Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Formation of an infarct, which is NECROSIS in tissue due to local ISCHEMIA resulting from obstruction of BLOOD CIRCULATION, most commonly by a THROMBUS or EMBOLUS.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
Compounds that increase urine volume by increasing the amount of osmotically active solute in the urine. Osmotic diuretics also increase the osmolarity of plasma.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
A condition marked by raised intracranial pressure and characterized clinically by HEADACHES; NAUSEA; PAPILLEDEMA, peripheral constriction of the visual fields, transient visual obscurations, and pulsatile TINNITUS. OBESITY is frequently associated with this condition, which primarily affects women between 20 and 44 years of age. Chronic PAPILLEDEMA may lead to optic nerve injury (see OPTIC NERVE DISEASES) and visual loss (see BLINDNESS).
A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.
Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Excision of part of the skull. This procedure is used to treat elevated intracranial pressure that is unresponsive to conventional treatment.
Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.
Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.
Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Tubes inserted to create communication between a cerebral ventricle and the internal jugular vein. Their emplacement permits draining of cerebrospinal fluid for relief of hydrocephalus or other condition leading to fluid accumulation in the ventricles.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Stroke caused by lacunar infarction or other small vessel diseases of the brain. It features hemiparesis (see PARESIS), hemisensory, or hemisensory motor loss.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Non-specific white matter changes in the BRAIN, often seen after age 65. Changes include loss of AXONS; MYELIN pallor, GLIOSIS, loss of ependymal cells, and enlarged perivascular spaces. Leukoaraiosis is a risk factor for DEMENTIA and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS.
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
Surgical creation of an opening in a cerebral ventricle.
A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.
Multiple symptoms associated with reduced oxygen at high ALTITUDE.
The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.
Organic compounds composed of tin and three ethyl groups. Affect mitochondrial metabolism and inhibit oxidative phosphorylation by acting directly on the energy conserving processes.
An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Elevated level of AMMONIA in the blood. It is a sign of defective CATABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS or ammonia to UREA.
A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.
Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.
The organic and psychogenic disturbances observed after closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED). Post-concussion syndrome includes subjective physical complaints (i.e. headache, dizziness), cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes. These disturbances can be chronic, permanent, or late emerging.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
Veins draining the cerebrum.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.
Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.
Agents that inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS which are concentrated in the thick ascending limb at the junction of the LOOP OF HENLE and KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.
Bleeding within the brain as a result of penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Traumatically induced hemorrhages may occur in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM (see BRAIN STEM HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC); and CEREBELLUM.
A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Potential cavity which separates the ARACHNOID MATER from the DURA MATER.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Radiography of the ventricular system of the brain after injection of air or other contrast medium directly into the cerebral ventricles. It is used also for x-ray computed tomography of the cerebral ventricles.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
A plant genus of the family BURSERACEAE used medicinally since ancient times. It is a source of salai guggal (the gum resin), boswellic acid (ursane type TRITERPENES), and FRANKINCENSE.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.
The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.
Na-K-Cl transporter ubiquitously expressed. It plays a key role in salt secretion in epithelial cells and cell volume regulation in nonepithelial cells.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
A sulfamyl diuretic.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Act of striking a part with short, sharp blows as an aid in diagnosing the condition beneath the sound obtained.
Rare congenital metabolism disorders of the urea cycle. The disorders are due to mutations that result in complete (neonatal onset) or partial (childhood or adult onset) inactivity of an enzyme, involved in the urea cycle. Neonatal onset results in clinical features that include irritability, vomiting, lethargy, seizures, NEONATAL HYPOTONIA; RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS; HYPERAMMONEMIA; coma, and death. Survivors of the neonatal onset and childhood/adult onset disorders share common risks for ENCEPHALOPATHIES, METABOLIC, INBORN; and RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS due to HYPERAMMONEMIA.
Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
A form of compensated hydrocephalus characterized clinically by a slowly progressive gait disorder (see GAIT DISORDERS, NEUROLOGIC), progressive intellectual decline, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. Spinal fluid pressure tends to be in the high normal range. This condition may result from processes which interfere with the absorption of CSF including SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, chronic MENINGITIS, and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp631-3)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Abnormal fluid retention by the body due to impaired cardiac function or heart failure. It is usually characterized by increase in venous and capillary pressure, and swollen legs when standing. It is different from the generalized edema caused by renal dysfunction (NEPHROTIC SYNDROME).
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES due to TRAUMA. Hemorrhage may involve any part of the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the BASAL GANGLIA. Depending on the severity of bleeding, clinical features may include SEIZURES; APHASIA; VISION DISORDERS; MOVEMENT DISORDERS; PARALYSIS; and COMA.
Narrow channel in the MESENCEPHALON that connects the third and fourth CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.
A delicate membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord. It lies between the PIA MATER and the DURA MATER. It is separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid cavity which is filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
Reduction of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID pressure characterized clinically by HEADACHE which is maximal in an upright posture and occasionally by an abducens nerve palsy (see ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES), neck stiffness, hearing loss (see DEAFNESS); NAUSEA; and other symptoms. This condition may be spontaneous or secondary to SPINAL PUNCTURE; NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; DEHYDRATION; UREMIA; trauma (see also CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA); and other processes. Chronic hypotension may be associated with subdural hematomas (see HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL) or hygromas. (From Semin Neurol 1996 Mar;16(1):5-10; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp637-8)
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain CEREBROSIDES and SCOPOLETIN.
PROCEDURES that use NEUROENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Neuroendoscopy, generally an integration of the neuroendoscope with a computer-assisted NEURONAVIGATION system, provides guidance in NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.
The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
A narrow cleft inferior to the CORPUS CALLOSUM, within the DIENCEPHALON, between the paired thalami. Its floor is formed by the HYPOTHALAMUS, its anterior wall by the lamina terminalis, and its roof by EPENDYMA. It communicates with the FOURTH VENTRICLE by the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT, and with the LATERAL VENTRICLES by the interventricular foramina.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
"Decompressive craniectomy for the treatment of refractory high intracranial pressure in traumatic brain injury". Cochrane ... 2007). "Early decompressive surgery in malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery: a pooled analysis of three ... Decompressive craniectomy is also used to manage major strokes, associated with "malignant" edema and intracranial hypertension ... N. Grossman; H. S. Shemesh-Jan; V. Merkin; M. Gideon; A. Cohen (2007). "Deep-freeze preservation of cranial bones for future ...
An increase in pressure, most commonly due to head injury leading to intracranial hematoma or cerebral edema, can crush brain ... Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. Firstgov. Accessed January 4, 2007. Intracranial+Pressure at ... eventually leading to ischemia and brain infarction. Increased blood pressure can also make intracranial hemorrhages bleed ... in the skull with the help of cranial drills to remove intracranial hematomas or relieve pressure from parts of the brain. As ...
... brain stem hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C10. - cerebral hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C10. - brain ... infarction, posterior cerebral artery MeSH C10.228.140.300.510.200.450 - intracranial aneurysm MeSH C10.228.140.300.510.200.475 ... traumatic MeSH C10.900.300.837.150.650 - cerebral hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C10.900.300.837.300 - hematoma, epidural, cranial ... brain edema MeSH C10.228.140.199 - brain injuries MeSH C10. - brain concussion MeSH C10. - ...
Certain changes in morphology are associated with cerebral edema: the brain becomes soft and smooth and overfills the cranial ... "Hypertonic saline for treating raised intracranial pressure: literature review with meta-analysis". Journal of Neurosurgery. ... "Contribution of vasogenic and cellular edema to traumatic brain swelling measured by diffusion-weighted imaging". Journal of ... Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Infarction: Clinical Course and Prognostic Signs". Archives of Neurology. 53 (4): 309-315. doi ...
A generalized increase in intracranial pressure-hydrocephalus, pseudotumor cerebri, hemorrhage, edema-will affect the fourth ... It has the greatest intracranial length. It is the only cranial nerve that exits from the dorsal (rear) aspect of the brainstem ... Hind- and mid-brains; postero-lateral view. Dissection showing origins of right ocular muscles, and nerves entering by the ... It passes between the posterior cerebral artery and the superior cerebellar artery, and then pierces the dura just under free ...
... and blood byproducts that increase intracranial pressure and may increase the risk for cerebral vasospasm. Efforts to keep a ... It is difficult to isolate the effects of SAH from those of other aspects of traumatic brain injury; it is unknown whether the ... A further consequence of this process is neurogenic pulmonary edema where a process of increased pressure within the pulmonary ... March 1989). "Effect of oral nimodipine on cerebral infarction and outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage: British aneurysm ...
Other symptoms include those that indicate a rise in intracranial pressure caused by a large mass putting pressure on the brain ... Brain ischemia/. cerebral infarction. (ischemic stroke/TIA). TACI, PACI. *precerebral: Carotid artery stenosis ... "Overview of Adult Traumatic Brain Injuries." Archived 2008-02-27 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 2008-01-16. ... The tissue surrounding a bleed is often less dense than the rest of the brain because of edema, and therefore shows up darker ...
Postoperative complications can include increased intracranial pressure, brain edema, new or recurrent bleeding, infection, and ... Cerebral infarction. *Classification *Transient ischemic attack. *Total anterior circulation infarct. *Partial anterior ... Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) - Definition, Epidemiology, Pathophysiology at eMedicine *^ "Acute Subdural Hematomas - UCLA ... They also occur in the posterior cranial fossa, and near the falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli.[3] Unlike epidural hematomas ...
Brain ischemia/. cerebral infarction. (ischemic stroke/TIA). TACI, PACI. *precerebral: Carotid artery stenosis ... Intracranial hypertension *Hydrocephalus/NPH. *Choroid plexus papilloma. *Idiopathic intracranial hypertension. *Cerebral edema ... G53) Cranial nerve disorders in diseases classified elsewhere. *(G54) Nerve root and plexus disorders *(G54.0) Brachial plexus ... G44.3) Chronic post-traumatic headache. *(G44.4) Drug-induced headache, not elsewhere classified ...
This contributed volume is focused on subjects related to cerebral veins under normal conditions and after brain injuries, ... elevation of intracranial pressure during and after ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke events, traumatic brain injury, ... elevation of venous pressure during cranial hypertension, all lead to fatal insults such as venous infarction and hemorrhage. ... Veins and venules play extremely important roles in brain circulation especially during pathologies such as brain edema, BBB ...
The most common lesions were diffuse is- chemic injuries (29). edema (13). cerebral infarctions (11) and intracerebral hematoma ... using multi-modal monitoring to detect harmful secondary insults such as increased intra cranial pressure. In addition to ... Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability. An early and accurate assessment ... cerebral ischemia. spontaneous intra-cerebral hematomas and edema formation. S100B is known to correlate to outcome. Severe ...
... treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals. ... TBI of any sort can cause cerebral edema and decrease brain blood flow. The cranial vault is fixed in size (constrained by the ... Larger contusions may cause brain edema and increased intracranial pressure (ICP). Contusions may enlarge in the hours and days ... Injured venous sinuses can later thrombose and cause cerebral infarction.. * Fractures that involve the carotid canal: These ...
... is a disruption of the normal function of the brain caused by a head injury. Blunt trauma, penetrating injuries, and blast ... Focal injury includes specific lesions such as contusions, intracranial hematomas, infarctions, axonal tears, cranial nerve ... Diffuse brain injury includes diffuse axonal injury, hypoxic brain injury, diffuse cerebral edema, or diffuse vascular injury.[ ... Neurosurgical intervention (craniotomy, elevation of skull fracture, increased intracranial pressure monitor, or ...
Major cranial trauma with skull fracture and/or hemorrhagic traumatic brain injury usually precludes treatment with AC ... Diseases causing acute onset of raised intracranial pressure or diffuse/multifocal cerebral dysfunction resemble CVT. These ... MRI identifies sequelae of CVT, including infarction, hemorrhagic infarction, and edema. MRI specifically and sensitively ... Increased venous pressure and venous obstruction directly increase intracranial pressure, which is additionally made worse by ...
... is the pressure exerted by the cranium on the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the brains ... An increase in pressure, most commonly due to head injury leading to intracranial hematoma or cerebral edema can crush brain ... Major causes of morbidity due to increased intracranial pressure are due to global brain infarction as well as decreased ... "Overview of Adult Traumatic Brain Injuries." Accessed September 6, 2007.. *^ Dawodu S. 2005. "Traumatic Brain Injury: ...
During the past decade, it has become apparent that even blast injury as a form of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) may lead ... cerebral, neuronal and neuropsychiatric responses; some of which are shared with other forms of brain trauma such as acute ... During the past decade, it has become apparent that even blast injury as a form of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) may lead ... cerebral, neuronal and neuropsychiatric responses; some of which are shared with other forms of brain trauma such as acute ...
... hypoxic-ischemic damage may result in mild to severe cerebral edema initially and cerebral atrophy and/or infarction as a later ... or lethargy but had no lacerations or infarctions of brain tissue. These children did not have severely elevated intracranial ... 1998) Neuroimaging, physical, and developmental findings after inflicted and non-inflicted traumatic brain injury in young ... pressure, subtle neurologic sequelae, or persistent seizures.29 When severely brain-injured children survive, they may be ...
... edema, hydrocephalus, cytologic abnormalities.   Increased intracranial pressure Causes of cerebral edema: focal and ... Shearing of brain vessels, high impact Diffuse Axonal Injury: Shearing of axons results in post-traumatic neurologic deficits ... Harbinger of cerebral infarction * 33. Summary: Strokes due to ischemia/infarction        ... GRANULOMATOUS MENINGITIS tuberculosis Sequelae: Vasculitis Small infarcts Cranial neuropathies ...
Subdural hematoma is the most common type of traumatic intracranial mass lesion. ... is a collection of blood below the inner layer of the dura but external to the brain and arachnoid membrane (see the images ... Secondary brain injuries may include edema, infarction, secondary hemorrhage, and brain herniation. ... Cerebral injury results from direct pressure, increased intracranial pressure (ICP), or associated intraparenchymal insults. ...
The cranial vault contains: Brain tissue Blood Cerebrospinal fluid These three things give your brain a state of equilibrium ... Embolus dislodges & occludes a cerebral artery resulting in infarction & edema. *Second most common cause of stroke ... Increased Intracranial Pressure. The cranial vault contains: Brain tissue Blood Cerebrospinal fluid These three things give ... Traumatic Brain Injury*Occurs as a result of an external physical force that may produce a diminished or altered state of ...
... due either to the increased intracranial pressure or to the mass effect, cerebral hypoperfusion and consequential infarction ... Key words: Intensive care; Neuroimaging; Emergency medicine; Computed tomography; Traumatic brain injury; Intracranial ... Another genesis is explained by occlusion of drainage veins, resulting in cerebral edema, possibly leading to either cerebral ... cerebral hypoxic lesion (post-cardiac arrest syndrome)(2). In emergency settings, cranial CT is the cerebral investigation ...
... idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and intracranial hemorrhage. In the emergency setting, the main goal is to intercept ... Diagnostic tests are varied, including routine laboratory analysis, cerebral spinal fluid examination, electroencephalography ... Worrying conditions include brain tumors, central nervous system infections, dysfunction of ventriculo-peritoneal shunts, ... idiopathic intracranial hypertension and intracranial hemorrhage. In the emergency setting, the main goal is to intercept ...
... on the basis of previously described regional patterns of brain injury seen in children with DKA and cerebral edema13-15 and on ... ranging from entirely asymptomatic to severe neurologic derangements and manifestations of increased intracranial pressure. ... Brain infarction in children with diabetic ketoacidosis. J Diabetes Complications 1996;10:100-08. ... Numerous studies, both in humans and in animal models of stroke and traumatic brain injury, demonstrate that hyperglycemia ...
"Decompressive craniectomy for the treatment of refractory high intracranial pressure in traumatic brain injury". Cochrane ... 2007). "Early decompressive surgery in malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery: a pooled analysis of three ... Decompressive craniectomy is also used to manage major strokes, associated with "malignant" edema and intracranial hypertension ... N. Grossman; H. S. Shemesh-Jan; V. Merkin; M. Gideon; A. Cohen (2007). "Deep-freeze preservation of cranial bones for future ...
Surgical removal of strips or pieces of the cranial bones Explanation of craniectomy ... Decompressive craniectomy for the treatment of refractoryhigh intracranial pressure in traumatic brain injury (Review).. A ... decrease the mortality of large cerebral or cerebellar hemispheric infarction and should also be considered in malignant edema. ... cranial work. *cranial work. *Cranial-Rectal Syndrome :-). *Cranial-sacral therapy. *Cranial-sacral therapy ...
... increased intracranial pressure, ischemia caused by decreased cerebral blood flow, hypoxia, cerebral edema, the inflammatory ... could dramatically reduce the cerebral infarction area and brain water content, increase the levels of catalase (CAT) and ... randomized comatose traumatic brain injury patients to either treatment (. ) or control (. ) groups. Patients in both groups ... 29] randomized 206 cranial trauma patients into groups that received ANP combined with biomedicine (CW; ) or biomedicine only ( ...
Outline Intracranial contents Monroe-Kellie Doctrine ICP monitors and waveforms Calculate cerebral perfusion pressure Types of ... Raised intracranial pressure Cerebral blood flow Brain edema. Traumatic Brain Injury. Traumatic Brain Injury Children Torsten ... Retro-alar herniation can cause carotid artery compression with anterior and middle cerebral artery infarction [4,6,8]. ... results when there is a pressure differential between the intracranial compartments and can occur in four areas of the cranial ...
As traumatic brain injury is rather a syndrome comprising a range of different affections to the brain and as, e.g., age- ... Major goals include all measurements to prevent secondary brain injury due to secondary brain insults and to optimize frame ... Moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries (TBI) require treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU) in close collaboration of a ... Aggravation of brain edema, unfavorable outcome after 6 months. ICP: Intracranial pressure, CBV: Cerebral blood volume, CBF: ...
Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) • Cerebral edema. • Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) • Concussions. • Skull fractures. • ... Describe tests used to assess each of the 12 cranial nerves. *Describe tests used to assess the motor nerves and cerebellar ... myocardial infarction, and heart failure.. OBJECTIVES:. After completing this course, the learner should be able to identify ... Beginning with a brief discussion of increased intracranial pressure and cerebral edema, both of which are common in brain ...
Cerebral edema lead to increased intracranial pressure in addition to tissue shifts and brain displacement they known. Tumors ... Vasogenic edema is related to multiple pathological conditions. Conditions that cause cerebral edema include traumatic brain ... Setting of brain tumors is discussed perfusion vasogenic edema brain tumor results in cerebral infarction -. Reduces the ... The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of cerebral edema due to intra- cranial tumors has been described as an area of low ...
An increase in pressure, most commonly due to head injury leading to intracranial hematoma or cerebral edema, can crush brain ... Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. Firstgov. Accessed January 4, 2007. Intracranial+Pressure at ... eventually leading to ischemia and brain infarction. Increased blood pressure can also make intracranial hemorrhages bleed ... in the skull with the help of cranial drills to remove intracranial hematomas or relieve pressure from parts of the brain. As ...
This most notably includes the early detection of peri-hematoma brain edema. Indeed, edema typically develops after 48-72 h, ... and signs of increased intracranial pressure (nausea, vomiting, depressed level of consciousness) in 50%-60% of children [10,11 ... towards a hemorrhagic transformation of an acute ischemic stroke or towards a venous infarction in the context of cerebral ... Cavernous malformations (CM) is amongst most frequent causes for non-traumatic pediatric ICH. It typically appears on T2 * ...
... brain aneurysm explanation free. What is brain aneurysm? Meaning of brain aneurysm medical term. What does brain aneurysm mean? ... Looking for online definition of brain aneurysm in the Medical Dictionary? ... The usual causes are brain edema or hemorrhage with resulting increase in intracranial pressure. ... brain hemorrhage. intracranial hemorrhage affecting the brain usually follows traumatic injury but spontaneous hemorrhage may ...
... intracranial pressure rises to high levels. The major causes of increased intracranial pressure are cerebral edema, acute ... to the dura and contiguous skull by cranial nerves, blood vessels, and arachnoid membranes. Sloshing of the brain can stretch ... This may cause pressure on the ventral or dorsal surface of the cord with some traumatic depolarization of axons in the sensory ... This precedes final occlusion of the retinal arterial supply and infarction of the retina with permanent blindness. Early ...
Buxton NPunt J: Cerebral infarction after neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy: case report. Neurosurgery 46:999-10022000 ... The authors present three patients who died as a result of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) after late failure of a third ... Postmortem examination demonstrated marked ventricular enlargement with evidence of cerebral edema, as well as uncal and ... McLaughlin MRWahling JBKaufmann AMet al: Traumatic basilar aneurysm after endoscopic third ventriculostomy: case report. ...
Cerebral edema *a. Toxic Encephalopathy. *b. Vascular Compromise. *c. Traumatic. *Cerebral Palsy ... The hyperbaric chamber pressure is increased by opening valves allowing high pressure air to enter from storage cylinders, ... Cranial Nerve Syndromes *a. Trigeminal Neuralgia. *b. Vestibular Disorders (Vertigo, Tinnitus, Menieres syndrome) ... Early Organic Brain Syndrome *a. Small Vessel Disease. *b. Multiple Small Infarcts ...
... is a collection of blood below the inner layer of the dura but external to the brain and arachnoid membrane. ... Cerebral injury results from direct pressure, increased intracranial pressure (ICP), or associated intraparenchymal insults. ... Secondary brain injuries may include edema, infarction, secondary hemorrhage, and brain herniation. ... The intracranial pressure (ICP) exceeds 20 mm Hg. In a series of patients with acute traumatic subdural hematoma initially ...
Lesions can involve the brain or the spinal chord. ... Post Traumatic Seizures (Epilepsy). *Intracranial Pressure (ICP ... Cerebral infarction may occur from arrhythmia and embolization. Days or weeks later, progressive disorders can begin to develop ... with edema, perivascular hemmorhage, and neuronal loss. ... Cranial Nerve Injury. *Pituitary Injury. *Toxic Exposures. * ... Traumatic Brain Injury in the Aging Population: Litigating Medical Issues. *The Hidden Injury of TBI: Negative Neuroplasticity ...
Additional causes of traumatic shock include the following: Cerebral injury: Shock from concussion of the brain secondary to ... The shock may be evident immediately or later due to edema or delayed intracranial hemorrhage. Chemical injury: Shock due to ... and blood pressure is stabilized with prescribed vasopressors. Blood pressure, central venous pressure, and urinary output are ... The most common cause of cardiogenic shock is acute myocardial infarction, but other causes include failure or stenosis of ...
  • Occlusion of veins or sinuses by thrombus, compression of veins and venules by tumor and edematous tissues, elevation of venous pressure during cranial hypertension, all lead to fatal insults such as venous infarction and hemorrhage. (
  • Signs and symptoms of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) are variable depending on patient age, thrombosis location, and associated infarction or hemorrhage. (
  • Cerebral hemorrhage is a brain parenchymal nontraumatic hematoma that is primarily caused by hypertension and the subsequent clogging of arteries. (
  • however, the blood sometimes penetrates the brain parenchyma, which results in intraventricular and subarachnoid hemorrhage. (
  • The head trauma may also cause associated brain hematomas or contusions, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and diffuse axonal injury. (
  • hypertensive hemorrhage rarely occurs in children, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy is almost exclusively an adult disease [ 3 ]. (
  • Trauma is the most common cause of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in children, and the distinction between traumatic versus spontaneous hemorrhage can be challenging. (
  • Patterns of hemorrhage can provide a clue to etiology-a child with an ICH extending into the ventricles or subarachnoid space most likely has a brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM), a child with a pure ICH (involving the parenchyma only) has about an equal chance of an AVM or cavernous malformation [ 4 ]. (
  • Cerebral aneurysms rarely cause intraparenchymal hemorrhage, but are the most common cause of pure subarachnoid hemorrhage, even in children. (
  • citation needed] Obstruction to CSF flow and/or absorption can occur in hydrocephalus (blockage in ventricles or subarachnoid space at base of brain, e.g., by Arnold-Chiari malformation), extensive meningeal disease (e.g., infection, carcinoma, granuloma, or hemorrhage), or obstruction in cerebral convexities and superior sagittal sinus (decreased absorption). (
  • also known as a cerebral hematoma ) is a type of intracranial hemorrhage (intracranial hematoma) that occurs within the brain tissue . (
  • Non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage is a spontaneous bleeding into the brain tissue. (
  • The other category of intracranial hemorrhage is extra-axial hemorrhage, such as epidural , subdural , and subarachnoid hematomas , which all occur within the skull but outside of the brain tissue. (
  • The abbreviation ICH , somewhat ambiguous, has been used for any combination of intracranial/intracerebral + hemorrhage / hematoma / hypertension . (
  • [4] High blood pressure raises the risks of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage by two to six times. (
  • Intraparenchymal hemorrhage can be recognized on CT scans because blood appears brighter than other tissue and is separated from the inner table of the skull by brain tissue. (
  • Furthermore, the patient course was complicated by multiple neurological complications (brain abscess, meningitis, infected intracranial aneurysm, subarachnoid hemorrhage and hemorrhage), and patient ultimately deceased. (
  • The patients with meningeal lesions are easy to be complicated with more serious cerebrovascular diseases, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage and massive infarction. (
  • High serum total cholesterol decreased the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage but increased the risk of cerebral infarction. (
  • By contrast, low serum HDL cholesterol increased the risk of cerebral infarction but not of intracerebral hemorrhage 15 . (
  • CSF may appear red following a recent subarachnoid hemorrhage or when the lumbar puncture that obtained the CSF caused traumatic injury to the dura that surround the fluid. (
  • These include intracranial thromboses, cerebral infarctions, and cerebral hemorrhage. (
  • Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may be complicated by delayed cerebral ischemia, which is a major cause of unfavorable clinical outcome and death in SAH-patients. (
  • Non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a major cause of stroke accounting for approximately 1-7% of cases. (
  • First, they may experience a further, often more severe, hemorrhage, and second, they may suffer delayed neurologic deterioration (DND) caused by delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). (
  • According to their hemorrhagic proportion, cases were divided into hemorrhage-dominated (27 [46.6%]) and edema-dominated (31 [53.4%]) groups. (
  • The hemorrhage-dominated lesions (p = 0.026) and deep cerebral venous involvement (p = 0.026) were significantly associated with a poor outcome. (
  • We report two patients with traumatic subdural hemorrhage who had neurologic deteriorations accompanied by sunken scalp after DC. (
  • 1 Short Communications 1565 Alcoholic Intracerebral Hemorrhage Leon A. Weisberg, MD Six alcoholic patients developed extensive cerebral hemispheric hemorrhages with both intraventricular and subarachnoid blood. (
  • RAS dysfunction can also be caused by focal ischemia (eg, certain upper brain stem infarcts), hemorrhage, or direct, mechanical disruption. (
  • In the first hours and days following the hemorrhage, a limited amount of edema accumulates around the clot and adds to the mass effect. (
  • Injury to the brain occurs both at the time of the initial trauma (the primary injury) and subsequently due to ongoing cerebral ischemia (the secondary injury). (
  • In the intensive care unit, raised intracranial pressure (intracranial hypertension) is seen frequently after a severe diffuse brain injury and leads to cerebral ischemia by compromising cerebral perfusion. (
  • One of the main dangers of increased ICP is that it can cause ischemia by decreasing cerebral perfusion pressure . (
  • Venous ischemia at first shows a vasogenic edema due to venous congestion and a breakdown of the normal blood-brain barrier. (
  • Attempts to lower the blood pressure, unless it is at an extreme high level, can be counterproductive (by producing hypotension that can result in further ischemia). (
  • Serious complications can result from these injuries, such as multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), as well as a generalized reduction in cerebral perfusion, e.g. during cardiac arrest, shock, or severe hypotension that may cause global brain ischemia (GBI). (
  • disorders in the vessels of the blood circulation brain (which in particular can occur under the influence of factors such as osteochondrosis, encephalopathy, ischemia, etc. (
  • CBF decreases, and symptoms of cerebral ischemia, such as syncope and blurred vision, occur. (
  • Delayed cerebral ischemia is presumably related to the development of vasospasm triggered by the presence of blood in the basal cisterns. (
  • In retrospective trials lumbar drainage of cerebrospinal fluid has been shown to be a safe and feasible measure to remove the blood from the basal cisterns and decrease the incidence of delayed cerebral ischemia and vasospasm in the respective study populations. (
  • Decreased cerebral blood flow, secondary ischemia and prolonged cerebral ischemia may lead to death. (
  • Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a brain injury caused by a lack of oxygen (hypoxia) and/or a lack of blood flow (ischemia) in the brain. (
  • Hypoxia (a lack of oxygen at the tissue level) and ischemia (a restriction of blood flow) both cause cell injury and brain damage, but ischemia is the more significant contributor to brain injury. (
  • The cerebral cortex is vulnerable to prolonged, less severe hypoxia/ischemia because when the brain is subjected to these conditions, blood gets shunted away from the cerebral cortex - which is the outermost layer of neural tissue - to the deeper structures of the brain. (
  • When a baby suffers an insult in which the oxygen deprivation/ischemia is moderate to severe and relatively prolonged, there is a cerebral deep nuclear pattern (injury to deep parts of the brain), and there might be at least some degree of shunting. (
  • This type of edema may result from trauma, tumors, focal inflammation, late stages of cerebral ischemia and hypertensive encephalopathy . (
  • Rodent models of focal cerebral ischemia have been developed and optimized to mimic human stroke conditions and serve as indispensable tools in the field of stroke research. (
  • Methods -We investigated 32 patients with stroke symptoms consistent with cerebral ischemia in the anterior territory of vascular supply. (
  • Any condition that increases intracranial pressure (ICP) may decrease cerebral perfusion pressure, resulting in secondary brain ischemia. (
  • Secondary brain ischemia may affect the RAS or both cerebral hemispheres, impairing consciousness. (
  • Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension: A Venous Disease? (
  • Patients with intracranial hypertension refractory to the aforementioned therapies may benefit from a craniotomy to evacuate a hematoma or a decompressive craniectomy [55]. (
  • Decompressive craniectomy is also used to manage major strokes, associated with "malignant" edema and intracranial hypertension. (
  • Brain swelling and increased intracranial pressure (ICP) promote secondary injury, and it has been hypothesized that intracranial hypertension may be the primary cause of death in some patients. (
  • Intracranial hypertension (IH), also called increased ICP (IICP) or raised intracranial pressure (RICP), is elevation of the pressure in the cranium. (
  • citation needed] Idiopathic or unknown cause (idiopathic intracranial hypertension, a common cause in otherwise well people especially younger women)[citation needed] Craniosynostosis One of the most damaging aspects of brain trauma and other conditions, directly correlated with poor outcome, is an elevated intracranial pressure. (
  • The most common symptoms of intracranial hypertension (ICH) are headache and loss of vision, including in the form of blind spots, poor peripheral (lateral) vision, double vision and short-term episodes of blindness. (
  • Intracranial hypertension can be acute or chronic. (
  • Because the symptoms of a disease may resemble those of a brain tumor, this disease is also known as pseudotumor hypertension, or pseudotumor. (
  • congenital features relevant to the structure of the central nervous system (intracranial idiopathic hypertension, Arnold-Chiari anomaly, etc. (
  • Intracranial hypertension is a medical term by which the pathological process of increasing pressure in the vessels directly supplying brain tissue is hidden. (
  • What is intracranial hypertension is familiar even to those people who do not suffer from severe pathologies. (
  • Most often, intracranial hypertension is observed in adults. (
  • The most common symptoms of DKA-related cerebral edema include mental status changes (confusion, irritability, obtundation) associated with severe headache, recurrence of vomiting, seizures, hypertension, inappropriate slowing of heart rate, and/or signs of increased intracranial pressure. (
  • Repeat lumbar punctures and treatment of intracranial hypertension are crucial in this setting. (
  • OBJECTIVE Decompressive craniectomy is an established therapy for refractory intracranial hypertension. (
  • Mechanisms contributing to blood-brain barrier dysfunction include physical disruption by arterial hypertension or trauma, and tumor-facilitated release of vasoactive and endothelial destructive compounds (e.g. arachidonic acid , excitatory neurotransmitters, eicosanoids , bradykinin , histamine , and free radicals ). (
  • This form of cerebral edema is seen in acute malignant hypertension. (
  • Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is commonly performed in patients with intracranial hypertension or brain edema due to traumatic brain injury. (
  • Decompressive craniectomy (DCR) is a potentially lifesaving procedure used in neurosurgery for the relief of medically intractable intracranial hypertension in patients with severe head injuries, large-vessel infarcts, intraoperative brain swelling and severe brain edema after intracranial procedures.8)10)11)16)17)19) Once patients undergo a DCR, those who survive are obligated to undergo a second procedure, cranioplasty, for surgical cranial reconstruction. (
  • Randomized trial of adults (?18 years old) with idiopathic intracranial hypertension and moderate to severe visual loss without substantial recent treatment who are randomly assigned to (1) medical therapy, (2) medical therapy plus ONSF, or (3) medical therapy plus VPS. (
  • The pressure-volume relationship between ICP, volume of CSF, blood, and brain tissue, and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is known as the Monro-Kellie doctrine or the Monro-Kellie hypothesis. (
  • The difference between the ICP and the mean arterial pressure within the cerebral vessels is termed the cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)(cerebral perfusion pressure is calculated by subtracting the intracranial pressure from the mean arterial pressure CPP=MAP-ICP), the amount of blood able to reach the brain. (
  • In addition to reducing ICP, studies have found decompressive craniectomy to improve cerebral perfusion pressure and cerebral blood flow in head injured patients. (
  • These conditions tend to decrease the cerebral perfusion pressure but with minimal tissue shifts. (
  • 3. What is the cerebral perfusion pressure equation? (
  • Intracranial pressure , ( ICP ), is the pressure exerted by the cranium on the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the brain's circulating blood volume. (
  • It can compress or displace brain tissue or block cerebrospinal fluid, which can increase pressure and cause swelling. (
  • Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure exerted by fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inside the skull and on the brain tissue. (
  • The clinical diagnosis of Aspergillus infection was mainly based on brain biopsy (n = 14), autopsy (n = 8), pathological examination of adjacent brain tissues (n = 7), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or tissue culture (n = 3), and second-generation sequencing analysis of the CSF (n = 3). (
  • As a result, the statement of the fact that the brain is in suspension in the cerebrospinal fluid (or cerebrospinal fluid) will be true. (
  • That is, the pressure exerted by the cerebrospinal fluid is the intracranial pressure that interests us. (
  • The ventricles and fluid spaces existing in the brain are interconnected by ducts, while the cerebrospinal fluid is in constant circulation. (
  • With an excess of cerebrospinal fluid accumulation, accordingly, an increase in pressure from its side occurs, which specifically affects the substance of the brain. (
  • Culture and sensitivity: no growth Cerebrospinal fluid analysis a. b. c. d. obtained via lumbar, cisternal or ventricular puncture indications: inflammation, infection standard precautions are required maintain strict asepsis Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Definition: A watery cushion that protects the brain and spinal cord from physical impact and bathes the brain in electrolytes and proteins. (
  • The blood-brain barrier (BBB) or the blood- cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier may break down, allowing fluid to accumulate in the brain's extracellular space. (
  • Predisposing factors for SDH include trauma, cerebral atrophy (i.e., the elderly, chronic alcoholics), systemic anticoagulation or antiplatelet agents, and low cerebrospinal fluid pressure (a.k.a., intracranial hypotension). (
  • Dexamethasone Therapy in Patients With Brain Tumors - A Focus on Tapering. (
  • Glucocorticoids are used for management of malignant brain tumors. (
  • Vasogenic edema is a result of a disruption of the blood brain barrier that is frequently related to tumors. (
  • Brain tumors. (
  • Tumors A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of cells inside the brain or skull. (
  • Abstract Glioblastoma (GB) is one of the most common adult primary brain tumors, classified as a grade IV astrocytoma and highly malignant in nature. (
  • The vasogenic edema that surrounds many brain tumors contributes significantly to morbidity. (
  • VEGF was originally described in the setting of brain tumors as a vascular permeability factor (21). (
  • Brain edema is an important determinant of morbidity and mortality in patients with brain tumors. (
  • Herpes simplex encephalitis must be differentiated from other causes of headache, altered mental status and seizures such as brain tumors and delirium trmemns. (
  • Traumatic brain Injury (TBI), tumors, aneurysm, cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) and seizures are the most common effect of head trauma. (
  • Tumors, headaches, cranial bleeds, trauma, seizures, hemiparalysis which is a paralysis on one side, slurred speech, the respiratory pattern is irregular (bradypnea or Cheyne stokes), level of consciousness shows altered breathing and a pupillary response is abnormal. (
  • Disruption of White Matter Integrity in Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors: Correlates with Long-Term Intellectual Outcomes. (
  • Specifically, disruption of brain white matter integrity and its relationship to intellectual outcomes in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors needs to be better understood. (
  • Choroid plexus tumors are uncommon brain tumors that primarily occur in children. (
  • Most of these tumors originate from the intraventricular area, and the most common clinicalpresentation is increased intracranial pressure. (
  • Radiotherapy is the standard treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and various brain tumors. (
  • Intrasellar abscesses can simulate pituitary tumors, and focal brain stem abscesses can cause facial weakness or hemiparesis mimicking a stroke. (
  • He uses minimally invasive endoscopic techniques to treat brain tumors. (
  • Because symptoms are nonspecific, many acute brain disorders mimic CVT. (
  • Diseases causing acute onset of raised intracranial pressure or diffuse/multifocal cerebral dysfunction resemble CVT. (
  • some of which are shared with other forms of brain trauma such as acute brain injury and other neuropsychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder. (
  • Generally, acute subdural hematomas are less than 72 hours old and are hyperdense compared with the brain on computed tomography scans. (
  • Acute subdural hematoma is commonly associated with extensive primary brain injury. (
  • Acute subdural hematoma is the most common type of traumatic intracranial hematoma, occurring in 24% of patients who present comatose. (
  • An acute subdural hematoma due to a ruptured cortical artery may be associated with only minor head injury, possibly without an associated cerebral contusion. (
  • When death occurs from acute injury, cerebral lesions seem to be dominated by the effects of anoxia and cardiac arrest. (
  • 12) who harbor significant intracranial pathology and/or require acute surgical intervention have been problematic. (
  • ICP correlates with intraocular pressure (IOP) but seems to lack the accuracy necessary for close management of intracranial pressure in the acute posttraumatic period. (
  • citation needed] Generalized brain swelling can occur in ischemic-anoxia states, acute liver failure, hypertensive encephalopathy, hypercarbia (hypercapnia), and Reye hepatocerebral syndrome. (
  • Ischemic stroke accounts for approximately 80% of all strokes and results from a thrombotic or embolic occlusion of a major cerebral artery (most often the middle cerebral artery, MCA) or its branches Following acute ischemic stroke, the most worrisome outcome is the rapidly increasing intra-cranial pressure due to the formation of space-occupying vasogenic oedema which can have lethal consequences. (
  • This clinical policy provides evidence-based recommendations on select issues in the management of adult patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the acute setting. (
  • 3) In patients with mild TBI, are brain specific serum biomarkers predictive of an acute traumatic intracranial injury? (
  • Rapidly increasing acute SDH may cause cerebral infarct or intracranial herniation with resultant Kluver-Bucy syndrome. (
  • Both acute and subacute SDH may cause increased intracranial pressure, with symptoms of emesis, speech disturbances, papilledema, cranial nerve abnormalities, or seizure. (
  • In the present study, we describe the case of a 15-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, in whom repeated transfusion led to iron accumulation in the brain. (
  • Conclusions -Our results indicate that postischemic release patterns of GFAP and S-100B protein may allow insight into the underlying pathophysiology of acute cerebral infarcts and may be used as a valuable tool of clinical stroke treatment. (
  • 22 Although S-100B expression in the latter conditions was far below the activity measured after acute central nervous system disorders, the brain specificity of S-100B release was questioned by a number of investigators. (
  • and military personnel deployed to high-altitude locations are all at risk of developing acute mountain sickness (AMS), high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE), high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), and other altitude-related problems. (
  • Herniation occurs as the brain tissue is forcibly shifted from the compartment of greater pressure to a one of lesser pressure. (
  • If brain herniation occurs, respiratory symptoms or respiratory arrest can also occur due to compression of the respiratory centres in the pons and medulla oblongata . (
  • The term "malignant" MCA infarction has been used to describe impending cerebral herniation due to fatal brain swelling and high mortality in patients with ischemic stroke. (
  • cardiac aneurysm thinning and dilatation of a portion of the wall of the left ventricle, usually a consequence of myocardial infarction. (
  • Stroke, after myocardial infarction and cancer is the third most common cause of death worldwide and 1/6th of all human beings will suffer at least one stroke in their lives. (
  • Because of pressure within the clot arising from the heart's contractions, the clot often pulsates against the examiner's hand as does a true aneurysm. (
  • Called also cerebral aneurysm . (
  • cerebral aneurysm berry aneurysm . (
  • Small intracranial aneurysm size: 3-4 mm. (
  • The Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysm Study Japan , a project of the Japan Neurosurgical Society , was designed to clarify the natural course of UIAs. (
  • Endovascular treatment of small intracranial aneurysm s has historically been technically challenging and has been associated with high rates of complication s and intraprocedural rupture. (
  • An intracranial aneurysm is a bulge in the wall of a blood vessel in the brain. (
  • and trauma, including inflicted traumatic brain injury. (
  • One of the most damaging aspects of brain trauma and other conditions, directly correlated with poor outcome, is an elevated intracranial pressure. (
  • 1 , ,2 Although physical abuse in the past has been a diagnosis of exclusion, data regarding the nature and frequency of head trauma consistently support the need for a presumption of child abuse when a child younger than 1 year has suffered an intracranial injury. (
  • Given possible difficulties in initially identifying an infant as having been abusively shaken and the variability of the syndrome itself, physicians must be extremely vigilant when dealing with any brain trauma in infants and be familiar with radiologic and clinical findings that support the diagnosis of shaken baby syndrome. (
  • In 1972, pediatric radiologist John Caffey 7 popularized the term "whiplash shaken baby syndrome" to describe a constellation of clinical findings in infants, which included retinal hemorrhages, subdural and/or subarachnoid hemorrhages, and little or no evidence of external cranial trauma. (
  • Billmire and Meyers 15 found that when uncomplicated documented severe trauma such as that resulting in skull fractures were excluded, 95% of serious intracranial injuries and 64% of all head injuries in infants younger than 1 year were attributable to child abuse. (
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) accounts for almost one-half of all trauma fatalities and has a significant impact on mortality, morbidity, and health care costs. (
  • It can be caused by brain trauma , or it can occur spontaneously in hemorrhagic stroke . (
  • develops from destructive lesions or trauma to brain tissue resulting in cerebral hypoxia or anoxia, sodium depletion, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion. (
  • A broad classification that includes any trauma to the scalp, skull, or brain. (
  • It is can be congenital, trauma related or secondary to another medical condition for example an infarction. (
  • Cerebral edema can result from brain trauma or from nontraumatic causes such as ischemic stroke , cancer , or brain inflammation due to meningitis or encephalitis . (
  • Key Words : Brain trauma · Cerebral infarction · Decompressive craniectomy. (
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS Patient population Low attenuated lesions in well-defined arterial distribution on brain computed tomography (CT) after head trauma were defined as PTCI (Fig. 1). (
  • does not refer to brain injuries induced by birth trauma. (
  • Many of these patients harbor intracranial mass lesions. (
  • Lesions can involve the brain or the spinal chord. (
  • Figure 1-1 is a schematic diagram of the kind of respiratory pattern that would be expected with bilateral lesions at various rostro-caudal levels in the brain stem. (
  • Medullary or upper spinal cord lesions often drop blood pressure to very low levels. (
  • Likewise, diffuse axonal injuries (DAIs) that result in small brain lesions go undetected on CT. (
  • Early and repeated CT scanning may be required for deterioration, especially in the first 72 hours after head injury, to detect delayed hematoma, hypoxic-ischemic lesions, or cerebral edema. (
  • According to the radiological features, CNS aspergillosis lesions were divided into two subtypes: parenchymal lesions in the cerebral lobes (n = 11), and meningeal lesions in the meninges (n = 23). (
  • Most of the lesions in brain parenchyma were abscess formation, and magnetic resonance imaging showed ring enhancement. (
  • Parenchymal aspergillosis lesions are usually localized and manifest as brain abscesses with annular enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging. (
  • In other words, to make a diagnosis of MS, there must be evidence of at least two separate affected areas in the brain and spinal cord, and the lesions must have occurred at least at two different times separated by at least 1 month. (
  • Could this hemosiderin correspond for example to those cases where we see iron deposition with SWI in lesions in the brain (14)? (
  • GFAP was found to be a more sensitive marker of brain damage in patients with smaller lacunar lesions or minor strokes. (
  • The focal brain lesions that typify MS are also caused by this mechanic. (
  • The valvular obstruction (and any other obstructions in the jugular veins) causes the blood to rebound back into the intracranial space, thus generating perivenous focal lesions by mechanical impacts and stretching of vein walls. (
  • In the 1980s, Schelling described the role of venous reflux in the genesis of the cerebral and spinal lesions ( Ref ). In 2006, Zamboni published a study noting the similar iron deposition patterns between chronic venous disease and MS. In 2009, Zamboni et al. (
  • Smaller lesions may be difficult to visualize on non-contrast CT since they are filled with flowing blood that is isoattenuating to slightly hyperattenuating to normal brain. (
  • As with lesions of the spinal cord, localization of the level of the lesion is determined by noting which of the cranial nerve functions are affected. (
  • Predicting intracranial traumatic findings on computed tomography in patients with minor head injury: the CHIP prediction rule. (
  • The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. (
  • Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. (
  • Cranial computed tomography (CT) is an extremely useful and common imaging method, particularly in the intensive care environment and at emergency departments in most hospitals both in Brazil and worldwide. (
  • Both computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) have been proved to be effective in diagnosing intracranial vascular malformations after ICH. (
  • The initial brain computed tomography (CT) scan showed a slightly low density lesion in the frontal lobe and the CT angiogram revealed total occlusion of the right internal carotid artery (ICA). (
  • In all six patients, computed tomography showed large diffuse cerebral hemispheric hemorrhages, prominent intraventricular blood, and breakthrough into the subarachnoid spaces, which was confirmed by necropsy findings. (
  • Veins and venules play extremely important roles in brain circulation especially during pathologies such as brain edema, BBB disruption, elevation of intracranial pressure during and after ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke events, traumatic brain injury, neurodegerative disorders, in adults and newborns. (
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a disruption of the normal function of the brain caused by a head injury. (
  • Surveillance report of traumatic brain injury-related emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths - United States, 2014. (
  • Classification of traumatic brain injury for targeted therapies. (
  • Common data elements for pediatric traumatic brain injury: recommendations from the working group on demographics and clinical assessment. (
  • Common data elements for pediatric traumatic brain injury: recommendations from the biospecimens and biomarkers workgroup. (
  • Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury, fourth edition. (
  • in fact, the rate of intracranial injury (ICI) and need for neurosurgical intervention doubles when the GCS drops from 15 to 14. (
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is physical injury to brain tissue that temporarily or permanently impairs brain function. (
  • Surgery is often needed in patients with more severe injury to place monitors to track and treat intracranial pressure elevation, decompress the brain if intracranial pressure is increased, or remove intracranial hematomas. (
  • In the first few days after the injury, maintaining adequate brain perfusion and oxygenation and preventing complications of altered sensorium are important. (
  • [3] An increase in pressure, most commonly due to head injury leading to intracranial hematoma or cerebral edema can crush brain tissue, shift brain structures, contribute to hydrocephalus , cause the brain to herniate , and restrict blood supply to the brain, leading to an ischemic cascade . (
  • Traumatic brain injury is a devastating problem with both high mortality and high subsequent morbidity. (
  • Cerebral edema, hypotension, and axonal hypoxic conditions are well recognized causes of this secondary injury. (
  • Among the U.S. military personnel, blast injury is among the leading causes of brain injury. (
  • During the past decade, it has become apparent that even blast injury as a form of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) may lead to multiple different adverse outcomes, such as neuropsychiatric symptoms and long-term cognitive disability. (
  • Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) represents a major public health problem with an over 150,000 military personnel diagnosed with form of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), due to the exposure to blast resulting in a wide range of neurological and psychological symptoms ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • This has led to labeling the blast-induced TBI (bTBI) as the signature brain injury for combat troops in today's military ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • In a large series of patients who developed intracranial hematomas requiring emergent decompression, more than half had lucid intervals and were able to make conversation between the time of their injury and subsequent deterioration. (
  • In recognition of this fact, a subdural hematoma that is not associated with an underlying brain injury is sometimes termed a simple or pure subdural hematoma. (
  • The term complicated has been applied to subdural hematomas in which a significant injury of the underlying brain has also been identified. (
  • This type of head injury also is strongly associated with delayed brain damage, later demonstrated on CT scan. (
  • 6 Caretakers may misrepresent or claim to have no knowledge of the cause of the brain injury. (
  • Decompressive craniectomy for the treatment of refractoryhigh intracranial pressure in traumatic brain injury (Review). (
  • Subclinical cerebral edema occurs in many, if not most, children with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and may be an indicator of subtle brain injury. (
  • Brain ratios of N -acetylaspartate (NAA) to creatine (Cr), measured by proton MR spectroscopy, decrease with neuronal injury or dysfunction. (
  • We hypothesized that brain NAA/Cr ratios may be decreased in children in DKA, indicating subtle neuronal injury. (
  • These regions were identified in previous studies as areas at greater risk for neurologic injury in DKA-related cerebral edema. (
  • 4 - 6 It is unclear, however, whether this "subclinical" cerebral edema is associated with underlying cerebral injury. (
  • Proton MR spectroscopy is an imaging tool that is highly sensitive for detecting cerebral injury. (
  • 7 , 8 N -acetylaspartate (NAA) is a putative neuronal marker 9 and cerebral injury (decreased neuronal viability, decreased neuronal function, or neuronal loss) is reflected by a decrease in the concentration of NAA relative to other cerebral metabolites. (
  • In the current study, we used proton MR spectroscopy to evaluate cerebral metabolism and injury in children during DKA. (
  • Major goals include all measurements to prevent secondary brain injury due to secondary brain insults and to optimize frame conditions for recovery and early rehabilitation. (
  • As traumatic brain injury is rather a syndrome comprising a range of different affections to the brain and as, e.g., age-related comorbidities and treatments additionally may have a great impact, individual and tailored treatment approaches based on monitoring and findings in imaging and respecting pre-injury comorbidities and their therapies are warranted. (
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) still is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, with more than 13 million people estimated to live with disabilities related to TBI in Europe and the USA. (
  • It is performed on victims of traumatic brain injury, stroke, Chiari Malformation, and other conditions associated with raised intracranial pressure. (
  • Second, out of almost 3500 potentially eligible patients, only 155 patients were enrolled, showing that the study cannot be generalized to all patients with severe non-penetrating brain injury. (
  • This is the only prospective randomised controlled study to date to support the potential benefit of decompressive craniectomy following traumatic brain injury. (
  • After a craniectomy, the risk of brain injury is increased, particularly after the patient heals and becomes mobile again. (
  • Brain injury rehabilitation can help in the long term. (
  • However, for therapeutic purposes, patients with severely depressed blood pressure should be assumed to be due to hemodynamic rather than neural causes since severe hypotension due to brain stem or upper spinal cord injury is much less likely to be due to reversible causes. (
  • Understanding normal cerebral physiology and metabolic derangements due to primary and secondary injuries after TBI help to delineate cellular mechanisms of injury and identify potentially beneficial therapies. (
  • It is now generally recognized that secondary as well as primary injury contributes to the morbidity and mortality of traumatic brain injury (TBI). (
  • CT is relatively insensitive for detecting increased intracranial pressure or cerebral edema and for early demonstration of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) that may accompany head injury. (
  • There is a consensus that patients identified as moderate-risk or high-risk for intracranial injury should undergo early noncontrast CT for evidence of intracerebral hematoma, midline shift, or increased intracranial pressure. (
  • Stiell et al 3 reported 100% sensitivity for detecting neurosurgical and/or clinically important brain injury in subjects with a GCS score of 13-15 based on high-risk factors of failure to reach a GCS score of 15 within 2 hours, suspected open skull fracture, 2 or more vomiting episodes, sign of basal skull fracture, or age ≥65. (
  • citation needed] Irregular respirations occur when injury to parts of the brain interfere with the respiratory drive. (
  • Biot's respiration, in which breathing is rapid for a period and then absent for a period, occurs because of injury to the cerebral hemispheres or diencephalon. (
  • USMLE has also focused recent efforts on the often unrecognized health care needs of recently returning servicemen and servicewomen (eg, traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder), and the families of deployed servicemen and servicewomen. (
  • In 2018, a commercially available blood test for mild brain injury was approved by the FDA. (
  • 1. What is the definition of a traumatic brain injury? (
  • 2. What is the epidemiology of a traumatic brain injury? (
  • It is any degree of traumatic brain injury resulting in a range of injury from scalp laceration to a headache to loss of consciousness to focal neurological deficits. (
  • It is any injury or surgical procedure performed on the skull and/or brain. (
  • CT scans without contrast is one way to diagnose brain injury. (
  • Lowering intracranial pressure, hyperventilation to PCO2 of 30-35 (vasoconstriction of cerebral vessels leading to decreased intracranial pressure), mannitol, elevation of the head of the bed, steroids are the wrong answer in this case as steroids used in spinal stenosis and spinal cord injury. (
  • According to the unproven SBS hypothesis, shaking causes the brain to impact against the inside of the skull, causing widespread brain damage (Diffuse Axonal Injury) and ripping (shearing) the veins between the brain and skull (bridging veins) resulting in bleeding (Subdural Hematoma) in the 'subdural spaces' in between and behind the eyes (Retinal Hemorrhages). (
  • and the extremely fast scale associated with traumatic brain injury. (
  • OBJECTIVE Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is an established part of treatment in patients suffering from malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) or traumatic brain injury (TBI). (
  • OBJECTIVEPosttraumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) affects 11.9%-36% of patients undergoing decompressive craniectomy (DC) and is an important cause of morbidity after traumatic brain injury (TBI). (
  • Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is a brain injury that causes a baby to have signs and symptoms of brain dysfunction. (
  • In cases of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, hypothermia treatment must be given within 6 hours of the oxygen-depriving insult to help halt the cycle of brain injury and prevent death and cerebral palsy . (
  • Diagnosing hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and neonatal brain damage promptly is critical in preserving a baby's ability to recover from a birth injury. (
  • Prospective studies that utilize MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) techniques show that most cases (over 75%) of neonatal encephalopathy are caused by HIE brain injury that occurs during or near the time of birth (intrapartum). (
  • The risk that hypoxic-ischemic injury will cause permanent problems such as cerebral palsy increases as the severity and duration of the hypoxic-ischemic insult increases. (
  • When there is a hypoxic-ischemic insult to the baby's brain, the injury can evolve over a period of days and weeks. (
  • The severity and length of time of the insult as well as the condition of the fetus (fetal reserve) will determine the location and extent of the brain injury. (
  • When the insult is relatively abrupt and severe, there will be an injury to the deep nuclear structures, such as the basal ganglia, thalamus and brain stem, because total asphyxia prevents the adaptive mechanism of shunting. (
  • Thus the cerebral cortex will typically be spared from injury. (
  • Although chemotherapy and radiation treatment have contributed to increased survivorship, treatment-induced brain injury has been a concern when examining long-term intellectual outcomes of survivors. (
  • 4) Can a patient with an isolated mild TBI and a normal neurologic evaluation result be safely discharged from the ED if a noncontrast head CT scan shows no evidence of intracranial injury? (
  • Every year over a million Americans suffer a traumatic brain injury (TBI). (
  • University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Spinal Cord and Brain Injury Research Center, University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. (
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) research has attained renewed momentum due to the increasing awareness of head injuries, which result in morbidity and mortality. (
  • Primary injury can be induced by a direct contusion to the brain from skull fracture or from shearing and stretching of tissue causing displacement of brain due to movement 3,4 . (
  • The fluid percussion device produces an injury through a craniectomy by applying a brief fluid pressure pulse on to the intact dura. (
  • Both proteins are considered specific markers of brain damage after stroke, 1 2 3 4 5 traumatic brain injury, 6 7 8 cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass condition, 9 10 or cardiac arrest. (
  • A variety of experimental findings suggest both a detrimental (induction of neuronal cell death 19 ) and a beneficial (induction of reactive synaptogenesis and plasticity processes 20 ) potential of protein S-100B dependent on concentration and time elapsed since brain injury. (
  • Conclusion : In patients who developed non-malignant PTCI and GCS higher than 5 after head injury, early DHC and duroplasty should be considered, before occurrence of irreversible ischemic brain damage. (
  • INTRODUTION Posttraumatic cerebral infarction (PTCI) is a well-known complication of traumatic brain injury, with a frequency ranging from 1.9% to 10.4%17,24,26,27). (
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may also lead to cardiac dysfunction but evidences are mainly based upon experimental and clinical retrospective studies. (
  • Cancerous glial cells ( glioma ) of the brain can increase secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which weakens the junctions of the blood-brain barrier . (
  • A brain abscess is a focal area of cerebritis secondary to bacterial or, less commonly, fungal or protozoal infection that develops into a collection of pus surrounded by a vascular capsule. (
  • Vascular malformations involving the brain are divided into subgroups, including arteriovenous malformations (AVM), developmental venous anomalies (DVA), cavernous malformations and capillary telangiectasias. (
  • The surrounding brain may develop gliosis resulting from vascular steal related to the AVM. (
  • Hypoxia-inducible factor, which is important in high-altitude adaptation, controls transcriptional responses to hypoxia throughout the body and is involved in the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the brain, erythropoiesis, and other pulmonary and cardiac functions at high altitudes. (
  • Long-term 4 Years Follow-up Study of 482 Patients Who Underwent Shunting for Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus -Course of Symptoms and Shunt Efficacy Rates Compared by Age Group. (
  • the result of rupture of the CSF brain barrier and is usually a result of obstructive or uncontrolled hydrocephalus. (
  • Intracranial arachnoid cysts may present with headaches, seizures and hydrocephalus. (
  • Infections such as meningitis or brain abscess can occur after decompressive craniectomy. (
  • Are you sure your patient has a brain abscess? (
  • How did the patient develop a brain abscess? (
  • Location of the abscess within the brain typically provides clue to the site of origin. (
  • In contrast, brain abscess of the frontal lobe is almost exclusively due to sinusitis. (
  • Hematogenous abscesses: In general, brain abscess due to hematogenous seeding from a distant source is uncommon. (
  • However, 25% of cases of brain abscess occur in children younger than 4 years of age, and, in this age group, there is a large contribution of hematogenous spread due to congenital cyanotic heart disease. (
  • Pulmonary infections, including empyema, lung abscess, and bronchiectasis are hematogenous sources of brain abscess. (
  • Intra-abdominal and pelvic infections have been reported less often as a source of brain abscess, and endocarditis as a cause of brain abscess remains surprisingly rare. (
  • Changes in antibiotic treatment of sinusitis and otitis media have largely contributed to the rarity of brain abscess, reported as 1,500-2,500 cases per year in the United States. (
  • Perhaps the retrograde spread of thrombus to the veins of the meninges that enter the transverse sinus with the formation of an abscess in the cerebellum or occipital lobe of the brain. (
  • Cerebral or cerebellar abscess can also occur with a suppurative thrombus by destroying the inner wall of the sinus and extending the process to the subarachnoid space and the brain tissue. (
  • Subdural hematoma is the most common type of traumatic intracranial mass lesion. (
  • Increased ICP can occur with any CNS pathology that results in a space occupying mass lesion, edema (osmotic, vasogenic, cytotoxic), or obstruction to CSF flow. (
  • Similarly in the brain, non-specific lesion occur, and gray matter could be affected. (
  • Evaluation of lesion topography and volume of infarcted brain area was based on cranial CT data. (
  • However, rarely, a unilateral massive hemispheric focal lesion (eg, left middle cerebral artery stroke) impairs consciousness if the contralateral hemisphere is already compromised or if it results in compression of the contralateral hemisphere (eg, by causing edema). (
  • Decompressive craniectomy can decrease the mortality of large cerebral or cerebellar hemispheric infarction and should also be considered in malignant edema. (
  • Sequential design, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of early decompressive craniectomy in malignant middle cerebral artery infarction. (
  • Twelve patients among them showed malignant PTCI, which is defined as PTCI including the territory of Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA). (
  • Malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction in a cerebral infarction in MCA territory was first described by Hacke4). (
  • For determination of clinical and radiographic parameters that may aid in identification of PTCI patients who are at high risk for fatal brain swelling, we conducted an evaluation of early clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics associated with PTCI including malignant PTCI in consecutive PTCI patients admitted to our institution. (
  • Based on a clinical examination, intracranial hypoxic damage with elevated intra-cranial pressure and MODS were highly suspected, and GBI was confirmed following magnetic resonance imaging. (
  • A subdural hematoma (SDH) is a collection of blood below the inner layer of the dura but external to the brain and arachnoid membrane (see the images below). (
  • Chronic subdural hematomas develop over the course of weeks and are hypodense compared with the brain. (
  • Causes of increased intracranial pressure can be classified by the mechanism in which ICP is increased: Mass effect such as brain tumor, infarction with edema, contusions, subdural or epidural hematoma, or abscesses all tend to deform the adjacent brain. (
  • Subdural hematomas (SDH) are intracranial blood collections which form between the dura and arachnoid membranes of the meninges. (
  • Typically, subdural hematoma results from tearing of "bridging veins" draining from the surface of the brain to the dural sinuses. (
  • In a minority there may be seizures, papilledema, sixth nerve palsy, or other focal deficits corresponding to focal venous infarction or hemorrahage. (
  • Are you sure your patient has cerebral venous thrombosis? (
  • Increase in venous pressure can be due to venous sinus thrombosis, heart failure, or obstruction of superior mediastinal or jugular veins. (
  • A very small proportion is due to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis . (
  • OBJECTIVE Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is a life-saving treatment for severe hemorrhagic cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). (
  • OBJECTIVE Neurosurgical intervention may increase the risk of developing cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis (CVT). (
  • Magnetic resonance angiography of the brain vessels and venous sinuses is performed with suspicion of sigmoid sinus thrombophlebitis and thrombosis. (
  • Magnetic resonance angiography of cerebral vessels is performed in cases of suspected sigmoid sinus thrombosis. (
  • Small increases in brain volume do not lead to immediate increase in ICP because of the ability of the CSF to be displaced into the spinal canal, as well as the slight ability to stretch the falx cerebri between the hemispheres and the tentorium between the hemispheres and the cerebellum. (
  • Diagnostic tests are varied, and include routine laboratory analysis, cerebral spinal fluid examination, electroencephalography, and computerized tomography or magnetic resonance neuroimaging. (
  • CNS diseases manifest mainly at the neural tube, neural crest, spinal cord, and brain. (
  • The occurrence of brady- or tachyarrhythmias during anaesthesia may reduce cardiac output and compromise cerebral or coronary artery circulation.A number of such episodes have been described during both spinal and general anaesthesia. (
  • Maladie Du Système Nerveux Central 2 questions Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord. (
  • There it may escape through the central foramen of Magendie or the lateral foramina of Luschke into the cisterna magna and to the cranial and spinal subarachnoid spaces. (
  • The initial pressure of spinal fluid in a side-lying adult is about 100 to 180 mm of water. (
  • An intracranial or spinal cyst which contains fluid and is composed of arachnoid cells. (
  • Intracranial or spinal cavities containing a cerebrospinal-like fluid, the wall of which is composed of arachnoidal cells. (
  • Meningitis is inflammation of the arachnoid and pia mater of the brain and spinal cord. (
  • Once the needle is properly positioned in the subarachnoid space (the space between the spinal cord and its covering, the meninges), pressures can be measured and fluid can be collected for testing. (
  • Diffuse spinal cord damage and atrophy is caused by Wallerian degeneration from accumulating axonal loss in the brain. (
  • Fig. 2) AVMs occur anywhere in the brain or spinal cord, but the majority are supratentorial. (
  • HACE (but not AMS) is an encephalopathy whose hallmarks are ataxia and altered consciousness with diffuse cerebral involvement but generally without focal neurologic deficits. (
  • Glucocorticoids like Decadron and Solumedrol reduce vasogenic edema and can cause marked improvement of symptoms. (
  • Sometimes there are symptoms from pressure on contiguous parts. (
  • Patients with intraparenchymal bleeds have symptoms that correspond to the functions controlled by the area of the brain that is damaged by the bleed. (
  • [3] Other symptoms include those that indicate a rise in intracranial pressure caused by a large mass putting pressure on the brain. (
  • Other intracranial complications caused by DKA may present with symptoms similar to DKA-related cerebral edema. (
  • Yet, the mechanisms underlying its ability to modulate brain excitability to improve clinical symptoms remains poorly understood 33 . (
  • Notably, the signs and symptoms are usually more indicative of mass effect and intracerebral edema and less so of a febrile infection. (
  • Open injuries involve penetration of the scalp and skull (and usually the meninges and underlying brain tissue). (
  • Closed injuries typically occur when the head is struck, strikes an object, or is shaken violently, causing rapid brain acceleration and deceleration. (
  • Blast-related brain injuries can be provocatively described as "a silent epidemic of an invisible wound. (
  • Head injuries are the leading cause of traumatic death and the leading cause of child abuse fatalities. (
  • Moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries (TBI) require treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU) in close collaboration of a multidisciplinary team consisting of different medical specialists such as intensivists, neurosurgeons, neurologists, as well as ICU nurses, physiotherapists, and ergo-/logotherapists. (
  • Tragically, approximately 200,000 people in the U.S. live with disabilities caused by traumatic brain injuries. (
  • Bite wounds are one of the most common traumatic injuries in dogs and depending on their severity, location, etc., urgent care including antibiotic therapy may be necessary. (
  • Bite wounds are one of the most common traumatic injuries in dogs [ 1 ]. (
  • Bilateral FRONTAL LOBE dysfunction involving the anterior cingulate gyrus and related brain injuries are associated with this condition. (
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than 50,000 individuals die from traumatic brain injuries each year in the United States. (
  • The controlled cortical impact (CCI) model induces traumatic brain injuries ranging from mild to severe. (
  • Although other TBI models, such as weight drop and fluid percussion, exist, CCI is more accurate, easier to control, and most importantly, produces traumatic brain injuries similar to those seen in humans. (
  • Cerebral damage results from a combination of impaired local blood flow from direct pressure effects, increased intracranial pressure and co-occurring intraparenchymal injuries. (
  • We conducted a retrospective review of 830 patients with traumatic brain injuries, who underwent treatment between February 2003 and August 2005 at our hospital. (
  • The concept of brain-heart interaction has been described in several brain injuries. (
  • Cranial CT can, for example, distinguish between hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke at an early phase, which is a determining factor in the prognosis and treatment. (
  • Blood pressure is also frequently elevated during an ischemic stroke, possibly as a compensatory response to loss of part of the cerebral blood supply. (
  • Typically, the blood pressure will revert to baseline level over hours to days after the stroke without need of therapeutic intervention. (
  • ICH at these sites are often referred to as " hypertensive ICH " even in patients in whom the pre-stroke blood pressure level is unknown. (
  • During an ischemic stroke , a lack of oxygen and glucose leads to a breakdown of the sodium-calcium pumps on brain cell membranes, which in turn results in a massive buildup of sodium and calcium intracellularly. (
  • Dodd's research interests are in cerebral blood vessel reactivity and stroke. (
  • The mechanism for coma or impaired consciousness involves dysfunction of both cerebral hemispheres or of the reticular activating system (also known as the ascending arousal system). (
  • Therefore, the mechanism of impaired consciousness must involve both cerebral hemispheres or dysfunction of the RAS. (
  • A 63-year-old woman had a previous decompressive craniectomy after a right middle cerebral artery infarction. (
  • However, in large volumes, VGE can cause cough, dyspnea and pulmonary edema, (12,13) and may overwhelm the capacity of the pulmonary capillary network, allowing bubbles to enter the arterial circulation. (
  • It is the brain's response to an insult and may take one of two broad forms: vasogenic (white matter) and cytotoxic (grey and white matter) edema. (
  • Vasogenic edema is the most relevant type of edema associated with intra- or extra-axial tumor-associated PTBE, including meningiomas. (
  • Conclusions: In this prospective observational study using DTI-MRI in a selected group of mild and moderate TBI patients with vasogenic pericontusional edema we have shown that there were no significant differences of the ADC and FA values compared to brain tumor patients. (
  • Cerebral edema of metastatic disease is mainly vasogenic. (
  • Vasogenic edema caused by amyloid-modifying treatments, such as monoclonal antibodies , is known as ARIA-E (amyloid-related imaging abnormalities edema). (
  • Vasogenic edema occurs due to a breakdown of the tight endothelial junctions that make up the blood-brain barrier. (
  • Here, the occurrence of bilateral diffuse intracerebral hemorrhagic infarction following routine cranioplasty in a 68-year-old woman who underwent a DCR 3 months previously due to a right middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction is reported and the possible pathogenesis is discussed. (
  • A cranial CT scan revealed increasingly diffuse brain swelling and multifocal hemorrhagic infarctions in both cerebral hemispheres (Fig. 3). (
  • This cranial expansion-contraction phenomenon induces compressive and shearing strains to the brain tissue resulting in diffuse global brain damage. (
  • The nidus can be characterized as glomerular (compact and the intervening brain is not normal), or diffuse (normal brain is interspersed between the abnormal vessels). (
  • In elderly persons, the bridging veins may already be stretched because of brain atrophy (shrinkage that occurs with age). (
  • So, its isolation occurs in some brain departments, after which it flows through the cerebrospinal ducts to other brain departments and it is here that they are absorbed directly into the bloodstream. (
  • Cerebral edema typically occurs after several hours of treatment with insulin and intravenous fluids but can also occur at the time of presentation of DKA before treatment is started. (
  • Although severe, clinically apparent cerebral edema occurs in just 1% of DKA episodes in children, numerous studies have demonstrated that mild cerebral edema, associated with only minimal or no alterations in mental status, is present in the majority of children during DKA treatment. (
  • DKA-related cerebral edema occurs most commonly after several hours of DKA treatment with insulin and intravenous fluids, but can also occur at the time of presentation to the emergency department, before treatment is administered. (
  • Epidemiologic studies demonstrate that DKA-related cerebral edema occurs most frequently in children with severe acidosis and severe hypocapnia as well as marked dehydration (high blood urea nitrogen concentrations In addition, a lesser rise in measured serum sodium concentration during DKA treatment as the serum glucose concentration falls has been identified as associated with greater risk for DKA-related cerebral edema. (
  • The cranium and its constituents (blood, CSF, and brain tissue) create a state of volume equilibrium, such that any increase in volume of one of the cranial constituents must be compensated by a decrease in volume of another. (
  • After the hemorrhagic event, one can quickly visualize the abnormality at CT due to the high density of the blood as compared with the cerebral tissue. (
  • The edema can lead to increased intracranial pressure in addition to tissue shifts and brain displacement. (
  • HACE is the result of swelling of brain tissue from leakage of fluids from the capillaries due to the effects of hypoxia on the mitochondria-rich endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. (
  • This causes brain tissue to accelerate or decelerate relative to the fixed dural structures, tearing blood vessels. (
  • clarification needed] In addition to the above, if mass effect is present with resulting displacement of brain tissue, additional signs may include pupillary dilatation, abducens palsies, and Cushing's triad. (
  • As a rule, patients with normal blood pressure retain normal alertness with ICP of 25-40 mmHg (unless tissue shifts at the same time). (
  • The tissue surrounding a bleed is often less dense than the rest of the brain because of edema , and therefore shows up darker on the CT scan. (
  • The brain has extremely sensitive tissue, and in particular this sensitivity is noted during mechanical action. (
  • An increase in intracranial pressure is a serious danger, since such a deviation can provoke the development of life-threatening complications, including ruptures of the walls of blood vessels, accompanied by hemorrhages in the tissue. (
  • An increase in volume (in brain tissue, blood, or CSF) does not increase the ICP. (
  • Recent findings have directly linked major brain development, mechanisms, and diseases to the mechanical response of the brain both at the cellular and tissue levels. (
  • Tissue relaxometric estimations were carried out initially to derive the transverse (T2), longitudinal (T1) and the transverse relaxation time due to magnetic susceptibility effects (T2*) at the cortical and striatal regions of the rodent brain. (
  • Protein S-100B, however, is expressed not only in brain tissue but also in a variety of other cell types, under both physiological and pathological conditions. (
  • Consequently, there was a demand for neurobiochemical markers highly specific for astroglial brain tissue, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was considered a high-priority candidate. (
  • Furthermore, the vast majority of the less severely retarded also lack a recognizable tissue pathology and have not exhibited any of the conventional signs of cerebral disease. (
  • Decompressive craniectomy (crani- + -ectomy) is a neurosurgical procedure in which part of the skull is removed to allow a swelling brain room to expand without being squeezed. (
  • The aim of decompressive craniectomy is to reduce this pressure. (
  • The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of decompressive craniectomy, compared to medical management alone, to treat brain swelling and improve outcome. (
  • Cranioplasty following decompressive craniectomy not only provides protection to the brain along with cosmetic benefits, but also enhances rehabilitation with meaningful functional recovery of potentially reversible cortical and subcortical damaged areas of the. (
  • The consequences of DCI may either be transient or may result in cerebral infarction with persistent neurologic disability or death. (
  • Although uncommon, brain abscesses can be associated with death or devastating permanent neurologic deficit, and thus, require prompt diagnosis and treatment. (
  • unilateral cerebral hemisphere disorders are not sufficient, although they may cause severe neurologic deficits. (
  • Lowering body temperature (Hypothermia): Lowering the temperature of the body helps in relieving intracranial pressure, thereby allowing the brain to … Cytotoxic edema is caused by the establishment of an osmotic gradient causing water flow into the intracellular space. (
  • In cytotoxic edema, the blood-brain barrier remains intact but a disruption in cellular metabolism impairs functioning of the sodium and potassium pump in the glial cell membrane, leading to cellular retention of sodium and water. (
  • If the brain arterial oxygen partial pressure falls below 3132 kPa, a lack of oxygen diffusion will result in collateral damage to the brain [ 3 ]. (
  • CSF pressure has been shown to be influenced by abrupt changes in intrathoracic pressure during coughing (intra-abdominal pressure), the valsalva maneuver, and communication with the vasculature (venous and arterial systems). (
  • The clinical signs of brain tumor edema depend on the location of the tumor as well as the extent of the edema, which often exceeds the mass effect induced by the tumor itself. (
  • tumor and infarct edema. (
  • As a tumor develops, it can press against other areas of the brain. (
  • Chronic ICH can be caused by many factors, including some medications, such as tetracycline, a blood clot in the brain, excessive intake of vitamin A, or a brain tumor. (
  • cerebral edema associated with primary or metastatic brain tumor or craniotomy. (
  • Edema (darker areas) surrounding a secondary brain tumor. (
  • Secondary headaches manifest differently in children than in adults and the degree of brain maturation could be the cause of this difference ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • Secondary endpoints include mortality after 6 months, angiographic vasospasm, transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) mean flow velocity in both middle cerebral arteries and rate of shunt insertion at 6 months after hospital discharge. (
  • The primary EVD was connected to a secondary study EVD that contained a fluid-filled pressure transducer and an in-line transit time flow sensor. (
  • Additional secondary changes commonly seen in the brain are edema and increased intracranial pressure 9 . (
  • Clinical presentation correlates with the severity of associated supratentorial anomalies, varying from mild truncal ataxia and normal intelligence to cerebral palsy. (
  • Posterior Cerebral Artery 22. (
  • However, visual field defect was developed due to posterior cerebral artery territory infarction. (
  • Results : Infarction of posterior cerebral artery distribution was the most common site of PTCI. (
  • Infarction of the occipital lobe after compression of the Posterior Cerebral Artery (PCA) against the rigid edge of the tentorium by the herniating medial temporal lobe is a wellrecognized mechanism leading to PTCI10,17,22). (
  • On the contrast, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is caused by circulatory or respiratory diseases, which results in an insufficient oxygen supply to the brain. (
  • Certain parts of the brain are more vulnerable to hypoxic-ischemic insults than others. (
  • Of course, all the cells in the brain can be affected by a hypoxic-ischemic insult, but the neurons are the most vulnerable. (
  • 1. A clinical syndrome marked by inadequate perfusion and oxygenation of cells, tissues, and organs, usually due to marginal or markedly lowered blood pressure. (
  • DKA-related cerebral edema is a clinical diagnosis. (
  • For clinical purposes, the pressure must equal or exceed 1.4 ATA while breathing near 100% oxygen. (
  • Clinical presentation is variable, in part related to the pathogen, method of entry into the brain parenchyma, and specific anatomical location. (
  • Because of commercial availability and detectability in peripheral blood, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and protein S-100B were the biochemical markers of brain damage studied most often in clinical settings. (
  • This clinical research study is designed to determine safety and effectiveness of the Surpass Flow Diverter (Surpass System), an investigational device developed to treat wide-neck, large or giant intracranial aneurysms. (
  • [2] Common complications of herpes simplex encephalitis include meningitis , increased intracranial pressure , and coma . (
  • [1] It is believed that herpes simplex encephalitis is caused by the retrograde transmission of the virus from a peripheral site on the face to the brain along a nerve axon following HSV-1 reactivation. (
  • Any inflammation of the brain constitutes encephalitis, whether caused by direct invasion of the brain by an infectious agent (primary encephalitis), by immune response to an infectious process (parainfectious or post-infectious encephalitis), or by a process with no known connection to an infectious etiology (e.g., auto-immune encephalitis or paraneoplastic encephalitis). (
  • Maintaining alertness requires intact function of the cerebral hemispheres and preservation of arousal mechanisms in the reticular activating system (RAS-also known as the ascending arousal system)-an extensive network of nuclei and interconnecting fibers in the upper pons, midbrain, and posterior diencephalon. (
  • Infectious meningitis often produces an increase in intracranial pressure and severe papilledema. (
  • As most brain abscesses are from a contiguous focus of infection, areas of the cortex adjacent to otitis or sinusitis are commonly affected. (
  • Multiple abscesses, particularly in the distribution of the middle cerebral artery, should prompt concern for sites of infection outside the ears and paranasal sinuses. (
  • With a weakly virulent infection and good immunobiological reactions, the thrombus can remain sterile (there are cases of the unexpected finding of an old thrombus in the sigmoid sinus in persons on brain MR-angiography or who have died from diseases not related to the ear). (
  • Is Multiple Sclerosis Caused by the Jaw and Cranial Bones? (
  • Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is likely a biomechanical disease caused by the jaw muscles, cranial bones, and veins of the body. (
  • The risk of cerebral edema is related to the severity of acidosis, hypocapnia, and dehydration at the time of presentation of DKA. (
  • Diuretics like Lasix and Mannitol draw the fluid out of the brain. (
  • Treatment for clinically apparent cerebral edema typically involves use of hyperosmolar agents (mannitol or hypertonic saline). (
  • Other strategies to manage increased ICP include osmotic diuretics, such as mannitol, or intraventricular CSF drainage and ICP pressure monitoring. (
  • The cranium and the vertebral body, along with the relatively inelastic dura, form a rigid container, such that the increase in any of its contents --- brain, blood, or CSF --- will increase the ICP. (
  • Brain parenchyma itself is not capable of relaying nociceptive information, rather it relies on intracranial pain sensitive structures such as the dura matter, cervical and cranial arteries and veins, the ear, the eye and orbits, and portions of the cranial and cervical nerves. (
  • The assessment of orthostatic hypotension requires testing blood pressure and pulse in the recumbent and upright position, looking for a drop of at least 20 mm Hg of systolic pressure, or a diastolic blood pressure decrease of at least 10 mm Hg within three minutes of standing. (
  • The body's response to a decrease in CPP is to raise blood pressure and dilate blood vessels in the brain. (
  • An increase in the volume of any of the contents within the intracranial vault must be met with a decrease in the volume of another or the intracranial pressure will increase V (vault)= V (CSF) + V (brain) + V (blood) + V (other) First described over 200 years ago. (
  • Only when ICP exceeds 40-50 mmHg does CPP and cerebral perfusion decrease to a level that results in loss of consciousness. (
  • Decrease PaCO2 25-30 *if worried about ICP, avoid hypercapnia, minimize mean airway pressures (decrease Vt, change RR, decrease PEEP), set low pressure and exhaled volume alarms and 100%, PEEP if you have to that starts at 2. (
  • Ascent to a high altitude subjects the body to a decrease in barometric pressure that results in a decreased partial pressure of oxygen in the inspired gas in the lungs. (
  • with edema, perivascular hemmorhage, and neuronal loss. (
  • Ultimately, the caudal trigeminal nucleus is the neuronal structure responsible for nociceptive information of the cranial structures. (
  • Regions of the brain that have high metabolic activity (high neuronal excitation), such as the basal ganglia and thalamus, are the most vulnerable to sudden and severe insults, which usually last 30 minutes or less. (
  • The CCI model allows investigation into the short-term and long-term effects of TBI, such as neuronal death, memory deficits, and cerebral edema, as well as potential therapeutic treatments for TBI. (
  • Subsequent magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion images and MR angiography showed a right MCA territory infarction and revealed total occlusion of the right ICA (Figs. 1A and 1B). (
  • Fluids are often restricted if signs of cerebral edema or excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone are present. (
  • Bilateral Multiple Intracerebral Hemorrhagic Infarction after Cranioplasty in a Patient with Cerebral Infarction: Case Report. (
  • Bilateral multiple intracranial hemorrhagic infarction after cranioplasty is an extremely rare complication. (
  • We present a case of a bilateral multiple intracranial hemorrhagic infarction following cranioplasty with an autologous bone graft. (
  • Headache is commonly defined as head pain (cephalgia) not limited to the distribution of a cranial or cervical nerve (neuralgia). (
  • However, up to one-third of patients presenting to emergency rooms with a chief complaint of abrupt onset headache, may have potentially fatal or disabling intracranial pathology ( 4 ). (
  • [2] The virus lies dormant in the ganglion of the trigeminal or fifth cranial nerve but the exact pathogenesis remains unknown. (
  • Damage to the brainstem threatens life, since so many of the control centres for many functions, including consciousness , respiration, and blood pressure , are situated there. (
  • The brainstem is a sort of automatic control centre for several important involuntary actions of the body, such as heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, and many reflexes. (
  • High altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a severe and sometimes fatal form of altitude sickness that results from capillary fluid leakage due to the effects of hypoxia on the mitochondria -rich endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. (
  • Measures pressure within ventricles, facilitates removal/sampling of CSF, intraventricular drug administration. (
  • Clinically apparent cerebral edema is the most frequent severe complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children, occurring in 0.7%-0.9% of DKA episodes. (
  • Although only a small minority of children with DKA develop clinically apparent cerebral edema, several studies have suggested that some degree of cerebral edema may be present in most children with DKA. (
  • Although severe clinically apparent cerebral edema is uncommon (approximately 1% of DKA episodes in children), recent data suggest that the majority of children with DKA have mild subclinical cerebral edema. (
  • Because DKA-related cerebral edema presents in a continuum of severities, with varying degrees of edema and varying degrees of mental status changes, deciding at which point a patient should be diagnosed with clinically relevant cerebral edema can be difficult. (
  • Aneurysms tend to increase in size, presenting a problem of increasing pressure against adjacent tissues and organs and a danger of rupture. (