Cerebral Decortication: Partial or total removal, ablation, or destruction of the cerebral cortex; may be chemical. It is not used with animals that do not possess a cortex, i.e., it is used only with mammals.Empyema, Pleural: Suppurative inflammation of the pleural space.Empyema: Presence of pus in a hollow organ or body cavity.Thoracostomy: Surgical procedure involving the creation of an opening (stoma) into the chest cavity for drainage; used in the treatment of PLEURAL EFFUSION; PNEUMOTHORAX; HEMOTHORAX; and EMPYEMA.Empyema, Tuberculous: Empyema due to MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Chest Tubes: Plastic tubes used for drainage of air or fluid from the pleural space. Their surgical insertion is called tube thoracostomy.Pulmonary Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the lung.Collapse Therapy: Surgical treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis whereby the lung is totally or partially, temporarily or permanently, immobilized. The procedure was based on the popular concept that collapsing the affected portion of a tuberculous lung allowed the infected area to rest and thereby recover. At the beginning of the 20th century artificially induced pneumothorax (PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL) was popular. Later a variety of other techniques was used to encourage collapse of the infected portion of the lung: unilateral phrenic nerve division, PNEUMONOLYSIS, pneumoperitoneum (PNEUMOPERITONEUM, ARTIFICIAL), and THORACOPLASTY. Collapse therapy has declined since the advent of antitubercular chemotherapy. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Sabiston Jr, Textbook of Surgery, 14th ed, p1733-4)Thoracic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the thoracic organs, most commonly the lungs and the heart.Pleural Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the thin serous membrane that envelopes the lungs and lines the thoracic cavity. Pleural neoplasms are exceedingly rare and are usually not diagnosed until they are advanced because in the early stages they produce no symptoms.Pleura: The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted: Endoscopic surgery of the pleural cavity performed with visualization via video transmission.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Pleural DiseasesPleurisy: INFLAMMATION of PLEURA, the lining of the LUNG. When PARIETAL PLEURA is involved, there is pleuritic CHEST PAIN.Agave: A genus known for fibers obtained from their leaves: sisal from A. sisalana, henequen from A. fourcroyoides and A. cantala, or Manila-Maguey fiber from A. cantala. Some species provide a sap that is fermented to an intoxicating drink, called pulque in Mexico. Some contain agavesides.Instillation, Drug: The administration of therapeutic agents drop by drop, as eye drops, ear drops, or nose drops. It is also administered into a body space or cavity through a catheter. It differs from THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION in that the irrigate is removed within minutes, but the instillate is left in place.Mesothelioma: A tumor derived from mesothelial tissue (peritoneum, pleura, pericardium). It appears as broad sheets of cells, with some regions containing spindle-shaped, sarcoma-like cells and other regions showing adenomatous patterns. Pleural mesotheliomas have been linked to exposure to asbestos. (Dorland, 27th ed)Pulmonary Atelectasis: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.Debridement: The removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Pleural Effusion: Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.Thoracoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the pleural cavity.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.

Visual responses of neurons in the middle temporal area of new world monkeys after lesions of striate cortex. (1/41)

In primates, lesions of striate cortex (V1) result in scotomas in which only rudimentary visual abilities remain. These aspects of vision that survive V1 lesions have been attributed to direct thalamic pathways to extrastriate areas, including the middle temporal area (MT). However, studies in New World monkeys and humans have questioned this interpretation, suggesting that remnants of V1 are responsible for both the activation of MT and residual vision. We studied the visual responses of neurons in area MT in New World marmoset monkeys in the weeks after lesions of V1. The extent of the scotoma in each case was estimated by mapping the receptive fields of cells located near the lesion border and by histological reconstruction. Two response types were observed among the cells located in the part of MT that corresponds, in visuotopic coordinates, to the lesioned part of V1. Many neurons (62%) had receptive fields that were displaced relative to their expected location, so that they represented the visual field immediately surrounding the scotoma. This may be a consequence of a process analogous to the reorganization of the V1 map after retinal lesions. However, another 20% of the cells had receptive fields centered inside the scotoma. Most of these neurons were strongly direction-selective, similar to normal MT cells. These results show that MT cells differ in their responses to lesioning of V1 and that only a subpopulation of MT neurons can be reasonably linked to residual vision and blindsight.  (+info)

Spiking-bursting activity in the thalamic reticular nucleus initiates sequences of spindle oscillations in thalamic networks. (2/41)

Recent intracellular and local field potential recordings from thalamic reticular (RE) neurons in vivo as well as computational modeling of the isolated RE nucleus suggest that, at relatively hyperpolarized levels of membrane potentials, the inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) between RE cells can be reversed and gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA(A)) -mediated depolarization can generate persistent spatio-temporal patterns in the RE nucleus. Here we investigate how this activity affects the spatio-temporal properties of spindle oscillations with computer models of interacting RE and thalamocortical (TC) cells. In a one-dimensional network of RE and TC cells, sequences of spindle oscillations alternated with localized patterns of spike-burst activity propagating inside the RE network. New sequences of spindle oscillations were initiated after removal of I(h)-mediated depolarization of the TC cells. The length of the interspindle lulls depended on the intrinsic and synaptic properties of RE and TC cells and was in the range of 3-20 s. In a two-dimensional model, GABA(A)-mediated 2-3 Hz oscillations persisted in the RE nucleus during interspindle lulls and initiated spindle sequences at many foci within the RE-TC network simultaneously. This model predicts that the intrinsic properties of the reticular thalamus may contribute to the synchrony of spindle oscillations observed in vivo.  (+info)

Emotional cognition without awareness after unilateral temporal lobectomy in humans. (3/41)

To investigate the function of the amygdala in human emotional cognition, we investigated the electrodermal activity (EDA) in response to masked (unseen) visual stimuli. Six epileptic subjects were investigated after unilateral temporal lobectomy. Emotionally valenced photographic slides (10 negative, 10 neutral) from the International Affective Picture System were presented to their unilateral visual fields under either subliminal or supraliminal conditions. An interaction between hemispheres and emotional valences was found only under the subliminal conditions; greater EDA responses to negative stimuli compared with neutral ones were observed when stimuli were presented to the intact hemispheres. The findings suggest that nonconscious emotional processing is reflected in EDA in a different manner from conscious emotional processing. Medial temporal structures, including the amygdala, thus appear to play a critical role in the neural substrates for this automatic processing.  (+info)

Dissociable roles of mid-dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior inferotemporal cortex in visual working memory. (4/41)

Functional neuroimaging in human subjects and studies of monkeys with lesions limited to the mid-dorsolateral (MDL) prefrontal cortex have shown that this specific region of the prefrontal cortex is involved in visual working memory, although its precise role remains a matter of debate. The present study compared the effect on visual working memory of lesions restricted to the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the monkey with that of lesions to the anterior inferotemporal cortex, a region of the temporal cortex specialized for visual memory. Increasing the delay during which information had to be maintained in visual working memory impaired performance after lesions of the anterior inferotemporal cortex, but not after mid-dorsolateral prefrontal lesions. By contrast, increasing the number of stimuli that had to be monitored impaired the performance of animals with mid-dorsolateral prefrontal lesions, but not that of animals with anterior inferotemporal lesions. This demonstration of a double dissociation between the effects of these two lesions provides strong evidence that the role of the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in visual working memory does not lie in the maintenance of information per se, but rather in the executive process of monitoring this information. In addition, the present study demonstrated that lesions limited to area 9, which constitutes the superior part of the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal region, give rise to a mild impairment in the monitoring of information, whereas lesions of the complete mid-dorsolateral prefrontal region yield a very severe impairment.  (+info)

The reorganization of sensorimotor function in children after hemispherectomy. A functional MRI and somatosensory evoked potential study. (5/41)

Children who have suffered extensive unilateral brain injury early in life may show a remarkable degree of residual sensorimotor function. It is generally believed that this reflects the high capacity of the immature brain for cerebral reorganization. In this study, we investigated 17 patients who had undergone hemispherectomy for relief from seizures; eight of the patients had congenital brain damage and nine had sustained their initial insult at the age of 1 year or older. Sensorimotor functions of the hand were investigated using functional MRI (fMRI) during a passive movement task, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) arising from electrical and vibration stimulation, and behavioural tests including grip strength, double simultaneous stimulation and joint position sense. On fMRI, two of the eight patients studied with this technique (one with congenital damage and one with damage acquired at the age of 3 years) showed activation in the sensorimotor cortex of the remaining hemisphere with passive movement of the hemiplegic hand. The location of the ipsilateral brain activation was similar to that found on movement of the normal contralateral hand, although the latter was greater in spatial extent. In one of these patients, a greater role was demonstrated for the ipsilateral secondary sensorimotor area (compared with the ipsilateral primary sensorimotor area) for movement of the hemiplegic hand than for movement of the normal hand. Median nerve stimulation of the hemiplegic hand showed reproducible early-latency ipsilateral SEP components in the remaining sensorimotor cortex in 10 of the 17 patients (five with congenital and five with acquired disease). Five of the patients who demonstrated ipsilateral electrical SEPs also showed ipsilateral vibration SEPs (two with congenital and three with acquired disease). The behavioural tests revealed residual sensorimotor function in 14 of the patients; however, not all of the patients who exhibited ipsilateral SEP or fMRI responses had residual sensorimotor function in the hemiplegic hand. Ipsilateral sensorimotor responses were demonstrated both in patients with congenital disease and those with acquired disease, suggesting that factors additional to aetiology and age at injury may influence the degree of residual sensorimotor function and cerebral reorganization.  (+info)

Failed surgery for epilepsy. A study of persistence and recurrence of seizures following temporal resection. (6/41)

From a series of 282 consecutive temporal resections for medically intractable epilepsy associated with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNT) or non-specific pathology (NSP), 51 patients had persistent or recurrent seizures occurring at least monthly. Of these patients, 44 underwent detailed assessment of their postoperative seizures, which included clinical evaluation, interictal and ictal EEG and high-resolution MRI. Of the 20 patients with MTS in the original pathology, 14 (70%) had postoperative seizures arising in the hemisphere of the resection, the majority (12 patients) in the temporal region. Although MRI demonstrated residual hippocampus in five of these 12 patients, only one patient was considered to have seizures arising there, whilst the remainder had electroclinical evidence of seizure onset in the neocortex. In contrast, five of the MTS relapses (25%) had seizure onset exclusively in the contralateral temporal region. Among the 14 patients with non-specific pathology, relapse was also predominantly from the ipsilateral hemisphere (64%), but more relapsed from extratemporal sites compared with the MTS cases, including two with NSP who had occipital structural abnormalities. Although 70% of the 10 patients with DNT had postoperative partial seizures arising in the ipsilateral hemisphere, many (60%) had evidence of a more diffuse disorder with additional generalized seizures, cognitive and behavioural disturbance and multifocal and generalized EEG abnormalities. Nine patients (20%) had immediate postoperative seizure-free periods of at least 1 year, and seven of these had MTS in the operative specimen. Of these seven patients, four had ipsilateral temporal seizures and three had contralateral temporal seizures. Overall, few missed lesions were discovered on postoperative MRI and reoperations were performed or considered possible in a minority of cases. Despite well-defined preoperative electroclinical syndromes of temporal lobe epilepsy, many patients relapsed unexpectedly, either immediately or remotely from the time of surgery. Maturing epileptogenicity in a surgical scar was not, however, considered to be a significant primary mechanism in patients who relapsed after a seizure-free interval.  (+info)

Chronic NMDA receptor blockade from birth increases the sprouting capacity of ipsilateral retinocollicular axons without disrupting their early segregation. (7/41)

We have investigated the role of the NMDA glutamate receptor (NMDAR) in the genesis and regulation of structural plasticity during synaptogenesis in the visual layers of the rat superior colliculus (sSC). In this neuropil, three projections compete for synaptic space during development. By fluorescently labeling the projections of both eyes and imaging them with confocal microscopy, we can quantify the sprouting of the ipsilateral retinal projection that follows removal of a portion of the contralateral retinal and/or corticocollicular projection. Using these techniques we have studied the effects of NMDAR blockade under different levels of competition. NMDARs were chronically blocked from birth [postnatal day 0 (P0)] by suspending the competitive antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid in the slow release plastic Elvax, a slab of which was implanted over the sSC. Such treatment alone does not impair the normal segregation of the retinal projections. However, if sprouting of the ipsilateral projection is initiated with a small contralateral retinal lesion at P6, this sprouting can be further increased by blocking NMDARs from birth. Sprouting of the ipsilateral retinal projection is also induced by retinal lesions made at P10/P11, but NMDAR blockade does not augment the sprouting induced by this later lesion. However, when combined with simultaneous ablation of the ipsilateral visual cortex, P10/P11 lesions show increased sprouting after NMDAR blockade. These data indicate that P0 NMDAR blockade does not eliminate synaptic competition in the sSC. Instead, early elimination of NMDAR function appears to facilitate sprouting that is gated in a stepwise manner by the other visual afferents.  (+info)

Specific force of the rat extraocular muscles, levator and superior rectus, measured in situ. (8/41)

Extraocular muscles are characterized by their faster rates of contraction and their higher resistance to fatigue relative to limb skeletal muscles. Another often reported characteristic of extraocular muscles is that they generate lower specific forces (sP(o), force per muscle cross-sectional area, kN/m(2)) than limb skeletal muscles. To investigate this perplexing issue, the isometric contractile properties of the levator palpebrae superioris (levator) and superior rectus muscles of the rat were examined in situ with nerve and blood supply intact. The extraocular muscles were attached to a force transducer, and the cranial nerves exposed for direct stimulation. After determination of optimal muscle length (L(o)) and stimulation voltage, a full frequency-force relationship was established for each muscle. Maximum isometric tetanic force (P(o)) for the levator and superior rectus muscles was 177 +/- 13 and 280 +/- 10 mN (mean +/- SE), respectively. For the calculation of specific force, a number of rat levator and superior rectus muscles were stored in a 20% nitric acid-based solution to isolate individual muscle fibers. Muscle fiber lengths (L(f)) were expressed as a percentage of overall muscle length, allowing a mean L(f) to L(o) ratio to be used in the estimation of muscle cross-sectional area. Mean L(f):L(o) was determined to be 0.38 for the levator muscle and 0.45 for the superior rectus muscle. The sP(o) for the rat levator and superior rectus muscles measured in situ was 275 and 280 kN/m(2), respectively. These values are within the range of sP(o) values commonly reported for rat skeletal muscles. Furthermore P(o) and sP(o) for the rat levator and superior rectus muscles measured in situ were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than P(o) and sP(o) for these muscles measured in vitro. The results indicate that the force output of intact extraocular muscles differs greatly depending on the mode of testing. Although in vitro evaluation of extraocular muscle contractility will continue to reveal important information about this group of understudied muscles, the lower sP(o) values of these preparations should be recognized as being significantly less than their true potential. We conclude that extraocular muscles are not intrinsically weaker than skeletal muscles.  (+info)

*Brain herniation

Tissue may be stripped from the cerebral cortex in a process called decortication. The uncus can squeeze the oculomotor nerve ( ... In central herniation, the diencephalon and parts of the temporal lobes of both of the cerebral hemispheres are squeezed ... "Cerebral Herniation Syndromes" (PDF). Brain Herniation Diagrams Brain Herniation Tutorial - downloadable handout.. ... anterior cerebral artery), or it may progress to central herniation. Interference with the blood supply can cause dangerous ...

*List of MeSH codes (E04)

... cerebral decortication MeSH E04.525.160.500 --- hemispherectomy MeSH E04.525.170 --- cerebrospinal fluid shunts MeSH E04.525. ... cerebral revascularization MeSH E04.494.575 --- mohs surgery MeSH E04.520.050 --- abortion, induced MeSH E04.520.050.050 --- ... cerebral revascularization MeSH E04.100.814.445 --- embolectomy MeSH E04.100.814.456 --- endarterectomy MeSH E04.100.814.456. ...

*Fryns syndrome

Progressive cerebral and brainstem atrophy was noted on serial MRIs made at 3 months and after 6 months of age. Van Hove et al ... In addition, because of persistent chylothorax, he underwent decortication of the right lung and oversewing of the thoracic ... Ultrasonography demonstrated fetal hydrops, diaphragmatic hernia, and striking dilatation of the cerebral ventricles in both ... cerebral ventricular dilation, camptodactyly, agenesis of sacrum, low-set ear. Fryns et al. (1979) reported 2 stillborn sisters ...

*Reticular formation

Pain modulation - The reticular formation is one means by which pain signals from the lower body reach the cerebral cortex. It ... as the same results were obtained following decerebellation and decortication. The researchers proposed that a column of cells ... Jang, SH; Kwon, HG (8 October 2015). "The direct pathway from the brainstem reticular formation to the cerebral cortex in the ... It had been thought that wakefulness depended only on the direct reception of afferent (sensory) stimuli at the cerebral cortex ...

*Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

Laparoscopic cyst decortication (also referred to as marsupialization) consists in the removal of one or more kidney cysts ... "Should patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease be screened for cerebral aneurysms?" (PDF). AJNR Am J ... Laparoscopic decortication presents a 5% recurrence rate of renal cysts compared to an 82% recurrence rate obtained with ... McDougall EM (2000). "Approach to decortication of simple cysts and polycystic kidneys". J Endourol. 14: 821-827. doi:10.1089/ ...

*Index of oncology articles

... cerebral hemisphere - cerebrospinal fluid - cerebrospinal fluid diversion - cervical - cervical intraepithelial neoplasia - ... decortication - deferoxamine - defibrotide - degenerative disease - dehydroepiandrosterone - delayed-type hypersensitivity ...

*Atypical facial pain

Proponents of NICO recommend decortication (surgical removal of a section of the cortical plate, originally described as a ... Research in individuals with AFP showed that there is increased cerebral activity (demonstrated during positron emission ...

*Reticular formation

Pain modulation - The reticular formation is one means by which pain signals from the lower body reach the cerebral cortex. It ... as the same results were obtained following decerebellation and decortication. The researchers proposed that a column of cells ... Sleep and consciousness - The reticular formation has projections to the thalamus and cerebral cortex that allow it to exert ... Jang SH, Kwon HG (October 2015). "The direct pathway from the brainstem reticular formation to the cerebral cortex in the ...

*Sham rage

It has been concluded that the cerebral cortex may play a facilitating part in this type of convulsive process. These ... Bard, P.P. (1934). "On emotional expression after decortication with some remarks on certain theoretical views: Part II". ... In considering such subcortical brain functions, including the rage facilitated by decortication, he noted that "American ... produced in animal experiments by removing the cerebral cortex, which are claimed to occur in the absence of any sort of inner ...

*Surgery

Decortication of lung. Heart-lung transplant. Chest wall, pleura,. mediastinum,. and diaphragm. pleura/pleural cavity. ... Cerebral angiography. *Pneumoencephalography. *Echoencephalography/Transcranial Doppler. *Magnetic resonance imaging of the ...

*Surgery

Decortication of lung. Heart-lung transplant. Chest wall, pleura,. mediastinum,. and diaphragm. pleura/pleural cavity. ... Cerebral angiography. *Pneumoencephalography. *Echoencephalography/Transcranial Doppler. *Magnetic resonance imaging of the ...

*Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Belgian Cerebral Resuscitation Study Group". Resuscitation. 26 (1): 47-52. doi:10.1016/0300-9572(93)90162-J. PMID 8210731.. ... Decortication of lung. Heart-lung transplant. Chest wall, pleura,. mediastinum,. and diaphragm. pleura/pleural cavity. ... The Cerebral Resuscitation Study Group". Resuscitation. 17 Suppl (Suppl S55-69): S55-69, discussion S199-206. doi:10.1016/0300- ... Cerebral performance category (CPC scores) are used as a research tool to describe "good" and "poor" outcomes. Level 1 is ...

*Abnormal posturing

For other uses, see Decorticator and Decortication.. This article possibly contains inappropriate or misinterpreted citations ... Posturing has also been displayed by patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease,[8] diffuse cerebral hypoxia,[9] and brain ... "Decorticate, decerebrate and opisthotonic posturing and seizures in Kenyan children with cerebral malaria". Malaria Journal. 4 ... Decorticate posturing indicates that there may be damage to areas including the cerebral hemispheres, the internal capsule, and ...

*Spirometry

Decortication of lung. Heart-lung transplant. Chest wall, pleura,. mediastinum,. and diaphragm. pleura/pleural cavity. ... Thoracic, abdominal, or cerebral aneurysms. *Cataracts or recent eye surgery. *Recent thoracic or abdominal surgery ...

*Pulmonary edema

Reexpansion, i.e. post large volume thoracocentesis, resolution of pneumothorax, post decortication, removal of endobronchial ...
In the peripheral blood, the frequencies of CD4+ T helper and CD56+ NK cells were higher in AS (54.8% and 16.2%, respectively) compared to controls (45.3% and 10.8%) (p , 0.05). The frequencies of Th0 (1.9% vs 0.8%) and Tc0 (2.1% vs 0.8%) cells were higher, while that of Tc1 cells was lower (26.6% vs 40.1%) in patients with AS versus controls (p , 0.05). The percentage of IL-10-producing Tc cells was significantly higher in AS (18.4%) versus controls (8.5%) (p , 0.05). Finally, the active phase of AS was associated with significantly lower percentage of IL-10-producing Tc cells in the peripheral blood (6.6%) compared to patients with inactive AS (23.1%).. ...
Definition of cerebral decortication. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
This studys primary objective is to analyze human EEG spindle oscillations during propofol-induced anesthesia and to address possible activation sources. Such an analysis also has a secondary role of investigating the short- term spectral patterns and their functional role.. Artifact-free epochs of spindle activations were selected from the electroencephalograms of patients undergoing propofol anesthesia. Power spectral analysis and source localization using standardized low-resolution-brain-electromagnetic-tomography (sLORETA) were performed. Additionally, spectrograms were obtained by means of using the Complex Morlet-based algorithm. In order to highlight the functional properties, auditory stimulations were conducted during the propofol administration. The loss of consciousness was reached at a level of 0.8-1.2 µg/mL, which also provided distinct spindle oscillations in the continuous EEG. The un-evoked (spontaneous) and evoked (auditory) conditions were examined across non-medicated and ...
Hemispherectomy Outcome Prediction Scale (HOPS): The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a prediction tool for children undergoing a curative hemispherectomy for medically intractable epilepsy.
The results of our study demonstrated that slow intrathalamic oscillatory activity was significantly enhanced in brain slices from PLCβ4−/− mice (Fig. 5). Within the intrathalamic circuit consisting of reciprocal connections between the TC and TRN nuclei, PLCβ4 is almost exclusively expressed in TC neurons with tight linkage with the mGluR1, whereas no expression is found in the TRN [24, 25]. Therefore, these results suggested that the enhanced intrathalamic oscillations in the PLCβ4−/− slices were caused by the deletion of PLCβ4 in the TC neurons. The intrathalamic oscillations that were induced by a single electrical stimulus to the in vitro IC have often been examined in order to better understand the mechanisms underlying the sleep rhythms or spike wave discharges that are generated in the thalamocortical circuit [29-31]. Thus, the findings of enhanced intrathalamic oscillations in the PLCβ4−/− thalamic slices were in good agreement with the findings of significant increases ...
The decision to disconnect half of 9-year-old Griffin McConnells brain in an effort to halt severe epileptic seizures was a complex process involving many tests and intense discussion among the staff at Childrens Hospital Colorado.. Two previous surgeries to map the left side of his brain, and then identify and remove the problem area, had proved unsuccessful. So had several medications.. As the staff considered the most radical option, a functional hemispherectomy that would unhook the left side of Griffins brain from the right side and result in some disabilities, several considerations came into play.. "For any surgery on any child, we have to go through a committee - thats our checks and balances system," said Susan Koh,director of the hospitals Epilepsy Program and co-medical director for neurology. "The doctor who wants the surgery needs to convince the other doctors in the room that its beneficial for the child, so we make sure its a group decision. If theres a risk involved, like ...
A partial restoration of sight is possible in individuals blind from birth, thanks to the most recent advances in research. However, a group of researchers of the Mind/Brain Center of the University of Trento and of the University of Montréal in Canada have discovered that the functional reorganization of the brain happens in individuals who, READ MORE…. ...
This color enhanced axial cross section MRI image (T2 sequence) shows a near total right hemispherectomy done for intractable seizures. The large green region is the area previously occupied by the brain. It is now filled with cerebrospinal fluid which takes up the empty space. (Enhancement of BC7877) - Stock Image C003/4764
Learn about hemispherectomy, when it is indicated and how it works to treat seizures from Cleveland Clinics world-renowned Epilepsy Center.
article{MaScClMo07, author = {J{o}rg Mayer and Heinz Georg Schuster and Jens Christian Claussen and Matthias M{o}lle}, title = {Corticothalamic projections control synchronization in locally coupled bistable thalamic oscillators}, journal = {Physical Review Letters}, pages = {068102}, volume = {99}, year = {2007}, abstract = {Thalamic circuits are able to generate state-dependent oscillations of different frequencies and degrees of synchronization. However, little is known about how synchronous oscillations, such as spindle oscillations in the thalamus, are organized in the intact brain. Experimental findings suggest that the simultaneous occurrence of spindle oscillations over widespread territories of the thalamus is due to the corticothalamic projections, as the synchrony is lost in the decorticated thalamus. In this Letter we study the influence of corticothalamic projections on the synchrony in a thalamic network, and uncover the underlying control mechanism, leading to a control method ...
Są starsze i nowsze, niektóre (Cell) pamiętają czasy gimnazjum i tzw. sztukę, która nie była czym innym jak plastyką, okładki zeszytu które robiłem, bo "fabryczna" mi nie leżała. Jest parę z czasów liceum, a reszta to w miarę świeże (czyt. zrobione na wykładach). Cell powstał w sumie w wersji całej postaci, ale został porwany przez kobite od plastyki i słuch po nim zaginął. Zostało tylko to. O, jest nawet kartka z kalendarza. Robiłem go dla siebie. Zabrakło mi zapału na rozpiskę dni ...
Causes of early postoperative death include infections, hydrocephalus, dehydration, hemorrhage, and allergic reactions. Most mortalities related to epilepsy surgery occur in children younger than 3 years.4 Infants have a greater risk due to their relatively small blood volume and the development of coagulopathy following hemorrhage in surgery.6,7 Young hemispherectomy candidates have the highest mortality. Anatomical hemispherectomy is associated with even greater mortality due to intraoperative blood loss and of the potential for late hemosiderosis (resulting from numerous acute and chronic hemorrhages from the fragile capillaries in the subdural membrane), obstructed hydrocephalus, bleeding into the hemispherectomy cavity, and progressive brain stem shift.8 Newer functional hemispherectomy techniques involving initial tissue removal followed by disconnection of remaining structures require a shorter operating time and are associated with reduced blood loss and are therefore associated with ...
VOLTAGE-CLAMP SIMULATIONS OF TC CELLS ===================================== Simulations of a detailed compartmental model of thalamic relay cell (dissociated TC cell model). This model is described in the following paper: Destexhe A, Neubig M, Ulrich D and Huguenard JR. Dendritic low-threshold calcium currents in thalamic relay cells. Journal of Neuroscience 18: 3574-3588, 1998. Please cite this reference if use that model. All details about the morphology and the physiology of that cell, its passive cable properties and its intrinsic (burst) firing properties, are described in this article. The present program reproduces a voltage-clamp experiment on dissociated TC cells (as shown in Fig. 6 of the paper) See also: http://www.cnl.salk.edu/~alain http://cns.fmed.ulaval.ca Alain Destexhe, Laval University, 1997 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------*/ //---------------------------------------------------------------------------- // load and define general ...
Sensorimotor functions of wild-type, E10+/− and E10−/− mice. (A) Mice devoid of tau exon 10 (E10−/−) showed no deficits in rotarod when they were 5-
The existence of several types of unconscious vision, or blindsight, has convincingly been demonstrated in numerous studies, and their neuronal correlates have been hypothesized according to the nature of the residual vision observed. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography to demonstrate an association between the presence of Type I- blindsight or attention blindsight and reconstructed superior colliculi (SC) fibre tracts in hemispherectomized subjects, in support of the hypothesis that this subcortical structure plays a pivotal role in this type of blindsight. Before the DTI study, Type I blindsight was identified in two of four hemispherectomized subjects by using a spatial summation effect paradigm, an indirect behavioural method, in which subjects were unaware of a stimulus presented in their blind visual field and were required to respond to an identical stimulus presented simultaneously in their intact field. SC tracts were then reconstructed in six control subjects, the two
Pergolide is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Pergolide is available on the Drugs.com website.
Sydekum, Esther; Ghosh, Arko; Gullo, Miriam; Baltes, Christof; Schwab, Martin; Rudin, Markus (2014). Rapid functional reorganization of the forelimb cortical representation after thoracic spinal cord injury in adult rats. NeuroImage, 87:72-79. ...
Institutional Review Board, Hospital for Special Surgery. November 09, 2009. The safety of study participants is our top priority. The trial is approved and periodically reviewed by an Institutional Review Board (IRB), which includes doctors, administrators, ethicists, and members of the general public. The safety of clinical trials is reviewed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.. Before enrolling in a clinical trial, the investigator will explain the purpose of the trial, its expected benefits, any possible risks or side effects, and what your role will be. This is the time to ask questions! If you want to join the trial, you must sign the informed consent documents. You can leave a clinical trial at any time without penalty.. For further information, see Understanding Clinical Trials.. ...
Wow, from that 2nd link: As a consequence of this complete split, Peek, who sadly died last year, was able to simultaneously read both pages of an open book and retain the information. He apparently had developed language areas in both hemispheres. . This patient still had some of the connections between the hemispheres intact though. When theyre isolated, youd expect that youd have 2 different persons yes, but with not that much different personality, because an hemispherectomy doesnt drastically change personality. Since the hand is the only way of that hemisphere to communicate, that would explain that syndrome - you wouldnt want to pass all day without moving a muscle, moreover with no sight or hearing. Its a bit barbaric to keep that hemisphere alive, because its like being a person who cant see, hear anything or communicate, just being able to move its hand, and with no way of deciding its faith. Id expect it to move rapidly to a mental illness given all of the senses ...
Demonstration of the effect of a minor pharmacological synaptic change at the network level. Clonazepam, a benzodiazepine, enhances inhibition but is paradoxically useful for certain types of seizures. This simulation shows how inhibition of inhibitory cells (the RE cells) produces this counter-intuitive effect ...
Inside the human skull we have what are called the falx cerebri (pictured below), a structure typically present within the skulls of species that possess gyrencephalic brains. These incredible extensions of the dura mater, a protective covering of brain tissue, plunge down in between the cerebral hemispheres to block them from damaging each other. An additional projection extends from the skull wall to separate the hemispheres from the cerebellum. These structures are so rigid that during an extreme trauma such as a car accident or a blast-traumatic brain injury, the rotational forces generated can cause the brain matter to contact the falx cerebri and sheer the brain tissue like a hot knife through warm butter. Brain tissue is that weak. Now, imagine the incredible task of the neurosurgeon. In the more commonly performed modern procedure, the functional hemispherectomy, the neurosurgeon must navigate and sever all connections of epileptic hemisphere from the healthy half of your brain. As I am ...

Cerebral decortication definition | Drugs.comCerebral decortication definition | Drugs.com

Definition of cerebral decortication. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/cerebral-decortication.html

Bernt Engelsen | University of BergenBernt Engelsen | University of Bergen

Bergø, G.W.; Engelsen, Bernt; Tyssebotn, I. 1993. Unilateral frontal decortication changes cerebral blood flow distribution ... Bergoe, G.; Engelsen, Bernt; Tyssebotn, I. 1993. Unilateral frontal decortication changes cerebral blood flow distribution ... Localized cerebral energy failure in DNA polymerase gamma-associated encephalopathy syndromes. Brain. 133: 1428-1437. doi: ... Localized cerebral energy failure in mitochondrial polymerase gamma-associated encephalopathy. European Journal of Neurology. ...
more infohttps://www.uib.no/en/persons/Bernt.Engelsen

Free Nursing Flashcards about UTA NURS 4581 Exam 3Free Nursing Flashcards about UTA NURS 4581 Exam 3

decreased LOC (, 5 min), increased ICP, decortication or decerebration, and global cerebral edema; 90% of patients with DAI ... Vasogenic cerebral edema. most common cerebral edema; mostly in white matter; changes to endothelial lining allow leakage of ... Interstitial cerebral edema. the result of rupture of the CSF brain barrier and is usually a result of obstructive or ... Cerebral blood flow (CBF). the amount of blood in milliliters passing through 100 g of brain tissue in 1 minute. ...
more infohttps://www.studystack.com/flashcard-2518529

Brain herniation - WikipediaBrain herniation - Wikipedia

Tissue may be stripped from the cerebral cortex in a process called decortication. The uncus can squeeze the oculomotor nerve ( ... In central herniation, the diencephalon and parts of the temporal lobes of both of the cerebral hemispheres are squeezed ... "Cerebral Herniation Syndromes" (PDF). Brain Herniation Diagrams Brain Herniation Tutorial - downloadable handout.. ... anterior cerebral artery), or it may progress to central herniation. Interference with the blood supply can cause dangerous ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain_herniation

MeSH Descriptor: Cerebral Cortex [D002540]MeSH Descriptor: Cerebral Cortex [D002540]

Cerebral Decortication [D002541]. * Electroencephalography [D004569]. * Spreading Cortical Depression [D013181]. Related ... Cerebral Cortex MeSH ID: D002540 DEFINITION: The thin layer of gray matter on the surface of the cerebral hemisphere that ... Cerebral Cortex [M0003878]. Concept Semantic Types: * Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component [T023] ... Cerebral Cortex [A08.186.211.730.885.213, D002540] * Frontal Lobe [A08.186.211.730.885.213.270, D005625] ...
more infohttp://www.slicksurface.com/medical-thesaurus/descriptor/D002540/cerebral-cortex.htm

Uncal Herniation | Straight from the DocUncal Herniation | Straight from the Doc

Surgery to remove portion of meninges or cerebral cortex tissue in a procedure called decortication ...
more infohttp://straightfromthedoc.com/uncal-herniation/

List of MeSH codes (E04) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (E04) - Wikipedia

... cerebral decortication MeSH E04.525.160.500 --- hemispherectomy MeSH E04.525.170 --- cerebrospinal fluid shunts MeSH E04.525. ... cerebral revascularization MeSH E04.494.575 --- mohs surgery MeSH E04.520.050 --- abortion, induced MeSH E04.520.050.050 --- ... cerebral revascularization MeSH E04.100.814.445 --- embolectomy MeSH E04.100.814.456 --- endarterectomy MeSH E04.100.814.456. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(E04)

Cortical Slow Oscillatory Activity Is Reflected in the Membrane Potential and Spike Trains of Striatal Neurons in Rats with...Cortical Slow Oscillatory Activity Is Reflected in the Membrane Potential and Spike Trains of Striatal Neurons in Rats with...

... up states are abolished by decortication (Wilson 1993); (2) striatal neurons do not show up events in slices, but display up ... There is evidence supporting the theory that the up events are driven by excitatory inputs from the cerebral cortex and ... Dopamine inputs from the substantia nigra converge with glutamatergic inputs from the cerebral cortex at the dendrites of ... rhythmic modulations of firing rate occur in neurons throughout the cerebral cortex and thalamus. Rhythmic activity of the ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/21/16/6430.long

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             - Oregon Health & Science UniversityFind Publications - Oregon Health & Science University

Less, M. H., Menashe, V., Sunderland, C. O., Morgan, C. L. & Dawson, P. J., Dec 1969, In : The Journal of Pediatrics. 75, 6 PART 1, p. 1031-1036 6 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
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Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Decortication of cerebral meninges (procedure). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Decortication of cerebral meninges ( ... Decortication (procedure) {1115001 , SNOMED-CT } Operation on brain (procedure) {70586009 , SNOMED-CT } Operation on cerebral ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=68731005

Journal of Comprehensive Pediatrics - Surgical and Medical Treatments of Empyema in Pediatric PatientsJournal of Comprehensive Pediatrics - Surgical and Medical Treatments of Empyema in Pediatric Patients

Keywords: Empyema; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Cerebral Decortication Copyright © 2014, Iranian Society of Pediatrics. This is an ... decortication of parietal pleura was partial and performed in accordance with the need for complete decortication of the ... Decortication for chronic parapneumonic empyema: results of a prospective study. World J Surg. 2004; 28(5): 488-93[DOI][PubMed ... Surgical interventions including decortications are safe and effective in pediatrics (5).. Improvement of equipment and ...
more infohttp://comprped.com/en/articles/19798.html

Frontiers | What are the Best Animal Models for Testing Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy? | NeurologyFrontiers | What are the Best Animal Models for Testing Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy? | Neurology

There are also many causal pathways to cerebral palsy, such as periventricular white matter injury in premature babies, ... There are also many causal pathways to cerebral palsy, such as periventricular white matter injury in premature babies, ... and the extent to which the multifactorial nature of cerebral palsy has been modelled. The degree to which the corticospinal ... and the extent to which the multifactorial nature of cerebral palsy has been modelled. The degree to which the corticospinal ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2014.00258/full

Cerebral hemorrhage, traumatic | definition of Cerebral hemorrhage, traumatic by Medical dictionaryCerebral hemorrhage, traumatic | definition of Cerebral hemorrhage, traumatic by Medical dictionary

What is Cerebral hemorrhage, traumatic? Meaning of Cerebral hemorrhage, traumatic medical term. What does Cerebral hemorrhage, ... Looking for online definition of Cerebral hemorrhage, traumatic in the Medical Dictionary? Cerebral hemorrhage, traumatic ... cerebral deafness. *cerebral death. *cerebral decompression. *cerebral decortication. *cerebral depressant. *cerebral diataxia ... cerebral hemorrhage. (redirected from Cerebral hemorrhage, traumatic). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.. Related to ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Cerebral+hemorrhage%2C+traumatic

Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy | definition of cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy by Medical dictionaryCerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy | definition of cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy by Medical dictionary

What is cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy? Meaning of cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy medical term. What does ... Looking for online definition of cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy in the Medical Dictionary? cerebral autosomal ... cerebral cortex. *cerebral cysticercosis. *cerebral deafness. *cerebral death. *cerebral decompression. *cerebral decortication ... cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy. cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/cerebral+autosomal+recessive+arteriopathy

Decortication of Vocal Cords at Herzliya Medical Center - Thaiger MedicalDecortication of Vocal Cords at Herzliya Medical Center - Thaiger Medical

Decortication of Vocal Cords procedures are available at Herzliya Medical Center from $19,300. Find out what other patients ... Decortication of Vocal Cords at Herzliya Medical Center Herzliya Medical Center was founded in 1983 and is a private hospital ...
more infohttps://medical.thethaiger.com/medical-centers/israel/herzliya/ramat-yam-st/herzliya-medical-center/decortication-of-vocal-cords-is1-145

Trephining | Profiles RNSTrephining | Profiles RNS

Cerebral Decortication. *Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts. *Craniotomy. *Denervation. *Foraminotomy. *Hypophysectomy. *Laminectomy. * ...
more infohttps://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/123274

Nerve Transfer | Profiles RNSNerve Transfer | Profiles RNS

Cerebral Decortication. *Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts. *Craniotomy. *Denervation. *Foraminotomy. *Hypophysectomy. *Laminectomy. * ...
more infohttps://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/125705

Cerebral Cortex | Article about Cerebral Cortex by The Free DictionaryCerebral Cortex | Article about Cerebral Cortex by The Free Dictionary

Find out information about Cerebral Cortex. The superficial layer of the cerebral hemispheres, composed of gray matter and ... Cerebral decortication. *Cerebral decortication. *Cerebral decortication. *cerebral depressant. *cerebral depressant. *cerebral ... Cerebral Cortex. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Wikipedia. cerebral cortex. [sə′rē·brəl ′kȯr‚teks] (cell ... The cerebral cortex is one of the most complex structures in our brain.. Animal research proves that cerebral cortex can be ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Cerebral+Cortex

Proton spin relaxation as a means of characterizing the pathology of multiple sclerosis - UBC Library Open CollectionsProton spin relaxation as a means of characterizing the pathology of multiple sclerosis - UBC Library Open Collections

... left cerebral hemisphere, and R - right cerebral hemisphere. SLICE LESION Ti(ms) T2(ms) Tr/T1N T2/T2N 7,PM 1 510 90 1.36 1.31 F ... Death Semicoma Coma Decerebration Decortication Table 3.20: Clinical scoring for monkeys inoculated to produce E A E . Chapter ... left cerebral hemisphere and R - right cerebral hemisphere. SLICE LESION r,(ms) T2(ms) Tr/TlN T2/T2N 7,PM 4 666 300 1.83 3.18 6 ... left cerebral hemisphere, and R - right cerebral hemisphere 53 2.12 Ti and T2 values from area examined microscopically in case ...
more infohttps://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/831/items/1.0059449

ARCHIBALD PHILIP BARD | Biographical Memoirs: V.72 | The National Academies PressARCHIBALD PHILIP BARD | Biographical Memoirs: V.72 | The National Academies Press

... was doing a series of experiments on the cerebral cortex. Mainly he was interested in localizing touch in the … cerebral cortex ... 1934 On emotional expression after decortication with some remarks on certain theoretical views. Part II. Psychol. Rev. 41:424- ... 1933 Studies on the cerebral cortex. I. Localized control of placing and hopping reactions in the cat and their normal ... Cannon had determined that cats deprived of cerebral cortex display anger on slight provocation, and he termed this behavior " ...
more infohttps://www.nap.edu/read/5859/chapter/3

Dr. Jeffrey Cross, MD - Reviews - Lakewood, CODr. Jeffrey Cross, MD - Reviews - Lakewood, CO

Cerebral Artery Thrombosis. *Chest CT (incl. Heart and Lungs). *Congenital Heart Defects ...
more infohttps://www.healthgrades.com/physician/dr-jeffrey-cross-3c9jt

Aura and Head pain: relationship and gaps in the translational models | The Journal of Headache and Pain | Full TextAura and Head pain: relationship and gaps in the translational models | The Journal of Headache and Pain | Full Text

Alternatively, arguments related to the emergence of SD in other brain structures in addition to the cerebral cortex or CSD ... typical SD limited to the cerebral cortex as it was originally defined. ... Shibata M, Bures J (1974) Functional decortication employing reverberating cortical spreading depression: experimental ... Regional cerebral blood flow increase follows depolarization onset with a 16-20 s delay and peaks around 2 min after DC shift [ ...
more infohttps://thejournalofheadacheandpain.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s10194-019-1042-8

Craniotomy | Profiles RNSCraniotomy | Profiles RNS

Cerebral Decortication. *Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts. *Craniotomy. *Denervation. *Foraminotomy. *Hypophysectomy. *Laminectomy. * ...
more infohttps://profiles.rush.edu/display/25330

Split-Brain Procedure | Profiles RNSSplit-Brain Procedure | Profiles RNS

Cerebral Decortication. *Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts. *Craniotomy. *Denervation. *Foraminotomy. *Hypophysectomy. *Laminectomy. * ...
more infohttps://profiles.rush.edu/display/18102

Dr. Gustave Pogo, MD - Reviews - Mineola, NYDr. Gustave Pogo, MD - Reviews - Mineola, NY

Cerebral Artery Thrombosis. *Coarctation of the Aorta. *Congenital Aortic Valve Disorders. *Congenital Heart Defects ... Decortication and Pleurectomy. *Endocarditis. *Endovascular Repair of Aorta. *Endovascular Repair of Thoracic Aorta ...
more infohttps://www.healthgrades.com/physician/dr-gustave-pogo-x3q5r
  • destruction of the cerebral cortex, usually due to anoxia. (drugs.com)
  • Tissue may be stripped from the cerebral cortex in a process called decortication. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Compression of the ipsilateral posterior cerebral artery will result in ischemia of the ipsilateral primary visual cortex and contralateral visual field deficits in both eyes (contralateral homonymous hemianopsia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ischemia of visual cerebral cortex due to compression of related vessels. (straightfromthedoc.com)
  • The thalamocortical network is a strong endogenous generator of oscillatory activity, and the striatum receives a massive projection from the cerebral cortex. (jneurosci.org)
  • In slow wave sleep and anesthesia, rhythmic modulations of firing rate occur in neurons throughout the cerebral cortex and thalamus. (jneurosci.org)
  • Rhythmic activity of the thalamocortical network is reflected in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of animals and humans as oscillations of different frequencies (including a slow ∼1 Hz oscillation) that are synchronized over widespread areas of the cerebral cortex ( Steriade, 1999 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Cerebral palsy is an umbrella term for a number of conditions including cerebellar ataxia and basal ganglia disorders, but this article will largely concentrate on the most common condition, spastic cerebral palsy (80% of cases) primarily arising from insults to the cerebral cortex and associated, sub-cortical white matter ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • One can think of the cerebral cortex as a unified covering, or mantle, over the surface of the hemispheres. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • and consistent and inconsistent findings are discussed according to the known basic features of canonical CSD: typical SD limited to the cerebral cortex as it was originally defined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alternatively, arguments related to the emergence of SD in other brain structures in addition to the cerebral cortex or CSD initiated dysfunction in the thalamocortical network are proposed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Compression of the ipsilateral posterior cerebral artery will result in ischemia of the ipsilateral primary visual cortex and contralateral visual field deficits in both eyes (contralateral homonymous hemianopsia ). (ipfs.io)
  • This parallels the finding of high concentrations of 5-HT 2 receptors in human cerebral cortex. (oilforexprofits.com)
  • develops from destructive lesions or trauma to brain tissue resulting in cerebral hypoxia or anoxia, sodium depletion, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion. (studystack.com)
  • There are also many causal pathways to cerebral palsy, such as periventricular white matter injury in premature babies, perinatal infarcts of the middle cerebral artery, or generalized anoxia at the time of birth, indeed multiple causes, including intra-uterine infection or a genetic predisposition to infarction, may need to interact to produce a clinically significant injury. (frontiersin.org)
  • A generic term for haemorrhage within the cerebral parenchyma which, when superficial, is most commonly caused by contusions and, if deep, more often linked to hypertension and occurs in the putamen, thalamus, internal capsule, cerebellum or pons. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Interventions to treat cerebral palsy should be initiated as soon as possible in order to restore the nervous system to the correct developmental trajectory. (frontiersin.org)
  • interventions A computed tomography scan may be performed to locate the lesion and to differentiate the hemorrhage from an embolus or thrombus, or cerebral angiography may be used for these purposes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This leads to Ipsilateral hemiparesis in reference to the herniation and contralateral hemiparesis with reference to the cerebral crus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This leads to Ipsilateral hemiparesis in reference to the herniation and contralateral hemiparesis with reference to the cerebral crus .Since the corticospinal tract predominately innervates flexor muscles, extension of the leg may also be seen. (ipfs.io)
  • Another important finding is a false localizing sign, the so-called Kernohan's notch, which results from compression of the contralateral cerebral crus containing descending corticospinal and some corticobulbar tract fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3) with neurovegetative episodes (at least 10 in 48 hours) and/or decortication after failure of treatment per os (clonidine, beta-blocker, baclofen per os). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Katayama Y, Tsukiyama T, Tsubokawa T (1985) Thalamic negativity associated with the endogenous positive component of cerebral evoked potentials (P300): recording using discriminative aversive conditioning in humans and cats. (springer.com)