Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Infarction, Posterior Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS induced by ISCHEMIA in the POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which supplies portions of the BRAIN STEM; the THALAMUS; TEMPORAL LOBE, and OCCIPITAL LOBE. Depending on the size and location of infarction, clinical features include OLFACTION DISORDERS and visual problems (AGNOSIA; ALEXIA; HEMIANOPSIA).Infarction, Anterior Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY system, including branches such as Heubner's artery. These arteries supply blood to the medial and superior parts of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, Infarction in the anterior cerebral artery usually results in sensory and motor impairment in the lower body.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Decompressive Craniectomy: Excision of part of the skull. This procedure is used to treat elevated intracranial pressure that is unresponsive to conventional treatment.Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Infarction: Formation of an infarct, which is NECROSIS in tissue due to local ISCHEMIA resulting from obstruction of BLOOD CIRCULATION, most commonly by a THROMBUS or EMBOLUS.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Anterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Intracranial Hemorrhages: Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cerebral Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Brain Stem Infarctions: Infarctions that occur in the BRAIN STEM which is comprised of the MIDBRAIN; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA. There are several named syndromes characterized by their distinctive clinical manifestations and specific sites of ischemic injury.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Splenic Infarction: Insufficiency of arterial or venous blood supply to the spleen due to emboli, thrombi, vascular torsion, or pressure that produces a macroscopic area of necrosis. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction: MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION in which the anterior wall of the heart is involved. Anterior wall myocardial infarction is often caused by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. It can be categorized as anteroseptal or anterolateral wall myocardial infarction.Malaria, Cerebral: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)Intracranial Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Reperfusion: Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Retinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Streptokinase: Streptococcal fibrinolysin . An enzyme produced by hemolytic streptococci. It hydrolyzes amide linkages and serves as an activator of plasminogen. It is used in thrombolytic therapy and is used also in mixtures with streptodornase (STREPTODORNASE AND STREPTOKINASE). EC 3.4.-.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Moyamoya Disease: A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Postpartum Hemorrhage: Excess blood loss from uterine bleeding associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH. It is defined as blood loss greater than 500 ml or of the amount that adversely affects the maternal physiology, such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEMATOCRIT. Postpartum hemorrhage is divided into two categories, immediate (within first 24 hours after birth) or delayed (after 24 hours postpartum).Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.JapanSeverity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Coronary Care Units: The hospital unit in which patients with acute cardiac disorders receive intensive care.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Intracranial Hemorrhage, Hypertensive: Bleeding within the SKULL that is caused by systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.Technetium Tc 99m Exametazime: A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Organotechnetium Compounds: Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Hematoma: A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Encephalocele: Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)Angina, Unstable: Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Myocardial Revascularization: The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Eye Hemorrhage: Intraocular hemorrhage from the vessels of various tissues of the eye.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Constriction: The act of constricting.Vitreous Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage into the VITREOUS BODY.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Coronary Thrombosis: Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Pia Mater: The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Nimodipine: A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Iofetamine: An amphetamine analog that is rapidly taken up by the lungs and from there redistributed primarily to the brain and liver. It is used in brain radionuclide scanning with I-123.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Inferior Wall Myocardial Infarction: MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION in which the inferior wall of the heart is involved. It is often caused by occlusion of the right coronary artery.Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations: Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Rupture, Spontaneous: Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A family of percutaneous techniques that are used to manage CORONARY OCCLUSION, including standard balloon angioplasty (PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY), the placement of intracoronary STENTS, and atheroablative technologies (e.g., ATHERECTOMY; ENDARTERECTOMY; THROMBECTOMY; PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL LASER ANGIOPLASTY). PTCA was the dominant form of PCI, before the widespread use of stenting.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Chest Pain: Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.Antipyrine: An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Blood from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm clots around a cerebral artery, releasing thrombin. This can induce an acute and ... potentially resulting in cerebral ischemia and infarction (stroke). Beyond its key role in the dynamic process of thrombus ... is implicated as a major factor in vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. ... Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 36 (6): 1059-74. doi:10.1177/0271678X15606462. PMID 26661165. Howell DC, Laurent ...
It can result from occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery or paramedian penetrating branches of the basilar artery. Deep ... Benedikt syndrome is caused by a lesion ( infarction, hemorrhage, tumor, or tuberculosis) in the tegmentum of the midbrain and ... syndromes arising from posterior cerebral artery branch occlusion". Journal of the neurological sciences. 228 (1): 105-107. doi ... "Deep brain stimulation as an effective treatment option for post-midbrain infarction-related tremor as it presents with ...
... malignant middle cerebral artery infarction, epidural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, chronic subdural hematoma, infarction ... midline shift as secondary screening for the long-term outcomes of surgical decompression of malignant middle cerebral artery ... intraventrical hemorrhage, a combination of these symptoms, or the absence of pertinent damage altogether. Mass effect ( ...
cerebral infarction. (ischemic stroke/TIA). TACI, PACI. *precerebral: Carotid artery stenosis. *cerebral: MCA ... Those of the basilar artery and posterior cerebral artery are hard to reach surgically and are more accessible for endovascular ... "Effect of oral nimodipine on cerebral infarction and outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage: British aneurysm nimodipine trial" ... aneurysms of the anterior cerebral artery and anterior communicating artery (together the "anterior circulation"), who ...
The most important causes are subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, and cervical artery dissection[ ... infarction or hemorrhage of the pituitary gland) Colloid cyst of the third ventricle Meningitis (rarely features thunderclap ... Carotid artery dissection and vertebral artery dissection (together cervical artery dissection), in which a tear forms inside ... Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis Cervical artery dissection Hypertensive emergency (severely raised blood pressure) Spontaneous ...
CT evidence of extensive middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction (sulcal effacement or blurring of grey-white ... Gastrointestinal or urinary tract haemorrhage within the last 30 days or any active or recent haemorrhage that, in the opinion ... TIMI - thrombolysis in myocardial infarction "Indications for fibrinolytic therapy in suspected acute myocardial infarction: ... Patient has a known history of intracranial haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage, known intracranial arteriovenous ...
... ischemia Endothelin-1-induced constriction of arteries and veins Middle cerebral artery occlusion Spontaneous brain infarction ... Known pitfalls of this method are insufficient occlusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage [9], hyperthermia [10], and necrosis of the ... MCAO avoiding craniotomy Embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion Endovascular filament middle cerebral artery occlusion ( ... MCAO involving craniotomy Permanent transcranial middle cerebral artery occlusion Transient transcranial middle cerebral artery ...
"Dense middle cerebral artery sign: an indicator of poor outcome in middle cerebral artery area infarction". J. Neurol. ... Specifically, the hyperdensity is thought to be due to calcification or hemorrhage associated with an atherosclerotic plaque. ... The sign has been observed in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), posterior cerebral artery (PCA), vertebral artery, and basilar ... Schuknecht B, Ratzka M, Hofmann E (1990). "The "dense artery sign"--major cerebral artery thromboembolism demonstrated by ...
... cerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral infarctions vary in their severity with one third of the cases ... Lung: Pulmonary infarction or lung infarction Spleen: Splenic infarction occurs when the splenic artery or one of its branches ... Limb: Limb infarction is an infarction of an arm or leg. Causes include arterial embolisms and skeletal muscle infarction as a ... an infarction of a testicle may be caused by testicular torsion. Eye: an infarction can occur to the central retinal artery ...
... myocardial infarction, retinal artery thrombosis, peripheral artery thrombosis, and deep vein thrombosis. In one series of 33 ... Rarely, these individuals may suffer hemarthrosis or cerebral hemorrhage. In one study of 37 individuals >50 years old ... Thrombotic complications occur in both arteries and veins and include transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke, ...
Stroke hemorragik terbagi menjadi subtipe intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH),[8] cerebral venous ... baik yang bersifat intrakranial seperti moderate middle cerebral artery stenosis, ekstrakranial seperti vertebral artery origin ... Cryptogenic cerebral infarction (CCI)[sunting , sunting sumber]. CCI paling banyak ditemukan dalam penderita patent foramen ... "Cryptogenic cerebral infarction: from classification to concept". SourceCHU de la Cavale Blanche, Service de neurologie; Timsit ...
... large artery. Cerebral artery gas embolism (e.g. during ascent from a SCUBA dive) is also a possible cause of infarction ( ... "Syndrome" may be replaced by "hemorrhage" if imaging demonstrates a bleed. See Internet Stroke Center. "Oxford Stroke Scale". ... A cerebral infarction is an area of necrotic tissue in the brain resulting from a blockage or narrowing in the arteries ... If cerebral infarction is caused by a thrombus occluding blood flow to an artery supplying the brain, definitive therapy is ...
In 1883 Jean-Martin Charcot encountered a patient who was most likely suffering from posterior cerebral artery thrombosis (not ... acute-onset cerebral lesions like hemorrhage, thrombosis, or trauma. Early attempts to locate the lesion site responsible for ... bilateral occipital artery infarction which rendered her dreamless for a 3-month period was to perform polysomnography testing ... In 1887 Hermann Wilbrand was studying an elderly female subject with bilateral posterior cerebral artery thrombosis. This ...
... cerebral infarction) Headache attributed to transient ischaemic attack (TIA) Headache attributed to non-traumatic intracranial ... haemorrhage Headache attributed to intracerebral haemorrhage Headache attributed to subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) Headache ... angiitis Carotid or vertebral artery pain Headache or facial or neck pain attributed to arterial dissection Post-endarterectomy ... Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy) MELAS (Mitochondrial Encephalopathy ...
This means that cerebral stroke, myocardial infarction, or any other organ can be affected. ... and causing cerebral hemorrhage.[10]. There are also some anticoagulants that come from animals that work by dissolving fibrin ... This may be aided by fibrinolytic drugs such as Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) in instances of coronary artery occlusion. ... This means that it is anterograde in veins or retrograde in arteries. ...
Occlusion of cerebral arteries (434.0) Cerebral thrombosis (434.00) Cerebral thrombosis without cerebral infarction (434.01) ... Subarachnoid hemorrhage (431) Intracerebral hemorrhage (432) Other and unspecified intracranial hemorrhage (432.9) Hemorrhage, ... Cerebral thrombosis with cerebral infarction (434.1) Cerebral embolism (434.10) Cerebral embolism without cerebral infarction ( ... 434.11) Cerebral embolism with cerebral infarction (435) Transient cerebral ischemia (435.0) Basilar artery syndrome (435.1) ...
... cerebral hemorrhage or cerebral metabolism. Wallenberg's syndrome: (Synonyms: dorsolateral medullary syndrome, lateral bulbar ... syndrome, lateral medullary infarction syndrome, posteroinferior cerebellar artery syndrome): A complex of symptoms caused by ... occlusion of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, resulting in sensory and sympathetic disturbances, cerebellar ataxy, etc ...
... up of blood Cerebral aneurysm Gastrointestinal bleeding Nosebleed Varicocele Primary post-partum bleeding Surgical hemorrhage ... The position of the correct artery or vein supplying the pathology in question is located by digital subtraction angiography ( ... Treated either by particle infarction or transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Uterine fibroids Arteriovenous ... Patients who undergo cerebral embolization or portal vein embolization are usually given a general anesthetic. Access to the ...
... not specified as hemorrhage or infarction (I65) Occlusion and stenosis of precerebral arteries, not resulting in cerebral ... Cerebral infarction due to thrombosis of cerebral arteries (I63.4) Cerebral infarction due to embolism of cerebral arteries ( ... Cerebral infarction due to unspecified occlusion or stenosis of cerebral arteries (I63.6) Cerebral infarction due to cerebral ... Cerebral infarction (I63.0) Cerebral infarction due to thrombosis of precerebral arteries (I63.1) Cerebral infarction due to ...
... lenticulostriate branches of middle cerebral artery (superior half) and recurrent artery of Heubner of the anterior cerebral ... punctate infarctions or intraparenchymal haemorrhage due to vessel rupture. Lesions of the genu of the internal capsule affect ... lenticulostriate branches of middle cerebral artery Posterior limb: lenticulostriate branches of middle cerebral artery ( ... For example, thalamoperforator arteries, which are branches of the basilar artery, occasionally supply the inferior half of the ...
Cerebral aneurysm - Aneurysms of the arteries in the brain most commonly affect the anterior cerebral artery. Rupture of the ... Myocardial infarction (a.k.a. heart attack) - A myocardial infarction is the death of a part of the heart which is typically ... retinal hemorrhage) and diabetic retinopathy (cotton wool spots) Pulses: carotid, dorsalis pedis, femoral, popliteal, posterior ... Carotid artery - Diseases of the carotid arteries: Carotid artery stenosis / carotid artery disease - Narrowing of the carotid ...
There are various neuroimaging investigations that may detect cerebral sinus thrombosis. Cerebral edema and venous infarction ... This results in cerebral edema (both vasogenic and cytotoxic edema), and leads to small petechial haemorrhages that may merge ... requires puncture of the femoral artery with a sheath and advancing a thin tube through the blood vessels to the brain where ... Poor outcome is more likely if a child with CVST develops seizures or has evidence of venous infarction on imaging. Cerebral ...
In silent stroke, also known as silent cerebral infarct (SCI), there is permanent infarction present on imaging, but there are ... Globally, the vessel most commonly affected is the middle cerebral artery. Embolisms can originate from multiple parts of the ... CT, however, is more widely available and can be used particularly to rule out intracranial hemorrhage. Diffusion sequences can ... Sometimes, myocardial infarction ("heart attack") may lead to the formation of a blood clot in one of the chambers of the heart ...
If the increase in blood pressure is not sufficient to compensate for the compression on the artery, infarction occurs. Raised ... who underwent a spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage demonstrated that the Cushing reflex played a part in maintaining cerebral ... The blood pressure can be expected to stay higher than the pressure of the raised cerebral spinal fluid to continue to allow ... These waves are characterized by acute rises of the ICP, and are accompanied by a decrease of the cerebral perfusion pressure. ...
... found that the most common areas of this type of softening occurred where there was a hemorrhage of the middle cerebral artery ... This is known as a hemorrhagic infarction and a resulting red infarct occurs, which points to a type of cerebral softening ... This again matches yellow cerebral softening. Cerebral hemorrhage Millard-Gubler syndrome Stroke Shah, Sid. "Stroke ... There was some atheroma in the internal brain arteries that led to the cerebral softening of the left side of the brain around ...
A watershed stroke or watershed infarct is defined as ischemia that is localized to the vulnerable border zones between the tissues supplied via the Anterior, Posterior and Middle Cerebral arteries.(Note that the actual blood stream blockage/restriction site can be located far away from the infarcts. See "Pathogenesis" followed.) Watershed locations are those border-zone regions in the brain supplied by the major cerebral arteries where blood supply is decreased. Watershed strokes are a concern because they comprise approximately 10% of all ischemic stroke cases. The watershed zones themselves are particularly susceptible to infarction from global ischemia as the distal nature of the vasculature predisposes these areas to be most sensitive to profound hypoperfusion. Watershed strokes are localized to two primary regions of the brain, and are termed cortical watersheds (CWS) and internal ...
當美國著名流行歌手克莉絲汀·阿奎萊拉把"同性戀"維多利亞女王的原畫,連同另外兩幅Banksy畫作以25,000鎊購入之後[25],Banksy的藝術作品拍賣紀錄於2006年10月19日創出新高,那是一套六張超級名模姬·摩絲的絲紡畫像,風格類近於安迪·華荷操刀的瑪麗蓮·夢露肖像;它在倫敦的蘇富比拍賣會上以50,400鎊的價碼銷出,成交價較拍賣的底價足足高出了五倍。然後在同一個拍賣會上,Banksy一幀綠中掛紅的《蒙羅麗莎》變調之作又以57,600鎊被有心人投得[26]。在12月,倫敦CNN國際新聞網絡的專欄作家马克斯·福斯特(英语:Max Foster)開始稱這股旋風為「Banksy效應」,來形容在他個人的成功背後,以往總是寂寂無聞的一眾街頭藝術家也終於漸漸引起社會上廣泛的注目[27]。 2007年2月21日,倫敦蘇富比拍賣行再次刷新Banksy作品的最高售出單價:價值102,000鎊的《Bombing Middle ...
A cerebral infarction is an area of necrotic tissue in the brain resulting from a blockage or narrowing in the arteries supplying blood and oxygen to the brain. The restricted oxygen due to the restricted blood supply causes an ischemic stroke that can result in an infarction if the blood flow is not restored within a relatively short period of time. The blockage can be due to a thrombus, an embolus or an atheromatous stenosis of one or more arteries. Which arteries are problematic will determine which areas of the brain are affected (infarcted). These varying infarcts will produce different symptoms and outcomes. About one third will prove fatal. There are various classification systems for a cerebral infarction. The Oxford Community Stroke Project classification (OCSP, also known as the ...
... or lacunar infarct (LACI) is the most common type of stroke, and results from the occlusion of small penetrating arteries that provide blood to the brain's deep structures. Patients who present with symptoms of a lacunar stroke, but who have not yet had diagnostic imaging performed, may be described as suffering from lacunar stroke syndrome (LACS). Much of the current knowledge of lacunar strokes comes from C. Miller Fisher's cadaver dissections of post-mortem stroke patients. He observed "lacunae" (empty spaces) in the deep brain structures after occlusion of 200-800 μm penetrating arteries and connected them with five classic syndromes. These syndromes are still noted today, though lacunar infarcts are diagnosed based on clinical judgment and radiologic imaging. Each of the 5 classical lacunar syndromes has a relatively distinct symptom complex. Symptoms may occur suddenly, progressively, or in a fluctuating (e.g., the capsular warning syndrome) manner. Occasionally, cortical ...
A watershed stroke or watershed infarct is defined as ischemia that is localized to the vulnerable border zones between the tissues supplied via the Anterior, Posterior and Middle Cerebral arteries.(Note that the actual blood stream blockage/restriction site can be located far away from the infarcts. See "Pathogenesis" followed.) Watershed locations are those border-zone regions in the brain supplied by the major cerebral arteries where blood supply is decreased. Watershed strokes are a concern because they comprise approximately 10% of all ischemic stroke cases. The watershed zones themselves are particularly susceptible to infarction from global ischemia as the distal nature of the vasculature predisposes these areas to be most sensitive to profound hypoperfusion. Watershed strokes are localized to two primary regions of the brain, and are termed cortical watersheds (CWS) and internal ...
... (a.k.a. cerebral ischemia, cerebrovascular ischemia) is a condition in which there is insufficient blood flow to the brain to meet metabolic demand. This leads to poor oxygen supply or cerebral hypoxia and thus to the death of brain tissue or cerebral infarction / ischemic stroke. It is a sub-type of stroke along with subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage. Ischemia leads to alterations in brain metabolism, reduction in metabolic rates, and energy crisis. There are two types of ischemia: focal ischemia, which is confined to a specific region of the brain; and global ischemia, which encompasses wide areas of brain tissue. The main symptoms involve impairments in vision, body movement, and speaking. The causes of brain ischemia vary from sickle cell anemia to congenital heart defects. Symptoms of brain ...
Lacunes are caused by occlusion of a single deep penetrating artery that arises directly from the constituents of the Circle of Willis, cerebellar arteries, and basilar artery. The corresponding lesions occur in the deep nuclei of the brain (37% putamen, 14% thalamus, and 10% caudate) as well as the pons (16%) or the posterior limb of the internal capsule (10%). They occur less commonly in the deep cerebral white matter, the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and the cerebellum. The two proposed mechanisms are microatheroma and lipohyalinosis.[4] At the beginning, lipohyalinosis was thought to be the main small vessel pathology, but microatheroma now is thought to be the most common mechanism of arterial occlusion (or stenosis). Occasionally, atheroma in the parent artery blocks the orifice of the penetrating artery (luminal atheroma), or atheroma involves the origin of the penetrating ...
A silent stroke is a stroke that does not have any outward symptoms associated with stroke, and the patient is typically unaware they have suffered a stroke. Despite not causing identifiable symptoms a silent stroke still causes damage to the brain, and places the patient at increased risk for both transient ischemic attack and major stroke in the future. In a broad study in 1998, more than 11 million people were estimated to have experienced a stroke in the United States. Approximately 770,000 of these strokes were symptomatic and 11 million were first-ever silent MRI infarcts or hemorrhages. Silent strokes typically cause lesions which are detected via the use of neuroimaging such as MRI. The risk of silent stroke increases with age but may also affect younger adults. Women appear to be at increased risk for silent stroke, with hypertension and current cigarette smoking being amongst the predisposing factors. These types of strokes include lacunar and other ischemic strokes and minor ...
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The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is one of a pair of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the posterior aspect of the brain (occipital lobe) in human anatomy. It arises near the intersection of the posterior communicating artery and the basilar artery and connects with the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) and internal carotid artery via the posterior communicating artery (PCommA). The development of the PCA in fetal brain comes relatively late and arises from the fusion of several embryonic vessels near the caudal end of the PCommA supplying the mesencephalon and diencephalon of the fetus. The PCA begins as such, as a continuation of the PCommA in the fetus with only 10-30% of fetuses having a prominent basilar origin. The fetal carotid origin of the PCA usually regresses as the vertebral and basilar arteries develop with ...
... is a type of atherosclerosis where build-up of plaque in the blood vessels of the brain occurs. Some of the main components of the plaques are connective tissue, extracellular matrix, including collagen, proteoglycans, fibronectin, and elastic fibers; crystalline cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and phospholipids; cells such as monocyte derived macrophages, T-lymphocytes, and smooth muscle cells. The plaque that builds up can lead to further complications such as stroke, as the plaque disrupts blood flow within the intracranial arterioles. This causes the downstream sections of the brain that would normally be supplied by the blocked artery to suffer from ischemia. Diagnosis of the disease is normally done through imaging technology such as angiograms or magnetic resonance imaging. The risk of cerebral atherosclerosis and its associated diseases appears to increase with increasing age; however there are numerous factors that can be controlled in attempt ...
The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is one of a pair of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the posterior aspect of the brain (occipital lobe) in human anatomy. It arises near the intersection of the posterior communicating artery and the basilar artery and connects with the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) and internal carotid artery via the posterior communicating artery (PCommA). The development of the PCA in fetal brain comes relatively late and arises from the fusion of several embryonic vessels near the caudal end of the PCommA supplying the mesencephalon and diencephalon of the fetus. The PCA begins as such, as a continuation of the PCommA in the fetus with only 10-30% of fetuses having a prominent basilar origin. The fetal carotid origin of the PCA usually regresses as the vertebral and basilar arteries develop with ...
The left and right internal carotid arteries arise from the left and right common carotid arteries. The posterior communicating artery is given off as a branch of the internal carotid artery just before it divides into its terminal branches - the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The anterior cerebral artery forms the anterolateral portion of the circle of Willis, while the middle cerebral artery does not contribute to the circle. The right and left posterior cerebral arteries arise from the basilar artery, which is formed by the left and right vertebral arteries. The vertebral arteries arise from the subclavian arteries. The anterior communicating artery connects the two anterior cerebral arteries and could be said to arise from either ...
Malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction is a clinical entity affecting up to 10% of all patients diagnosed with ... Assessment of cerebral circulation in the acute phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage using perfusion computed tomography. J Nippon ... 10. Hacke W, Schwab S, Horn M, Spranger M, De Georgia M, von Kummer R. "Malignant" middle cerebral artery territory infarction ... Hemicraniectomy after middle cerebral artery infarction with life-threatening edema trial (HAMLET). Protocol for a randomised ...
keywords = "Brain edema, Cerebral infarction, Decompressive craniectomy, Intracerebral hemorrhage",. author = "Ziai, {Wendy C ... Ziai WC, Port JD, Cowan JA, Garonzik IM, Bhardwaj A, Rigamonti D. Decompressive craniectomy for intractable cerebral edema: ... Decompressive craniectomy for intractable cerebral edema. Experience of a single center. Wendy C. Ziai, John D. Port, Jhon A. ... We present our experience with this procedure in a subset of 18 patients with massive cerebral edema refractory to medical ...
... anterior cerebral artery aneurysm in four, pericallosal artery aneurysm in three, posterior cerebral artery aneurysm in four, ... The diagnosis of acute symptomatic cerebral infarction following aneurysmal SAH was based on both new-onset cerebral ... Both the presence of intra-ventricular hemorrhage on admission and post-operative intra-cerebral hemorrhage were independently ... Accuracy of trans-cranial Doppler sonography for predicting cerebral infarction in aneurysmal sub-arachnoid hemorrhage. J Clin ...
... infarction due to surgical complications or vasospasm; primary intracranial hemorrhage; coagulopathies; and high risk for ... Infarction. Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery. Ischemia. Pathologic Processes. Necrosis. Cerebral Infarction. Brain Infarction ... Hemicraniectomy for Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction (HeMMI): A Single Center Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. ... Hemicraniectomy for Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction (HeMMI): A Single Center Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial ( ...
Cerebral haemorrhage not associated with ischemic infarct.. *Hypoxic ischemic event with diffuse or bilateral infarction alone ... e.g. middle cerebral artery, or MCA, mentioned in the radiographic report.) ... Haemorrhagic infarction (ischemic infarct with secondary haemorrhage). *Hypoxic ischemic event with diffuse or bilateral ... unilateral focal CNS such as cerebral infarction. The goal was to develop an assessment measure that defines clinically and ...
The presumptive diagnosis of acute left middle cerebral artery infarction was made. Previous MRI showed multiple cerebral ... The presumptive diagnosis of acute left middle cerebral artery infarction was made. Previous MRI showed multiple cerebral ... Both cerebral microbleeds and cardiac myxoma may increase the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage after intravenous thrombolysis. ... Conclusion: Cerebral microbleeds may be associated with atrial myxoma. Intravenous thrombolysis could benefit acute ischemic ...
Cerebral angiography showed dissecting aneurysm as pearl and string sign in the right vertebral artery (VA). Conservative ... A 45-year-old male presented with lateral medullary infarction. ... Dissecting aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery requiring ... Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / diagnosis, therapy*. Vertebral Artery / pathology*. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. ... Cerebral angiography showed dissecting aneurysm as pearl and string sign in the right vertebral artery (VA). Conservative ...
... and accompanying middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. A 56-year-old man presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage and right ... We report a complication of decompressive craniectomy in the treatment of aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) ... Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery / surgery*. Male. Middle Aged. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / surgery*. Subdural Effusion / ... and accompanying middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. A 56-year-old man presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage and right ...
... pulmonary embolism and infarction; occlusion and stenosis of precerebral arteries; occlusion of cerebral arteries; transient ... Complications of interest included intracranial hemorrhage; unspecified hemorrhage; hemorrhage complicating a procedure; ... and occlusion of cerebral arteries (0.11 vs 0.01 cases). However, it is important to note that there was a smaller sample size ... cerebral ischemia; septicemia; bacteremia; infection and inflammatory reaction due to other internal vascular device, implant, ...
Timing of neurologic deterioration in massive middle cerebral artery infarction: a multicenter review. Crit Care Med. 2003; 31 ... As a result, the most common definition of symptomatic hemorrhage in stroke treatment trials is now hemorrhage associated with ... Intracranial hemorrhage associated with revascularization therapies. Stroke. 2007; 38: 431-440.. OpenUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text ... Hemorrhage After Thrombolytic Therapy for Stroke. The Clinically Relevant Number Needed to Harm. Jeffrey L. Saver ...
Blood from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm clots around a cerebral artery, releasing thrombin. This can induce an acute and ... potentially resulting in cerebral ischemia and infarction (stroke). Beyond its key role in the dynamic process of thrombus ... is implicated as a major factor in vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. ... Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 36 (6): 1059-74. doi:10.1177/0271678X15606462. PMID 26661165. Howell DC, Laurent ...
Head CT demonstrated no hemorrhage; CT perfusion was consistent with significant left middle cerebral artery territory ischemia ... Angiograms showed immediate restoration of Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 2 flow with recanalization of the ... Navigability Trumps All: Stenting of Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusions with a New Self-Expandable Stent. P.T.L. Chiam, R. ... We describe 2 cases of acute middle cerebral artery occlusions wherein Wingspan stents could not be delivered to the occlusive ...
hemorrhagic - see Hemorrhage, brain. *. impending 435.9. *. ischemic 434.91. *. late effect - see Late effect(s) (of) ... 2015/16 ICD-10-CM I63.50 Cerebral infarction due to unspecified occlusion or stenosis of unspecified cerebral artery ... Cerebrovascular accident due to left cerebellar artery occlusion. *Cerebrovascular accident due to left middle cerebral artery ... Cerebrovascular accident due to left posterior cerebral artery occlusion. *Cerebrovascular accident due to right anterior ...
Rarely, this clinical syndrome is associated with cerebral infarction secondary to compression of an internal carotid artery. ... Pituitary apoplexy is an acute clinical syndrome caused by pituitary gland hemorrhage or infarction. ... Severe hyponatremia, cerebral vasospasm and infarction, and diabetes insipidus complicated this patients prolonged hospital ... was grooved by the apex of the arterys loop.Microvascular decompression (MVD) of the artery loop from the nerve and resection ...
... using serial sections of blocks of brain tissue from hypertensive patients with a history of cerebral hemorrhage or lacunar ... The types of miliary cerebral aneurysms associated with hypertension were studied, ... Cerebral Arteries / pathology * Cerebral Cortex / blood supply * Cerebral Hemorrhage / pathology * Humans * Hypertension / ... Infarction * Intracranial Aneurysm / etiology * Intracranial Aneurysm / pathology* * Intracranial Arteriosclerosis / ...
... scan demonstrates a large right middle cerebral artery distribution infarction with linear areas of developing hemorrhage. ... The posterior cerebral arteries arise from the basilar artery and form the posterior circulation. The posterior cerebral artery ... Vascular distributions: Middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. Noncontrast CT scan demonstrates a large acute infarction in ... Vascular distributions: Middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. Noncontrast CT scan demonstrates a large acute infarction in ...
... segment of this vessel associated with subintimal hematoma and infarction. Because of complete stroke in acute stage, he did ... The natural history of atraumatic idiopathic dissection of the distal anterior cerebral artery is still unclear. We present a ... "A case of anterior cerebral artery dissection presenting subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral infarction," Japanese Journal of ... "Anterior cerebral artery dissections manifesting as cerebral hemorrhage and infarction, and presenting as dynamic ...
Other nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage. Cerebral artery occlusion with infarction. 434.9. I63. Cerebral infarction. ... Occlusion of cerebral arteries. 434. I66. Occlusion of cerebral arteries. Other and ill-defined cerebrovascular disease. 437. ... Stroke, not specified as hemorrhage or infarction. Occlusion and stenosis of precerebral arteries. 433. I65. Occlusion and ... Intracerebral hemorrhage. 431. I61. Intracerebral hemorrhage. Other and unspecified intracranial hemorrhage. 432. I62. ...
I63.31 Cerebral infarction due to thrombosis of middle cerebral artery I63.311 Cerebral infarction due to thrombosis of right ... 064 Intracranial hemorrhage or cerebral infarction with mcc. *065 Intracranial hemorrhage or cerebral infarction with cc or tpa ... I63.312 Cerebral infarction due to thrombosis of left middle cerebral artery I63.313 Cerebral infarction due to thrombosis of ... I63.32 Cerebral infarction due to thrombosis of anterior cerebral artery I63.321 Cerebral infarction due to thrombosis of right ...
precerebral arteries; 434,. occlusion of cerebral arteries;. 436, acute but ill-defined. cerebrovascular disease; 437.0,. ... intracerebral hemorrhage; and 435,. transient cerebral ischemia.. Table 2. Traditional Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk ... 410 acute myocardial infarction. except with a fifth digit of 2. (indicating a subsequent instead of. initial episode of care); ... Infarction and Cerebrovascular Events in the. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era. Roger J. Bedimo,1 Andrew O. Westfall,2 ...
... other findings included 1 patient with bilateral anterior cerebral artery infarction and another with intracranial hemorrhage. ... head shows extensive low-attenuation cerebral infarction involving bilateral middle cerebral and left posterior cerebral artery ... including the middle cerebral artery in all 4 (bilateral in 1) and posterior cerebral artery in 2; hemorrhagic conversion was ... 45 CT performed in 4 patients showed cerebral infarction involving the large-artery territories (Fig 4), ...
It can result from occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery or paramedian penetrating branches of the basilar artery. Deep ... Benedikt syndrome is caused by a lesion ( infarction, hemorrhage, tumor, or tuberculosis) in the tegmentum of the midbrain and ... syndromes arising from posterior cerebral artery branch occlusion". Journal of the neurological sciences. 228 (1): 105-107. doi ... "Deep brain stimulation as an effective treatment option for post-midbrain infarction-related tremor as it presents with ...
Adopting a broad definition of an abnormally folded or festooned cerebral cortical neuronal ribbon, this review addresses the ... placental infarction or haemorrhage. Pathology confirmed bilateral middle cerebral artery infarction. Histology showed PMG with ... Infarction or haemorrhage in other organs or the placenta supports a systemic disease such as coagulopathy, vasculopathy or ... The cleft is immediately adjacent to the infarcted middle cerebral artery territory (box) where there is thickening and ...
Then branches anteriorly to Anterior Cerebral Artery and the Middle Cerebral Artery. Posterior Circulation - Starts with the ... Mural thrombus occurs after an Myocardial infarction which forms an emboli in the left ventricular. Stroke may also be due to ... Must differentiate multiple sclerosis, brain tumor, brain abscess and intracerebral hemorrhage. RISK FACTORS Risk factors for ... Then branches anteriorly to Anterior Cerebral Artery and the Middle Cerebral Artery. Posterior Circulation - Starts with the ...
  • Several case reports and small clinical series have reported benefits of decompressive hemicraniectomy in patients with intractable cerebral edema and early clinical herniation. (utmb.edu)
  • The axial diffusion-weighted image (middle) demonstrates high signal in the same area with corresponding low signal on the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, consistent with true restricted diffusion and an acute infarction. (medscape.com)
  • A 45-year-old male presented with lateral medullary infarction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mishina M, Ohkubo Seiji, Kamiya N, Abe A, Suda S, Sakamaki M, Kominami S, Mizunari T, Kobayashi S and Katayama Y: Efficacy of Tracheostomy for Central Alveolar Hypoventilation Syndrome Caused by Lateral Medullary Infarction. (umin.ac.jp)
  • Adopting a broad definition of an abnormally folded or festooned cerebral cortical neuronal ribbon, this review addresses the literature on PMG and the mechanisms of its development, as derived from the neuropathological study of many cases of human PMG, a large proportion in fetal life. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Contrast enhanced CT revealed right parieto-occipital intracerebral haemorrhage (fig 1A-D). Angiography disclosed persisting cortical veins (fig 1E-F). Although IG therapy was stopped, the patient continued to deteriorate until her condition stabilized after two weeks. (bmj.com)
  • Autopsy studies suggest that they occur adjacent to subarachnoid blood and are related to spasm of small cortical rather than proximal arteries. (biomedcentral.com)