Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Anterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations: Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Cerebral Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Moyamoya Disease: A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Cranial Sinuses: Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations: Congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities involving ARTERIES; VEINS; or venous sinuses in the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and MENINGES.Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Malaria, Cerebral: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency: Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the CRANIAL SINUSES, large endothelium-lined venous channels situated within the SKULL. Intracranial sinuses, also called cranial venous sinuses, include the superior sagittal, cavernous, lateral, petrous sinuses, and many others. Cranial sinus thrombosis can lead to severe HEADACHE; SEIZURE; and other neurological defects.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Vasculitis, Central Nervous System: Inflammation of blood vessels within the central nervous system. Primary vasculitis is usually caused by autoimmune or idiopathic factors, while secondary vasculitis is caused by existing disease process. Clinical manifestations are highly variable but include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; behavioral alterations; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; and BRAIN INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp856-61)Infarction, Anterior Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY system, including branches such as Heubner's artery. These arteries supply blood to the medial and superior parts of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, Infarction in the anterior cerebral artery usually results in sensory and motor impairment in the lower body.Endarterectomy: Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Arteriovenous Fistula: An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Infarction, Posterior Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS induced by ISCHEMIA in the POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which supplies portions of the BRAIN STEM; the THALAMUS; TEMPORAL LOBE, and OCCIPITAL LOBE. Depending on the size and location of infarction, clinical features include OLFACTION DISORDERS and visual problems (AGNOSIA; ALEXIA; HEMIANOPSIA).Blindness, Cortical: Total loss of vision in all or part of the visual field due to bilateral OCCIPITAL LOBE (i.e., VISUAL CORTEX) damage or dysfunction. Anton syndrome is characterized by the psychic denial of true, organic cortical blindness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p460)Arteriovenous Malformations: Abnormal formation of blood vessels that shunt arterial blood directly into veins without passing through the CAPILLARIES. They usually are crooked, dilated, and with thick vessel walls. A common type is the congenital arteriovenous fistula. The lack of blood flow and oxygen in the capillaries can lead to tissue damage in the affected areas.Hematoma, Subdural: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic: A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Reperfusion: Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.Vertebral Artery Dissection: Splitting of the vessel wall in the VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the vertebral artery, aneurysm formation, or THROMBOEMBOLISM. Vertebral artery dissection is often associated with TRAUMA and injuries to the head-neck region but can occur spontaneously.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Intracranial Hemorrhages: Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Cranial Fossa, Anterior: The compartment containing the inferior part and anterior extremities of the frontal lobes (FRONTAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. It is formed mainly by orbital parts of the FRONTAL BONE and the lesser wings of the SPHENOID BONE.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Rupture, Spontaneous: Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula: An acquired or spontaneous abnormality in which there is communication between CAVERNOUS SINUS, a venous structure, and the CAROTID ARTERIES. It is often associated with HEAD TRAUMA, specifically basilar skull fractures (SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR). Clinical signs often include VISION DISORDERS and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION.Hematoma: A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.Endarterectomy, Carotid: The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Hematoma, Subdural, Intracranial: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE over the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Pia Mater: The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Aneurysm, Dissecting: Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.Aneurysm, Infected: Aneurysm due to growth of microorganisms in the arterial wall, or infection arising within preexisting arteriosclerotic aneurysms.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Intracranial Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Remission, Spontaneous: A spontaneous diminution or abatement of a disease over time, without formal treatment.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Lateral Medullary Syndrome: INFARCTION of the dorsolateral aspect of MEDULLA OBLONGATA in the BRAIN STEM. It is caused by occlusion of the VERTEBRAL ARTERY and/or the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of infarction, but may include loss of pain and temperature sensation in the ipsilateral face and contralateral body below the chin; ipsilateral HORNER SYNDROME; ipsilateral ATAXIA; DYSARTHRIA; VERTIGO; nausea, hiccup; dysphagia; and VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p801)Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Celiac Artery: The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Radionuclide Angiography: The measurement of visualization by radiation of any organ after a radionuclide has been injected into its blood supply. It is used to diagnose heart, liver, lung, and other diseases and to measure the function of those organs, except renography, for which RADIOISOTOPE RENOGRAPHY is available.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Mesenteric Artery, Superior: A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Constriction: The act of constricting.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Pneumonia, Aspiration: A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Nimodipine: A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Meningeal Arteries: Arteries which supply the dura mater.Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Thoracic Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Bronchial Arteries: Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Technetium Tc 99m Exametazime: A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.Iopamidol: A non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiological procedures.Ulnar Artery: The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
Angiography of an aneurysm in a cerebral artery. The aneurysm is the bean-shaped gray blob in the center of the image.. ... Cerebral aneurysms, also known as intracranial or brain aneurysms, occur most commonly in the anterior cerebral artery, which ... Once the dye is injected into a vein, it travels to the cerebral arteries, and images are created using a CT scan. These images ... Cerebral aneurysmEdit. Main article: Cerebral aneurysm. Symptoms can occur when the aneurysm pushes on a structure in the brain ...
Aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery and its related vessels are hard to reach with angiography and tend to be amenable to ... Those of the basilar artery and posterior cerebral artery are hard to reach surgically and are more accessible for endovascular ... the choice is between cerebral angiography (injecting radiocontrast through a catheter to the brain arteries) and CT ... aneurysms of the anterior cerebral artery and anterior communicating artery (together the "anterior circulation"), who ...
Cerebral aneurysms, also known as intracranial or brain aneurysms, occur most commonly in the anterior cerebral artery, which ... Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is an alternative to traditional angiography and can be performed without the need for ... Once the dye is injected into a vein, it travels to the cerebral arteries, and images are created using a CT scan. These images ... The next most common sites of cerebral aneurysm occurrence are in the internal carotid artery. Aneurysm presentation may range ...
"Minimally invasive superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery bypass through a minicraniotomy: benefit of three- ... dimensional virtual reality planning using magnetic resonance angiography". Neurosurg Focus. 26 (5): E20. doi:10.3171/2009.2. ... Ha, W.; Yang, D.; Gu, S.; Xu, Q.-W.; Che, X.; Wu, J.-S.; Li, W. (2014). "Anatomical study of suboccipital vertebral arteries ... Ng, I; Hwang, PY; Kumar, D; Lee, CK; Kockro, RA; Sitoh, YY (2009). "Surgical planning for microsurgical excision of cerebral ...
... in proximal cerebral arteries as assessed by magnetic resonance or computed tomography angiography. Wherever possible, ... DIAS-2 data showed that patients who had a proximal cerebral vessel occlusion or high-grade stenosis on baseline angiography, ... "A comparison of stent-assisted mechanical thrombectomy and conventional intra-arterial thrombolysis for acute cerebral ...
1.5 cm) Isolated cerebral vasculitis. Affects medium and small arteries over a diffuse CNS area, without symptomatic ... Patients have CNS symptoms as well as cerebral vasculitis by angiography and leptomeningeal biopsy. There are several ... Classically involves arteries of lungs and skin, but may be generalized. At least 4 criteria yields sensitivity and specificity ... However, in Takayasu's arteritis, where the aorta may be involved, it is unlikely a biopsy will be successful and angiography ...
Bleton, H; Perera, S; Sejdic, E (2016). "Cognitive tasks and cerebral blood flow through anterior cerebral arteries: a study ... "Evaluation of the lenticulostriate arteries with rotational angiography and 3D reconstruction". AJNR. American journal of ... related cognitive styles determined using Fourier analysis of mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries ... Each basal cerebral artery of the circle of Willis gives origin to two different systems of secondary vessels. The shorter of ...
Focal cerebral ischemia Endothelin-1-induced constriction of arteries and veins Middle cerebral artery occlusion Spontaneous ... A Comparison Between the Suture and the Macrosphere Model Using Magnetic Resonance Angiography". Stroke. 35 (10): 2372-2377. ... MCAO avoiding craniotomy Embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion Endovascular filament middle cerebral artery occlusion ( ... MCAO involving craniotomy Permanent transcranial middle cerebral artery occlusion Transient transcranial middle cerebral artery ...
"MR angiography and imaging for the evaluation of middle cerebral artery atherosclerotic disease". American Journal of ... Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is found in 90% of the cases at autopsy, with 25% being severe CAA. Cerebral microbleeds (CMB) ... Cerebral atherosclerosis is a type of atherosclerosis where build-up of plaque in the blood vessels of the brain occurs. Some ... The risk of cerebral atherosclerosis and its associated diseases appears to increase with increasing age; however there are ...
Cerebral Angiography, Thieme, pp. 79-91, ISBN 978-0-86577-067-6 Osborn, Anne G.; Jacobs, John M. (1999), Diagnostic Cerebral ... The three main arteries consist of the: Anterior cerebral artery (ACA) Middle cerebral artery (MCA) Posterior cerebral artery ( ... Cerebral arteries describe three main pairs of arteries and their branches, which perfuse the cerebrum of the brain. ... The three pairs of arteries are linked via the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries. All ...
... cerebral artery Anterior chamber of eyeball anterior choroidal artery anterior commissure anterior communicating artery ... anatomical position anatomical snuffbox anatomical terms of location anatomical terms of motion anatomy anconeus angiography ... artery left common carotid artery left gastroepiploic artery left mainstem bronchi left marginal artery left pulmonary artery ... atrium right colic artery right common carotid artery right gastroepiploic artery right mainstem bronchi right marginal artery ...
Rarely, a hypodense artery sign can occur due to fat embolism. Through cerebral angiography, the sign has been demonstrated to ... The sign has been observed in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), posterior cerebral artery (PCA), vertebral artery, and basilar ... Launes J, Ketonen L (November 1987). "Dense middle cerebral artery sign: an indicator of poor outcome in middle cerebral artery ... Schuknecht B, Ratzka M, Hofmann E (1990). "The "dense artery sign"--major cerebral artery thromboembolism demonstrated by ...
... cerebral, renal, mesenteric and cardiac arteries Echo-dense aortic annulus, ascending aorta, transverse arch, descending aorta ... Contrast-enhanced MR angiography with breath-hold and cardiac gating techniques can allow evaluation of the extent of the ... The symptoms are caused by calcification of large and medium-sized arteries, including the aorta, coronary arteries, and renal ... main pulmonary artery, and coronary arteries unusually. Abdominal ultrasound can reveal hepatosplenomegaly, ascites, renal ...
The gold standard is cerebral angiography (with or without digital subtraction angiography).[3][14][15] This involves puncture ... CT angiography and MR angiography are more or less equivalent when used to diagnose or exclude vertebral artery dissection.[14] ... Vertebral artery dissection is one of the two types of dissection of the arteries in the neck. The other type, carotid artery ... Vertebral artery dissection is less common than carotid artery dissection (dissection of the large arteries in the front of the ...
386-393 [1] Osborn, Anne (1999). Diagnostic Cerebral Angiography (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA, USA: Lippincott Williams & ... artery the anterior choroidal artery The internal carotid then divides to form the anterior cerebral artery and middle cerebral ... Branches from the communicating portion Posterior communicating artery Anterior choroidal artery Anterior cerebral artery (a ... The named branches of the petrous segment of the internal carotid artery are: the vidian artery or artery of the pterygoid ...
Osborn, Anne G.; Jacobs, John M. (1999), Diagnostic Cerebral Angiography, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp. 143-144, ISBN 978- ... Main article: Middle cerebral artery syndrome. Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery results in Middle cerebral artery ... Middle cerebral artery. Outer surface of cerebral hemisphere, showing areas supplied by cerebral arteries. (Pink is region ... The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is one of the three major paired arteries that supply blood to the cerebrum. The MCA arises ...
"Normal Variants of the Cerebral Circulation at Multidetector CT Angiography". RadioGraphics (2009) 29: 1036. Waleed Azab, ... The trigeminal artery then anastomoses with the basilar artery. At this point in development, the trigeminal artery serves as ... The trigeminal artery is an artery that supplies the basilar artery with blood during human embryonic development. Normally, ... As the internal carotid artery branches more caudally to form the posterior communicating artery, the trigeminal artery becomes ...
... artery) Jacobs, John S.; Osborn, Anne G (1999). Diagnostic cerebral angiography. Philadelphia: Lippincott Willims & Wilkins. pp ... Dorsal meningeal artery Inferior hypophyseal artery Tentorial artery (artery of Bernasconi and Cassinari, also known as the " ... is an inconstant branch of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery. Classically, the meningohypophyseal artery has ...
Circle of Willis Anterior cerebral artery Osborn, Anne G.; Jacobs, John M. (1999), Diagnostic Cerebral Angiography, Lippincott ... small arteries which arise from the posterior cerebral artery after it has turned around the cerebral peduncle; they supply a ... Not to be confused with the Anterior choroidal artery The posterior choroidal branches of the posterior cerebral artery are ... of the posterior communicating artery and the basilar artery and connects with the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) and ...
Angiography studies cite that the vessel can be seen 67% or 50% of the time. The anterior cerebral artery develops from a ... Anterior cerebral artery Cerebral arteries seen from beneath. Anterior cerebral artery visible at centre. The arterial circle ... The left and right anterior cerebral arteries are connected by the anterior communicating artery. Anterior cerebral artery ... and the precuneal artery. This artery may form an anastomosis with the posterior cerebral artery. Callosal marginal artery: A ...
DSA is the gold standard investigation for renal artery stenosis. Cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations (AVM). DSA ... Angiography Computed tomography angiography (CTA) Contrast medium Peripheral artery disease X-ray image intensifier Martin, ... Intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA) is a form of angiography which was first developed in the late 1970s. IV- ... Hence the term "digital subtraction angiography". Subtraction angiography was first described in 1935 and in English sources in ...
MRA has been successful in studying many arteries in the body, including cerebral and other vessels in the head and neck, the ... For the coronary arteries, however, MRA has been less successful than CT angiography or invasive catheter angiography. Most ... Magnetic resonance angiography is used to generate images of arteries (and less commonly veins) in order to evaluate them for ... MRA is often used to evaluate the arteries of the neck and brain, the thoracic and abdominal aorta, the renal arteries, and the ...
A cerebral arteriovenous malformation (cerebral AVM, CAVM, cAVM) is an abnormal connection between the arteries and veins in ... The best images of an AVM are obtained through cerebral angiography. This procedure involves using a catheter, threaded through ... and cerebral angiography. A CT scan of the head is usually performed first when the subject is symptomatic. It can suggest the ... "Biology of cerebral arteriovenous malformations with a focus on inflammation". Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism. 35 ...
Catheter angiography is ideal, but computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography can identify about 70% of ... This condition features the unique property that the patient's cerebral arteries can spontaneously constrict and relax back and ... cerebral artery dissection, meningitis, and spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak. This may involve a CT scan, lumbar puncture, ... Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS, sometimes called Call-Fleming syndrome) is a disease characterized by a ...
The anterior communicating artery connects the two anterior cerebral arteries across the commencement of the longitudinal ... Size and location of ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms measured by 3-dimensional rotational angiography. Surg ... but these are principally derived from the anterior cerebral artery. It is part of the cerebral arterial circle, also known as ... the anterior communicating artery is a blood vessel of the brain that connects the left and right anterior cerebral arteries. ...
A dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF), is an abnormal direct connection (fistula) between a meningeal artery and a meningeal vein or dural venous sinus. In cases where there are multiple fistulas, the related term dural arteriovenous malformation (DAVF) is used. The most common signs/symptoms of DAVFs are: Pulsatile tinnitus Occipital bruit Headache Visual impairment Papilledema Pulsatile tinnitus is the most common symptom in patients, and it is associated with transverse-sigmoid sinus DAVFs. Carotid-cavernous DAVFs, on the other hand, are more closely associated with pulsatile exophthalmos. DAVFs may also be asymptomatic (e.g. cavernous sinus DAVFs). Most commonly found adjacent to dural sinuses in the following locations: Transverse (lateral) sinus, left-sided slightly more common than right Intratentorial From the posterior cavernous sinus, usually draining to the transverse or sigmoid sinuses Vertebral artery (posterior meningeal branch) It is still unclear whether DAVFs are congenital or ...
A Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC) is a medical device made of platinum used in the treatment of brain aneurysms. It led to a revolutionary advance in the field of endovascular minimally-invasive surgery for the occlusion of cerebral vascular disease. Invented by Dr. Guido Guglielmi, Italian neurosurgeon and professor of UCLA interventional neuroradiology in 1990, and gradually introduced in the later 1990's as an alternative to invasive surgical clipping. In September 1995, the Guglielmi Detachable Coil (GDC) system received formal approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of surgically high-risk intracranial aneurysms. Due to advances and patent rights, not all coils used today are GDC's, however they are modeled on the same mechanism. These coils have special physical and electrolytic properties: the material is a high shape-memory alloy, allowing it to easily bend and regain its original coil shape. These platinum coils are fairly soft and ...
The vertebral arteries arise from the subclavian artery, and run through the transverse foramen of the upper six vertebrae of the neck. After exiting at the level of the first cervical vertebra, its course changes from vertical to horizontal, and then enters the skull through the foramen magnum. Inside the skull, the arteries merge to form the basilar artery, which joins the circle of Willis. In total, three quarters of the artery are outside the skull; it has a high mobility in this area due to rotational movement in the neck and is therefore vulnerable to trauma. Most dissections happen at the level of the first and second vertebrae. The vertebral artery supplies a number of vital structures in the posterior cranial fossa, such as the brainstem, the cerebellum and the occipital lobes. The brainstem harbors a number of vital functions (such as respiration) and controls the nerves of the face and neck. The cerebellum is part of the diffuse system that coordinates movement. ...
... , also known as brain aneurysm, is a cerebrovascular disorder in which weakness in the wall of a cerebral artery or vein causes a localized dilation or ballooning of the blood vessel. Aneurysms in the posterior circulation (basilar artery, vertebral arteries and posterior communicating artery) have a higher risk of rupture. Basilar artery aneurysms represent only 3%-5% of all intracranial aneurysms but are the most common aneurysms in the posterior circulation. Cerebral aneurysms are classified both by size and shape. Small aneurysms have a diameter of less than 15 mm. Larger aneurysms include those classified as large (15 to 25 mm), giant (25 to 50 mm), and super-giant (over 50 mm). Saccular aneurysms, also known as berry aneurysms, appear as a round outpouching and are the most common form of cerebral aneurysm. Fusiform dolichoectatic aneurysms represent a widening of a segment of an ...
The left and right internal carotid arteries arise from the left and right common carotid arteries. The posterior communicating artery is given off as a branch of the internal carotid artery just before it divides into its terminal branches - the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The anterior cerebral artery forms the anterolateral portion of the circle of Willis, while the middle cerebral artery does not contribute to the circle. The right and left posterior cerebral arteries arise from the basilar artery, which is formed by the left and right vertebral arteries. The vertebral arteries arise from the subclavian arteries. The anterior communicating artery connects the two anterior cerebral arteries and ...
A carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) results from an abnormal communication between the arterial and venous systems within the cavernous sinus in the skull. It is a type of arteriovenous fistula. As arterial blood under high pressure enters the cavernous sinus, the normal venous return to the cavernous sinus is impeded and this causes engorgement of the draining veins, manifesting most dramatically as a sudden engorgement and redness of the eye of the same side. Carotid cavernous fistulae may form following closed or penetrating head trauma, surgical damage, rupture of an intracavernous aneurysm, or in association with connective tissue disorders, vascular diseases and dural fistulas. Various classifications have been proposed for CCF. They may be divided into low-flow or high-flow, traumatic or spontaneous and direct or indirect. The traumatic CCF typically occurs after a basal skull fracture. The spontaneous dural cavernous fistula which is more common usually results from a degenerative process ...
... (RCVS, sometimes called Call-Fleming syndrome) is a disease characterized by a weeks-long course of thunderclap headaches, sometimes focal neurologic signs, and occasionally seizures. Symptoms are thought to arise from transient abnormalities in the blood vessels of the brain. In some cases, it may be associated with childbirth, vasoactive or illicit drug use, or complications of pregnancy. For the vast majority of patients, all symptoms disappear on their own within three weeks. Deficits persist in a small minority of patients, with severe complications or death being very rare. Because symptoms resemble a variety of life-threatening conditions, differential diagnosis is necessary. The key symptom of RCVS is recurrent thunderclap headaches, which over 95% of patients experience. In two-thirds of cases, it is the only symptom. These headaches are typically bilateral, very severe and peak in intensity within a minute. They may last from minutes to ...
... or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins and the heart chambers. This is traditionally done by injecting a radio-opaque contrast agent into the blood vessel and imaging using X-ray based techniques such as fluoroscopy. The word itself comes from the Greek words ἀγγεῖον angeion, "vessel", and γράφειν graphein, "to write" or "record". The film or image of the blood vessels is called an angiograph, or more commonly an angiogram. Though the word can describe both an arteriogram and a venogram, in everyday usage the terms angiogram and arteriogram are often used synonymously, whereas the term venogram is used more precisely. The term angiography has been applied to radionuclide angiography and newer vascular imaging techniques such as CT angiography and MR angiography. The term isotope ...
Aneurysm means an outpouching of a blood vessel wall that is filled with blood. Aneurysms occur at a point of weakness in the vessel wall. This can be because of acquired disease or hereditary factors. The repeated trauma of blood flow against the vessel wall presses against the point of weakness and causes the aneurysm to enlarge.[12] As described by the Law of Young-Laplace, the increasing area increases tension against the aneurysmal walls, leading to enlargement. Both high and low wall shear stress of flowing blood can cause aneurysm and rupture. However, the mechanism of action is still unknown. It is speculated that low shear stress causes growth and rupture of large aneurysms through inflammatory response while high shear stress causes growth and rupture of small aneurysm through mural response (response from the blood vessel wall). Other risk factors that contributes to the formation of aneurysm are: cigarette smoking, hypertension, female gender, family history of ...
... is a minimally invasive surgical technique. The purpose is to prevent blood flow to an area of the body, which can effectively shrink a tumor or block an aneurysm. The procedure is carried out as an endovascular procedure by an interventional radiologist in an interventional suite. It is common for most patients to have the treatment carried out with little or no sedation, although this depends largely on the organ to be embolized. Patients who undergo cerebral embolization or portal vein embolization are usually given a general anesthetic. Access to the organ in question is acquired by means of a guidewire and catheter(s). Depending on the organ this can be very difficult and time-consuming. The position of the correct artery or vein supplying the pathology in question is located by digital subtraction angiography (DSA). These images are then used as a map for the radiologist to gain access to the correct vessel by selecting an appropriate catheter and ...
The basilar artery (/ˈbæz.ɪ.lər/)[1][2] is one of the arteries that supplies the brain with oxygen-rich blood. The two vertebral arteries and the basilar artery are sometimes together called the vertebrobasilar system, which supplies blood to the posterior part of the circle of Willis and joins with blood supplied to the anterior part of the circle of Willis from the internal carotid arteries.[3] ...
... is a type of atherosclerosis where build-up of plaque in the blood vessels of the brain occurs. Some of the main components of the plaques are connective tissue, extracellular matrix, including collagen, proteoglycans, fibronectin, and elastic fibers; crystalline cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and phospholipids; cells such as monocyte derived macrophages, T-lymphocytes, and smooth muscle cells. The plaque that builds up can lead to further complications such as stroke, as the plaque disrupts blood flow within the intracranial arterioles. This causes the downstream sections of the brain that would normally be supplied by the blocked artery to suffer from ischemia. Diagnosis of the disease is normally done through imaging technology such as angiograms or magnetic resonance imaging. The risk of cerebral atherosclerosis and its associated diseases appears to increase with increasing age; however there are numerous factors that can be controlled in attempt to lessen risk. ...
The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is one of a pair of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the posterior aspect of the brain (occipital lobe) in human anatomy. It arises near the intersection of the posterior communicating artery and the basilar artery and connects with the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) and internal carotid artery via the posterior communicating artery (PCommA). The development of the PCA in fetal brain comes relatively late and arises from the fusion of several embryonic vessels near the caudal end of the PCommA supplying the mesencephalon and diencephalon of the fetus. The PCA begins as such, as a continuation of the PCommA in the fetus with only 10-30% of fetuses having a prominent basilar origin. The fetal carotid origin of the PCA usually regresses as the vertebral and basilar arteries develop with the PCommA reducing is size. In most adults, the PCA sources from the anterior ...
Cerebral angiography revealed multiple saccular aneurysms of the middle meningeal artery and fistulous type of galenic ... Only one case of non-traumatic multiple middle meningeal artery aneurysms has been reported until now and this case of multiple ... Multiple Middle Meningeal Artery Aneurysms Associated with Fistulous Galenic Arteriovenous Malformation: A Case Report ... Keywords : Aneurysm, Middle meningeal artery, Arteriovenous malformation Corresponding author : Mahmut Akyuz, [email protected] ...
Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Q&A Which specific anatomical features of posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke may be ... and Which specific anatomical features of posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke may be identified on angiography? What to Read ... Which specific anatomical features of posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke may be identified on angiography?) ... angiogram demonstrating bilateral fetal posterior cerebral artery (PCA) variants (black arrows) with the basilar artery ...
Catheter cerebral angiography remains the criterion standard for evaluation of vascular anatomy. However, it is a more invasive ... Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Q&A What is the role of catheter cerebral angiography in the evaluation of posterior cerebral ... angiogram demonstrating bilateral fetal posterior cerebral artery (PCA) variants (black arrows) with the basilar artery ... de Monyé C, Dippel DW, Siepman TA, Dijkshoorn ML, Tanghe HL, van der Lugt A. Is a fetal origin of the posterior cerebral artery ...
Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis for Left Middle Cerebral Artery Embolic Stroke During Coronary Angiography. Patrizia Presbitero, ... Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis for Left Middle Cerebral Artery Embolic Stroke During Coronary Angiography ... Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis for Left Middle Cerebral Artery Embolic Stroke During Coronary Angiography ... Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis for Left Middle Cerebral Artery Embolic Stroke During Coronary Angiography ...
Subarachnoid haemorrhage in the rat: angiography and fluorescence microscopy of the major cerebral arteries.. T J Delgado, J ... Subarachnoid haemorrhage in the rat: angiography and fluorescence microscopy of the major cerebral arteries. ... Subarachnoid haemorrhage in the rat: angiography and fluorescence microscopy of the major cerebral arteries. ... Subarachnoid haemorrhage in the rat: angiography and fluorescence microscopy of the major cerebral arteries. ...
... we frequently use radial artery access for cerebral angiography and neurointerventional procedures.6 Use of the radial artery ... and she was brought to the angiography suite for cerebral angiography. Although both common femoral arteries were successfully ... Use of the Ulnar Artery as an Alternative Access Site for Cerebral Angiography. K.F. Layton, D.F. Kallmes and T.J. Kaufmann ... If readily palpable, the ulnar artery can be accessed safely for cerebral angiography and is a promising alternative to the ...
MR Angiography and Imaging for the Evaluation of Middle Cerebral Artery Atherosclerotic Disease. A.J. Degnan, G. Gallagher, Z. ... MR Angiography and Imaging for the Evaluation of Middle Cerebral Artery Atherosclerotic Disease ... MR Angiography and Imaging for the Evaluation of Middle Cerebral Artery Atherosclerotic Disease ... MR Angiography and Imaging for the Evaluation of Middle Cerebral Artery Atherosclerotic Disease ...
Aneurysms were located in the internal carotid artery in 12 patients, middle cerebral artery in six, anterior cerebral artery ... Fluorescein cerebral angiography shows fluorescence within the bilateral A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (A2) and ... Fluorescein cerebral angiography shows fluorescence within the bilateral A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (A2) and ... Feindel WYamamoto YLHodge CP: Red cerebral veins and the cerebral steal syndrome. Evidence from fluorescein angiography and ...
Cerebral Angiography Induced Prolonged Focal Seizure and Hemiparesis during Carotid Artery Balloon Test Occlusion ... after cerebral angiography and BTO of the right internal carotid artery. ... Cerebral angiography has been reported to cause persisting neurologic complications in 0.4% - 0.5% of the procedures [1] [2] . ... There are a few reports concerning a seizure related to cerebral angiography and BTO. We report a case of prolonged seizures ...
The recurrent artery of Heubner in routine selective cerebral angiography. Neuroradiology, 56(9):745-750. ... 5 from the anterior cerebral artery (ACA)-anterior communicating artery (Acom), 11 from the A2, whereas in 1 case, the segment ... 5 from the anterior cerebral artery (ACA)-anterior communicating artery (Acom), 11 from the A2, whereas in 1 case, the segment ... INTRODUCTION: Heubners recurrent artery (RAH) in brain selective catheter angiograms (digital subtraction angiography, DSA) ...
Computed tomographic angiography in evaluation of superficial temporal to middle cerebral artery bypass. Journal of Computer ... Computed tomographic angiography in evaluation of superficial temporal to middle cerebral artery bypass. / Besachio, David A.; ... title = "Computed tomographic angiography in evaluation of superficial temporal to middle cerebral artery bypass", ... T1 - Computed tomographic angiography in evaluation of superficial temporal to middle cerebral artery bypass ...
Bilateral cerebral angiography with catheterization of only one carotid artery. In: Neuroradiology. 1977 ; Vol. 14, No. 2. pp. ... Reid, M. H. (1977). Bilateral cerebral angiography with catheterization of only one carotid artery. Neuroradiology, 14(2), 65- ... Bilateral cerebral angiography with catheterization of only one carotid artery. / Reid, Michael H. ... Reid, MH 1977, Bilateral cerebral angiography with catheterization of only one carotid artery, Neuroradiology, vol. 14, no. 2 ...
Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke is less common than stroke involving the anterior circulation. An understanding of PCA ... Angiography. Catheter cerebral angiography remains the criterion standard for evaluation of vascular anatomy. However, it is a ... encoded search term (Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke) and Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke What to Read Next on Medscape. ... Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Workup. Updated: Jul 30, 2018 * Author: Erek K Helseth, MD; Chief Editor: Helmi L Lutsep, MD ...
Results: Thirty patients (71%) had a positive susceptibility sign that correlated with MCA or ICA occlusion at MR angiography ... sequences in detection of acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) or internal carotid artery (ICA) thrombotic occlusion. ... Hyperacute ischemic stroke: middle cerebral artery susceptibility sign at echo-planar gradient-echo MR imaging Radiology. 2004 ... imaging and MR angiography. Presence or absence of the susceptibility sign on echo-planar T2*-weighted images, which is ...
MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERIES) ANEURYSMS BY CTA (COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY) ... Keywords: aneurysms rupture risk; computed tomography angiography; middle cerebral arteries aneurysms; size ratio. ... MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERIES) ANEURYSMS BY CTA (COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY). ... Total of 115 patients harboring single and/or multiple intracranial aneurysms with 126 saccular Middle cerebral arteries (MCA) ...
Diagnostic cerebral angiography affects the tonus of the major cerebral arteries. Jan Kochanowicz, Andrzej Lewszuk, Kazimierz ...
Cerebral Angiography * Cerebral Arteries / pathology* * Circle of Willis / abnormalities * Elasticity * Hemodynamics * Humans ...
Efficiency of Intravenous Thrombolytic Therapy in Isolated Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusions: A Computed Tomography Angiography ... Efficiency of Intravenous Thrombolytic Therapy in Isolated Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusions: A Computed Tomography Angiography ... Keywords: Acute stroke, middle cerebral artery, occlusion, intravenous recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator, outcome. Ezgi ... those with isolated middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion and those without any large vessel occlusion. Materials and Methods ...
Middle cerebral artery anatomical variations and aneurysms: a retrospective study based on computed tomography angiography ... Middle cerebral artery anatomical variations and aneurysms: a retrospective study based on computed tomography angiography ... Results: Middle cerebral artery bifurcation was found in 86.2% and trifurcation in 13.8% of the cases. 78.4% of MCAs divided ... Results: Middle cerebral artery bifurcation was found in 86.2% and trifurcation in 13.8% of the cases. 78.4% of MCAs divided ...
Cerebral Angiography / instrumentation*. Cerebral Arteries. Dogs. Embolization, Therapeutic / instrumentation*. Humans. ... and superselective angiography of the intracranial arteries. These catheters are useful experimentally for the above mentioned ... 11079677 - Pulmonary artery trauma due to balloon dilation: recognition, avoidance and management.. 2244697 - Conduction system ... 18367417 - Kissing balloon technique for angioplasty of popliteal and tibio-peroneal arteries bifu.... 9237607 - Successful ...
ACA, anterior cerebral artery; ASPECTS, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score; CTA, CT angiography; d, days; IA, intra-arterial ... ICA, internal carotid artery; LVO, large vessel occlusion; MCA, middle cerebral artery; mRS, modified Rankin Scale; NA, not ... After 284 patients had undergone randomization, identification of occlusion with CT angiography could determine trial ... and post-thrombolytic angiography in acute ischemic stroke patients," Stroke, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 192-193, 2007. View at: ...
High-Risk Mid-Cerebral Artery Atherosclerotic Disease Detection Using Simultaneous Non-Contrast Angiography and IntraPlaque ... allows alone angiography approved arrows arteries artery artifact become better brain branch branches carotid caused cerebral ... Intracranial artery disease (IAD) is an important but often overlooked contributor to the onset of stroke. Besides the commonly ... In this study, we will validate a newly optimized Simultaneous Non-contrast Angiography and intraPlaque hemorrhage (SNAP) ...
... revealed low density lesion in the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. (B) Brain CT angiography showed occlusion of ... We describe a patient with infarction of the left middle cerebral artery where a spot sign was observed. A spot sign may also ... Brain Computed Tomography Angiography Source Image to Predict Large Hemorrhagic Transformation after Middle Cerebral Artery ... Brain Computed Tomography Angiography Source Image to Predict Large Hemorrhagic Transformation after Middle Cerebral Artery ...
Magnetic resonance angiography showed her ruptured aneurysm arising at the site of fenestration of her middle cerebral artery. ... This is the first report of ruptured aneurysm associated with middle cerebral artery fenestration in a patient with systemic ... Successful clipping, perioperative management avoiding the cerebral vasospasm, renal dialysis initiated after the acute phase ... A cerebral aneurysm arising at the fenestration of the middle cerebral artery is extremely rare, with one report describing ...
Cerebral arteries. *moyamoya disease. *infarction. *diffusion-weighted imaging. *angiography. *cerebrovascular disease. *MRI ... Methods The subjects were 66 consecutive patients with MMD who had an acute cerebral infarction. Each ischaemic lesion was ...
  • 또한 함께 시행한 뇌컴퓨터단층촬영관류영상(brain computed tomography perfusion imaging)에서 뇌혈류(cerebral blood flow)와 뇌혈액량(cerebral blood volume)의 불일치(mismatch)가 관찰되지 않아 동맥내혈전용해술의 적응증은 아니었고, 이에 보존적으로 항혈전제 투약을 하였다. (jkna.org)
  • Three groups were obtained: arteries with solely the horizontal segment visible, horizontal and vertical segments visible and horizontal and vertical with intraparenchymal branches visible. (uzh.ch)
  • RESULTS: A total of 24 RAHs were recognised in 20 patients: 7 arose from the A1, 5 from the anterior cerebral artery (ACA)-anterior communicating artery (Acom), 11 from the A2, whereas in 1 case, the segment of origin from the ACA could not be identified. (uzh.ch)
  • Seventeen arteries arose from the lateral wall of the ACA and seven from the superior wall of the A1 segment of the ACA. (uzh.ch)
  • A horizontal segment was visible in 7 arteries, a horizontal followed by a vertical segment without visible intraparenchymal branching pattern was seen in 6 and a horizontal and vertical segment with visible intraparenchymal branching pattern was seen in 11. (uzh.ch)
  • In five, the artery made a half loop with an inferior-convex curve just before the vertical segment, and in two cases, a full loop was observed. (uzh.ch)
  • The segments of the internal carotid artery are as follows: Cervical segment, or C1, identical to the commonly used Cervical portion Petrous segment, or C2 Lacerum segment, or C3 C2 and C3 compose the commonly termed Petrous portion Cavernous segment, or C4, almost identical to the commonly used Cavernous portion Clinoid segment, or C5. (wikipedia.org)
  • This segment is not identified in some earlier classifications, and lies between the commonly used Cavernous portion and Cerebral or Supraclinoid portion Ophthalmic, or supraclinoid segment, or C6 Communicating, or terminal segment, or C7 C6 and C7 together constitute the commonly used Cerebral or Supraclinoid portion Mnemonic for branches in skull: Please Let Children Consume Our Candy (first letter for each branch, in order). (wikipedia.org)
  • c) Left internal cerebral artery angiography reveals stenosis (string sign) of the A 2 segment (arrow). (hindawi.com)
  • Angiography also revealed severe stenosis (string sign) of the left A 2 segment (Figure 2(b) ). (hindawi.com)
  • Two branches arise from this segment: Orbitofrontal artery (medial frontal basal): Arises a small distance away from the AComm Frontopolar artery (polar frontal): Arises after the orbitofrontal, close to the curvature of A2 over the corpus callosum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initial segment of the artery was hypoplastic and plexiform. (scirp.org)
  • Chuang, Y.-M., Liu, C.-Y., Pan, P.-J. and Lin, C.-P. (2007) Anterior cerebral artery A1 segment hypoplasia may contribute to A1 hypoplasia syndrome. (scirp.org)
  • The study is a non-blinded evaluation of the use of cervical spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for treatment of patients with Hunt and Hess grade 1-2 subarachnoid hemorrhage and evidence of cerebral vasospasm. (mayo.edu)
  • If the dissection of the artery extends to the part of the artery that lies inside the skull, subarachnoid hemorrhage may occur (1% of cases). (wikipedia.org)
  • Repeated angiographical examinations of the vertebro-basilar arteries revealed a biphasic vasospasm with a maximal acute spasm at ten minutes and a maximal late spasm at two days after cisternal blood injection. (ahajournals.org)
  • This modality was used because the presence of underlying chronic renal failure was a contraindication to other imaging modalities and in order to avoid the initiation of dialysis during the acute phase of SAH due to the potential of cerebral vasospasm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prepuncture Ultrasound Examination Facilitates Safe and Accurate Common Femoral Artery Access for Transfemoral Cerebral Angiography. (nih.gov)
  • Volume 1:Cerebral and Peripheral Vessels retains the accessible design and structure of the first edition to discuss the available ultrasound technologies, including continuous and pulsed-wave Doppler mode, b-mode, and conventional and color-coded duplex analysis in frequency and amplitude power modes. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Ultrasound angiography (iUSA) has a high intraoperative potential. (egms.de)
  • Ultrasound angiography (iUSA) was acquired with a power of 1-3% and a frequency of 1.1 MHZ. (egms.de)
  • Computed tomographic angiography revealed a 6.2 × 5 × 5.1-mm pseudoaneurysm at the tip of the basilar artery ( Fig. 2 ). (lww.com)
  • As a result of its secure location, injury to the basilar artery is rare. (lww.com)
  • Rapid treatment is imperative because of the high morbidity and mortality associated with basilar artery pseudoaneurysms. (lww.com)
  • Besides the commonly inspected luminal stenosis, intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH), as indicated by studies based on carotid artery lesions, has also been associated with increased lesion progression rate and the incidence rate of clinical events. (ismrm.org)
  • This nomenclature system is a clinical one, based on the angiographic appearance of the artery and its relationship to surrounding anatomy, in contrast to an embryologic classification system. (wikidoc.org)
  • An older clinical classification is based on work by Fischer in 1938 is also commonly used, as well as classification schemes based on the embryologic anatomy of the carotid artery. (wikidoc.org)
  • The clinical and neuroimaging features of the pontine infarctions were compared with those of cerebral infarctions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The segments are subdivided based on anatomical and microsurgical landmarks and surrounding anatomy, more than angiographic appearance of the artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high-resolution angiographic image described here may provide a radiologic indication of the onset or progression of cerebral hyperperfusion, permitting appropriate therapeutic management prior to serious sequelae developing. (nih.gov)
  • An angiographic correlate of cerebral hyperperfusion after revascularization? (nih.gov)