Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Malaria, Cerebral: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)Entorhinal Cortex: Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Cerebellar Cortex: The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Nerve Tissue ProteinsTelencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Neocortex: The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Vibrissae: Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.Anterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Pia Mater: The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Mice, Inbred C57BLVisual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Nervous System Malformations: Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Parvalbumins: Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.Reperfusion: Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Corpus Callosum: Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.Cortical Spreading Depression: The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Technetium Tc 99m Exametazime: A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Pyramidal Tracts: Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Mice, Neurologic Mutants: Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Substantia Innominata: Tissue in the BASAL FOREBRAIN inferior to the anterior perforated substance, and anterior to the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and ansa lenticularis. It contains the BASAL NUCLEUS OF MEYNERT.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Iofetamine: An amphetamine analog that is rapidly taken up by the lungs and from there redistributed primarily to the brain and liver. It is used in brain radionuclide scanning with I-123.Evoked Potentials, Visual: The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain: A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Papio: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Dizocilpine Maleate: A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Neuroanatomy: Study of the anatomy of the nervous system as a specialty or discipline.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.

Ringo, Doty, Demeter and Simard, Cerebral Cortex 1994;4:331-343: a proof of the need for the spatial clustering of interneuronal connections to enhance cortical computation. (1/15480)

It has been argued that an important principle driving the organization of the cerebral cortex towards local processing has been the need to decrease time lost to interneuronal conduction delay. In this paper, I show for a simplified model of the cerebral cortex, using analytical means, that if interneuronal conduction time increases proportional to interneuronal distance, then the only way to increase the numbers of synaptic events occurring in a fixed finite time period is to spatially cluster interneuronal connections.  (+info)

Low resting potential and postnatal upregulation of NMDA receptors may cause Cajal-Retzius cell death. (2/15480)

Using in situ patch-clamp techniques in rat telencephalic slices, we have followed resting potential (RP) properties and the functional expression of NMDA receptors in neocortical Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells from embryonic day 18 to postnatal day 13, the time around which these cells normally disappear. We find that throughout their lives CR cells have a relatively depolarized RP (approximately -50 mV), which can be made more hyperpolarized (approximately -70 mV) by stimulation of the Na/K pump with intracellular ATP. The NMDA receptors of CR cells are subjected to intense postnatal upregulation, but their similar properties (EC50, Hill number, sensitivity to antagonists, conductance, and kinetics) throughout development suggest that their subunit composition remains relatively homogeneous. The low RP of CR cells is within a range that allows for the relief of NMDA channels from Mg2+ blockade. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that CR cells may degenerate and die subsequent to uncontrolled overload of intracellular Ca2+ via NMDA receptor activation by ambient glutamate. In support of this hypothesis we have obtained evidence showing the protection of CR cells via in vivo blockade of NMDA receptors with dizocilpine.  (+info)

Ischemic tolerance in murine cortical cell culture: critical role for NMDA receptors. (3/15480)

Murine cortical cultures containing both neurons and glia (days in vitro 13-15) were exposed to periods of oxygen-glucose deprivation (5-30 min) too brief to induce neuronal death. Cultures "preconditioned" by sublethal oxygen-glucose deprivation exhibited 30-50% less neuronal death than controls when exposed to a 45-55 min period of oxygen-glucose deprivation 24 hr later. This preconditioning-induced neuroprotection was specific in that neuronal death induced by exposure to excitotoxins or to staurosporine was not attenuated. Neuroprotection was lost if the time between the preconditioning and severe insult were decreased to 7 hr or increased to 72 hr and was blocked if the NMDA antagonist 100 microM 3-((D)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid was applied during the preconditioning insult. This was true even if the duration of preconditioning was increased as far as possible (while still remaining sublethal). A similar preconditioning effect was also produced by sublethal exposure to high K+, glutamate, or NMDA but not to kainate or trans-1-aminocyclopentane-1, 3-dicarboxylic acid.  (+info)

Fas/Apo [apoptosis]-1 and associated proteins in the differentiating cerebral cortex: induction of caspase-dependent cell death and activation of NF-kappaB. (4/15480)

The developing cerebral cortex undergoes a period of substantial cell death. The present studies examine the role of the suicide receptor Fas/Apo[apoptosis]-1 in cerebral cortical development. Fas mRNA and protein are transiently expressed in subsets of cells within the developing rat cerebral cortex during the peak period of apoptosis. Fas-immunoreactive cells were localized in close proximity to Fas ligand (FasL)-expressing cells. The Fas-associated signaling protein receptor interacting protein (RIP) was expressed by some Fas-expressing cells, whereas Fas-associated death domain (FADD) was undetectable in the early postnatal cerebral cortex. FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), an inhibitor of Fas activation, was also expressed in the postnatal cerebral cortex. Fas expression was more ubiquitous in embryonic cortical neuroblasts in dissociated culture compared to in situ within the developing brain, suggesting that the environmental milieu partly suppresses Fas expression at this developmental stage. Furthermore, FADD, RIP, and FLIP were also expressed by subsets of dissociated cortical neuroblasts in culture. Fas activation by ligand (FasL) or anti-Fas antibody induced caspase-dependent cell death in primary embryonic cortical neuroblast cultures. The activation of Fas was also accompanied by a rapid downregulation of Fas receptor expression, non-cell cycle-related incorporation of nucleic acids and nuclear translocation of the RelA/p65 subunit of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Together, these data suggest that adult cortical cell number may be established, in part, by an active process of receptor-mediated cell suicide, initiated in situ by killer (FasL-expressing) cells and that Fas may have functions in addition to suicide in the developing brain.  (+info)

Integrated visualization of functional and anatomic brain data: a validation study. (5/15480)

Two-dimensional SPECT display and three methods for integrated visualization of SPECT and MRI patient data are evaluated in a multiobserver study to determine whether localization of functional data can be improved by adding anatomical information to the display. METHODS: SPECT and MRI data of 30 patients were gathered and presented using four types of display: one of SPECT in isolation, two integrated two-dimensional displays and one integrated three-dimensional display. Cold and hot spots in the peripheral cortex were preselected and indicated on black-and-white hard copies of the image data. Nuclear medicine physicians were asked to assign the corresponding spots in the image data on the computer screen to a lobe and a gyrus and give a confidence rating for both localizations. Interobserver agreement using kappa statistics and average confidence ratings were assessed to interpret the reported observations. RESULTS: Both the interobserver agreement and the confidence of the observers were greater for the integrated two-dimensional displays than for the two-dimensional SPECT display. An additional increase in agreement and confidence was seen with the integrated three-dimensional display. CONCLUSION: Integrated display of SPECT and MR brain images provides better localization of cerebral blood perfusion abnormalities in the peripheral cortex in relation to the anatomy of the brain than single-modality display and increases the confidence of the observer.  (+info)

Identifying homologous anatomical landmarks on reconstructed magnetic resonance images of the human cerebral cortical surface. (6/15480)

Guided by a review of the anatomical literature, 36 sulci on the human cerebral cortical surface were designated as homologous. These sulci were assessed for visibility on 3-dimensional images reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brains of 20 normal volunteers by 2 independent observers. Those sulci that were found to be reproducibly identifiable were used to define 24 landmarks around the cortical surface. The interobserver and intraobserver variabilities of measurement of the 24 landmarks were calculated. These reliably reproducible landmarks can be used for detailed morphometric analysis, and may prove helpful in the analysis of suspected cerebral cortical structured abnormalities in patients with such conditions as epilepsy.  (+info)

Distinct populations of NMDA receptors at subcortical and cortical inputs to principal cells of the lateral amygdala. (7/15480)

Fear conditioning involves the transmission of sensory stimuli to the amygdala from the thalamus and cortex. These input synapses are prime candidates for sites of plasticity critical to the learning in fear conditioning. Because N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-dependent mechanisms have been implicated in fear learning, we investigated the contribution of NMDA receptors to synaptic transmission at putative cortical and thalamic inputs using visualized whole cell recording in amygdala brain slices. Whereas NMDA receptors are present at both of these pathways, differences were observed. First, the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-receptor-mediated component of the synaptic response, relative to the NMDA component, is smaller at thalamic than cortical input synapses. Second, thalamic NMDA responses are more sensitive to Mg2+. These findings suggest that there are distinct populations of NMDA receptors at cortical and thalamic inputs to the lateral amygdala. Differences such as these might underlie unique contributions of the two pathways to fear conditioning.  (+info)

The type and the localization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulate transmission of cAMP signals to the nucleus in cortical and cerebellar granule cells. (8/15480)

cAMP signals are received and transmitted by multiple isoforms of cAMP-dependent protein kinases, typically determined by their specific regulatory subunits. In the brain the major regulatory isoform RIIbeta and the RII-anchor protein, AKAP150 (rat) or 75 (bovine), are differentially expressed. Cortical neurons express RIIbeta and AKAP75; conversely, granule cerebellar cells express predominantly RIalpha and RIIalpha. Cortical neurons accumulate PKA catalytic subunit and phosphorylated cAMP responsive element binding protein very efficiently into nuclei upon cAMP induction, whereas granule cerebellar cells fail to do so. Down-regulation of RIIbeta synthesis by antisense oligonucleotides inhibited cAMP-induced nuclear signaling in cortical neurons. Expression in cerebellar granule cells of RIIbeta and AKAP75 genes by microinjection of specific expression vectors, markedly stimulated cAMP-induced transcription of the lacZ gene driven by a cAMP-responsive element promoter. These data indicate that the composition of PKA in cortical and granule cells underlies the differential ability of these cells to transmit cAMP signals to the nucleus.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Aging and mammalian cerebral cortex. T2 - Monkeys to humans. AU - Morrison, John. PY - 2003/4/1. Y1 - 2003/4/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0038647799&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0038647799&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 12813209. AN - SCOPUS:0038647799. VL - 17. JO - Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders. JF - Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders. SN - 0893-0341. IS - SUPPL. 2. ER - ...
Position 1. The Cerebral Cortex Development Lab at SISSA is looking for a young post-doc wanting to address biological mechanisms and operational outcomes of experimental therapy of glioblastoma multiforme by overexpression of the brain patterning gene Emx2. Intellectual independence and spirit of initiative, strong experience in molecular and cell biology, as well as aptitude to work with rodent animal models are required.. Potential candidates are encouraged to pre-submit a letter of interest, a short statement of research and three reference letters, to prof. Antonello Mallamaci (To: [email protected]; Subject: "GBM_pos20"), by September 15th, 2019. A call for a one year position, renewable upon evaluation of results, will be shortly launched at the Neuroscience Area of SISSA.. ...
The findings presented in this study disclosed an unexpected role of the mammalian Fat-Dachsous system in the plasma membrane organization in the embryonic cerebral cortex. The AJ is known as the major cell junctional structure observed in the apical portions of neural progenitor cells (Ho et al., 2000; Lien et al., 2006; Kadowaki et al., 2007). We found that Fat4 and Dachsous1 were located more apical to the AJ and that the plasma membranes at the corresponding region showed a simple apposition, which we defined as the subapical membrane apposition. Such apically extended membrane appositions have not been described for general epithelial cells, and thus, these junctions might have uniquely developed for specific cell types, including neural progenitor cells. Depletion of Fat4 disrupted the subapical membrane apposition, indicating that it plays a key role in the maintenance of this specific structure.. We found that Fat4 and Dachsous1 could interact in a heterophilic fashion and regulated the ...
Recent analyses of association fibre networks in the primate cerebral cortex have revealed a small number of densely intra-connected and hierarchically organized structural systems. Corresponding analyses of data on functional connectivity are required to establish the significance of these structural systems. We therefore built up a relational database by systematically collating published data on the spread of activity after strychnine-induced disinhibition in the macaque cerebral cortex in vivo. After mapping these data to two different parcellation schemes, we used three independent methods of analysis which demonstrate that the cortical network of functional interactions is not homogeneous, but shows a clear segregation into functional assemblies of mutually interacting areas. The assemblies suggest a principal division of the cortex into visual, somatomotor and orbito-temporo-insular systems, while motor and somatosensory areas are inseparably interrelated. These results are largely ...
As the embryonic brain develops, an incredibly complex cascade of cellular events occur, starting with progenitors - the originating cells that generate neurons and spur proper cortex development. If this cascade malfunctions - if one tiny protein doesnt do its job - then the brain can develop abnormally.. UNC scientists led by Eva Anton, PhD, professor of cell biology and physiology in the UNC School of Medicine, have shown how the deletion of the protein APC in progenitor cells leads to massive disruption of brain development and the canonical Wnt protein pathway - a signaling cascade- that previously was linked to genes associated with autism.. "Although our experiments were done in mouse genetic models, human APC mutations have been associated with autism," said Anton, a member of the UNC Neuroscience Center and the new UNC Autism Research Center. "These mutations disrupt the ability of brain progenitors to respond appropriately to the environmental cues necessary for them to divide, and to ...
1. Procedures were described whereby constant rates of oxygen consumption were obtained with cerebral cortex slices for periods exceeding three hours.. 2. The effect of intravenous injection of graded doses of 5,5-diphenyl-2,4-oxazolidinedione (DPO) in minimal volume, to a small group of rats was reported for the dosage range of 20 to 100 mgm. per kgm.. 3. A concentration-action curve was presented which illustrates the effect of graded concentrations of DPO on the oxygen consumption of rat cerebral cortex slices. This was compared with the concentration-action curve of the related substituted oxazolidinedione, propazone. With rising concentration of DPO there was first a moderate augmentation, then a profound inhibition of brain respiration. The augmentation phase did not occur with propazone. Furthermore there was more rapid development of inhibition and a greater maximum inhibitory effect with DPO than with propazone.. 4. It was found that DPO had some specificity in respect of its inhibitory ...
Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Brodmanns Localisation in the Cerebral Cortex: The Principles of Comparative Localisation in the Cerebral Cortex Based on Cytoarchitectonics file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Brodmanns Localisation in the Cerebral Cortex: The Principles of Comparative Localisation in the Cerebral Cortex Based on Cytoarchitectonics book. Happy reading Brodmanns Localisation in the Cerebral Cortex: The Principles of Comparative Localisation in the Cerebral Cortex Based on Cytoarchitectonics Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Brodmanns Localisation in the Cerebral Cortex: The Principles of Comparative Localisation in the Cerebral Cortex Based on Cytoarchitectonics at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book ...
Proper growth of the mammalian cerebral cortex is crucial for normal brain functions and is controlled by precise gene-expression regulation. Here, we show that microRNA-7 (miR-7) is highly expressed in cortical neural progenitors and describe miR-7 sponge transgenic mice in which miR-7-silencing activity is specifically knocked down in the embryonic cortex. Blocking miR-7 function causes microcephaly-like brain defects due to reduced intermediate progenitor (IP) production and apoptosis. Upregulation of miR-7 target genes, including those implicated in the p53 pathway, such as Ak1 and Cdkn1a (p21), is responsible for abnormalities in neural progenitors. Furthermore, ectopic expression of Ak1 or p21 and specific blockade of miR-7 binding sites in target genes using protectors in vivo induce similarly reduced IP production. Using conditional miRNA sponge transgenic approaches, we uncovered an unexpected role for miR-7 in cortical growth through its interactions with genes in the p53 pathway.
Differentiation of human cortical neurons - posted in Stem Cell: hi I want to grow and differentiate human cortical neurons. I have a vial of HCN-2 cells from ATCC. From what I understand, they are extremely slow and difficult to differentiate. Changing my cell type is not a viable choice right now. So I make do and hav a couple of questions. If anybody has any experience either differentiating these or other cortical neurons, I would really appreciate some help. * The nerve growth factor...
Brodde, O.E.; Eymer, T.; Arroyo, J., 1983: 3H-yohimbine binding to guinea-pig kidney and calf cerebral cortex membranes: comparison with human platelets
Since early hominids emerged 5 million years ago, humans have evolved sizable brains to support higher cognitive functions. In particular, the human cerebral cortex is greatly expanded, allowing accommodation of the evolutionary increases in the number of cortical areas, the functional modules that subserve perception, attention, motor control, cognition, memory, and learning. Duplicated genes specific to the Homo lineage have played key roles in human speciation, particularly in the development of the highly complex human brain (1) and the circuits of the cerebral cortex (2). On page 546 of this issue, Heide et al. (3) identify ARHGAP11B [Rho guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activating protein 11B], a human-specific duplicated gene, as a regulator of human cerebral cortex development. By expressing ARHGAP11B in marmosets, a smooth-brained primate, this study explores the influence of the gene on expansion of the primate cortex.. The human neocortex is marked by an important increase in surface ...
wistar fetal cortex neurons cells wistar fetal rat cortex neurons cells | order wistar fetal cortex neurons cells wistar fetal rat cortex neurons cells | How to use: wi
Master Degree in Neuroscience, University of Trieste, year 2012. Master Degree Thesis title: "Emx2 inhibits cortico-cerebral astrogliogenesis by downregulating the EGF receptor mRNA". PhD in Functional and Structural Genomics, SISSA, year 2016. PhD Thesis title: "Foxg1 and Emx2 control of cortico-cerebral astrogenesis and Emx2 as a novel tool to suppress glioblastoma multiforme" Publications at SISSA. ...
Nat Cell Biol. 2005 Dec;7(12):1167-78. Epub 2005 Nov 20. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reconstruction of the human cerebral cortex robust to white matter lesions. T2 - Method and validation. AU - Shiee, Navid. AU - Bazin, Pierre Louis. AU - Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.. AU - Ye, Chuyang. AU - Kishore, Bhaskar. AU - Carass, Aaron. AU - Calabresi, Peter A.. AU - Reich, Daniel S.. AU - Prince, Jerry L.. AU - Pham, Dzung L.. PY - 2014/7. Y1 - 2014/7. N2 - Cortical atrophy has been reported in a number of diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimers disease, that are also associated with white matter (WM) lesions. However, most cortical reconstruction techniques do not account for these pathologies, thereby requiring additional processing to correct for the effect of WM lesions. In this work, we introduce CRUISE+, an automated process for cortical reconstruction from magnetic resonance brain images with WM lesions. The process extends previously well validated methods to allow for multichannel input images and to accommodate for the presence of WM lesions. We provide ...
Low levels of visible light directed onto slices of rat cerebral cortical tissue enhanced net potassium-induced release of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from these brain slices. At higher light intensity, net potassium-induced release was suppressed. These effects were apparently not from increased temperature. The amount of light enhancing this neurotransmitter release is approximately equal to the amount of light that can penetrate the head and reach the brain at the intensities of sunlight; this was determined by measuring the light entering the rat head through fur, scalp, skull, and dura mater and considering several natural lighting conditions. These results suggest that ambient light may be sufficient to alter the release of transmitters from mammalian cerebral cortex in vivo.. ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway involved in orbitofrontal cortex development pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
The cerebral cortex, which underlies higher brain functions, has undergone a large expansion in size during mammalian evolution, most notably in the primate lineage (Rakic, 1988; Caviness and Takahashi, 1995; Northcutt and Kaas, 1995; Rakic, 1995). Although many intrinsic and extrinsic factors may influence cortical size and cytoarchitecture, such as patterns of neuronal migration (Letinic et al., 2002; Kriegstein and Noctor, 2004; Bystron et al., 2006), thalamic afferents (Windrem and Finlay, 1991; Dehay et al., 2001) and the diversification of subventricular zone neural progenitors (Smart et al., 2002; Haubensak et al., 2004; Miyata et al., 2004; Noctor et al., 2004; Fish et al., 2008), an increase in neuron number during brain development and evolution is ultimately controlled by the number and modes of division of neural progenitors in the embryonic ventricular and subventricular zones (Götz and Huttner, 2005; Kriegstein et al., 2006; Fish et al., 2008).. According to the radial unit ...
The deep layers of the mammalian cerebral cortex contain pyramidal neurons that project predominantly to subcortical targets. To understand the mechanisms that determine the identity of deeper layer neurons, a PCR based subtractive hybridisation was performed to isolate genes that are specifically expressed during the specification of these neurons. One of the genes we isolated was the rat homologue of the mouse Slap-1. SLAP-1 is an adaptor protein containing SH2-SH3 domains and it participates in the signalling of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases. In situ hybridisation studies have shown that Slap-1 is not substantially expressed before E17. At later stages, it is specifically and selectively expressed by deeper layer neurons and by neurons of layers II/III in the developing cortex. The specific timing and location of its expression, suggests that this gene may play a role in the differentiation of these neurons.
Denne artikel beskriver i detaljer en protokol til at elektroporere in utero den cerebrale cortex og hippocampus ved E14.5 i mus. Vi...
Acetylcholine (ACh) signaling shapes neuronal circuit development and underlies specific aspects of cognitive functions and behaviors, including attention, learning, memory and motivation. During behaviour, activation of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs) by ACh alters the activation state of neurons, and neuronal circuits most likely process information differently with elevated levels of ACh. In several brain regions, ACh has been shown to alter synaptic strength as well. By changing the rules for synaptic plasticity, ACh can have prolonged effects on and rearrange connectivity between neurons that outlasts its presence. From recent discoveries in the mouse, rat, monkey and human brain, a picture emerges in which the basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic system targets the neocortex with much more spatial and temporal detail than previously considered. Fast cholinergic synapses acting on a millisecond time scale are abundant in the mammalian cerebral cortex, and provide BF
Objective:To find a simple and accurate method to orient the cerebral cortex functional areas on CT scan images.Materials and methods:After CT scanning 30 heads specimens,their transverse sections were cut according to the scanning sections.Then compare the CT image and the transverse sections to find a new method,which could identify the functional areas of cerebral cortex on CT image.Results:The cerebral neural process could easily be found on both transverse sections and CT image.So the method to orient the functional areas based on the neural process identification was found.Conclusions:The neural process delivered from cerebral marrow is corresponding to cerebral gyrus.So the corresponding functional area could be distinguished,provided the neural process was identified.
이 문서에서는 자세히 utero에서 대뇌 피질과 생쥐의 E14.5에서 해마를 electroporate하는 프로토콜을 설명합니다. 또한이 두 대뇌 지역에서 dendrites 및 쪽이을 연구하는 귀중한 방법임을...
Proper development of the mammalian cerebral cortex relies on the integrated control of neurogenesis and neuronal migration. Proliferation of neuronal progenitor cells during early stages of brain development is critical to expand the progenitor pool at the ventricular surface and later mitotic divisions result in the generation of postmitotic neural precursors, which then migrate to the cortical plate (Gupta et al., 2002; Götz and Huttner, 2005). Defective neurogenesis or neuronal migration leads to brain malformations, and are often associated with different forms of mental retardation or cognitive disabilities and severe epilepsy Guerrini et al., 2008). For example, classical lissencephaly (or "smooth brain") is due to a reduced number or absence of gyri and sulci of the cortical surface, resulting in severe mental retardation, seizures and early death (Kato and Dobyns, 2003). Mutations in two genes, LIS1 (Reiner et al., 1993; Lo Nigro et al., 1997) and DCX (Gleeson et al., 1998; des Portes ...
The purpose of this work was to describe the human leptomeningeal and cortical vascular anatomy as seen at high resolution on an 8 T UHFMRI system. With a 1024 x 1024 matrix, axial gradient echo images of the cerebral cortex were acquired on a human volunteer at 8 T with TR 500 ms, TE 1...read more ...
Hangya, B., Pi, H. J., Kvitsiani, D., Ranade, S. P., Kepecs, A. (2014) From circuit motifs to computations: mapping the behavioral repertoire of cortical interneurons. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 26c. pp. 117-124. ISSN 0959-4388 Hangya, B., Tihanyi, B. T., Entz, L., Fabo, D., Eross, L., Wittner, L., Jakus, R., Varga, V., Freund, T. F., Ulbert, I. (2011) Complex Propagation Patterns Characterize Human Cortical Activity during Slow-Wave Sleep. Journal of Neuroscience, 31 (24). pp. 8770-8779. ISSN 0270-6474 He, M., Tucciarone, J., Lee, S., Nigro, M. J., Kim, Y., Levine, J. M., Kelly, S. M., Krugikov, I., Wu, P., Chen, Y., Gong, L., Hou, Y., Osten, P., Rudy, B., Huang, Z. J. (2016) Strategies and Tools for Combinatorial Targeting of GABAergic Neurons in Mouse Cerebral Cortex. Neuron, 91 (6). pp. 1228-1243. ISSN 1097-4199 (Electronic)0896-6273 (Linking) Hof, P. R., Nimchinsky, E. A., Perl, D. P., Erwin, J. M. (2001) An unusual population of pyramidal neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex of ...
The movement of R-cell nuclei along the apical-basal axis in the developing fly visual system displays features very similar to the somal translocation of neurons from the ventricular zone to the cortical plate during the development of the mammalian cerebral cortex [51, 52]. That both R-cell movement and cortical neuronal migration require the function of DLis/Lis1 [14, 18] support the evolutionary conservation of the molecular mechanism controlling neuronal positioning. In a search for novel regulators of R-cell translocation, we found that misexpression of the RabGAP RN-Tre caused a failure for R-cell nuclei to maintain their apical localization, suggesting the requirement of Rab-mediated vesicular transport in R-cell positioning. RN-tre displayed dosage-sensitive interactions with Rab5 or Rab11 in the fly eye, and genetic analysis revealed an essential role for Rab5, Shi and Rab11 in R-cell apical localization. These results support that Rab5, Shi and Rab11 function together in a vesicular ...
The term area SI of Woolsey refers to a functionally defined area of mammalian cerebral cortex. It has been mapped in a number of species on the basis of evoked potentials elicited by light touch stimulation of the skin. In the macaque it is located in the postcentral gyrus, both on the exposed surface and in the posterior bank of the central sulcus. The face area is located on the lower lateral surface with the hind limb and tail areas extending over the midline into the bank of the longitudinal fissure ( Woolsey-1958 ). It is the same as the primary somatosensory cortex ( Carpenter-1983 ). ...
Although spiral waves are ubiquitous features of nature and have been observed in many biological systems, their existence and potential function in mammalian cerebral cortex remain uncertain. Using voltage-sensitive dye imaging, we found that spiral waves occur frequently in the neocortex in vivo, both during pharmacologically induced oscillations and during sleep-like states. While their life span is limited, spiral waves can modify ongoing cortical activity by influencing oscillation frequencies and spatial coherence and by reducing amplitude in the area surrounding the spiral phase singularity. During sleep-like states, the rate of occurrence of spiral waves varies greatly depending on brain states. These results support the hypothesis that spiral waves, as an emergent activity pattern, can organize and modulate cortical population activity on the mesoscopic scale and may contribute to both normal cortical processing and to pathological patterns of activity such as those found in epilepsy.
Cerebral Cortex is a comprehensive and detailed work covering the dual nature of the organization of the architecture and connections of the cerebral cortex. After establishing the evolutionary approach of the cerebral cortexs origin, the authors have systematically analyzed, in detail, the common principle underlying the structure and connections of sensory and motor systems.
Although accurate long-distance neuronal migration is a cardinal feature of cerebral cortical development, little is known about control of this migration. The scrambler (scm) mouse shows abnormal cortical lamination that is indistinguishable from reeler. Genetic and physical mapping of scm identifies yeast artificial chromosomes containing an exon of mdab1, a homolog of Drosophila Disabled, which encodes a phosphoprotein that binds nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. mdab1 transcripts show abnormal splicing in scm homozygotes, with 1.5 kb of intracisternal A particle retrotransposon sequence inserted into the mdab1 coding region in antisense orientation, producing a mutated and truncated predicted protein. Therefore, mdab1 is most likely the scm gene, thus implicating nonreceptor tyrosine kinases in neuronal migration and lamination in developing cerebral cortex (Ware, 1997). Formation of the mammalian brain requires choreographed migration of neurons to generate highly ordered laminar structures, ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Researchers have found that people who avoided smoking had a thicker outer layer of the brain than people who had smoked. Those participants who had given up smoking for the longest time had a thicker cortex compared with those who had given up recently - even after accounting for the total amount smoked in their lifetime. The study gathered health data and analysed MRI scans of 244 males and 260 females with an average age of 73. Around half were former or current smokers. The group tested were part of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, a group of individuals who were born in 1936 and took part in the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947. Using detailed MRI brain scans, careful image analysis and statistical models, researchers analysed how a persons smoking habit was linked with the thickness of the brains cortex. The study authors suggest that avoiding smoking helps to keep the brains cortex thicker so therefore more normal. They also cautiously suggest that the cortex might regain some thickness ...
What regions in the cerebral cortex are known to be involved in movement? How do these areas contribute to the production of motor behavior? Located at approximately mid-brain and at the very back of the temporal lobe is the.
Grasby, K.L., Jahanshad, N, Painter, JN, Colodro-Conde, L., Bralten, J, & Hibar, D.P. (2020). The genetic architecture of the human cerebral cortex. Science, 367(6484). doi:10.1126/science. ...
To confirm that the 15-bp deletion disrupts perisylvian GPR56 expression, we generated transgenic mice with the 23-kb human GPR56 upstream region driving green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression. The 23-kb region encompasses 16 of the 17 transcription start sites containing e1m and ends before the translation start codon (Fig. 2A). This construct drives GFP expression in the entire central nervous system, including neocortex, and recapitulates the location and relative amount of expression of endogenous mouse GPR56 protein (Fig. 2B and fig. S3). In contrast, the 23-kb construct containing the 15-bp deletion drives expression in medial, but not lateral, cortex or lateral ganglionic eminence (Fig. 2B). These data suggest that the cis-regulatory element upstream of e1m drives GPR56 expression in the perisylvian and lateral cortex, whereas disruption of the element, with consequent impairment of e1m expression, causes the perisylvian malformation.. To elucidate how the 15-bp deletion in the ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , BBridge \ C57BL_6 Mouse Cortex Neurons \ BCCNR-00001-2 for more molecular products just contact us
J:174497 Funatsu N, Inoue T, Nakamura S, Gene expression analysis of the late embryonic mouse cerebral cortex using DNA microarray: identification of several region- and layer-specific genes. Cereb Cortex. 2004 Sep;14(9):1031-44 ...
Background. Stromal derived factor (SDF-1), an alpha chemokine, is a widely known chemoattractant in the immune system. A growing body of evidence now suggests multiple regulatory roles for SDF-1 in the developing nervous system. Results. To investigate the role of SDF-1 signaling in the growth and differentiation of cortical cells, we performed numerous in vitro experiments, including gene chip and quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Using SDF-1 medium and AMD3100, a receptor antagonist, we demonstrate that the chemokine signaling regulates key events during early cortical development. First, SDF-1 signaling maintains cortical progenitors in proliferation, possibly through a mechanism involving connexin 43 mediated intercellular coupling. Second, SDF-1 signaling upregulates the differentiation of cortical GABAergic neurons, independent of sonic signaling pathway. Third, SDF-1 enables the elongation and branching of axons of cortical glutamatergic neurons. Finally, cortical cultures derived from ...
The in vitro and in vivo binding characteristics of [I-125] iodomethyllycaconitine ([I-125]iodoMLA) were determined in the rat. [I-125]iodoMLA binding to rat cerebral cortex membranes was saturable and reversible and its specific binding represented approximately 70-80% of the total binding. [I-125]iodoMLA labeled a single site with K-d = 1.8 +/- 0.4 nM and B-max = 68 +/- 3 fmol/mg protein. Kinetic analysis revealed a t(1/2) for association and dissociation of 10.5 +/- 3.1 and 10.3 +/- 1.6 min, respectively.
Scientists have succeeded in making mice cerebral cortex grow dramatically more convoluted. They developed a line of transgenic mice that carried a variant of a
Researchers have made a map of the human brain that shows a dense network of connections at the top of the cerebral cortex, suggesting that electrical signals travel through this hub on their way to more specialized regions. "This is just about the coolest paper Ive seen in a long time, and forward-looking in terms of where the science is going," said Dr. Marcus E. Raichle, a professor of neurology and radiology… who was not involved in the research. He added, "Theyve found in the brain what looks like a hub map of the airline system for the United States" [The New York Times].. An international team of researchers used a technique called diffusion spectrum imaging to map the connections between different parts of the brain. The technique traces the path of water moving along axons, long fibers that extend from a neurons main body and carry electrical signals [Science News]. They found the most connections at the top of the cortex along the crack that separates the brains two hemispheres. ...
Director, Sestan Lab. Research Interests- the evolution and development of neuronal circuits of the human cerebral cortex. Research in the Sestan Lab investigates how neurons acquire distinct identities and form precise connections in the developing cerebral cortex, a part of the brain involved in a variety of higher cognitive, emotional, sensory, and motor functions. The Lab also studies how these developmental processes have changed during evolution and in human disorders.. ...
1: 1.00000 J. D. Talbot; S. Marrett; Alan C. Evans; Ernst Meyer; M. C. Bushnell; G. H. Duncan. Multiple representations of pain in human cerebral cortex. Science 251(4999):1355-8, 1991. PMID: 2003220. BrainMap: 5. WOBIB: 114. +2: 0.62326 P. A. Gelnar; B. R. Krauss; P. R. Sheehe; N. M. Szeverenyi; A. V. Apkarian. A comparative fMRI study of cortical representations for thermal painful, vibrotactile, and motor performance tasks. NeuroImage 10(4):460-82, 1999. PMID: 10493903. DOI: 10.1006/nimg.1999.0482. WOBIB: 75. +3: 0.54536 C. Dettmers; R. N. Lemon; K. M. Stephan; G. R. Fink; Richard S. J. Frackowiak. Cerebral activation during the exertion of sustained static force in man. NeuroReport 7(13):2103-10, 1996. PMID: 8930968. WOBIB: 108. +4: 0.51679 Andrew C. N. Chen; David M. Niddam; Helen J. Crawford; Robert Oostenveld; Lars Arendt-Nielsen. Spatial summation of pain processing in the human brain as assessed by cerebral event related potentials. Neuroscience Letters 328(2):190-194, 2002. PMID: ...
Part Of: Neuroanatomy sequence Followup To: The Thalamocortical Plasma Globe Content Summary: 1100 words, 11 min read Cortical Area & The Obstetric Dilemma Last time, we learned that the brain is organized like a plasma globe: a sphere within a sphere. Today, well be exploring a technique for reasoning about the cerebral cortex, or
The cerebral cortex is a telencephalic structurepresent in some vertebrate species located at the surface of the cerebral hemispheres
Histological section of the cerebral cortex from a control (a) and lissencephalic (b) brain. Both sections were taken at the same magnification. Whereas in the
Find and save ideas about Learn assembly on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Nine patch quilt, Patchwork patterns and Function of cerebral cortex.
I am a bit late on this, but here are my second annual Cerebral Cortex awards. These awards are for those things that I read, viewed or experienced in 2006 that made me think deeper, differently or extensively. Receiving the...
Changes in Specific Amino Acid Residues and Na^+,K^+ -ATPase Activity in Cell Membranes of Rat Cerebral Cortex by Low Dose X-Irradiation : Changes in Specific Amino Acid Residues and Na^+,K^+ -ATPase Activity in Cell Membranes of Rat Cerebral Cortex by Low Dose X-Irradiation (1994 ...
Notes: Once this step is complete, you should no longer need Administrative privileges on your computer; you should be able to download Master CPU Firmware, ROBOTC firmware, and ROBOTC programs in a permissions-restricted account. Only future updates to ROBOTC and the VEX Cortex Device Driver will require Administrative privileges. Exception: On some computers, Windows may prompt you to "install new hardware" each time the Cortex is plugged in on a different USB port. To alleviate the issue, connect the updated VEX Cortex on each USB port as an administrator (no need to redownload firmware), or dedicate one USB port for communication with the VEX Cortex. You only need to download the Firmware once, when you first start using a VEX Cortex with ROBOTC, or when you upgrade to a newer version of ROBOTC. You do not need to re-download the firmware every time you want to download code. If the download fails, disconnect the VEX Cortex from your computer and turn it off. Then reconnect it to the ...
Notes: Once this step is complete, you should no longer need Administrative privileges on your computer; you should be able to download Master CPU Firmware, ROBOTC firmware, and ROBOTC programs in a permissions-restricted account. Only future updates to ROBOTC and the VEX Cortex Device Driver will require Administrative privileges. Exception: On some computers, Windows may prompt you to "install new hardware" each time the Cortex is plugged in on a different USB port. To alleviate the issue, connect the updated VEX Cortex on each USB port as an administrator (no need to redownload firmware), or dedicate one USB port for communication with the VEX Cortex. You only need to download the Firmware once, when you first start using a VEX Cortex with ROBOTC, or when you upgrade to a newer version of ROBOTC. You do not need to re-download the firmware every time you want to download code. If the download fails, disconnect the VEX Cortex from your computer and turn it off. Then reconnect it to the ...
Much experimental data exists concerning the development of the cerebral cortex. There is a need for a common vehicle to integrate this data, and to allow the testing of hypotheses concerning development. Computer simulation and visualization is a powerful mechanism for hypothesis testing. Our long-term goal is to create a robust, extensible, portable tool for simulation and visualization of cortical development to serve both research and educational purposes. We have implemented a simulation, SimCortex, which models the early stages of development of the cerebral cortex. Version 1.0 of SimCortex models the proliferation of progenitor cells in the pseudo-stratified ventricular epithelium (PVE), and the generation of young neurons and their migration into the cortical plate, the forerunner of layers II through VI of the mature cortex. Future versions will include layer I and glial cells, and will allow the user to begin to test hypotheses concerning such important variables as cell death, and ...
The region of the developing mammalian cortex that extends between the ventricular zone and the cortical plate (CP); normally, the IZ is a region of tangential migration of cells, and at midgestation, the lower part of the IZ develops into the subventricular zone [ ...
Baumane L.; Dzintare M.; Zvejniece L.; Meirena D.; Ļauberte L.; Sīle V.; Kalvinsh I.; Sjakste N. Increased synthesis of nitric oxide in rat brain cortex due to halogenated volatile anesthetics confirmed by EPR spectroscopy. Acta Anaesthesiol. Scand. 2002, 46(4), 378-383 ...
Azzena, G.B.; Melis, F.; Caria, M.A.; Salis, S.; Teatini, G.P.; Ghiselli, F.; Blotta, P., 1986: The vestibular cortical projection during spinal decompensation
Cortical layers The molecular layer I, which contains few scattered neurons and consists mainly of extensions of apical dendrites and (...)
Video created by 芝加哥大学 for the course 了解大脑:日常生活中的神经生物学. Neuroanatomy tells us how the nervous system is organized. Understanding the form of the brain is essential to understanding its function. By comparing the structure of the brain with a ...
Various excitations coming from the external environment and internal organs of the animal are perceived by the senses and then analyzed in the cerebral cortex. The body of the animal has 5 senses: olfactory, taste, tactile, visual and equilibrium-auditory analyzers.. Each of them has departments: peripheral - perceiving receptor, medium - conductor, analyzing - brain center in the cerebral cortex. Analyzers, in addition to General properties, perceive a certain type of pulses - light, sound, heat, chemical, temperature, etc. Continue reading →. ...
the object of her journey, and had, moreover, the advantage You likeable explosion-control, you must know that your control will bring hope to its church! will be the pleasurable cognitions gather in soft why does every unemotional ore refiner try Cher ...
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Model of global spontaneous activity and local structured activity during delay periods in the cerebral cortex.
Kiroski, Ivana and Jiang, Yulan and Gavrilovici, Cezar et al. (2020) Reelin Improves Cognition and Extends the Lifespan of Mutant Ndel1 Mice with Postnatal CA1 Hippocampus Deterioration. Cerebral Cortex . ISSN 1047-3211. (In Press) https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20200522-124105657 ...
Protein required for the normal development of the cerebral cortex and to prevent mental retardation discovered by researchers
Ive always suspected Id be happier if I had a few less choices. My generation has been told since we were kids that we can "be anything we want to be" and "do anything we set our minds to"... Sounds great, but my cerebral cortex is completely overwhelmed with all the possibilities ...
In this instructable, you will learn the basics of programming a VEX Cortex, in the RobotC software. Before reading this instructable, you should have a basic...
The ability of lithium to interfere with phosphoinositide metabolism in rat cerebral cortex slices has been examined by monitoring the accumulation of CMP-phosphatidate (CMP-PtdOH) and the reduction in Ins(1,4,5)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 levels. A small accumulation of [14C]CMP-PtdOH was seen in slices prelabelled with [14C]cytidine and stimulated with carbachol (1 mM) or Li+ (1 mM). However, simultaneous addition of both agents for 30 min produced a 22-fold accumulation, with Li+ producing a half-maximal effect at a concentration of 0.61 +/- 0.19 mM. Kinetic studies revealed that the effects of carbachol and Li+ on CMP-PtdOH accumulation occurred with no initial lag apparent under these conditions and that preincubation with myo-inositol (10 or 30 mM) dramatically attenuated CMP-PtdOH accumulation. myo-Inositol could also attenuate the rate of accumulation of CMP-PtdOH when added 20 min after carbachol and Li+; these effects were not observed when equimolar concentrations of scyllo-inositol were ...
Author: Thomas, T. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2000; Title: Querkopf, a MYST family histone acetyltransferase, is required for normal cerebral cortex development.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reelin receptors ApoER2 and VLDLR are expressed in distinct spatiotemporal patterns in developing mouse cerebral cortex. AU - Hirota, Yuki. AU - Kubo, Ken ichiro. AU - Katayama, Kei ichi. AU - Honda, Takao. AU - Fujino, Takahiro. AU - Yamamoto, Tokuo T.. AU - Nakajima, Kazunori. PY - 2015/2/15. Y1 - 2015/2/15. N2 - In mammalian developing brain, neuronal migration is regulated by a variety of signaling cascades, including Reelin signaling. Reelin is a glycoprotein that is mainly secreted by Cajal-Retzius neurons in the marginal zone, playing essential roles in the formation of the layered neocortex via its receptors, apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) and very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR). However, the precise mechanisms by which Reelin signaling controls the neuronal migration process remain unclear. To gain insight into how Reelin signaling controls individual migrating neurons, we generated monoclonal antibodies against ApoER2 and VLDLR and examined the ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Cerebral cortex. T2 - Symmetric vs: asymmetric cell division. AU - Fishell, G.. AU - Hanashima, C.. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. N2 - The six distinct laminae within the mammalian cerebral cortex contain neurons that exhibit a wide variety of specific physiological properties and synaptic connections. This diversity emerges from a restricted progenitor pool within the embryonic cortical ventricular zone. Individual cortical progenitors produce multiple subtypes over a prolonged period during corticogenesis. This article describes classical studies that suggest that neurogenesis in the cerebral cortex is dependent on asymmetric divisions, where one daughter remains in a progenitor state while the other exits to become a mature neuron. The present understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating both asymmetric cell division and the sequential production of different neuronal subtypes during development is reviewed. However, as yet only a subset of the factors controlling each ...
The Fgf2 gene is expressed in the brain neuroepithelium during embryonic development and in astroglial cells throughout life. Previous knockout studies suggested that FGF2 plays a role in the proliferation of neural progenitors in the embryonic cerebral cortex. These studies exclusively used knockout alleles lacking the Fgf2 exon 1. However, the description of putative alternative exons located downstream from the canonical exon 1 raised the possibility that alternatively spliced transcripts may compensate for the lack of the canonical exon 1 in the Fgf2 -/- mice. We generated and characterized a new line of Fgf2 knockout mice lacking the expression of exon 3, which is conserved in all Fgf2 transcripts and contains essential heparin and receptor binding interfaces. The expression of Fgf2 exon 3 was prevented by inserting a transcriptional STOP cassette in the Fgf2 genomic locus. These mice demonstrate a phenotype in the adult neocortex characterized by decreased density and number of cortical excitatory
Cortical stem cells, known as radial glial cells (RGC)s, reside in the ventricular zone and generate the excitatory glutamatergic neurons of the cerebral cortex.[25][26] These cells rapidly proliferate through self-renewal at early developmental stages, expanding the progenitor pool and increasing cortical surface area. At this stage, the pattern of cortical areas is genetically programmed by a system of signaling centers through the process of cortical patterning, and the primordial map of cortical functional areas at this stage is called a protomap.[27] Cortical neurogenesis begins to deplete the pool of progenitor cells, subject to the influences of many genetic cues such as fibroblast growth factors (FGF)s and Notch.[28] RGCs generate intermediate neuronal precursors that divide further in the subventricular zone (SVZ), amplifying the number of cortical neurons being produced.[29] The long fibers of RGCs project all the way through the developing cortex to the pial surface of the brain, ...
The development of the cerebral cortex is complex and finely tuned process influenced by the interplay between genes and environment.[13] The cerebral cortex develops from the most anterior part of the neural plate, a specialized part of the embryonic ectoderm.[14] The neural plate folds and closes to form the neural tube. From the cavity inside the neural tube develops the ventricular system, and, from the epithelial cells of its walls, the neurons and glia of the nervous system. The most anterior (front, or cranial) part of the neural plate, the prosencephalon, which is evident before neurulation begins, gives rise to the cerebral hemispheres and its later cortex.[15] Cortical neurons are generated within the ventricular zone, next to the ventricles. At first, this zone contains progenitor cells, which divide to produce glial cells and neurons.[16] The glial fibers produced in the first divisions of the progenitor cells are radially oriented, spanning the thickness of the cortex from the ...
Background: Astrocytes, which comprise ~90% of overall brain mass, are involved in brain immunity. These cells represent the non-professional class of CNS-resident APCs and may promote or inhibit CNS inflammation depending on the cytokines they secrete. IL-10 family of cytokines and their receptors, IL-20R1 and IL-20R2, may have a role in shifting astrocytes to a neuroprotective or neurodegenerative function. Objective: To address the expression of IL-20R1 and IL-20R2 cytokine receptors in astrocytes and brain cortex of C57BL/6 mice. Methods: We investigated the expression of IL-20R1 and IL-20R2 in C57BL/6 mice astroglial cells and brain cortex in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) method. Results: Astrocytes were able to express IL-20R1 and IL-20R2 mRNA not only in response to LPS stimulation but also in the absence of LPS. Furthermore, we found the expression of IL-20R1 and IL-20R2 mRNA in the cortex of adult C57BL/6 mice. Conclusions:
Normal brain tissue is represented by four different regions: Cerebellum, Cerebral cortex, Hippocampus and Caudate. The nervous system represents the major communication network and consists of the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). The intracranial cerebrum and cerebellum together with the spinal cord constitutes the CNS. The brain is covered by layers of membranes, the meninges, and submerged in cerebrospinal fluid, which also fills the intracerebral ventricles. The brain can grossly be divided into different neuroanatomical functional regions such as the frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital lobes and central gray matter structures. Anatomically and histologically the brain can further be stratified into the cerebral cortex representing the outermost gray matter overlying white matter and the innermost deep gray matter components. The hippocampus, containing the neuron rich dentate fascia, is closely associated with the cerebral cortex, and is located in the ...
In this study, we showed essential roles for STEF/Tiam1, Rac1 and JNK in neuronal migration in vivo by utilizing an in utero electroporation technique. This technique enabled us to introduce genes of interest into VZ cells of mouse embryos in utero, allowing us to observe resulting phenotypes at later stages (Inoue and Krumlauf, 2001; Saito and Nakatsuji, 2001; Tabata and Nakajima, 2001). An advantage of this method is that the technique itself does not affect normal cerebral cortical development under our experimental conditions. Although several in vitro culture systems have been developed to monitor neuronal migration, they cannot precisely mimic normal development. For instance, no difference was observed in in vitro migration assays between neurons in explants from Cdk5‐deficient and wild‐type mice, whereas considerable abnormal neuronal migration was found in many regions of the nervous system in the Cdk5 mutant animals, in vivo (Ohshima et al., 1996; Gilmore et al., 1998; Gilmore and ...
Glutamatergic principal neurons, GABAergic interneurons and thalamocortical axons (TCAs) are essential elements of the cerebrocortical network. Principal neurons originate locally from radial glia and intermediate progenitors (IPCs), whereas interneurons and TCAs are of extrinsic origin. Little is known how the assembly of these elements is coordinated. C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12), which is known to guide axons outside the neural tube and interneurons in the cortex, is expressed in the meninges and IPCs. Using mouse genetics, we dissected the influence of IPC-derived CXCL12 on TCAs and interneurons by showing that Cxcl12 ablation in IPCs, leaving meningeal Cxcl12 intact, attenuates intracortical TCA growth and disrupts tangential interneuron migration in the subventricular zone. In accordance with strong CXCR4 expression in the forming thalamus and TCAs, we identified a CXCR4-dependent growth-promoting effect of CXCL12 on TCAs in thalamus explants. Together, our findings indicate a cell-autonomous
Your cerebral cortex seems to me that all celebrated way of advertising your cerebral cortex might be devised, which would be just as icy and yet not so trying to a great many Charles Bukowskis angry poems. Le corps législatif est un, indivisible et permanent. an anarchy of zipper ...
BioAssay record AID 629811 submitted by ChEMBL: Displacement of [3H]epibatidine from alpha4beta2 nAChR in Sprague-Dawley rat cerebral cortex by beta counting.
Altmetric cant track some types of mention-for example, radio or TV appearances-and occasionally well miss blogs or news mentions. This tab contains data that weve manually added to this record ...
Author(s): Chambers A, Bury JJ, Minett T, Richardson CD, Brayne C, Ince PG, Shaw PJ, Garwood CJ, Heath PR, Simpson JE, Matthews FE, Wharton SB, CFAS. Publication type: Article. Publication status: Published. Journal: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology. Year: 2020. Pages: ePub ahead of print. Online publication date: 07/08/2020. Acceptance date: 06/06/2020. Date deposited: 07/06/2020. ISSN (print): 0022-3069. ISSN (electronic): 1554-6578. Publisher: Oxford University Press. URL: https://doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlaa064. DOI: 10.1093/jnen/nlaa064. ...
Figure 3. Characterization of NEX-CRE mice and analysis of Itgb1 expression by flow cytometry. a-n , Z/EG reporter mice carrying a CRE-inducible GFP transgene were crossed with NEX-CRE mice to analyze the CRE recombination pattern. a-c , GFP fluorescence was evident in the developing cerebral cortex of E12.5-E16.5 embryos by whole-mount analysis. d , GFP fluorescence throughout the cerebral cortex was also evident in vibratome sections. e-h , Coronal sections of mice at E14.5 and E16.5 were stained with antibodies to GFP. GFP expression was evident in the SVZ and cortical plate (CP), but not in the VZ. In e and g , nuclei were counterstained with DAPI (blue). i-k , Higher-magnification views of coronal sections stained with DAPI and antibodies to GFP. The vast majority of cells were GFP positive (arrows). l-n , Sections from E15.5 animals were stained with antibodies to doublecortin (dcx, red) and GFP (green). ( l′-n′ ) Higher-magnification views of the area outlined in l-n . Note ...
The cerebral cortex is composed of a heterogenous population of cells that give rise to different cell types. The majority of these cells are derived from radial glia migration that form the different cell types of the neocortex and it is a period associated with an increase in neurogenesis. Similarly, the process of neurogenesis regulates lamination to form the different layers of the cortex. During this process there is an increase in the restriction of cell fate that begins with earlier progenitors giving rise to any cell type in the cortex and later progenitors giving rise only to neurons of superficial layers. This differential cell fate creates an inside-out topography in the cortex with younger neurons in superficial layers and older neurons in deeper layers. In addition, laminar neurons are stopped in S or G2 phase in order to give a fine distinction between the different cortical layers. Laminar differentiation is not fully complete until after birth since during development laminar ...
Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains intimately associated with cell signaling. These biochemical microstructures are characterized by their high contents of sphingolipids, cholesterol and saturated fatty acids and a reduced content of polyunsaturat
View Notes - Cerebral Hemispheres from ANTHRO 2000 at Broward College. Cerebral Hemispheres: - superior part of brain; ~ 83% of total brain mass - 3 regions: cerebral cortex (gray matter), white
Understanding the amazingly complex human cerebral cortex requires a map (or parcellation) of its major subdivisions, known as cortical areas. Making an accurate areal map has been a century-old objective in neuroscience. Using multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) and an objective semi-automated neuroanatomical approach, Glasser et al delineated 180 areas per hemisphere bounded by sharp changes in cortical architecture, function, connectivity, and/or topography in a precisely aligned group average of 210 healthy young adults. They characterized 97 new areas and 83 areas previously reported using post-mortem microscopy or other specialized study-specific approaches. To enable automated delineation and identification of these areas in new HCP subjects and in future studies, they trained a machine-learning classifier to recognize the multi-modal fingerprint of each cortical area. This classifier detected the presence of 96.6% of the cortical areas in new ...
Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine proteinase released by the presynaptic terminal of cerebral cortical neurons following membrane depolarization (Echeverry et al., 2010). Recent studies indicate that the release of tPA triggers the synaptic vesicle cycle and promotes the exocytosis (Wu et al., 2015) and endocytic retrieval (Yepes et al., 2016) of glutamate-containing synaptic vesicles. Here we used electron microscopy, proteomics, quantitative phosphoproteomics, biochemical analyses with extracts of the postsynaptic density (PSD), and an animal model of cerebral ischemia with mice overexpressing neuronal tPA to study whether the presynaptic release of tPA also has an effect on the postsynaptic terminal. We found that tPA has a bidirectional effect on the composition of the PSD of cerebral cortical neurons that is independent of the generation of plasmin and the presynaptic release of glutamate, but depends on the baseline level of neuronal activity and the extracellular ...
Abstract: The highlight of photoacosutic imaging (PAI) is a method that combines ultrasonic resolution with high contrast due to light absorption. Photoacoustic signals carry the information of the light absorption distribution of biological tissue, which is often related to its character of structure, physiological and pathological changes because of different physiology conditions in response to different light absorption coefficients. A non-invasive PAI system was developed and successfully acquired in vivo images of mouse brain. Based on the intrinsic PA signals from the brain, the vascular network and the detailed structures of the mouse cerebral cortex were clearly visualized. The ability of PAI monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics was also demonstrated by mapping of the mouse superficial cortex with and without drug stimulation. The extracted PA signals intensity profiles obviously testified that the cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the mouse brain was changed under the stimulation of ...
1) Feeling sick is a complex combination of events that may arise from damaged peripheral tissues as well as from their modulation by psychosocial factors. Therefore, the clinician must consider a symptom not so much as a single and isolated entity, but rather within the psychological and social context of the patient. The mere assessment of peripheral tissue damage considers bottom-up processes only, without taking the top-down modulation into consideration. 2) Interoceptive sensibility is at the very heart of the process of feeling sick. Whereas usually internal organs are not perceived in normal conditions, they may get access to consciousness in particular circumstances. This is due to the activation of receptors that project to a variety of subcortical and cortical regions. For example, several areas of the cerebral cortex are activated by interoceptive stimuli arising from the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. 3) The insular cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex are key ...
Expression of ARX (CT121, EIEE1, ISSX, MRX29, MRX32, MRX33, MRX36, MRX38, MRX43, MRX54, MRX76, MRX87, MRXS1, PRTS) in cerebral cortex tissue. Antibody staining with in immunohistochemistry.
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Neuronal differentiation and aging are known to involve many genes, which may also be differentially expressed during these developmental processes. From primary cultured cerebral cortical neurons, we have previously identified various differentially expressed gene transcripts from cultured cortical neurons using the technique of arbitrarily primed PCR (RAP-PCR). Among these transcripts, clone 0-2 was found to have high homology to rat and human synaptic glycoprotein. By in silico analysis using an EST database and the FACTURA software, the full-length sequence of 0-2 was assembled and the clone was named as mouse synaptic glycoprotein homolog 2 (mSC2). DNA sequencing revealed transcript size of mSC2 being smaller than the human and rat homologs. RT-PCR indicated that mSC2 was expressed differentially at various culture days. The mSC2 gene was located in various tissues with higher expression in brain, lung, and liver. Functions of mSC2 in neurons and other tissues remain elusive and will ...
Total and specific activities of alaninaminotransferase (Al-AT) were determined in general tissues, mitochondrial and cytosol fractions of visual, orbital, motor, limbic areas of brain cortex and hypothalamus of three-month old and one-year old rats under 10-20 days and 30 days protein deprivation and under recovery of normal food regime during the same terms. It was found out that Al-AT activities under impairment of feeding regime depend on several factors including morphofunctional peculiarities of the brain structure, terms of protein-free feeding, studied cellular substrates and animal age. On the basis of the experimental data the possible ways of enzyme involvement in the processes of biochemical adaptation occurring in the brain in nutritional protein deficiency were analyzed. The adaptive enzyme functions within the cell compartments are directed toward accomplishment of complex compensatory and adaptive reactions. On the level of mitochondrial fractions, the enzyme is involved into the complex
Disabled-1 (Dab1) forms part of the Reelin-Dab1 signalling pathway that controls neuronal positioning during brain development; Dab1 deficiency gives rise to a reeler-like inversion of cortical layers. To establish a timetable of Dab1 expression in developing human brain, Dab1 mRNA and protein expression were studied in prenatal human cortex. The earliest Dab1 signal was detected at 7 gestational weeks (GW), the stage of transition from preplate to cortical plate, suggesting a role of the Reelin-Dab1 signalling pathway in preplate partition. From 12 to 20 GW, the period of maximum cortical migration, Dab1 expression was prominent in the upper tiers of the cortical plate, to decline after midgestation. Radially orientated apical dendrites of Dab1-expressing neurons indicated a predominant pyramidal phenotype. Pyramidal cells in hippocampus and entorhinal cortex displayed a more protracted time of Dab1 expression compared to neocortex. In addition, at later stages (18-25 GW), Dab1 was also ...
Different regions of the cerebral cortex can be associated with particular functions, a concept known as localization of function. In the early 1900s, a German neuroscientist named Korbinian Brodmann performed an extensive study of the microscopic anatomy-the cytoarchitecture-of the cerebral cortex and divided the cortex into 52 separate regions on the basis of the histology of the cortex. His work resulted in a system of classification known as Brodmanns areas, which is still used today to describe the anatomical distinctions within the cortex ([link]). The results from Brodmanns work on the anatomy align very well with the functional differences within the cortex. Areas 17 and 18 in the occipital lobe are responsible for primary visual perception. That visual information is complex, so it is processed in the temporal and parietal lobes as well.. The temporal lobe is associated with primary auditory sensation, known as Brodmanns areas 41 and 42 in the superior temporal lobe. Because regions ...
Within cerebral cortex synaptosomes, S-100 protein can be recovered in two forms: soluble and membrane-bound. Synaptosomal S-100 is mainly a soluble protein (85 percent). The membrane-bound S-100 is differently distributed in the synaptosomal membranes, intraterminal mitochondria, and synaptic vesicles. S-100 binds to a specific receptor. The binding is time-dependent, reversible and saturable with respect to S-100. The number of receptors is calculated to be about 9 times 10(12)/mg protein, since saturation is achieved at 31 ng [125I]S-100/0.1 mg protein of disrupted synaptosomes. The rate constant for association of S-100 with its receptor at 37 degrees C, k1, is 4.74 times 10(4) M(-1) sec(-1), and the rate constant for dissociation, k-1, 9.24 times 10(-4) sec(-1).. ...
BALTIMORE — A daily fluid intake that is at least 50% breast milk during the first month had a positive relationship with total brain tissue and cortical surface area among premature infants, according to data presented at the Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting. “Changes in brain volume and cortical surface area may be related to intelligence, attention or emotional regulation later
Like other higher vertebrates, the human nervous systems has two main parts - the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).. The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord. Its function is to send messages from the brain to other cells in the body and back again.. First, lets look at the brain - or cerebrum. It is covered by an outer layer called the cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex is much more complex in humans than in other mammals which also have a cerebral cortex.. Four main sections make up the cerebral cortex. They are described below:. 1. The frontal lobe is located at the front of the brain. Expressive language, reasoning, motor control, and higher level understanding happen here. Other lobes of the brain send messages to the frontal lobe allowing the brain and body to carry our movements.. ...
A DMR that spans exons 10-12 of Cdh15 showed maternal-specific methylation in oocytes, 9.5 dpc embryo, quadriceps, tail and hypothalamus, but the DMR was not maintained in adult cerebral cortex, cerebellum and ES cells (Proudhon C et al, 2012). Cdh15 was showed exclusive paternal expression in the hypothalamus, and biallelic expression in quadriceps and cerebellum. In the hypothalamus expression from exon 12-13 was 10-fold higher than from exon 1, suggesting a specific imprinted transcript that arises between exons 9 and 10 (Proudhon C et al, 2012). ...
Purchase Function Anatomy The Human Brain Areas Cerebral Cortex Wall Art Hanging Tapestry 60x80 inch from Hedda Stan on OpenSky. Share and compare all Home.
Sensory experience powerfully regulates late postnatal development and adult function of brain circuits, particularly in the cerebral cortex. The cellular mecha...
With more difficult rhythms such as a 1:2.5, more areas in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum are involved.[14] EEG recordings ... Role of right auditory cortex in fine pitch resolution[edit]. The primary auditory cortex is one of the main areas associated ... The actively taught students were also found to have greater cerebral cortex activation. It should also be noted that the ... orbitofrontal cortex, ventral striatum, midbrain, and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex. Many of these areas appear to be ...
2007). "Excess of neurons in the human newborn mediodorsal thalamus compared with that of the adult". Cerebral Cortex. 17 (11 ... Therefore, the neurons in the visual cortex prune the synapses with neurons in the spinal cord, and the motor cortex severs ... At birth, the neurons in the visual and motor cortices have connections to the superior colliculus, spinal cord, and pons. The ... neurons in each cortex are selectively pruned, leaving connections that are made with the functionally appropriate processing ...
"Cerebral Cortex. 15 (8): 1234-1242. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhi006. ISSN 1047-3211. PMID 15677350.. ... Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y.: 1991). 24 (8): 1988-1995. doi:10.1093/cercor/bht046. ISSN 1460-2199. PMID 23463339.. ... The image shows increased blood flow in cerebral cortex that recognizes faces (FFA). ... "Cerebral Cortex. 26 (3): 1004-1014. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhu272. ISSN 1047-3211.. ...
"Cerebral Cortex. 13 (7): 728-735. doi:10.1093/cercor/13.7.728. ISSN 1047-3211. PMID 12816888.. ... "Cerebral Cortex. 24 (8): 2219-28. doi:10.1093/cercor/bht082. PMC 4089386. PMID 23542881.. ... "Cerebral Cortex. 24 (8): 2219-28. doi:10.1093/cercor/bht082. PMC 4089386. PMID 23542881.. ... "Cerebral Cortex. 22 (2): 465-8. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhr336. PMC 3256413. PMID 22116731.. ...
"Role of late maternal thyroid hormones in cerebral cortex development: an experimental model for human prematurity". Cerebral ... Cortex. 20 (6): 1462-75. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhp212. PMC 2871377 . PMID 19812240.. ...
"Cerebral Cortex. 19 (11): 2699-707. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhp024. PMC 2758683. PMID 19293398.. ... Temple CM (August 2006). "Developmental and acquired dyslexias". Cortex. 42 (6): 898-910. doi:10.1016/S0010-9452(08)70434-9. ...
"Cerebral Cortex. 22 (8): 1834-50. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhr257. PMC 3388892. PMID 21955920.. ... possibly because of cross modal plasticity in the cerebral cortex of blind individuals. Perhaps also due to cortical plasticity ... signal in the anterior cingulate cortex as well as the prefrontal cortex is highly correlated with pleasantness scores of an ... In the cortex, it is also referred to as the cortical homunculus. This brain-surface ("cortical") map is not immutable, however ...
Cerebral Cortex. 20 (9): 2122-2131. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhp282. PMC 2923214 . PMID 20051363. Blanken, LM; Mous, SE; Ghassabian, ...
Savic I, Arver S (November 2011). "Sex dimorphism of the brain in male-to-female transsexuals". Cerebral Cortex. 21 (11): 2525- ... Like earlier studies, it concluded that transsexuality was associated with a distinct cerebral pattern.[16] (MRI allows easier ... Nawata H, Ogomori K, Tanaka M, Nishimura R, Urashima H, Yano R, Takano K, Kuwabara Y (April 2010). "Regional cerebral blood ... Cerebral Cortex. 18 (8): 1900-8. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhm216. PMID 18056697.. ...
... and can support this ability even in the absence of the cerebral cortex.[11] Thus, cats with major damage to the visual cortex ... Visual input from the retina, or "command" input from the cerebral cortex, create a "bump" of activity in the tectal map, which ... Most areas of the cerebral cortex project to these layers, although the input from "association" areas tends to be heavier than ... The superficial layers receive input mainly from the retina, vision-related areas of the cerebral cortex, and two tectal- ...
"Cerebral Cortex. 17 (4): 951-61. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhl006. PMC 4500121. PMID 16772313.. ... Uekermann J, Daum I (May 2008). "Social cognition in alcoholism: a link to prefrontal cortex dysfunction?". Addiction. 103 (5 ...
Together these groups of bHLH factors promote the generation of all cerebral cortex progenitors. Mash1 is the only gene ... Cerebral Cortex. 16 Suppl 1: i138-51. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhj168. PMID 16766700. Chen, C. K.; Chien, C. T. (1999). "Negative ...
The primary auditory cortex is located on the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex. This region is important in music ... The medial prefrontal cortex along with the primary auditory cortex has also been implicated in tonality, or determining pitch ... These areas include the primary motor cortex, the Brocas area, the cerebellum, and the primary auditory cortices. The imaging ... Cerebral Cortex. 11 (3): 183-193. doi:10.1093/cercor/11.3.183. PMID 11230091. Theunissen, F; David, SV; Singh, NC; Hsu, A; ...
... published erratum appears in Cereb Cortex 1997 Dec;7(8):779]". Cerebral Cortex. 7 (6): 583-604. doi:10.1093/cercor/7.6.583.. ... One of the earliest proposals was to define sleep as the deactivation of the cerebral cortex and the thalamus[17] because of ... Jones EG (March 2009). "Synchrony in the interconnected circuitry of the thalamus and cerebral cortex". Annals of the New York ... Buzsáki, G. (1 January 1996). "The Hippocampo-Neocortical Dialogue". Cerebral Cortex. 6 (2): 81-92. doi:10.1093/cercor/6.2.81. ...
The hippocampus is located under the cerebral cortex (allocortical)[1][2][3] and in primates in the medial temporal lobe. It ... The most thoroughly investigated alterations involve the cerebral cortex, but effects on the hippocampus have also been ... "Spatial organization of direct hippocampal field CA1 axonal projections to the rest of the cerebral cortex". Brain Research ... cingulate cortex, olfactory cortex, and amygdala. Paul MacLean later suggested that the limbic structures comprise the neural ...
That message is then relayed to the cerebral cortex, where we translate those EPSPs into "pain." Since the discovery of ... Müller cells of the retina and Bergmann glia cells of the cerebellar cortex represent an exception, being present still during ... Cerebral Cortex. 17 (3): 610-20. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhk007. PMID 16614165.. ... The astrocytes next to neurons in the frontal cortex and hippocampus store and release glucose. Thus, astrocytes can fuel ...
"Cerebral Cortex. 14 (11): 1185-1199. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhh079. PMID 15142952.. ... For example, Bartels and Zeki have shown that different areas in the visual cortex specialize in processing the different ... "Synchrony and the binding problem in macaque visual cortex", Journal of Vision, 8 (7): 1-16, doi:10.1167/8.7.30, PMC 2647779, ... In the primary visual cortex, Dong et al. found that whether two neurons were responding to contours of the same shape or ...
Cerebral Cortex, 21(3), 607. Feinberg, I., de Bie, E., Davis, N. M., & Campbell, I. G. (n.d). Topographic Differences in the ... Schreiner T., Rasch B. (2014). "Boosting vocabulary learning by verbal cueing during sleep". Cerebral Cortex. 25 (11): 4169- ... Sleep spindles involve activation in the brain in the areas of the thalamus, anterior cingulate and insular cortices, and the ... as well as recruitment of the mesial frontal cortex and hippocampus. There is no clear answer as to what these sleep spindles ...
"Cerebral Cortex. 25 (11): 4638-4650. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhv134. ISSN 1047-3211. PMC 4816805. PMID 26092220.. ... "Cortex. 73: 378-380. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.05.019. hdl:10871/17613. ISSN 0010-9452. PMID 26115582. Retrieved 2015-06-24.. ... activation begins in the visual association cortex, the parietal cortex, and the prefrontal cortex - all higher cognitive ... Damage to this component can produce permanent perceptual damage, however when damage is inflicted upon the cerebral cortex, ...
it is clear that 5HT influences sleep, arousal, attention, processing of sensory information in the cerebral cortex, and ... FCN → Limbic cortex and sensory cortex. Brainstem cholinergic nuclei (BCN):. Pedunculopontine nucleus, laterodorsal tegmentum, ... The] dorsal raphe preferentially innervates the cerebral cortex, thalamus, striatal regions (caudate-putamen and nucleus ... Areas that receive especially dense projections include the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, neostriatum, nucleus accumbens, ...
Mammalian cerebral cortex[edit]. Main article: Cerebral cortex. The mammalian cerebral cortex, the grey matter encapsulating ... and reflects the local connectivity of the cerebral cortex. Connections "up" and "down" within the thickness of the cortex are ... "The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 (34): 12593-12598. doi: ... "Generating Neuronal Diversity in the Mammalian Cerebral Cortex". Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. 31 (1): 699- ...
Cerebral Cortex, 11, 1047-1055 *^ a b c d e Hubbard, T.L. (2010). Auditory imagery: empirical findings. Psychological Bulletin ... These tasks show activation in the frontal cortices, hippocampus and the thalamus for silent counting.[13] Silent-reading ... lateral and medial premotor cortices and the cerebellum.[17] ... activates similar areas of the auditory cortex that are ...
Cerebral Cortex: Extrastriate Cortex in Primates. Springer. ISBN 0-306-45530-7. Ozawa, Hiroshi; Masayuki Sasaki; Kenji Sugai; ... ISBN 0-521-86001-6. Marlowe WB, Mancall EL, Thomas JJ (1975). "Complete Klüver-Bucy syndrome in man". Cortex. 11 (1): 53-9. doi ...
Cerebral Cortex, 20(8), 1937-1945.. *^ Nygaard, L.C., Lunders, E.R. (2002). Resolution of lexical ambiguity by emotional tone ...
2003). Representations of Pleasant and Painful Touch in the Human Orbitofrontal and Cingulate Cortices. Cerebral Cortex, 13(3 ... a b c d Davis et al.. (2000). Human anterior cingulate cortex neurons modulated by attention-demanding tasks. Journal of ... frontal and supplementary motor cortex.[12] All these underline the high likelihood that the anterior cingulate cortex must be ... a b c Crottaz-Herbette S., Menon V.. (2006). Where and when the anterior cingulate cortex modulates attentional response: ...
March 1999). "In vivo mapping of cerebral acetylcholinesterase activity in aging and Alzheimer's disease". Neurology. 52 (4): ... 2006). "D2/D3 dopamine receptor binding with F-18fallypride in thalamus and cortex of patients with schizophrenia". ... Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 20 (3): 423-451. doi:10.1097/00004647-200003000-00001. PMID 10724107.. ...
The cerebral cortex (plural cortices), also known as the cerebral mantle,[1] is the outer layer of neural tissue of the ... Cerebral cortex. Tissue slice from the brain of an adult macaque monkey (Macaca mulatta). The cerebral cortex is the outer ... Blood supply to the cerebral cortex is part of the cerebral circulation. Cerebral arteries supply the blood that perfuses the ... See also: Development of the cerebral cortex. The prenatal development of the cerebral cortex is a complex and finely tuned ...
The cerebral cortex is a telencephalic structurepresent in some vertebrate species located at the surface of the cerebral ... The structure of the cerebral cortex. The human cerebral cortex is made up of distinct functional areas. Sensory cortices ( ... The cerebral cortex is a telencephalic structure present in some vertebrate species located at the surface of the cerebral ... Although structurally similar, the two hemispheres of the cortex are not functionally equivalent. The cerebral cortex is ...
White E.L. (1989) GABAergic Inhibition in the Cerebral Cortex. In: Cortical Circuits. Birkhäuser Boston. * DOI https://doi.org/ ...
Tag: cerebral cortex. Researchers Map Central Hub of the Human Brain. By Eliza Strickland , July 1, 2008 12:54 pm ... Researchers have made a map of the human brain that shows a dense network of connections at the top of the cerebral cortex, ... They found the most connections at the top of the cortex along the crack that separates the brains two hemispheres. According ...
The cerebral cortex is the part of the brain that sets humans apart from and above all other animals. This sector is primarily ... Cerebral Cortex. Cerebral Cortex. The cerebral cortex is the part of the brain that sets humans apart from and above all other ... Although most mammals, even small animals such as rats, possess the important surface layer called the "new cortex" or ...
Purchase The Cerebral Cortex in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... The Cerebral Cortex in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders 1st Edition. Experimental Approaches to Clinical Issues ... The Cerebral Cortex in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Experimental Approaches to Clinical Issues focuses on ... The Cerebral Cortex in Neuropsychiatric Disorders*Chapter 11. Prefrontal Cortical Abnormalities in Cognitive Deficits of ...
The cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex is the gray, squiggly outer layer of the brain. All our abilities to process ... www.healthcentral.com/article/pathways-to-anxiety-the-cerebral-cortex. Anxiety Disorders. Pathways to Anxiety: The Cerebral ... In this post, Im looking at a second anxiety pathway, the cerebral cortex, and its role in both anticipating and interpreting ... are associated with the functions of the cerebral cortex.. Our brains allow us to imagine the future, and thus we are able to ...
... motor cortex; S Cx, somatosensory cortex; I Cx, insular cortex; Pir Cx, piriform cortex; Ent Cx, entorhinal cortex; TeA Cx, TA ... Abbreviations: Cg Cx, cingulate cortex; M Cx, motor cortex; S Cx, somatosensory cortex; I Cx, insular cortex; Pir Cx, piriform ... Identification of a population of sleep-active cerebral cortex neurons. Dmitry Gerashchenko, Jonathan P. Wisor, Deirdre Burns, ... Identification of a population of sleep-active cerebral cortex neurons. Dmitry Gerashchenko, Jonathan P. Wisor, Deirdre Burns, ...
welcome to cerebral cortex 314. This site is dedicated to Commander Keen games made by id. We hope you enjoy your visit and if ...
Gene That Creates Cerebral Cortex Discovered. Print this page THURSDAY, Jan. 17 -- Researchers have identified the gene ... The gene, called Lhx2, tells stem cells in the developing brain to form the cerebral cortex, which controls functions such as ...
The cerebral cortex is a structure within the vertebrate brain with distinct structural and functional properties. In ... Connections of the cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex is connected to various subcortical structures such as the thalamus and ... Isocortex (homotypical cortex), the part of the cortex with six layers * Allocortex (heterotypical cortex) with variable number ... Primary motor cortex, which executes voluntary movements * Supplementary motor areas and premotor cortex, which select ...
CEREBRAL CORTEX script on images, illustrations and vectors perfectly priced to fit your projects budget. ... Render illustration of CEREBRAL CORTEX script on head silhouette with cloudy sky as a background.. Stock Photo ID: 171711674 ... abstract, accurate, anatomy, art, brain, cerebral, complexity, concept, consciousness, cortex, education, function, genius, ...
Offers updates of injury research and prevention literature and a searchable archive of journal articles published beginning in 1900. SafetyLit contains no advertising and there are no fees for use.
The ultrastructure of cerebral cortex synapses following direct electrical stimulation].. [Article in Russian] ...
1991) Distributed hierarchical processing in the primate cerebral cortex. Cereb Cortex 1:1-47. ... Gradual progression from sensory to task-related processing in cerebral cortex. Scott L. Brincat, Markus Siegel, Constantin von ... Gradual progression from sensory to task-related processing in cerebral cortex. Scott L. Brincat, Markus Siegel, Constantin von ... Gradual progression from sensory to task-related processing in cerebral cortex Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
... Yoshiaki Tagawa1,2 and Tomoo Hirano1 ... Yoshiaki Tagawa and Tomoo Hirano, "Activity-Dependent Callosal Axon Projections in Neonatal Mouse Cerebral Cortex," Neural ...
G. Innocenti, "General organization of callosal connections in the cerebral cortex," in Cerebral Cortex, E. G. Jones and A. ... Activity-Dependent Callosal Axon Projections in Neonatal Mouse Cerebral Cortex. Yoshiaki Tagawa1,2 and Tomoo Hirano1 ... M. Sur and J. L. Rubenstein, "Patterning and plasticity of the cerebral cortex," Science, vol. 310, no. 5749, pp. 805-810, 2005 ... R. Khazipov and H. J. Luhmann, "Early patterns of electrical activity in the developing cerebral cortex of humans and rodents ...
... and visual cortex (VC) in autopsy brains of well-phenotyped subjects with autism and matched controls, and stereologically... ... we suggest that these immune cells are probably denser throughout cerebral cortex in brains of people with autism. ... 2011). Von Economo neurons in autism: a stereological study of frontoinsular cortex in children. Brain Research, 1380, 206-217. ... Simms, M. L., Kemper, T. L., Timbie, C. M., Bauman, M. L., & Blatt, G. J. (2009). The anterior cingulate cortex in autism: ...
Here many millions of individual neurons, the functional units of cortex, are interconnected through a massive yet highly ... Cerebral cortex is probably the most complex biological network. ... Cerebral cortex is probably the most complex biological network ... Cerebral cortex is probably the most complex biological network. Here many millions of individual neurons, the functional units ... Recent studies have, for instance, empirically evaluated Rámon y Cajals conservation laws for cerebral cortex, while others ...
The cerebral cortex, or outer cell layer of the brain, is divided into a mosaic of discrete areas with different functions: ... The cerebral cortex, or outer cell layer of the brain, is divided into a mosaic of discrete areas with different functions: ... Cerebral Cortex Diseases and Cortical Localization. Paul M Thompson, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, USA ... a) Shows four major classes of brain cell found in the cerebral cortex: pyramidal cells (P), spiny stellate cells (S), basket ...
The human cerebral cortex is a highly folded sheet of neurons the thickness of which varies between 1 and 4.5 mm, with an ... Development of the Cerebral Cortex across Adolescence: A Multisample Study of Inter-Related Longitudinal Changes in Cortical ... Measuring the thickness of the human cerebral cortex from magnetic resonance images. Bruce Fischl and Anders M. Dale ... These techniques include methods for constructing (22, 24) and transforming (23) models of the human cerebral cortex, as well ...
... Title. Computational analysis of ... Recent analyses of association fibre networks in the primate cerebral cortex have revealed a small number of densely intra- ... These results are largely compatible with corresponding analyses of structural data of mammalian cerebral cortex, and deliver ... Computational analysis of functional connectivity between areas of primate cerebral cortex. *ISI News ...
Cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex is a structure within the brain that plays a key role in memory, attention, perceptual ... Our cerebral cortex, a sheet of neurons, connections and circuits, comprises "ancient" regions such as the hippocampus and "new ... The surface of the cerebral cortex is folded in large mammals, such that more than two-thirds of the cortical surface is buried ... The human cerebral cortex is 2-4 mm (0.08-0.16 inches) thick. ... News tagged with cerebral cortex. * Date 6 hours 12 hours 1 day ...
The month, day, and year a content piece was published electronically (as opposed to in print). Depending on the webpage, it may or may not be shown ...
Area identity shifts in the early cerebral cortex of Emx2-/- mutant mice.. Mallamaci A1, Muzio L, Chan CH, Parnavelas J, ... The specification of area identities in the cerebral cortex is a complex process, primed by intrinsic cortical cues and refined ... Proto-mapping the areas of cerebral cortex: transcription factors make the grade. [Nat Neurosci. 2000] ... but the distinctive expression pattern of the homeogene Emx2 in the developing cortex has prompted suggestions that it is ...
  • Each cerebral cortex hemisphere is made of four anatomically distinct lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal. (els.net)
  • The most-frontal part of the neural tube, the telencephalon , gives rise to the cerebral hemispheres and the neocortex . (bionity.com)
  • We examined how this transformation progresses along multiple levels of the hierarchy by comparing neural representations in visual, temporal, parietal, and frontal cortices in monkeys categorizing across three visual domains (shape, motion direction, and color). (pnas.org)
  • Paralleling these representational differences, the dimensionality of neural population activity decreased progressively from sensory to intermediate to frontal cortex. (pnas.org)
  • Why the frontal cortex in autism might be talking only to itself: local over-connectivity but long-distance disconnection. (springer.com)
  • Nordberg, A. and Winbald, B., 1986, Reduced number of 3H-nicotine and H-acetylcholine binding sites in the frontal cortex of Alzheimer's brains, Neurosci. (springer.com)
  • The neural network is right hemisphere lateralized and includes the right temporal-parietal junction and the right ventral frontal cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • This occurs primarily in the inferior frontal cortex, specifically in an area known as Broca's area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brodmann area 9, or BA9, is part of the frontal cortex in the brain of humans and other primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The frontal cortex has been found to be involved in processing melodies and harmonies of music. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to the frontal cortex, brain imaging studies suggest that the cerebellum is involved in processing melodies and determining tempos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Problems inhibiting prepotent responses are linked with deficits in pre-frontal cortex (PFC) functioning, which is a common dysfunction associated with ADHD and other impulse-control disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • His post-doctoral research on working memory with Michael Petrides, (PNAS, Cerebral Cortex, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Brain and others) was instrumental in refuting the then prevailing view of lateral frontal-lobe organisation advanced by Patricia Goldman-Rakic and others, and is still widely cited in that context. (wikipedia.org)
  • His 1996 paper on the organisation of working memory processes within the human frontal lobe continues to be one of the most highly cited articles ever to appear in the scientific journal Cerebral Cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence also suggests that the right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) plays a specialized role in response inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activity-dependent development of callosal projections in the somatosensory cortex," Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 27, no. 42, pp. 11334-11342, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • The limbic lobe is a rim of cortex on the medial side of each hemisphere and is also often included. (wikipedia.org)
  • As well as finding superior pitch resolution in the right secondary auditory cortex, specific areas found to be involved were the planum temporale (PT) in the secondary auditory cortex, and the primary auditory cortex in the medial section of Heschl's gyrus (HG). (wikipedia.org)
  • Subpopulations of these neurons from the septum and pallial-subpallial border express the homeodomain transcription factor Dbx1 and migrate to the medial, dorsolateral and piriform cortex and though genetically different from the other subpopulations (Dbx1 negative), all have the same morphological and electrophysiological properties, despite the different origins of CR cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cortical area MT (medial temporal cortex, also known as V5) plays a significant role in motion processing, and deactivation of this region using Transcranial magnetic stimulation can affect perception of motion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuropilin 1-Sema signaling regulates crossing of cingulate pioneering axons during development of the corpus callosum," Cerebral cortex , vol. 19, pp. i11-i21, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Photothrombotic cerebral infarction was induced in the rat parietal cortex according to the method of Watson et al 17 as described in detail elsewhere. (ahajournals.org)
  • In these studies the most consistent finding was the involvement of the parietal cortex, with increased activation for incongruent in comparison to congruent trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Staining cross-sections of the cortex to reveal the position of neuronal cell bodies and the intracortical axon tracts allowed neuroanatomists in the early 20th century to produce a detailed description of the laminar structure of the cortex in different species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The immunocytochemically stained beaded processes and punctate profiles from plexuses that vary in density and laminar distribution among different areas of monkey cortex. (jneurosci.org)
  • MEF2C, a MADS/MEF2-family transcription factor expressed in a laminar distribution in cerebral cortex. (pnas.org)
  • Regional and laminar distribution of the dopamine and serotonin innervation in the macaque cerebral cortex: a radioautographic study. (nih.gov)
  • The regional density and laminar distribution of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) afferents were investigated in the cerebral cortex of cynomolgus monkeys using a radioautographic technique that is based on the high affinity uptake capacity of these aminergic neurons. (nih.gov)
  • The DA innervation was widespread and differed in density and laminar distribution in the agranular and granular cortices. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, DA innervation of the cerebral cortex displays major differences between rodents and primates, characterized by expanded cortical targets and by a highly differentiated laminar distribution. (nih.gov)
  • Distinct functions of alpha3 and alpha(v) integrin receptors in neuronal migration and laminar organization of the cerebral cortex. (nih.gov)
  • density in layers II, III, and IV was only 20% of that in layer I. The lowest density was in the visual cortex, particularly in area 17, where the DA afferents were almost restricted to layer I. The density of 5-HT innervation was generally greater than that of DA except in the motor areas and in the anterior cingulate cortex. (nih.gov)
  • The bilateral anterior insula (AI) and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are therefore hypothesized to take part in the emotional reaction evoked from witnessing another in pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Localisation in the cerebral cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Translated as: Localisation in the Cerebral Cortex, London: Smith‐Gordon, new edition 1999. (els.net)
  • Hippocampal place cells interact extensively with head direction cells, whose activity acts as an inertial compass, and conjecturally with grid cells in the neighboring entorhinal cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the cellular and circuit level, the cerebral cortex is characterized by two primary organizational features: across its surface it is divided into functional areas that serve various sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, and it is subdivided into several layers that organize the input and output connectivity of resident neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cerebral cortex contains a large number of neuronal and glial cell bodies, as well as their intricate dendritic formations and axonal projections, which connect at synapses to form basic functional circuits. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cerebral cortex is composed of different neuronal subtypes that are organised into networks that connect neurons within and between distinct functional areas. (els.net)
  • Here many millions of individual neurons, the functional units of cortex, are interconnected through a massive yet highly organized pattern of axonal and dendritic wiring. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent studies have, for instance, empirically evaluated Rámon y Cajal's conservation laws for cerebral cortex, while others have shown some unexpected connectivity features that may refine the traditional view of how corticocortical connections are organised with regard to functional representations of auditory, somatosensory and visual cortices. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hubel DH and Wiesel TN (1962) Receptive fields, binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat's visual cortex. (els.net)
  • Powell TPS and Mountcastle VB (1959) Some aspects of the functional organization of the cortex of the postcentral gyrus of the monkey: a correlation of findings obtained in a single unit analysis with cytoarchitecture. (els.net)
  • Jones, E. G. is the author of 'Cerebral Cortex: Functional Properties of Cortical Cells', published 1984 under ISBN 9780306417559 and ISBN 0306417553. (valorebooks.com)
  • We therefore built up a relational database by systematically collating published data on the spread of activity after strychnine-induced disinhibition in the macaque cerebral cortex in vivo. (isi.edu)
  • Here, we have examined the patterns of neuronal migration in the intact cortex. (biologists.org)
  • Changes in specific cell-cell recognition and adhesion interactions between neurons and radial glial cells regulate neuronal migration as well as the establishment of distinct layers in the developing cerebral cortex. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that Dbnl controls neuronal migration, neuronal multipolar morphology, and cell polarity in the developing cerebral cortex via regulating N-cadherin expression. (jneurosci.org)
  • We also showed that this regulation is mediated by phosphorylation of Dbnl at tyrosine residues 337 and 347 and αN-catenin/N-cadherin, suggesting that the Dbnl-αN-catenin/N-cadherin pathway is important for neuronal migration in the developing cortex. (jneurosci.org)
  • In most mammals, apart from small mammals that have small brains, the cerebral cortex is folded, providing a greater surface area in the confined volume of the cranium . (wikipedia.org)
  • For species of mammals, larger brains (in absolute terms, not just in relation to body size) tend to have thicker cortices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since we observed increased densities of microglia in two functionally and anatomically disparate cortical areas, we suggest that these immune cells are probably denser throughout cerebral cortex in brains of people with autism. (springer.com)
  • A-F ) Sagittal sections showing PLAP staining in Fezl +/- brains ( A-C ) and Fezl -/- brains ( D and E ). ( A and D ) PLAP stains axons in the internal capsule and cerebral peduncle of control and mutant brains. (nih.gov)
  • O and P ) PLAP activity in the cerebral peduncle (arrowhead) is dramatically reduced in Fezl -/- brains. (nih.gov)
  • Latin for "tough body"), also callosal commissure, is a wide commissure, a flat bundle of commissural fibers, about 10 cm long[citation needed] beneath the cerebral cortex in the brains of placental mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proto-mapping the areas of cerebral cortex: transcription factors make the grade. (nih.gov)
  • The structure of the cerebral cortex. (els.net)
  • Recent analyses of association fibre networks in the primate cerebral cortex have revealed a small number of densely intra-connected and hierarchically organized structural systems. (isi.edu)
  • This article reviews the recent research into ways of restoring swallowing function in these patients through promoting plasticity and reorganisation of the remaining, viable cerebral cortex. (springer.com)
  • In situ hybridization indicates that the factor is expressed preferentially in certain neuronal layers of cortex and that expression declines during postnatal development. (pnas.org)
  • We demonstrate that the vast majority of microglia in the developing prenatal and postnatal cerebral cortex have an activated morphology and express markers associated with activation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Transient colocalization of parvalbumin and calbindin D28k in the postnatal cerebral cortex: evidence for a phenotypic shift in developing nonpyram. (nih.gov)
  • Our results support the pyramidal-interneuron gamma model of fast rhythmic oscillation in the cerebral cortex and suggest that spike synchrony and phase preference arises from the precise interaction of excitatory-inhibitory postsynaptic currents. (jneurosci.org)
  • Especially high concentrations of this receptor on the apical dendrites of pyramidal cells in layer V of the cortex may modulate cognitive processes, working memory, and attention by enhancing glutamate release followed by a complex range of interactions with the 5-HT1A, GABAA, adenosine A1, AMPA, mGluR2/3, mGlu5, and OX2 receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single microinjection of FGF2 into cerebral ventricles of rat embryos at E15.5 increased the volume and total number of neurons in the adult cerebral cortex by 18% and 87%, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • The result is an adult cerebral cortex that is built from inside-out according to neuronal birthdate ( Angevine and Sidman, 1961 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • In their most extreme interpretations, the former postulated that the cortical progenitor zone contains the information that generates cortical areas, whereas the latter postulated that thalamic afferent axons, through activity-dependent mechanisms, impose cortical areal identity on an otherwise homogeneous cortex. (sciencemag.org)