year Global patient forecast for Hereditary Cerebral Hemorrhage with Amyloidosis.. Estimates are provided by country with ...
Cerebral Infarction, from around the world, courtesy of the American Academy of Reflexology, your complete source for Beginning ... A 46 yr old patient with multiple cerebral infarction (a sudden onset of headache, vertigo, slurred speech and numbness in left ... Foot reflexology was found to be effective for the relief of symptoms associated with multiple cerebral infarction. ... Lu, C., Foot massage Treatment of Multiple Cerebral Infarction: A Case Report. 1994 China Reflexology Symposium Report, ...
Cerebral Hemorrhage 10. Four cases of cerebral hemorrhage Author(s): Eshner, Augustus A. (Augustus Adolph), 1862-1949, author ... Start Over You searched for: Subjects Cerebral Hemorrhage ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Cerebral Hemorrhage ... Cerebral Hemorrhage 3. Intracerebral hemorrhage in the young Author(s): Sachs, Bernard, 1858-1944, author Publication: [ ... Cerebral Hemorrhage 9. Hemorrhagia cerebral: these apresentada á Faculdade de Medicina do Rio de Janeiro ...
Cerebrovascular disease; CVA; Cerebral infarction; Cerebral hemorrhage; Ischemic stroke; Stroke - ischemic; Cerebrovascular ... This is called cerebral embolism, or an embolic stroke. Ischemic strokes may also be caused by a sticky substance called plaque ... Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA; condition in which proteins called amyloid build up on the walls of the arteries in the brain ...
Predictive Nursing Procedure, Cerebral Hemorrhage, Nursing Effect, Life Quality, Service Quality CITE THIS PAPER. Jing Wang. On ... Method: The author collated nursing data of 60 cerebral hemorrhage patients who were received and treated in the hospital from ... On Application Effect of Predictive Nursing Procedure on Patients with Cerebral Hemorrhage. Download as PDF ... Objective: To explore the clinical application effect of predictive nursing procedure on the patients with cerebral hemorrhage ...
Cerebral blood flow-guided phenylephrine-induced hypertensive therapy after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebrovascualar, Cranial ... of patients into high and low risk groups for delayed ischemic neurological deficit following subarachnoid hemorrhage ...
In the elderly population, amyloid angiopathy is associated with cerebral infarcts as well as hemorrhage in superficial ... Gross, Bradley A.; Jankowitz, Brian T.; Friedlander, Robert M. (2 April 2019). "Cerebral Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage: A Review ... This hemorrhage rarely extends into the ventricular system. Nontraumatic intraparenchymal hemorrhage most commonly results from ... Clinical manifestations of intraparenchymal hemorrhage are determined by the size and location of hemorrhage, but may include ...
Nontraumatic cerebral hemorrhage. 22 (1.6). Syncope, possibly not seizure. 25 (1.9). Meningitis or brain abscess. 18 (1.3). ...
Magnetic resonance imaging measures of cerebral perfusion after subarachnoid haemorrhage Rowland MJ., Kelly ME., Okell TW., ...
  • In a study that compared three-dimensional (3D) spin-echo-based black-blood MRA (BBMRA) with time-of-flight (TOF)-MRA for detection of cerebral vasospasm in the early posttreament period after subarachnoid hemorrhage, Takano et al found that BBMRA, owing to its contrast properties, may be superior to TOF-MRA for the evaluation of intracranial arteries. (medscape.com)
  • This document details the methodology for the Intracranial Hemorrhage or Cerebral Infarction measure and should be reviewed along with the Intracranial Hemorrhage or Cerebral Infarction Measure Codes List file, which contains the medical codes used in constructing the measure. (mdinteractive.com)
  • The Intracranial Hemorrhage or Cerebral Infarction episode-based cost measure evaluates a clinician's risk-adjusted cost to Medicare for patients who receive inpatient treatment for cerebral infarction or intracranial hemorrhage during the performance period. (mdinteractive.com)
  • 3 The Intracranial Hemorrhage or Cerebral Infarction episode-based cost measure was recommended for development by an expert clinician committee-the Neuropsychiatric Disease Management Clinical Subcommittee-because of its impact in terms of patient population and clinician coverage, and the opportunity for incentivizing cost-effective, highquality clinical care in this area. (mdinteractive.com)
  • The cost measure numerator is the sum of the ratio of observed to expected 4 paymentstandardized cost to Medicare for all Intracranial Hemorrhage or Cerebral Infarction episodes attributed to a clinician. (mdinteractive.com)
  • The cost measure denominator is the total number of episodes from the Intracranial Hemorrhage or Cerebral Infarction episode group attributed to a clinician. (mdinteractive.com)
  • Methodologically, the Intracranial Hemorrhage or Cerebral Infarction cost measure can be triggered based on claims data from acute inpatient (IP) hospitals. (mdinteractive.com)
  • The cohort for this cost measure consists of patients who are Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in Medicare fee-for-service and who receive inpatient treatment for cerebral infarction or intracranial hemorrhage that triggers an Intracranial Hemorrhage or Cerebral Infarction episode. (mdinteractive.com)
  • The level of this lecture is appropriate for medical students, junior residents, and trainees in other specialties who have an interest in neuroradiology or may see patients with intracranial hemorrhage or stroke. (learnneuroradiology.com)
  • 5] Andrew M. Naidech, Intracranial Hemorrhage,Am J Respir Crit Care Med. (clausiuspress.com)
  • Neurologic end-organ damage due to uncontrolled BP may include hypertensive encephalopathy, cerebral vascular accident/cerebral infarction, subarachnoid hemorrhage , and/or intracranial hemorrhage . (medscape.com)
  • Dementia in hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type is associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy but is independent of plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. (alzforum.org)
  • To investigate the diagnostic value of the magnetic susceptibility-weighted imaging and routine magnetic resonance imaging in cerebral amyloid angiopathy hemorrhage. (ijpsonline.com)
  • A total of 64 patients with suspected cerebral amyloid angiopathy hemorrhage diagnosed in our hospital from January 2018 to January 2019 were included in the study. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The consistency of the two detection methods in the diagnosis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy hemorrhage and the difference in image quality were analyzed. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Magnetic susceptibility-weighted imaging has obvious advantages in detecting the micro cerebral hemorrhage, and it can show the characteristics of the cerebral amyloid angiopathy multiple hemorrhages, and its diagnostic value was better than that of routine routine magnetic resonance imaging. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) was a group of diseases characterized by the deposition of the insoluble fibrin (glycoprotein) in brain tissue. (ijpsonline.com)
  • CAA was a cerebrovascular disease characterized by the deposition of β-amyloid protein in the media and adventitia of small and medium-sized vessels in the cerebral cortex, cortex, and pia mater. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The disease was clinically characterized by multiple and complex intracerebral hemorrhages, so it was also known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy hemorrhage (CAAH) [ 2 , 3 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into different cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) phenotypes and mechanisms, we investigated cortical superficial siderosis (CSS), a new imaging marker of the disease, and its relation with APOE genotype in patients with pathologically proven CAA, who presented with and without intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). (mcmaster.ca)
  • Oligomerization, fibrillization and neurotoxicity of native Aβ associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) type has been compared with E32Q Aβ (amyloid β-protein containing residues 1-40 with the native Glu at residue 22 changed to Gln) implicated in Dutch cerebral haemorrhage disease. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • Lobar intracerebral hemorrhages (hematomas in the cerebral lobes, outside the basal ganglia) usually result from angiopathy due to amyloid deposition in cerebral arteries (cerebral amyloid angiopathy), which affects primarily older people. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Newswise - Bleeding in and around the brain (cerebral hemorrhage, including intra-cerebral hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage among other forms), from whatever cause (stroke, ruptured aneurysm, stroke, tumor, trauma, etc) can be very irritating to the electrical cells of the brain and affect how these cells transmit signals. (newswise.com)
  • A cerebral hemorrhage (bleeding in the brain) causes stroke symptoms by depriving blood and oxygen to parts of the brain in a variety of ways. (medicinenet.com)
  • This is called cerebral embolism, or an embolic stroke. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 1] Manan Shah, Lee Birnbaum, Jennifer Rasmussen, Padmini Sekar, Effect of Hyperosmolar Therapy on Outcome following Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: ERICH Study, J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. (clausiuspress.com)
  • Concordance between ICD-CM codes and the clinical diagnosis documented by the physician (assumed as accurate) was calculated for each diagnosis category: ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage. (nih.gov)
  • In the analysis of ICD-10-CM records, disagreements often occurred between ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack records and between subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage records. (nih.gov)
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which rivaroxaban reduces cerebral hemorrhage in mice with TPA ischemic stroke after thrombolysis. (researcherslinks.com)
  • Sherwood will discuss how her life and art were significantly altered by a cerebral hemorrhage in 1997, offering examples of her own work pre and post-stroke, as well as contemporary examples of Disability Art. (georgeadamsgallery.com)
  • Data were used only if the deceased was 65 years old or older at the time of death, if death was attributed to intracerebral haemorrhage or ischaemic stroke, and if the deceased lived in one of 13 major urban areas. (bmj.com)
  • In 2010, a multidisciplinary research group proposed a consensus term and definition for the complication of delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI) following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Delayed cerebral ischaemia after subarachnoid haemorrhage: looking beyond vasospasm. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Despite improvements in the clinical management of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage over the last decade, delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI) remains the single most important cause of morbidity and mortality in those patients who survive the initial bleed. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Lu, C., 'Foot massage Treatment of Multiple Cerebral Infarction: A Case Report. (reflexologyresearch.net)
  • A 46 yr old patient with multiple cerebral infarction (a sudden onset of headache, vertigo, slurred speech and numbness in left extremities) was stabilized after 2 months and discharged with some slurred speech, facial and lingual palsy, limb weakness and numbness. (reflexologyresearch.net)
  • Foot reflexology was found to be effective for the relief of symptoms associated with multiple cerebral infarction. (reflexologyresearch.net)
  • CAA was an important cause of the spontaneous subcortical intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) in the elderly with normal blood pressure [ 1 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Of those patients who are able to reach neurosurgical centers and have their aneurysm treated, an estimated 14% either die or sustain significant morbidity as a result of cerebral vasospasm. (medscape.com)
  • Cerebral angiography revealed an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. (medscape.com)
  • Three-dimensional reconstruction of cerebral angiogram showing anterior communicating artery aneurysm. (medscape.com)
  • DCI from cerebral vasospasm was defined as the occurrence of focal neurological impairment, or a decrease in at least two points on the Glasgow Coma Scale, which was not apparent immediately after aneurysm occlusion, and could not be attributed to other causes. (bmj.com)
  • Novel pathological mechanisms have been suggested, including damage to cerebral tissue in the first 72 h after aneurysm rupture ('early brain injury'), cortical spreading depression, and microthrombosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A 34-year-old male patient presented with sudden-onset headache, and an inter-hemispheric meningioma with intra-tumoural bleeding was found due to a ruptured embedded anterior cerebral artery aneurysm. (openneuroimagingjournal.com)
  • The aneurysm was diagnosed incidentally on the third cerebral angiogram, while the initial 2 angiograms were negative. (openneuroimagingjournal.com)
  • This paper is the first case report to describe the coexistence of a meningioma and an aneurysm, which presented with intra-tumoural haemorrhage that was negative on the initial cerebral angiogram. (openneuroimagingjournal.com)
  • Unlike previous case reports, the aneurysm in this case was located with an anterior cerebral artery distribution. (openneuroimagingjournal.com)
  • Lead investigator Jeffrey M. Politsky, M.D., and colleagues report that, "The fact that 700 patients with cerebral hemorrhage did not undergo EEG evaluation suggests that the diagnosis of sub-clinical seizures was missed in over 200 cases. (newswise.com)
  • 10-year Global patient forecast for Hereditary Cerebral Hemorrhage with Amyloidosis. (blueprintorphan.com)
  • Cerebral vasospasm leading to delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) continues to be a major complication and source of morbidity in cases of aSAH. (medscape.com)
  • However, the etiology of cerebral vasospasm remains poorly understood. (medscape.com)
  • nimodipine is currently recommended as first-line medical treatment for preventing post-aSAH cerebral vasospasm. (medscape.com)
  • More invasive means of treating vasospasm depend on the utilization of cerebral angiography and include intra-arterial vasodilator administration and balloon angioplasty. (medscape.com)
  • There are many postulated theories as to the etiology of cerebral vasospasm after aSAH, but the mechanisms ultimately responsible for vasospasm are still incompletely understood. (medscape.com)
  • [ 5 ] has been found to be elevated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after aSAH and may play a role in cerebral vasospasm and DCI. (medscape.com)
  • Cerebral vasospasm has been estimated to occur in 12-30% of the approximately 30,000 North American patients who experience aSAH each year. (medscape.com)
  • On the Fisher Scale, the thickness of the aSAH clot and the presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) are strong predictors of vasospasm. (medscape.com)
  • Various imaging modalities are employed to diagnose cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). (medscape.com)
  • For this reason, routine surveillance imaging studies are carried out to supplement the neurologic examination with the aim of diagnosing vasospasm before the onset of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). (medscape.com)
  • Five days after presentation, the patient became symptomatic as a consequence of cerebral vasospasm. (medscape.com)
  • Cerebral angiogram obtained on posthemorrhage day 5 in patient symptomatic from vasospasm. (medscape.com)
  • within the last decades several clinical trials were performed to analyze the effectiveness of cisternal and ventricular lavage on cerebral vasospasm in patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage. (nih.gov)
  • Search terms were subarachnoid hemorrhage, vasospasm, cisternal and ventricular lavage. (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, there is strong evidence that cisternal or ventricular lavage alone and in combination with kinetic therapy lead to a reduction of cerebral vasospasm and better outcome in patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage. (nih.gov)
  • Cerebral infarct was defined as a new infarct on CT that was not visible on the admission or immediate postoperative scan, when the cause was thought to be vasospasm by the research team. (bmj.com)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: Attenuation of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage in mice overexpressing extracellular superoxide dismutase. (duke.edu)
  • We examined whether overexpression of murine extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) alters SAH-induced cerebral vasospasm, oxidative stress, and neurological outcome. (duke.edu)
  • Definition of delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage as an outcome event in clinical trials and observational studies: proposal of a multidisciplinary research group. (medscape.com)
  • Background Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has a multifactorial pathophysiology, with immune dysregulation being an important component. (bmj.com)
  • Hemorrhage may involve any part of the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the BASAL GANGLIA. (ucdenver.edu)
  • A more detailed analysis of the relationship of seizures in the acute setting of cerebral hemorrhage and patient outcome is needed. (newswise.com)
  • 2] Co K A, Navarro J. Assessing clinical outcome using brain score as a predictor of hematoma growth in acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients in a tertiary hospital in Manila. (clausiuspress.com)
  • Transcranial Doppler combined with quantitative EEG brain function monitoring and outcome prediction in patients with severe acute intracerebral hemorrhage. (clausiuspress.com)
  • If the hemorrhage ruptures into the ventricular system (intraventricular hemorrhage), blood may cause acute hydrocephalus, which is an independent predictor for a worse outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage. (msdmanuals.com)
  • As the onset of CAAH was located in the brain, the amount and location of hemorrhage was uncertain, the diameter of the focus was small, and there was no edema and other inflammation around the disease, the routine MRI was difficult to detect and diagnose effectively. (ijpsonline.com)
  • A cerebral hemorrhage occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures and bleeds into the surrounding brain tissue. (medicinenet.com)
  • Additionally, blood is very irritating and can cause swelling of brain tissue (cerebral edema ). (medicinenet.com)
  • Edema and the accumulation of blood from a cerebral hemorrhage increases pressure within the skull and causes further damage by squeezing the brain against the bony skull. (medicinenet.com)
  • In a subarachnoid hemorrhage, blood accumulates in the space beneath the arachnoid membrane that lines the brain. (medicinenet.com)
  • Brain tumours that are associated with cerebral aneurysms are rare occurrences, whereas the coexistence of brain tumours and intra-tumoural aneurysms is even rarer. (openneuroimagingjournal.com)
  • hemorrhages or diffuse brain edema. (cdc.gov)
  • Reported prognostic factors for poor short-term outcome in CVST include anatomical characteristics of disease such as the presence of brain herniation and hemorrhage, or features of the clinical presentation such as seizures, depressed consciousness, and altered mental status. (cdc.gov)
  • Intracerebral hemorrhage is focal bleeding from a blood vessel in the brain parenchyma. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Intracerebral hemorrhage may also occur in other parts of the brain stem or in the midbrain. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Blood from an intracerebral hemorrhage accumulates as a mass that can dissect through and compress adjacent brain tissues, causing neuronal dysfunction. (msdmanuals.com)
  • compressing the brain stem and often causing secondary hemorrhages in the midbrain and pons. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Male Wistar mice (11-week-old) as our experimental subjects were administered with warfarin (0.2 mg/kg/day), rivaroxaban (60 mg/kg/day), rivaroxaban (120 mg/kg) /day), or solvent pretreatment for 14 d to induce transient middle cerebral artery occlusion for 90 min, followed by perfusion with tPA (10 mg/kg/10ml). (researcherslinks.com)
  • Use of cocaine or, occasionally, other sympathomimetic drugs or medications can cause transient severe hypertension leading to hemorrhage. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Angiography demonstrated severe narrowing of the right anterior cerebral artery (ACA). (medscape.com)
  • Angiogram shows severe narrowing of right anterior cerebral artery. (medscape.com)
  • METHODS: Mice exhibiting a 2-fold increase in vascular EC-SOD and wild-type (WT) littermates were subjected to sham surgery or SAH by perforation of the right anterior cerebral artery. (duke.edu)
  • Middle cerebral artery (MCA) diameter was measured or immunohistochemically stained for nitrotyrosine. (duke.edu)
  • [ 4 ] The alteration of these regulatory processes results in excess cerebral arterial vasoconstriction. (medscape.com)
  • The clinical presentation was consistent with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome The resolution of the angiographic abnormalities on a follow-up study after an interval of 8 weeks, supported this diagnosis. (bmj.com)
  • Our patient presented with recurrent thunderclap headache, a characteristic presentation of the reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. (bmj.com)
  • Subdural haemorrhage is a less well reported manifestation occurring in just 2% of patients in the largest case series of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction to date. (bmj.com)
  • An awareness of the multiple haemorrhagic presentations of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome may aid in earlier recognition of this syndrome. (bmj.com)
  • The recent failure of the drug clazosentan to improve functional outcomes despite reducing vasoconstriction has moved the focus of research into DCI away from cerebral artery constriction towards a more multifactorial aetiology. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH) due to true aneurysms of the Posterior Cerebral Artery (PCA) during puerperium in young and healthy females are extremely rare. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Chronic arterial hypertension leads to formation of microaneurysms (Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms) in small perforating arteries, which may rupture and cause intracerebral hemorrhage. (msdmanuals.com)
  • MR imaging revealed a shallow subdural haemorrhage. (bmj.com)
  • In our patient, neuroimaging revealed a multifocal distribution of haemorrhages in the intracerebral, subarachnoid, and subdural compartments. (bmj.com)
  • Whenever you see hemorrhage in an unusual distribution, such as bilateral involvement, or involvement across vascular boundaries, you might think about venous infarct. (learnneuroradiology.com)
  • Venous infarcts are often characterized by hemorrhage in unusual distribution or location. (learnneuroradiology.com)
  • Several of the slides later in the presentation will refer to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis or CVST. (cdc.gov)
  • There is evidence that the normal physiologic mechanisms and signaling molecules that regulate cerebral arterial diameter are altered. (medscape.com)
  • Nitric oxide, a vasodilator produced by endothelial cells, helps maintain cerebral arterial dilation. (medscape.com)
  • The most common location for hemorrhage due to hypertension is the putamen. (msdmanuals.com)
  • We report a case of bilateral retinal hemorrhages with macular edema in a patient with dengue fever (DF). (thepajo.org)
  • Isolated cases of retinal hemorrhages and macular edema have been reported in the literature. (thepajo.org)
  • Herein, we report a case of bilateral retinal hemorrhages with macular edema in a patient with neurological complications due to DF. (thepajo.org)
  • Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the preoperative imaging features of routine magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic susceptibility-weighted imaging and the risk of focal hemorrhage. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Subarachnoid haemorrhage: what happens to the cerebral arteries? (medscape.com)
  • Anterior segment examination showed subconjunctival hemorrhage in both eyes with normal pupil size pupil that reacted to light. (thepajo.org)
  • This patient has hemorrhage in the left occipital lobe and left cerebellum, with hemorrhage in the left transverse sinus. (learnneuroradiology.com)
  • A study reported today at the 64th American Epilepsy Society Annual Meeting has found that, of patients with a cerebral hemorrhage or hematoma, one in four had a diagnosis of sub-clinical seizures while in the ICU: sub-clinical seizures can only be detected with continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) recording. (newswise.com)
  • The investigators reviewed the records of more than 950 cerebral hemorrhage and hematoma patients consecutively admitted to the intensive care unit during a period of more than three years. (newswise.com)
  • Admission imaging also demonstrated subarachnoid blood in over the right superior cerebral convexities. (bmj.com)
  • so far the literature search revealed a total of nine clinical trials using cisternal or ventricular lavage alone in patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage. (nih.gov)
  • However, the term delayed cerebral ischemia was used only in 131/527 (25%) of papers and only 14/81 (17%) of clinical trials/cohort studies published in 2017 cited the consensus definitions when outlining study endpoints. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The presence of new retinal hemorrhages, exudates, or papilledema suggests a hypertensive emergency. (medscape.com)
  • Method: The author collated nursing data of 60 cerebral hemorrhage patients who were received and treated in the hospital from April 2017 to April 2019, and they were classified into control group (30 cases) (conventional nursing) and observation group (30 cases) (predictive nursing procedure). (clausiuspress.com)
  • Conclusion: The application of predictive nursing procedure for cerebral hemorrhage patients can accelerate patients' recovery, promote service quality, improve patients' life quality and prevent relevant complications, so it deserves to be promoted and applied. (clausiuspress.com)
  • Initial presenting head CT scan showing subarachnoid hemorrhage and blood filling basal cisterns. (medscape.com)
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhages usually cause a sudden severe headache , nausea , vomiting , light intolerance, and stiff neck. (medicinenet.com)
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage, Traumatic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ucdenver.edu)
  • Computerized tomography of the head showed cerebral bleeding. (thepajo.org)
  • Seizures were detected in 25% of patients who had been evaluated, with no significant difference in seizure activity found among the different types of intra-cranial hemorrhage. (newswise.com)