Infarction, Anterior Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY system, including branches such as Heubner's artery. These arteries supply blood to the medial and superior parts of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, Infarction in the anterior cerebral artery usually results in sensory and motor impairment in the lower body.Anterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Infarction, Posterior Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS induced by ISCHEMIA in the POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which supplies portions of the BRAIN STEM; the THALAMUS; TEMPORAL LOBE, and OCCIPITAL LOBE. Depending on the size and location of infarction, clinical features include OLFACTION DISORDERS and visual problems (AGNOSIA; ALEXIA; HEMIANOPSIA).Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Cerebral Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Decompressive Craniectomy: Excision of part of the skull. This procedure is used to treat elevated intracranial pressure that is unresponsive to conventional treatment.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Echoencephalography: Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Reperfusion: Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Moyamoya Disease: A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations: Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Infarction: Formation of an infarct, which is NECROSIS in tissue due to local ISCHEMIA resulting from obstruction of BLOOD CIRCULATION, most commonly by a THROMBUS or EMBOLUS.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Brain Hemorrhage, Traumatic: Bleeding within the brain as a result of penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Traumatically induced hemorrhages may occur in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM (see BRAIN STEM HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC); and CEREBELLUM.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Aneurysm, Dissecting: Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Constriction: The act of constricting.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Pia Mater: The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.Akinetic Mutism: A syndrome characterized by a silent and inert state without voluntary motor activity despite preserved sensorimotor pathways and vigilance. Bilateral FRONTAL LOBE dysfunction involving the anterior cingulate gyrus and related brain injuries are associated with this condition. This may result in impaired abilities to communicate and initiate motor activities. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p348; Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1995 Feb;63(2):59-67)Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Intracranial Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Malaria, Cerebral: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Hematoma: A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
However, the posterior limb of the internal capsule also receives lenticulostriate arteries from the middle cerebral artery, ... ISBN 0-07-067497-3. Helgason, C; Caplan, LR (1986). "Anterior choroidal artery-territory infarction: Report of cases and review ... though it also rarely arises from the middle cerebral artery. The anterior choroidal artery serves structures in the ... The anterior choroidal artery originates from the internal carotid artery, ...
The most frequent location for a watershed stroke is the region between the anterior cerebral artery and middle cerebral artery ... Posterior and Middle Cerebral arteries.(Note that the actual blood stream blockage/restriction site can be located far away ... "The Pathophysiology of Watershed Infarction in Internal Carotid Artery Disease: Review of Cerebral Perfusion Studies". Stroke. ... are located between the cortical territories of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), and posterior ...
... lenticulostriate branches of middle cerebral artery (superior half) and recurrent artery of Heubner of the anterior cerebral ... For example, thalamoperforator arteries, which are branches of the basilar artery, occasionally supply the inferior half of the ... punctate infarctions or intraparenchymal haemorrhage due to vessel rupture. Lesions of the genu of the internal capsule affect ... lenticulostriate branches of middle cerebral artery Posterior limb: lenticulostriate branches of middle cerebral artery ( ...
Occlusion and stenosis of middle cerebral artery (I66.1) Occlusion and stenosis of anterior cerebral artery (I66.2) Occlusion ... Cerebral infarction due to thrombosis of cerebral arteries (I63.4) Cerebral infarction due to embolism of cerebral arteries ( ... Cerebral infarction due to unspecified occlusion or stenosis of cerebral arteries (I63.6) Cerebral infarction due to cerebral ... Cerebral infarction (I63.0) Cerebral infarction due to thrombosis of precerebral arteries (I63.1) Cerebral infarction due to ...
... middle cerebral artery middle cervical sympathetic ganglion middle colic artery middle concha middle cranial fossa middle ear ... ansa lenticularis anterior cerebral artery Anterior chamber of eyeball anterior choroidal artery anterior commissure anterior ... cerebellar artery posterior lobe of the cerebellum posterior nasal artery posterior septal artery posterior spinal arteries ... ligament incisive canal incisive fossa incisor incisura incus index finger indusium griseum infarction inferior alveolar artery ...
The internal carotid artery becomes the anterior cerebral artery and the middle central artery. The ACA transmits blood to the ... From the basilar artery are two posterior cerebral arteries. Branches of the basilar and PCA supply the occipital lobe, brain ... this may develop into an infarction in the border zones (areas of poor blood flow between the major cerebral artery ... The carotid arteries cover the majority of the cerebrum. The common carotid artery divides into the internal and the external ...
... middle cerebral artery, stem, and arteries arising from the distal vertebral and basilar artery. Diseases that may form thrombi ... recent myocardial infarction, chronic myocardial infarction together with ejection fraction ... the stroke episode is classified as total anterior circulation infarct (TACI), partial anterior circulation infarct (PACI), ... tightening of the artery), aortic, carotid or vertebral artery dissection, various inflammatory diseases of the blood vessel ...
These include the great cardiac vein, the middle cardiac vein, the small cardiac vein and the anterior cardiac veins. As the ... Double outlet right ventricle is when both great arteries, the pulmonary artery and the aorta, are connected to the right ... Hypertension can increase the risk of cerebral, cardiac, and renal events. Secondary hypertension is a type of hypertension ... Cardiac disorders such as coronary heart disease (including myocardial infarction, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias ( ...
By calculating the frequency shift of a particular sample volume, for example flow in an artery or a jet of blood flow over a ... The most common site for cranial ultrasound is the anterior fontanelle. The smaller the fontanelle, the poorer the quality of ... Ultrasound scanners have different Doppler-techniques to visualize arteries and veins. The most common is colour doppler or ... "Validity of ultrasound prediction equations for total and regional muscularity in middle-aged and older men and women". ...
... aneurysms of the anterior cerebral artery and anterior communicating artery (together the "anterior circulation"), who ... Aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery and its related vessels are hard to reach with angiography and tend to be amenable to ... Zubkov IuN; Nikiforov BM; Shustin VA (Sep-Oct 1983). "1st attempt at dilating spastic cerebral arteries in the acute stage of ... March 1989). "Effect of oral nimodipine on cerebral infarction and outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage: British aneurysm ...
The three longitudinal arteries are the anterior spinal artery, and the right and left posterior spinal arteries. These travel ... The actual blood flow caudally through these arteries, derived from the posterior cerebral circulation, is inadequate to ... The arachnoid mater, the middle protective layer, is named for its open, spiderweb-like appearance. The space between the ... can result in spinal cord infarction and paraplegia. Somatosensory organization is divided into the dorsal column-medial ...
Anterior communicating artery. *Posterior communicating artery. *Middle cerebral artery. *Internal carotid artery ... Aneurysms in the posterior circulation (basilar artery, vertebral arteries and posterior communicating artery) have a higher ... cerebral infarction. (ischemic stroke/TIA). TACI, PACI. *precerebral: Carotid artery stenosis. *cerebral: MCA ... Cerebral bypass surgery[edit]. Cerebral bypass surgery was developed in the 1960s in Switzerland by Gazi Yasargil, M.D. When a ...
These include the great cardiac vein, the middle cardiac vein, the small cardiac vein and the anterior cardiac veins. ... Double outlet right ventricle is when both great arteries, the pulmonary artery and the aorta, are connected to the right ... Cardiac disorders such as coronary heart disease, including myocardial infarction, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and ... Hypertension can increase the risk of cerebral, cardiac, and renal events.[30] ...
... and the left anterior descending (LAD) artery, which courses from left-to-right on the image and then courses down the middle ... It is most commonly done to treat atherosclerotic narrowings of the abdomen, leg and renal arteries caused by peripheral artery ... A PCI used with stable coronary artery disease reduces chest pain but does not reduce the risk of death, myocardial infarction ... Renal artery angioplasty[edit]. Atherosclerotic obstruction of the renal artery can be treated with angioplasty with or without ...
Blood velocity can be measured in various blood vessels, such as middle cerebral artery or descending aorta, by relatively ... The most common site for cranial ultrasound is the anterior fontanelle. The smaller the fontanelle, the poorer the quality of ... Ultrasound scanners have different Doppler-techniques to visualize arteries and veins. The most common is colour doppler or ... to improve delineation of left ventricle for visually checking contractibility of heart after a myocardial infarction. Finally ...
Artery. Aorta,[a] pulmonary trunk and right and left pulmonary arteries,[b] right coronary artery, left main coronary artery[c] ... the middle cardiac vein (draining the bottom of the left and right ventricles), and small cardiac veins.[31] The anterior ... to minimise heart muscle damage when an artery is completely occluded (myocardial infarction), or to prevent a myocardial ... the left anterior descending and the left circumflex artery. The left anterior descending artery supplies heart tissue and the ...
The anterior ulnar recurrent artery is an artery in the forearm. It is one of two recurrent arteries that arises from the ulnar artery, the other being the posterior ulnar recurrent artery. It arises from the ulnar artery immediately below the elbow-joint, runs upward between the brachialis and pronator teres muscle and supplies twigs to those muscles. In front of the medial epicondyle it anastomoses with the superior and Inferior ulnar collateral arteries. Posterior ulnar recurrent artery This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) lesson4arteriesofarm at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) lesson4artofforearm at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown ...
The radial recurrent artery arises from the radial artery immediately below the elbow. It ascends between the branches of the radial nerve, lying on the supinator muscle and then between the brachioradialis muscle and the brachialis muscle, supplying these muscles and the elbow-joint, and anastomosing with the terminal part of the profunda brachii. ...
The left and right internal carotid arteries arise from the left and right common carotid arteries. The posterior communicating artery is given off as a branch of the internal carotid artery just before it divides into its terminal branches - the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The anterior cerebral artery forms the anterolateral portion of the circle of Willis, while the middle cerebral artery does not contribute to the circle. The right and left posterior cerebral arteries arise from the basilar ...
In human anatomy, the radial artery is the main artery of the lateral aspect of the forearm. The radial artery arises from the bifurcation of the brachial artery in the antecubital fossa. It runs distally on the anterior part of the forearm. There, it serves as a landmark for the division between the anterior and posterior compartments of the forearm, with the posterior compartment beginning just lateral to the artery. The artery winds laterally around the wrist, passing through the anatomical snuff box and between the heads of the first dorsal interosseous muscle. It passes anteriorly between the heads of the adductor pollicis, and becomes the deep palmar arch, which joins with the deep branch of the ulnar artery. Along its ...
... and recurrent may refer to: Disease recurrence, also called relapse Eternal recurrence, or eternal return, the concept that the universe has been recurring, and will continue to recur, in a self-similar form an infinite number of times across infinite time or space Historic recurrence, the repetition of similar events in history Poincaré recurrence theorem, Henri Poincaré's theorem on dynamical systems Radial recurrent artery - arising from the radial artery immediately below the elbow Recurrence (album), a 2008 metalcore album by Vira Recurrent neural network, a special artificial neural network Recurrence period density entropy, an information-theoretic method for summarising the recurrence properties of a dynamical systems Recurrence plot, a statistical plot that shows a pattern that re-occurs Recurrence relation, an equation which defines a sequence recursively Recurrent rotation, a term used in contemporary hit radio for frequently ...
Ang MRI scan ng mga pasyenteng may depresyon ay naghayag ng ilang mga pagkakaiba sa istraktura ng utak kumpara sa mga indibidwal na walang depresyon. Ang kamakailang meta-analysis ng mga pag-aaral na neuroimaging sa pangunahing depresyon ay nag-ulat na kumpara sa mga kontrol, ang mga depresadong pasyente ay may tumaas na bolyum ng lateral ventricles at glandulang adrenal at mas maliit na mga bolyum ng basal ganglia, thalamus, hippocampus, at harapang lobo (kabilang ang orbitofrontal cortex at gyrus rectus).[20][21] Ang mga hyperintensidad ay naiugnay sa mga pasyenteng may pagsisimula sa kalaunang edad at tumungo sa pagbuo ng teoriya ng depresyong baskular.[22] Maaring may kaungyan sa pagitan ng depresyon at neurohenesis sa hippocampus,[23] na sentro ng parehong mood at memorya. Ang paglaho ng mga neuron na hippocampal ay matatagpuan sa ilang mga depresadong indibidwal at umuugnay sa napinsalang memory at mood na dysthimiko. Ang mga gamot ay maaaring magpataas ng mga lebel ng serotonin sa utak at ...
The theory of oncogenes was foreshadowed by the German biologist Theodor Boveri in his 1914 book Zur Frage der Entstehung Maligner Tumoren ('The Origin of Malignant Tumours'), Gustav Fisher, Jena, 1914. Oncogenes (Teilungsfoerdernde Chromosomen) that become amplified (im permanenten Übergewicht) during tumour development. Later on the term "oncogene" was rediscovered in 1969 by National Cancer Institute scientists George Todaro and Robert Heubner.[7]. The first confirmed oncogene was discovered in 1970 and was termed sarcom. Sarcoma was in fact first discovered as an oncogene in a chicken retrovirus. Experiments performed by Dr. G. Steve Martin of the University of California, Berkeley demonstrated that the sarcoma was indeed the oncogene of the virus.[8] The first nucleotide sequence of v-sarcoma was sequenced in 1980 by A.P. Czernilofsky et al.[9]. In 1976 Drs. Dominique Stehelin, J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus of the University of California, San Francisco demonstrated that oncogenes ...
Rho GTPase-activating protein 24 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ARHGAP24 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000138639 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000057315 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Wiemann S, Weil B, Wellenreuther R, Gassenhuber J, Glassl S, Ansorge W, Böcher M, Blöcker H, Bauersachs S, Blum H, Lauber J, Düsterhöft A, Beyer A, Köhrer K, Strack N, Mewes HW, Ottenwälder B, Obermaier B, Tampe J, Heubner D, Wambutt R, Korn B, Klein M, Poustka A (Mar 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs". Genome Research. 11 (3): 422-435. doi:10.1101/gr.GR1547R. PMC 311072 . PMID 11230166. Katoh M, Katoh M (Aug 2004). "Identification and characterization of ARHGAP24 and ARHGAP25 genes in silico". International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 14 (2): 333-8. doi:10.3892/ijmm.14.2.333. PMID 15254788. "Entrez Gene: ARHGAP24 Rho ...
In chemistry, an enantiomer (/ɪˈnæntiəmər, ɛ-, -tioʊ-/[1] ə-NAN-tee-ə-mər; from Greek ἐνάντιος (enántios), meaning 'opposite', and μέρος (méros), meaning 'part') (archaically termed optical isomer,[2] antipode,[3] or optical antipode[4]), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are mirror images of each other that cannot appear identical simply by reorientation.[5] A single chiral atom or similar structural feature in a compound causes that compound to have two possible structures which are non-superposable, each a mirror image of the other. Each member of the pair is termed an enantiomorph (enantio = opposite; morph = form)[6]; the structural property is termed enantiomerism. The presence of multiple chiral features in a given compound increases the number of geometric forms possible, though there may still be some perfect-mirror-image pairs. A sample of a chemical is ...
A watershed stroke or watershed infarct is defined as ischemia that is localized to the vulnerable border zones between the tissues supplied via the Anterior, Posterior and Middle Cerebral arteries.(Note that the actual blood stream blockage/restriction site can be located far away from the infarcts. See "Pathogenesis" followed.) Watershed locations are those border-zone regions in the brain supplied by the major cerebral arteries where blood supply is decreased. Watershed strokes are a concern because they comprise approximately 10% of all ischemic stroke cases. The watershed zones themselves are particularly susceptible to infarction from global ischemia as the distal nature of the vasculature predisposes these areas to be most sensitive to profound hypoperfusion. Watershed strokes are localized to two primary regions of ...
當美國著名流行歌手克莉絲汀·阿奎萊拉把"同性戀"維多利亞女王的原畫,連同另外兩幅Banksy畫作以25,000鎊購入之後[25],Banksy的藝術作品拍賣紀錄於2006年10月19日創出新高,那是一套六張超級名模姬·摩絲的絲紡畫像,風格類近於安迪·華荷操刀的瑪麗蓮·夢露肖像;它在倫敦的蘇富比拍賣會上以50,400鎊的價碼銷出,成交價較拍賣的底價足足高出了五倍。然後在同一個拍賣會上,Banksy一幀綠中掛紅的《蒙羅麗莎》變調之作又以57,600鎊被有心人投得[26]。在12月,倫敦CNN國際新聞網絡的專欄作家马克斯·福斯特(英语:Max Foster)開始稱這股旋風為「Banksy效應」,來形容在他個人的成功背後,以往總是寂寂無聞的一眾街頭藝術家也終於漸漸引起社會上廣泛的注目[27]。 2007年2月21日,倫敦蘇富比拍賣行再次刷新Banksy作品的最高售出單價:價值102,000鎊的《Bombing Middle ...
... is a type of atherosclerosis where build-up of plaque in the blood vessels of the brain occurs. Some of the main components of the plaques are connective tissue, extracellular matrix, including collagen, proteoglycans, fibronectin, and elastic fibers; crystalline cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and phospholipids; cells such as monocyte derived macrophages, T-lymphocytes, and smooth muscle cells. The plaque that builds up can lead to further complications such as stroke, as the plaque disrupts blood flow within the intracranial arterioles. This causes the downstream sections of the brain that would normally be supplied by the blocked artery to suffer from ischemia. Diagnosis of the disease is normally done through imaging technology such as angiograms or magnetic resonance imaging. The risk of cerebral atherosclerosis and its associated diseases appears to increase with increasing age; however there are numerous factors ...
The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is one of a pair of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the posterior aspect of the brain (occipital lobe) in human anatomy. It arises near the intersection of the posterior communicating artery and the basilar artery and connects with the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) and internal carotid artery via the posterior communicating artery (PCommA). The development of the PCA in fetal brain comes relatively late and arises from the fusion of several embryonic vessels near the caudal end of the PCommA supplying the mesencephalon and diencephalon of the fetus. The PCA begins as such, as a continuation of the PCommA in the fetus with only ...
Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction. Mechanical thrombectomy is an effective tool for recanalization of occluded cerebral ... The Role of Hemodynamics in Intracranial Bifurcation Arteries after Aneurysm Treatment with Flow-Diverter Stents ... Frequency and Relevance of Anterior Cerebral Artery Embolism Caused by Mechanical Thrombectomy of Middle Cerebral Artery ... Frequency and Relevance of Anterior Cerebral Artery Embolism Caused by Mechanical Thrombectomy of Middle Cerebral Artery ...
... the last branch of the internal carotid artery before bifurcating into the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The anterior ... Vascular distributions: Middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. Noncontrast CT scan demonstrates a large acute infarction in ... the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries. The anterior and middle cerebral arteries comprise the anterior ... Large-vessel ischemic strokes more commonly affect the middle cerebral artery territory, with the anterior cerebral artery ...
... is the mainstay of treatment for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMI). Although this operation significantly red ... middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the ... Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery. NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to ... Infarction, Anterior Cerebral Artery. NECROSIS occurring in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY system, including branches such as ...
... before bifurcating into the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The anterior choroidal artery may also arise from the middle ... Surgical decompression for space-occupying cerebral infarction (the Hemicraniectomy After Middle Cerebral Artery infarction ... before bifurcating into the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The anterior choroidal artery may also arise from the middle ... The anterior and middle cerebral arteries carry the anterior circulation and arise from the supraclinoid internal carotid ...
The regions most susceptible to hypoperfusion include the end-artery zones between the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral ... Bilateral acute infarctions of the frontal lobe are shown. The infarctions depicted in the figure (arrows) are consistent with ... arteries. * A prior hypoxic-ischemic event involving the occipital lobe has resulted in a chronic lesion marked by ... Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in the preterm fetal lamb. Pediatr Res. 1985 Feb. 19(2):159-61. [Medline]. ...
The regions most susceptible to hypoperfusion include the end-artery zones between the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral ... Bilateral acute infarctions of the frontal lobe are shown. The infarctions depicted in the figure (arrows) are consistent with ... arteries. * A prior hypoxic-ischemic event involving the occipital lobe has resulted in a chronic lesion marked by ... Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in the preterm fetal lamb. Pediatr Res. 1985 Feb. 19(2):159-61. [Medline]. ...
... segment of this vessel associated with subintimal hematoma and infarction. Because of complete stroke in acute stage, he did ... The natural history of atraumatic idiopathic dissection of the distal anterior cerebral artery is still unclear. We present a ... "Spontaneous dissecting aneurysms of anterior and middle cerebral artery associated with brain infarction: a case report and ... "Serial angiography and endovascular treatment of dissecting aneurysms of the anterior cerebral and vertebral arteries: case ...
... middle, and posterior hippocampal arteries; the splenial arteries; and the pericallosal branch of the anterior cerebral artery ... Thalamic infarction in young adult caused by embolism from an unruptured aneurysm of the posterior cerebral artery: a case ... anterior temporal artery (ATA), middle temporal artery (MTA), and posterior temporal artery (PTA). The hippocampal arteries ... Distal posterior cerebral artery revascularization in multimodality management of complex peripheral posterior cerebral artery ...
... the fact that parts of the striatum lie at the boundary of the arterial supply from the anterior and middle cerebral arteries ... Reperfusion injury is known to play a part in the damage produced by myocardial infarction.3 Free radical release may lead to ... Short-term effects of carbon monoxide exposure on the exercise performance of subjects with coronary artery disease. N Engl J ... factors in winter mortality from coronary and cerebral thrombosis in winter. BMJ1989;289:1405-8. ...
... subcortical or cortical infarction was present in the anterior and middle cerebral artery territories in the absence of ... 5 The use of balloon angioplasty and stenting in carotid arteries is still limited because of concern about the lack of long- ... Background- Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has recently emerged as a potential alternative to carotid endarterectomy. Cerebral ... Immediate and late clinical outcomes of carotid artery stenting in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery ...
CT perfusion suggested ischemia in both middle cerebral artery (MCA) and left anterior cerebral artery (ACA) territories and ... infarction in the left posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territory. CT angiography showed filling defects in these territories as ... Both common carotid and internal carotid arteries were patent, but the right external carotid artery appeared thickened with a ... HPS-stained permanent sections of the M1 and M2 segments of both MCAs, both ACAs beyond the anterior communicating artery and ...
Cerebral infarction; ACA: Anterior cerebral artery; AcomA: Anterior communicating artery; MCA: Middle cerebral artery; ICA: ... Thromboembolic events associated with coil protrusion into parent arteries after GDC treatment[J]. Interv Neuroradiol, 2006, 12 ... PARK W, CHUNG J, AHN J S, PARK J C, KWUN B D. Treatment of large and giant middle cerebral artery aneurysms:risk factors for ... Patency of the anterior choroidal artery after flow-diversion treatment of internal carotid artery aneurysms[J]. AJNR Am J ...
... at the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery or the proximal portion of the anterior or middle cerebral arteries.. * ... MRI not only reveals areas of infarctions but also allows direct visualization of these collateral vessels as multiple small ... portion of left internal carotid artery and nonvisualization of right middle cerebral artery and anterior cerebral (A-1 segment ... The anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries that emanate from the circle of Willis may show varying degrees of ...
... due to the size of the territory and the direct flow from internal carotid artery into the middle cerebral artery, providing ... The middle cerebral artery territory is the most commonly affected territory in a cerebral infarction, ... anterior circulation infarction *anterior cerebral artery infarct. *anterior choroidal artery infarct. * middle cerebral artery ... It should be noted that deep grey matter structures are affected before the cortex due to lenticulostriate arteries being end ...
Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging showed cerebral infarctions affecting branches of the middle cerebral artery ... n = 3), anterior cerebral artery (n = 1), posterior cerebral artery (n = 1), and basilar artery (n = 3). These lesions affected ... 2.5 cm hypodense area in the left putamen indicating an infarct of the lenticulostriate arteries of the middle cerebral artery ... basilar artery and middle, anterior, or posterior cerebral artery) almost at right angles to perforate the brain parenchyma. ...
Brain MRI revealed an acute left anterior and middle cerebral artery territory (ACA/MCA) infarct and prior infarction in the ... G) Bilateral narrowing of the renal arteries seen on digital subtraction renal angiography. (H) Sanger sequencing chromatogram ... Catheter angiography showed bilateral stenosis of the terminal internal carotid artery (TICA)/middle cerebral artery with a ... and straight and long segment narrowing of the M1 and A1 segments of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) (between arrows) and ...
Aneurysms were located in the internal carotid artery in 12 patients, middle cerebral artery in six, anterior cerebral artery ... it can be practically used for preventing unexpected cerebral infarction during aneurysm surgery. ... anterior choroidal artery; ACoA = anterior communicating artery; BA = basilar artery; ICA = internal carotid artery; LED = ... median artery of corpus callosum; MCA = middle cerebral artery; PCoA = posterior communicating artery; PICA = posterior ...
4h of middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed in rats using the macrosphere method or the suture technique. After ... The suture technique leads to a remarkable decrease in the intravascular volume fraction of the middle cerebral artery ... and microvascular architecture of rats in two different models of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion using an ... Blocking the medial cerebral artery with macrospheres, the vascular volume fraction of the involved hemisphere decreased ...
the two lesions here are in the watershed zones between the anterior and middle cerebral arteries ... cause: usually due to rupture of the middle meningeal artery due to fracture of the temporal bone by head trauma ... acute decrease in blood flow (e.g. hemorrhagic / cardiogenic shock - Myocardial Infarction, Cardiac Arrest) ... these are called watershed zones and are located at the periphery of main cerebral artery perfusion zones ...
Lacunar infarction was the type of ASCI, and 86% (6/7) of the ACSI were multiple infarctions distributed in both the anterior ... up studies may allow a better delineation of ASCI in this specific group of infectious disease and multiple lacunar infarctions ... Acute/subacute cerebral infarction (ASCI) in HIV-negative cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) adults has rarely been examined ... lacunar infarction vs. large infarction, anterior (territories of anterior or middle cerebral arteries) vs. posterior ( ...
... middle, and posterior cerebral arteries. This was accompanied by reduced blood flow and prolonged mean transmit time. ... MRI showed that cerebrovascular abnormalities were most often found in the internal carotid artery and the anterior, ... and cerebral infarction occurs in up to 20% of cases. This is associated with reduced IQ and deficits in executive function and ... Perfusion imaging can be used to investigate cerebral bloof flow, cerebral blood volume and mean transmit time in children with ...
... and the proximal branches of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. In response to brain ischemia distal to the occlusion, ... Cerebral atrophy and encephalomalacia may be found in severe cases of infarctions. Rarely in pediatric patients with moyamoya, ... renal artery stenosis, and fibromuscular dysplasia. ... external carotid arteries, and internal carotid arteries. This ... present with signs and symptoms of cerebral ischemia secondary to transient ischemic attacks and/or cerebral infarctions. ...
... and the proximal branches of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. In response to brain ischemia distal to the occlusion, ... Cerebral atrophy and encephalomalacia may be found in severe cases of infarctions. Rarely in pediatric patients with moyamoya, ... renal artery stenosis, and fibromuscular dysplasia. How do these pathogens/genes/exposures cause the disease?. Histologically, ... present with signs and symptoms of cerebral ischemia secondary to transient ischemic attacks and/or cerebral infarctions. ...
I63.31 Cerebral infarction due to thrombosis of middle cerebral artery I63.311 Cerebral infarction due to thrombosis of right ... I63.32 Cerebral infarction due to thrombosis of anterior cerebral artery I63.321 Cerebral infarction due to thrombosis of right ... I63.313 Cerebral infarction due to thrombosis of bilateral middle cerebral arteries I63.319 Cerebral infarction due to ... I63.3 Cerebral infarction due to thrombosis of cerebral arteries I63.30 Cerebral infarction due to thrombosis of unspecified ...
... cerebral artery explanation free. What is cerebral artery? Meaning of cerebral artery medical term. What does cerebral artery ... Looking for online definition of cerebral artery in the Medical Dictionary? ... anterior cerebral artery, posterior cerebral artery cerebral artery. one of the arteries that supply the brain. The middle ... Spectrum of anterior cerebral artery territory infarction: clinical and MRI findings.. Bilateral anterior cerebral artery ...
  • Coders should also be able to distinguish cerebral and precerebral arteries because ICD-10-CM codes make this distinction, says James S. Kennedy, MD, CCS, CDIP, managing director at FTI Consulting in Atlanta. (hcpro.com)
  • The relationship between colloid transfusion during surgical decompression hemicraniectomy period and post-operative pneumonia or long-term outcome after space-occupying cerebral infarction: A retrospective study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Relation of deranged neonatal cerebral oxidative metabolism with neurodevelopmental outcome and head circumference at 4 years. (medscape.com)
  • We propose a standardized registry of carotid artery stenting in use at our hospital to evaluate whether the presence of an independent neurologist performing basal, procedural and post-procedural observation increases the accuracy of outcome assessment. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Permanent MCAO with the suture technique, however, has one disadvantage: insertion of the suture occludes the entire course of the ICA, including the hypothalamic artery. (biomedcentral.com)