The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.
Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.
The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.
NECROSIS occurring in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY system, including branches such as Heubner's artery. These arteries supply blood to the medial and superior parts of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, Infarction in the anterior cerebral artery usually results in sensory and motor impairment in the lower body.
Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.
Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.
Veins draining the cerebrum.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
NECROSIS induced by ISCHEMIA in the POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which supplies portions of the BRAIN STEM; the THALAMUS; TEMPORAL LOBE, and OCCIPITAL LOBE. Depending on the size and location of infarction, clinical features include OLFACTION DISORDERS and visual problems (AGNOSIA; ALEXIA; HEMIANOPSIA).
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.
Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.
The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.
Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.
A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.
Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.
The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.
The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.
A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The act of constricting.
A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.
The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.
Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.
Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Delivery of drugs into an artery.
A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.
Arteries which supply the dura mater.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.
The recording of muscular movements. The apparatus is called a myograph, the record or tracing, a myogram. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)
Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.
Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.
Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.
Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.
Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.
A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.
The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
An amphetamine analog that is rapidly taken up by the lungs and from there redistributed primarily to the brain and liver. It is used in brain radionuclide scanning with I-123.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with velocity detection combined with range discrimination. Short bursts of ultrasound are transmitted at regular intervals and the echoes are demodulated as they return.

Loss of endothelium and receptor-mediated dilation in pial arterioles of rats fed a short-term high salt diet. (1/2638)

A high salt diet often is regarded as an accessory risk factor in hypertension, coincidental to the deleterious effect of high blood pressure on vasodilator function. The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term ingestion of a high salt diet per se impairs vasodilator function in the cerebral circulation independent of blood pressure changes. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal salt (0.8%) or high salt (4%) diet for 3 days. Mean arterial pressures were similar in the normal and high salt groups (123+/-2 and 125+/-2 mm Hg, respectively). Subsequently, the responses of the in situ pial arterioles to acetylcholine, iloprost, and sodium nitroprusside were determined in cranial windows using intravital videomicroscopy. Pial arterioles of rats fed normal and high salt diets showed similar resting diameters of 69+/-2 and 72+/-3 microm, respectively, but their reactivity patterns to vasodilator stimuli were markedly different. Arterioles of rats fed a normal salt diet dilated progressively up to 17+/-3% in response to the endothelium-dependent agent acetylcholine (10(-9) to 10(-6) mol/L) and dilated by 22+/-2% in response to the prostaglandin I2 receptor agonist iloprost (3x10(-11) mol/L). In contrast, pial arterioles of rats fed a high salt diet constricted by 4+/-3% and 8+/-2% in response to acetylcholine and iloprost, respectively. Sodium nitroprusside (10(-6) mol/L), a nitric oxide donor, dilated pial arterioles of rats fed low and high salt diets by a similar amount (19+/-3% and 16+/-2%, respectively), suggesting that signaling mechanisms for dilation distal to the vascular smooth muscle membrane were intact after high salt intake. These results provide the first evidence that the short-term ingestion of a high salt diet may severely impair the vasodilator function of the in situ cerebral microcirculation independent of blood pressure elevation.  (+info)

The trigeminovascular system in humans: pathophysiologic implications for primary headache syndromes of the neural influences on the cerebral circulation. (2/2638)

Primary headache syndromes, such as cluster headache and migraine, are widely described as vascular headaches, although considerable clinical evidence suggests that both are primarily driven from the brain. The shared anatomical and physiologic substrate for both of these clinical problems is the neural innervation of the cranial circulation. Functional imaging with positron emission tomography has shed light on the genesis of both syndromes, documenting activation in the midbrain and pons in migraine and in the hypothalamic gray in cluster headache. These areas are involved in the pain process in a permissive or triggering manner rather than as a response to first-division nociceptive pain impulses. In a positron emission tomography study in cluster headache, however, activation in the region of the major basal arteries was observed. This is likely to result from vasodilation of these vessels during the acute pain attack as opposed to the rest state in cluster headache, and represents the first convincing activation of neural vasodilator mechanisms in humans. The observation of vasodilation was also made in an experimental trigeminal pain study, which concluded that the observed dilation of these vessels in trigeminal pain is not inherent to a specific headache syndrome, but rather is a feature of the trigeminal neural innervation of the cranial circulation. Clinical and animal data suggest that the observed vasodilation is, in part, an effect of a trigeminoparasympathetic reflex. The data presented here review these developments in the physiology of the trigeminovascular system, which demand renewed consideration of the neural influences at work in many primary headaches and, thus, further consideration of the physiology of the neural innervation of the cranial circulation. We take the view that the known physiologic and pathophysiologic mechanisms of the systems involved dictate that these disorders should be collectively regarded as neurovascular headaches to emphasize the interaction between nerves and vessels, which is the underlying characteristic of these syndromes. Moreover, the syndromes can be understood only by a detailed study of the cerebrovascular physiologic mechanisms that underpin their expression.  (+info)

Transforming growth factor-alpha acting at the epidermal growth factor receptor reduces infarct volume after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. (3/2638)

Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) is a ligand for the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR), and is more abundant than EGF in the brain. The authors studied whether administration of exogenous TGF-alpha into the brain can protect neurons against ischemia in a model of permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in the rat, and whether any effect of TGF-alpha was mediated by EGFR by administering 4,5-dianilinophthalimide (DAPH), a protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitor with high selectivity for EGFR. Rats received either TGF-alpha (10 or 25 ng), DAPH (100 ng), DAPH plus TGF-alpha (25 ng), or vehicle in the ipsilateral first ventricle. Drugs were administered twice: 30 minutes before and 30 minutes after MCA occlusion, and infarct volume was evaluated 24 hours later. Transforming growth factor-alpha at the dose of 25 ng caused a statistically significant reduction of infarct volume (60%) in relation to ischemic rats administered vehicle. This reduction was no longer seen when TGF-alpha was administered in combination with DAPH. The present results show that TGF-alpha can protect neurons from ischemic damage, and that this effect is mediated by EGFR. It is suggested that activation of EGFR-mediated intracellular signalling pathways contributes to the survival of neural cells susceptible to ischemic injury.  (+info)

Role of iNOS in the vasodilator responses induced by L-arginine in the middle cerebral artery from normotensive and hypertensive rats. (4/2638)

1. The substrate of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), L-arginine (L-Arg, 0.01 microM - 1 mM), induced endothelium-independent relaxations in segments of middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and hypertensive rats (SHR) precontracted with prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). These relaxations were higher in SHR than WKY arteries. 2. L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and 2-amine-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-1,3-tiazine (AMT), unspecific and inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitors, respectively, reduced those relaxations, specially in SHR. 3. Four- and seven-hours incubation with dexamethasone reduced the relaxations in MCAs from WKY and SHR, respectively. 4. Polymyxin B and calphostin C, protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, reduced the L-Arg-induced relaxation. 5. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 7 h incubation) unaltered and inhibited these relaxations in WKY and SHR segments, respectively. LPS antagonized the effect polymyxin B in WKY and potentiated L-Arg-induced relaxations in SHR in the presence of polymyxin B. 6. The contraction induced by PGF2alpha was greater in SHR than WKY arteries. This contraction was potentiated by dexamethasone and polymyxin B although the effect of polymyxin B was higher in SHR segments. LPS reduced that contraction and antagonized dexamethasone- and polymyxin B-induced potentiation, these effects being greater in arteries from SHR. 7. These results suggest that in MCAs: (1) the induction of iNOS participates in the L-Arg relaxation and modulates the contraction to PGF2alpha; (2) that induction is partially mediated by a PKC-dependent mechanism; and (3) the involvement of iNOS in such responses is greater in the hypertensive strain.  (+info)

Two similar cases of encephalopathy, possibly a reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome: serial findings of magnetic resonance imaging, SPECT and angiography. (5/2638)

Two young women who had encephalopathy that resembled reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome are presented. The brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of these patients exhibited similar T2-high signal lesions, mostly in the white matter of the posterior hemispheres. Xe-SPECT during the patients' symptomatic period showed hypoperfusion in the corresponding areas, and angiography demonstrated irregular narrowing of the posterior cerebral artery. Clinical manifestations subsided soon after treatment, and the abnormal radiological findings also were almost completely resolved. Thus, we concluded that transient hypoperfusion followed by ischemia and cytotoxic edema might have had a pivotal role in these cases.  (+info)

Age and stimulus dependency of visually evoked cerebral blood flow responses. (6/2638)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: During visual stimulation, the increased metabolic demand is coupled with an increase of cerebral blood flow velocity (pCBFV) in the posterior cerebral artery (PCA). Investigation of the visually evoked flow responses (VEFR, expressed as percentage of increase from baseline pCBFV values) was suggested for different conditions of vasoneuronal disorders in the absence of any systematic investigation in healthy subjects. METHODS: We investigated VEFRs from both PCAs to various increasingly complex paradigms (diffuse light, alternating checkerboard patterns, and a color video movie stimulation; 5, 10, 20, and 30-second intervals) in 60 healthy volunteers (mean age, 41.5+/-14.9 years; range, 24 to 80 years; 28 male, 32 female) at different recording sites (P1 versus P2 segments of PCAs). RESULTS: With increasing complexity of stimulation, the VEFRs increased significantly (24.3+/-10.3%, 28.5+/-13.5%, and 43.4+/-10.7%, respectively). Twenty-second stimulation intervals yielded maximal responses (41.5+/-13.2%) compared with 5-, 10-, and 30-second intervals (22.6+/-14.1%, P=0.001; 34.4+/-11.7%, P=0.0042; and 35.5+/-9.9%, P=0.0032, respectively). Significantly higher responses were gained from P2 segments than from P1 segments (42.7+/-7.2% versus 28.2+/-7.1%). Although VEFRs tended to decrease in amplitude with age (mean, 41. 7+/-10.5% [20 to 40 years], 35+/-9.2% [40 to 60 years], and 33.9+/-8.6% [60 to 80 years]); without significant sex-related differences, only the percentage decrement of the pulsatility indices during stimulation were significant (mean, 24+/-10.7% [20 to 40 years], 20+/-7.3% [40 to 60 years], and 13+/-11.2% [60 to 80 years]). CONCLUSIONS: For optimal stimulus conditions for maximum VEFRs, a colored video stimulation of 20-second intervals should be used to combine responses not only from the primary visual projection fields (V1 and V2) but also from temporal lobe areas (V3 through V5) often supplied by the PCA.  (+info)

Blockade and reversal of endothelin-induced constriction in pial arteries from human brain. (7/2638)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Substantial evidence now implicates endothelin (ET) in the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular disorders such as the delayed vasospasm associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. We investigated the ET receptor subtypes mediating vasoconstriction in human pial arteries. METHODS: ET receptors on human pial and intracerebral arteries were visualized with the use of autoradiography, and the subtypes mediating vasoconstriction were identified by means of wire myography. RESULTS: ET-1 was more potent than ET-3 as a vasoconstrictor, indicating an ETA-mediated effect. Similarly, the selective ETB agonist sarafotoxin S6c had no effect on contractile action at concentrations up to 30 nmol/L. The nonpeptide ETA receptor antagonist PD156707 (3 to 30 nmol/L) caused a parallel rightward shift of the ET-1-induced response, yielding a pA2 of 9.2. Consistent with these results, PD156707 (30 nmol/L) fully reversed an established constriction in pial arteries induced by 1 nmol/L ET-1, while the selective ETB receptor antagonist BQ788 (1 micromol/L) had little effect. The calcium channel blocker nimodipine (0.3 to 3 micromol/L) significantly attenuated the maximum response to ET-1 in a concentration-dependent manner without changing potency. In agreement with the functional data, specific binding of [125I]PD151242 to ETA receptors was localized to the smooth muscle layer of pial and intracerebral blood vessels. In contrast, little or no [125I]BQ3020 binding to ETB receptors was detected. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate an important role for ETA receptors in ET-1-induced constriction of human pial arteries and suggest that ETA receptor antagonists may provide additional dilatory benefit in cerebrovascular disorders associated with raised ET levels.  (+info)

Cerebrovascular alterations in protein kinase C-mediated constriction in stroke-prone rats. (8/2638)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebrovascular pressure-dependent constriction may involve the smooth muscle production of diacylglycerol, which could facilitate constriction by activating protein kinase C (PKC). A dysfunctional PKC system could promote the loss of pressure-dependent constriction. We attempted to determine whether the alterations in pressure-dependent constriction in the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) observed in relation to stroke development in Wistar-Kyoto stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRsp) were associated with defects in the ability of the arteries to constrict in response to PKC activation. METHODS: MCAs were sampled from SHRsp before and after stroke development and in stroke-resistant Wistar-Kyoto spontaneously hypertensive rats. A pressure myograph was used to test the ability of the arteries to constrict in response to a 100 mm Hg pressure step and subsequently to contract in response to phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate in the presence of nifedipine (3 micromol/L). RESULTS: Pressure-dependent constriction and constriction in response to phorbol dibutyrate in the MCAs were inhibited by PKC inhibitors (staurosporine [40 nmol/L], chelerythrine [12 micromol/L], bisindolylmaleimide [5 micromol/L]), declined with age before stroke development in SHRsp, and were absent after stroke. There was a significant relationship between pressure- and phorbol dibutyrate-induced constriction (r=0.815, P<0. 05). CONCLUSIONS: Phorbol esters interact with the same activation site as diacylglycerol to stimulate PKC. An inability to constrict in response to phorbol dibutyrate may reflect unresponsiveness to diacylglycerol and may contribute to the loss of pressure-dependent constriction associated with stroke in the MCAs of SHRsp. The loss of this autoregulatory function before stroke could increase the risk of cerebral hemorrhage.  (+info)

How is Bovine Anterior Cerebral Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells abbreviated? BACASMC stands for Bovine Anterior Cerebral Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells. BACASMC is defined as Bovine Anterior Cerebral Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells very rarely.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Voltage-gated K+ channels in rat small cerebral arteries. T2 - Molecular identity of the functional channels. AU - Albarwani, Sulayma. AU - Nemetz, Leah T.. AU - Madden, Jane A.. AU - Tobin, Ann A.. AU - England, Sarah K.. AU - Pratt, Phillip F.. AU - Rusch, Nancy J.. PY - 2003/9/15. Y1 - 2003/9/15. N2 - Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent an important dilator influence in the cerebral circulation, but the composition of these tetrameric ion channels remains unclear. The goals of the present study were to evaluate the contribution of Kv1 family channels to the resting membrane potential and diameter of small rat cerebral arteries, and to identify the α-subunit composition of these channels using patch-clamp, molecular and immunological techniques. Initial studies indicated that 1 μmol l-1 correolide (COR), a specific antagonist of Kv1 channels, depolarized vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in pressurized (60 mmHg cerebral arteries from -55 ± 1 mV to -34 ± 1 mV, ...
The isolated cat cerebral arteries (basilar, middle cerebral, anterior cerebral, and internal carotid) were studied in vitro. ACh at low concentration (3 x 10(-8) to 3 x 10(-6) M) induced relaxation, and at high concentration (10(-5) to 3 x 10(-3) M) induced constriction of the arteries with endothelial cells. In contrast, concentration of any magnitude (10(-6) to 3 x 10(-3) M) induced constriction exclusively in arteries without endothelium. Atropine (3 x 10(-6) to 3 x 10(-5) M) blocked and physostigmine (3 x 10(-6) M) potentiated both ACh-induced relaxation and constriction. These results suggest that the relaxation induced by exogenous ACh is solely dependent on the endothelial cells and that the primary effect of the direct action of ACh on the smooth muscle cells is constriction. Transmural nerve stimulation (TNS) induced a frequency-dependent relaxation in the arteries with or without endothelium. Neither atropine nor physostigmine affected the TNS-induced dilator response in either ...
Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent vasodilator that was initially described as the mediator of endothelium-dependent relaxation (endothelium-derived relaxing factor, EDRF). It is now known that NO is produced by a variety of other cell types.. Endothelium produces NO (EDRF) under basal conditions and in response to a variety of vasoactive stimuli in large cerebral arteries and the cerebral microcirculation. Endothelium-dependent relaxation is impaired in the presence of several pathophysiological conditions. This impairment may contribute to cerebral ischemia or stroke. Activation of glutamate receptors appears to be a major stimulus for production of NO by neurons. Neuronally derived NO may mediate local increases in cerebral blood flow during increases in cerebral metabolism. NO synthase-containing neurons also innervate large cerebral arteries and cerebral arterioles on the brain surface. Activation of parasympathetic fibers that innervate cerebral vessels produces NO-dependent increases in ...
The purpose of the study was to highlight the acute motor reflex adaptation and to deepen functional deficits following a middle cerebral artery occlusion-reperfusion (MCAO-r). Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were included in this study. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO; 120 min) was performed on 16 rats studied at 1 and 7 days, respectively (MCAO-D1 and MCAO-D7, n = 8 for each group). The other animals were divided into 3 groups: SHAM-D1 (n = 6), SHAM-D7 (n = 6) and Control (n = 8). Rats performed 4 behavioral tests (the elevated body swing test, the beam balance test, the ladder-climbing test and the forelimb grip force) before the surgery and daily after MCAO-r. H-reflex on triceps brachii was measured before and after isometric exercise. Infarction size and cerebral edema were respectively assessed by histological (Cresyl violet) and MRI measurements at the same time points than H-reflex recordings. Animals with cerebral ischemia showed persistent functional deficits during the ...
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Simultaneous measurements were made of spike activity and perfusion pressure (PA) in intact segments of rabbit middle cerebral artery in vitro. The segments were mounted on a Teflon tube designed so that the perfusing solution flowed in the annular space between the tube and the artery wall, thus magnifying the PA changes occurring when the artery constricted or dilated. A widened portion of the Teflon tube immobilized 1--2 mm of the artery segment for electrical recording with fine glass microelectrodes. Spontaneous spike activity (extra- and intracellular) was regularly observed. When a steady PA and spike discharge was obtained, tests were performed by substituting for the normal perfusion liquid, solutions containing 5 microgram/ml norepinephrine, 5 microgram/ml angiotensin II or 7.5 microgram/ml isoproterenol. Norepinephrine and angiotensin each increased spike frequency (+ 293 and + 126%) and PA (+ 6.6 and + 7.9 mm Hg) whereas isoproterenol decreased spike frequency (-89%) and PA (-22.9 mm ...
Synonyms for cerebral artery, posterior in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for cerebral artery, posterior. 11 synonyms for artery: vein, blood vessel, route, way, course, round, road, passage, avenue, arteria, arterial blood vessel. What are synonyms for cerebral artery, posterior?
Although inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are best known for their roles in releasing calcium from intracellular stores in response to IP3, in cells that have close apposition of the endoplasmic or sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) to the plasma membrane, IP3Rs can also influence the influx of extracellular calcium. This action of IP3 as a regulator of extracellular calcium currents is important for regulation of vasoconstriction and vascular tone through an IP3-induced cation current (ICat) that results from an interaction between ER/SR IP3Rs and surface-localized transient receptor potential 3 (TRPC3) channels. Adebiyi et al. found that disruption of plasma membrane microdomains called caveolae, which are rich in cholesterol and associated with the scaffolding protein caveolin, reduced ICat, myogenic tone, and IP3-induced vasoconstriction of isolated rat cerebral artery smooth muscle cells or arterial preparations. Knockdown of caveolin-1 or introduction of a peptide corresponding to the ...
Recommendations from experts and recently established guidelines on how to improve the face and predictive validity of animal models of stroke have stressed the importance of using older animals and long-term behavioral-functional endpoints rather than relying almost exclusively on acute measures of infarct volume in young animals. The objective of the present study was to determine whether we could produce occlusions in older rats with an acceptable mortality rate and then detect reliable, long-lasting functional deficits. A reversible intraluminar suture middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) procedure was used to produce small infarcts in middle-aged rats. This resulted in an acceptable mortality rate, and robust disabilities were detected in functional assays, although the degree of total tissue loss measured 90 d after MCAO was quite modest. Infarcted animals were functionally impaired relative to sham control animals even 90 d after the occlusions, and when animals were subgrouped based ...
Maintaining constant blood flow in the face of fluctuations in blood pressure is a critical autoregulatory feature of cerebral arteries. An increase in pressure within the artery lumen causes the vessel to constrict through depolarization and contraction of the encircling smooth muscle cells. This pressure-sensing mechanism involves activation of two types of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels: TRPC6 and TRPM4. We provide evidence that the activation of the γ1 isoform of phospholipase C (PLCγ1) is critical for pressure sensing in cerebral arteries. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), generated by PLCγ1 in response to pressure, sensitized IP3 receptors (IP3Rs) to Ca2+ influx mediated by the mechanosensitive TRPC6 channel, synergistically increasing IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release to activate TRPM4 currents, leading to smooth muscle depolarization and constriction of isolated cerebral arteries. Proximity ligation assays demonstrated colocalization of PLCγ1 and TRPC6 with TRPM4, suggesting ...
In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms by which TNF-α, a pleiotropic cytokine, regulates the diameter of small cerebral arteries. Our data indicate that TNF-α activates smooth muscle cell NAD(P)H oxidase, leading to the generation of ROS that activate Ca2+ sparks and thus transient KCa currents. The ensuing decrease in global [Ca2+]i leads to vasodilation. These findings show for the first time that an inflammatory mediator that is central to a variety of vascular diseases induces vasodilation through Ca2+ spark activation.. TNF-α is produced in the brain during ischemia and is implicated in the etiology of several cardiovascular diseases, including stroke, cardiac failure, coronary artery disease, and atherosclerosis (15, 46). TNF-α is reported to induce both vasoconstriction and vasodilation. Topical application of TNF-α dilated cerebral arterioles (7, 37), whereas intracranial injection of TNF-α induced cerebrovascular constriction and reduced blood flow (29, 38, 44). ...
Shaker-type, voltage-gated K+ (KV1) channels are an important determinant of the resting membrane potential and diameter of small cerebral arteries. During hype...
Hardening of the arteries in the brain or other parts of the body is known as atherosclerosis, and it is typically caused by an accumulation of LDL cholesterol in the arteries, WebMD reports....
Research says, 3D ultrasound can compensate for the thickness of the skull and image the brains arteries in real time. Research says, 3D ultrasound can compensate for the thickness of the skull and image the brains arteries in real time.Experts believe that these advances will ultimately improve the treatment of
Age-related dementia (Alzheimers disease) results from the destructive impact of the pulse on cerebral vasculature. Evidence is reviewed that the neuropathology of the dementia is caused by the breakdown of small cerebral vessels (silent microbleeds), that the microbleeds result from pulse-induced damage to the cerebral vessels, and that pulse becomes increasingly destructive with age, because of the age-related stiffening of the aorta and great arteries, which causes an increase in the intensity of the pressure pulse. Discover the latest research on age-related dementia here. ...
Co-Investigators: Dr Anoop Madan, Dr Helen Kavnoudias and Mr Philip M Lewis. Head trauma may cause damage to the neck arteries, an injury called dissection. Clots breaking free of the dissected arterial lining may cause stroke, usually some days after the head injury. These dissections are frequently detected in the emergency department by computed tomography angiography (CTA), now a routine protocol in certain trauma patients. Intravenous anticoagulation is standard treatment for traumatic dissection, but is unproven and has not been shown to be superior to aspirin. Furthermore, heparin cannot be given safely in up to 50% of trauma patients. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD), an ultrasound test of the brain arteries, can detect tiny clots (microemboli) coming from dissected neck arteries. These can be recorded by computer and reliably counted electronically. By correlating microemboli counts with the grade of arterial injury as detected by CTA, and also the severity of the neurological ...
BRAIN DAMAGING HABITS. 1.. No BreakfastPeople who do not take breakfast are going to have a lower blood. sugar level. This leads to an insufficient supply of nutrients to the. brain causing brain degeneration.. 2. . Overeating=2 0It causes hardening of the brain arteries, leading to a decrease in. mental power.. 3.. SmokingIt causes multiple brain shrinkage and may lead to Alzheimer disease.. 4.. High Sugar consumptionToo much sugar will interrupt the absorption of proteins and nutrients causing malnutrition and may. interfere with brain development.. 5.. Air PollutionThe brain is the largest oxygen consumer in our 20 body. Inhaling polluted air decreases the supply of. oxygen to the brain, bringing about a decrease in brain efficiency.. 6. . Sleep DeprivationSleep allows our brain to rest.. Long term deprivation from sleep will accelerate the death of brain. cells... 7.. Head covered while sleepingSleeping with the head covered increases the concentration of carbon dioxide and ...
A stroke is a medical emergency characterized a blocked or ruptured brain artery that interrupts the flow of oxygenated blood and nutrients to the brain....
I had a stroke in November 2009. MRI showed infarc in the back of my brain at lower right. An angigram was done this month that showed that the right cerbral artery was completely blocked while the lef...
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This paper presents a method for the visual quantification of cerebral arteries, known as the Circle of Willis (CoW). The CoW is an arterial structure that is responsible for the brains blood supply. Dysfunctions of this ...
HIDROTERAPIA PARALISIA CEREBRAL PDF - Veja grátis o arquivo hidroterapia PC enviado para a disciplina de Hidro Paralisia Cerebral Categoria: Outros - 5 - Full Text Available O nascimento de
Backghround: To analyze the co-occurrence of atherosclerotic lesions in CT angiograms of extra- and intracranial arteries in patients with cerebral circulation insufficiency.Material and Methods: Extra- and intracranial CTA was performed in 70 patien...
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J Mol Neurosci. DOI 10.1007/s12031 -017-0944-7. CrossMark. Proteomic Expression Changes in Large Cerebral Arteries After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rat Are Regulated by the MEK-ERK1/2 Pathway. Anne H. Müller1 • Alistair V.G. Edwards2 • Martin R. Larsen2 • Janne Nielsen1 • Karin Warfvinge1,3 • Gro K. Povlsen1 • Lars Edvinsson1,3. Received: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 # The Author(s) 2017. This article is an open access publication. Abstract Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious clinical condition where leakage of blood into the subarachnoid space causes an acute rise in intracranial pressure and reduces cerebral blood flow, which may lead to delayed cerebral ischemia and poor outcome. In experimental SAH, we have previously shown that the outcome can be significantly improved by early inhibition of the MAPK/ERK kinase/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK1/2) pathway. The aim of this study was to apply mass spectrometry to investigate the ...
We have reported for the first time some characteristics of the membrane potential of SMCs of human pial arteries. The main finding of this study was that in these vessels rhythmic contractions were associated with generation of APs during spontaneous or K+-induced depolarization. The resting membrane potential of human pial arteries in vitro varied between −40 and −70 mV. The membrane potential of SMCs in rhythmically constricting arteries was significantly less negative than that of the silent ones. This finding indicates that spontaneous activity may be the result of a depolarized state of SMCs. The incidence of spontaneous activity was higher in those arteries that were obtained from patients ,40 years old. Therefore, we cannot exclude an influence of age-related vascular changes or of disease on the determined properties of human pial arteries. Periodic spontaneous activity has been demonstrated in human coronary arteries22 23 24 and was most frequent in vessels taken from older ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sex-Dependent Differences in Physical Exercise-Mediated Cognitive Recovery Following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Aged Rats. AU - Cohan, Charles H.. AU - Youbi, Mehdi. AU - Saul, Isabel. AU - Ruiz, Alex A.. AU - Furones, Concepcion C.. AU - Patel, Pujan. AU - Perez, Edwin. AU - Raval, Ami P.. AU - Dave, Kunjan R.. AU - Zhao, Weizhao. AU - Dong, Chuanhui. AU - Rundek, Tatjana. AU - Koch, Sebastian. AU - Sacco, Ralph L.. AU - Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.. PY - 2019/9/18. Y1 - 2019/9/18. N2 - Stroke remains a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. No current treatments exist to promote cognitive recovery in survivors of stroke. A previous study from our laboratory determined that an acute bout of forced treadmill exercise was able to promote cognitive recovery in 3 month old male rats after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that 6 days of intense acute bout of forced treadmill exercise (physical exercise - PE) ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor responses in the rat middle cerebral artery are blocked by inhibiting IKCa channels alone, contrasting with peripheral vessels where block of both IKCa and SKCa is required. As the contribution of IKCa and SKCa to endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization differs in peripheral arteries, depending on the level of arterial constriction, we investigated the possibility that SKCa might contribute to equivalent hyperpolarization in cerebral arteries under certain conditions. METHODS: Rat middle cerebral arteries (approximately 175 microm) were mounted in a wire myograph. The effect of KCa channel blockers on endothelium-dependent responses to the protease-activated receptor 2 agonist, SLIGRL (20 micromol/L), were then assessed as simultaneous changes in tension and membrane potential. These data were correlated with the distribution of arterial KCa channels revealed with immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: SLIGRL hyperpolarized and relaxed cerebral
Following middle cerebral artery occlusion, tissue outcome ranges from normal to infarcted depending on depth and duration of hypoperfusion as well as occurrence and efficiency of reperfusion. However, the precise time course of these changes in relation to tissue and behavioral outcome remains unsettled. To address these issues, a three-dimensional wide field-of-view and real-time quantitative functional imaging technique able to map perfusion in the rodent brain would be desirable. Here, we applied functional ultrasound imaging, a novel approach to map relative cerebral blood volume without contrast agent, in a rat model of brief proximal transient middle cerebral artery occlusion to assess perfusion in penetrating arterioles and venules acutely and over six days thanks to a thinned-skull preparation. Functional ultrasound imaging efficiently mapped the acute changes in relative cerebral blood volume during occlusion and following reperfusion with high spatial resolution (100 µm), notably ...
Migraine attacks are conventionally thought to involve a dysfunction in the regulation of tone in intra- and extracranial blood vessels. A number of agents have been suggested as responsible for the altered vasomotor responses seen in conjunction with migraine attacks. Previous histochemical studies have shown that human cerebral arteries are surrounded by adrenergic and cholinergic nerve fibres. In addition, peptide-containing nerve fibres, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), have been observed around the cerebral blood vessels of laboratory animals. Few studies have been carried out on human temporal and cerebral arteries, but none on meningeal arteries. This chapter examines the distribution of NPY-, VIP-, SP- and CGRP-immunoreactive fibres around the three types of human cranial arteries and compared the pharmacological effects of the perivascularly located neuropeptides on arterial segments. ...
Looking for online definition of cerebral artery in the Medical Dictionary? cerebral artery explanation free. What is cerebral artery? Meaning of cerebral artery medical term. What does cerebral artery mean?
The present study was undertaken to determine the vascular actions of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), the product of superoxide and nitric oxide (NO), in isolated canine cerebral arteries and to gain insight into its potential mechanisms of action. In the absence of any vasoactive agent, ONOO(-) (from 10(-7) to 10(-6) M) was able to reduce the basal tension. In prostaglandin F2alpha-precontracted canine basilar arterial rings, ONOO(-) elicited concentration-dependent relaxation at concentrations from 10(-8) to 10(-5) M. The effective concentrations producing approximately 50% maximal relaxation (EC(50)) to ONOO(-) were 4.06 x 10(-6) and 4.12 x 10(-6) M in intact and denuded rings, respectively (P | 0.05). No significant differences in relaxation responses were found in ring preparations with or without endothelium (P | 0.05). The presence of either 5 microM methylene blue (MB) or 5 microM 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-alpha]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) significantly inhibited the relaxations induced by ONOO(-).
Thrombosis of a cerebral artery. The cerebral thrombosis (obstruction of a cerebral artery by thrombus) or cerebral embolism (obstruction of a cerebral artery by an element coming from another part of the body) leads to an ischemia (reduction of the blood intake), verily a cerebral infarction (death or necrosis of the unirrigated region of the brain). - Stock Image C006/3975
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CGRP plays a major role in the pathophysiology of migraine. Concomitant, CGRP plays a role in endogenous neurovascular protection from severe vasoconstriction associated with e.g. cerebral or cardiac ischemia. The CGRP antagonistic antibodies Fremanezumab (TEVA Pharmaceuticals) and Erenumab (Novartis/Amgen) have successfully been developed for the prevention of frequent migraine attacks. Whereas these antibodies might challenge endogenous neurovasular protection during severe cerebral or coronary vasoconstriction, potential future therapeutic CGRP agonists might induce migraine-like headaches in migraineurs. In the current study segments of cerebral artery have been used to obtain mechanistic insight of the CGRP-neutralizing anti-body Fremanezumab in neurovascular regulation in vitro. The basilar artery was selected due to its relevance in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Erenumab is known to block the human CGRP receptor and Fremanezumab to neutralize both human and rat CGRP. Results confirmed ...
Strong correlations between plasma lipoprotein concentrations and the risk of stroke have never been clearly established. Unlike coronary heart disease, there is no significant direct relation between an increased risk of stroke and increased plasma total cholesterol or low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol; nor is there an inverse relation with high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.1 Indeed, an inverse relation exists between total cholesterol concentrations and cerebral haemorrhage.2. The reasons for this weak or absent relation are several. The most compelling is that virtually all coronary heart disease can be ascribed to coronary atheroma, whereas less than half the incidence of stroke is due to large vessel atheroma. Non-atheromatous causes such as cardiac arrhythmias, small cerebral artery disease, and cortical degeneration are responsible for most of the rest. Another is that, in general, coronary deaths occur at a younger age than strokes, so the population with raised plasma ...
In vitro pharmacological studies demonstrated that exogenously applied vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) relaxes the smooth muscle cells of cat cerebral arteries, whereas substance P constricts them. Ultrastructural-immunocytochemical techniques show that a VIP-like substance is present in the large granular vesicles of nonsympathetic nerve axons and terminals in the cerebral arterial walls. These results provide strong evidence in favor of the hypothesis that a VIP-like substance is the transmitter for vasodilation in cerebral blood vessels. ...
We failed to find in the literature any report of fenestration-associated aneurysm in a child. In one series of 37 patients (3), which was mostly concerned with fenestrations and their possible association with aneurysms, the youngest patient was 18 years old. To our knowledge, this not only is the first report of a ruptured saccular aneurysm associated with a fenestrated posterior cerebral artery but also the first report of such an aneurysm in the pediatric population.. Fenestrations of the cerebral arteries are rare, and a significant discrepancy exists between their reported angiographic incidence of 0.03-1%) (1-3) and their postmortem incidence of 1.3-5.3%(4, 5). This discrepancy has been attributed to both the higher sensitivity of the postmortem examination and the likely under-reporting of fenestrations on angiographic reports due to their uncommon nature (3). A fenestration is a division of the arterial lumen, with resulting separate channels, each with its own endothelial layer and ...
Ischemia can also occur in the arteries of the brain, where blockages can lead to a stroke. About 80-85% of all strokes are ischemic. Most blockages in the cerebral arteries are due to a blood clot, often in an artery narrowed by plaque. Sometimes, a blood clot in the heart or aorta travels to a cerebral artery. A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a mini-stroke caused by a temporary deficiency of blood supply to the brain. It occurs suddenly, lasts a few minutes to a few hours, and is a strong warning sign of an impending stroke. Ischemia can also effect intestines, legs, feet and kidneys. Pain, malfunctions, and damage in those areas may result ...
This study will determine the safety of 500mg of aspirin added to IV TPA at standard doses to prevent re-occlusion of cerebral vessels after successful reperfusion. In ischemic stroke brain arteries are occluded either by an embolus originating in the heart or large vessels leading to the brain or by a process of acute thrombosis of the cerebral arteries over a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque. Rupture of the plaque exposes thrombogenic elements within the plaque and leads to accumulation and activation of platelets and induction of the clotting cascade eventually leading to acute thrombosis and occlusion of the artery. TPA is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat heart and brain problems caused by blockage of arteries. It activates plasminogen and leads to disintegration of the thrombus/embolus. It is effective only if begun within 3 to 4.5 hours of onset of the stroke because of potential deleterious side effects including life threatening symptomatic intracranial ...
Authors: Allen, Rachael S. , Sayeed, Iqbal , Oumarbaeva, Yuliya , Morrison, Katherine C. , Choi, Paul H. , Pardue, Machelle T. , Stein, Donald G. Article Type: Research Article Abstract: Background/Objective: To determine whether inflammation increases in retina as it does in brain following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and whether the neurosteroid progesterone, shown to have protective effects in both retina and brain after MCAO, reduces inflammation in retina as well as brain. Methods: MCAO rats treated systemically with progesterone or vehicle were compared with shams. Protein levels of cytosolic NF-κ B, nuclear NF-κ B, phosphorylated NF-κ B, IL-6, TNF-α, CD11b, progesterone receptor A and B, and pregnane X receptor were assessed in retinas and brains at 24 and 48 h using western blots. Results: …Following MCAO, significant increases were observed in the following inflammatory markers: pNF-κ B and CD11b at 24 h in both brain and retina, nuclear NF-κ B at 24 h in brain and ...
Atherosclerosis, sometimes called hardening of the arteries, occurs when cholesterol, calcium, and other substances build up in the inner lining of the arteries, forming a material called plaque. Over time, plaque buildup may narrow the artery and limit blood flow through it.. Coronary artery disease is atherosclerosis in the heart (coronary) arteries. Peripheral arterial disease of the legs is atherosclerosis in the leg arteries. If atherosclerosis affects the brain arteries (carotid or cerebral arteries), a stroke can occur.. ...
Material and Method: After left frontoparietal craniectomy, the ICA and arterial circle of the brain were coagulated and transected, letting the middle cerebral artery be perfused by the contralateral ICA by way of the rostral cerebral artery in five mongrel dogs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed during the first 24 to 48 hours and 7 to 10 days after the operation. Paired t and Wilcoxon matched pair tests were used for statistics (p,0.05 ...
Stroke, or cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is the third leading cause of death in the United States, resulting in more than 150,000 deaths per year. About 80 percent of strokes are caused by a decrease in blood flow to the brain (called ischemic strokes). This is usually the result of a blood clot that has formed within an artery to the brain or has formed elsewhere (e.g., the heart) and traveled to a brain artery, where it has become lodged. Loss of blood flow can also occur if the heart malfunctions and no longer pumps blood effectively. Strokes can also be caused by a break in a blood vessel, causing blood to flow into the brain, compressing and damaging brain tissue. These are referred to as hemorrhagic strokes.. Stroke types The most common causes of stroke are hypertension and atherosclerosis. In both cases, these result in damage to the arteries that feed the brain with blood and oxygen. ...
Endovascular therapy (group two) received a lower dose (0.09mg per kg bolus and 0.54mg/kilogram infusion over 40 minutes, maximum dose 53.6mg) or after Amendment #5, a standard dose of IV rt-PA (.9mg/kg with 10% as a bolus and the remainder over one hour) and then underwent an angiogram test (cerebral angiography) right after the medicine was given to check for blood clots. If a clot was not seen, then no more treatment was given. If a clot was seen, the neurointerventionalist chose (based on the location and extent of the blood clot) a protocol approved endovascular treatment given directly in the brain artery that would be most effective in reopening the blocked artery ...
Dr. Kemmling is using high-precision 3D printing to create models of brain arteries to personalize operations and reduce risks such as stroke.
Infobox Artery Name = Posterior communicating artery Latin = arteria cerebri communicans posterior GraySubject = 146 GrayPage = 573 Caption = Schematic representation of the arterial circle and arteries of the brain. The posterior communicating…
Ischemic strokes occur when blood cannot flow to cerebral structures. Neuron metabolism tolerates a brief period of interrupted oxygen and glucose delivery. Cell death is imminent after approximately ... more
This stock medical exhibit compares three coronal views of the head and brain to describe the Progression of Brain Ischemia. The following views are illustrated: 1- Initial infarct in the region of the left cerebral artery. 2- Generalized spread of hypoxia and swelling from the left to right side. 3- Involvement of the right cerebral artery with further brain damage.
Cerebral Cortex is a comprehensive and detailed work covering the dual nature of the organization of the architecture and connections of the cerebral cortex. After establishing the evolutionary approach of the cerebral cortexs origin, the authors have systematically analyzed, in detail, the common principle underlying the structure and connections of sensory and motor systems.
The cerebral cortex is a telencephalic structurepresent in some vertebrate species located at the surface of the cerebral hemispheres
Causes of Cerebral Desaturation- Learn more about the causes of cerebral desaturation during cardiac surgery. Find out more about our clinical care today.
I am a bit late on this, but here are my second annual Cerebral Cortex awards. These awards are for those things that I read, viewed or experienced in 2006 that made me think deeper, differently or extensively. Receiving the...
Hi all-- Can you please comment to help me confirm the appropriate 36000 series for this given cerebral angiogram scenario? Patient is normal arch art
O acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) e a primeira causa de obito no Brasil e a principal de incapacidade no mundo. A doenca aterosclerotica carotidea esta associada a cerca de 15% dos AVC. A endarterectomia...
Originally published 5/19/09 at Dontrelle Willis needed this. He needed to step onto that mound at Comerica Park and feel the evening sun shine upon him, the clouds in retreat, the swirling winds at bay...
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Anterior cerebral artery theory[edit]. Another theory into the cause of cold-stimulus headaches is explained by increased blood ... When the anterior cerebral artery constricts, reining in the response to this increased blood volume, the pain disappears. The ... This increase in blood volume and resulting increase in size in this artery is thought to bring on the pain associated with a ... flow to the brain through the anterior cerebral artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to most medial portions of the frontal ...
"Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke". Medscape Reference. Medscape. Retrieved 23 October 2011.. *^ Siegel, Allan; Sapru, Hreday N ... This selective sparing is due to the collateral circulation offered to macular tracts by the middle cerebral artery.[9] ... In the case of occipitoparietal ischemia owing to occlusion of elements of either posterior cerebral artery, patients may ...
anterior cerebral artery. *middle cerebral artery *anterolateral central arteries *internal striate. *external striate ... internal carotid artery[edit]. *ophthalmic artery *Orbital group *Lacrimal artery *lateral palpebral arteries ... common hepatic artery *proper hepatic artery *Terminal branches *right hepatic artery *Cystic artery ... posterior tibial artery *fibular artery (sometimes from popliteal artery) *communicating branch to the anterior tibial artery ...
Artery. Middle cerebral artery. Function. Primary somatosensory cortex. Identifiers. Latin. Gyrus postcentralis. ...
168-181, 193-194.) Thrombosis of cerebral arteries. (Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., 1909-10, 3, Neurol. Sect., 30.) Cerebral haemorrhage ... Brain, 1917, 40, 188-263.) Sensation and the cerebral cortex. (Brain, 1918, 41, 58-253.) Cases of wounds of the nervous system ... M., 1923, 28, 99-122.) Speech and cerebral localization (Brain, 1923, 46, 355-528.) A case of acute verbal aphasia followed ... J. Dermatol., 1911,23,150-153.) With Gordon Holmes: Sensory disturbances from cerebral lesions. (Brain, 1911-12, 34, 102-254.) ...
The vertebral arteries arise from the subclavian arteries. The anterior communicating artery connects the two anterior cerebral ... The anterior cerebral artery forms the anterolateral portion of the circle of Willis, while the middle cerebral artery does not ... Posterior communicating artery (left and right). The middle cerebral arteries, supplying the brain, are not considered part of ... The right and left posterior cerebral arteries arise from the basilar artery, which is formed by the left and right vertebral ...
... downstream arteries (e.g. coronary arteries, leading to heart attack [myocardial infarction]; or cerebral arteries, leading to ... High blood pressure and heart failure which can enlarge the heart and arteries, and scar tissue can form after a heart attack ... the pulmonary artery and the aorta). Heart valves can malfunction for a variety of reasons, which can impede the flow of blood ... the valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery). A pulmonary homograft (a pulmonary valve taken from a cadaver ...
Aneurysm in a cerebral artery,. one cause of hypoxic anoxic injury (HAI). ... diffuse cerebral hypoxia (DCH), focal cerebral ischemia, cerebral infarction, and global cerebral ischemia. Prolonged hypoxia ... Cerebral infarction - A "stroke", caused by complete oxygen deprivation due to an interference in cerebral blood flow which ... increased density in a cerebral artery". AJR Am J Roentgenol. 149 (3): 583-6. doi:10.2214/ajr.149.3.583. PMID 3497548.. ...
"Mitochondria control functional CaV1.2 expression in smooth muscle cells of cerebral arteries". Circulation Research. 107 (5): ... In the arteries of the brain, high levels of calcium in mitochondria elevates activity of nuclear factor kappa B NF-κB and ... "Effects of the CACNA1C risk allele for bipolar disorder on cerebral gray matter volume in healthy individuals". The American ...
Those of the basilar artery and posterior cerebral artery are hard to reach surgically and are more accessible for endovascular ... aneurysms of the anterior cerebral artery and anterior communicating artery (together the "anterior circulation"), who ... In 85 percent of spontaneous cases the cause is a cerebral aneurysm-a weakness in the wall of one of the arteries in the brain ... Arteriogram showing a partially coiled aneurysm (indicated by yellow arrows) of the posterior cerebral artery with a residual ...
Histopathology of giant cell vasculitis in a cerebral artery. Elastica-stain.. The gold standard for diagnosing temporal ... and confirmed by biopsy of the temporal artery.[4] However, in about 10% of people the temporal artery is normal.[4] ... Palpation of the head reveals prominent temporal arteries with or without pulsation.[citation needed] ... November 2011). "Importance of specimen length during temporal artery biopsy". The British Journal of Surgery. 98 (11): 1556-60 ...
Muscular artery. *Предна мозъчна артерия (a. cerebri anterior). *middle cerebral artery *anterolateral central arteries * ... deep artery of the penis ♂ (Helicine arteries of penis)/Deep artery of clitoris ♀ • Dorsal artery of the penis ♂/Dorsal artery ... Colic branch of ileocolic artery, Anterior cecal artery, posterior cecal, Ileal branch of ileocolic artery, Appendicular artery ... Gastroduodenal artery (Right gastro-omental artery, Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery, Supraduodenal artery) ...
Ayotte, J. (2000). "Patterns of music agnosia associated with middle cerebral artery infarcts". Brain. 123 (9): 1926-38. doi: ... Many of the cases of music agnosia have resulted from surgery involving the middle cerebral artery. Patient studies have ... Halpern, Andrea R. (2006). "Cerebral Substrates of Musical Imagery". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 930 (1): 179- ... With more difficult rhythms such as a 1:2.5, more areas in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum are involved.[14] EEG recordings ...
Bleton, H; Perera, S; Sejdic, E (2016). "Cognitive tasks and cerebral blood flow through anterior cerebral arteries: a study ... related cognitive styles determined using Fourier analysis of mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries ... Each basal cerebral artery of the circle of Willis gives origin to two different systems of secondary vessels. The shorter of ... Spectral density plots right and left middle cerebral arteries cross-amplitude plots in men. ...
"Potent P2Y6 receptor mediated contractions in human cerebral arteries". BMC Pharmacology. 3 (1): 4. doi:10.1186/1471-2210-3-4. ... P2Y6 receptors have been shown to play a role in cerebral vasodilation. UDP-analogs which bind to this receptor have been ...
The internal carotid artery becomes the anterior cerebral artery and the middle central artery. The ACA transmits blood to the ... From the basilar artery are two posterior cerebral arteries. Branches of the basilar and PCA supply the occipital lobe, brain ... Narrowed cerebral arteries can lead to ischemic stroke, but continually elevated blood pressure can also cause tearing of ... The carotid arteries cover the majority of the cerebrum. The common carotid artery divides into the internal and the external ...
Artery. Middle cerebral artery. Identifiers. Latin. Cortex praemotorius. NeuroNames. 2331. FMA. 224852. ... Campbell, A. W. (1905). Histological Studies on the Localization of Cerebral Function. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University ... The premotor cortex occupies the part of Brodmann area 6 that lies on the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere. The ... Penfield, W. and Boldrey, E. (1937). "Somatic motor and sensory representation in the cerebral cortex of man as studied by ...
Bolia suffered a ruptured middle cerebral artery, and an autopsy revealed a pre-existing condition. The ride was closed for ...
You J, Golding EM, Bryan RM (September 2005). "Arachidonic acid metabolites, hydrogen peroxide, and EDHF in cerebral arteries ... including mesenteric and tail arteries from rats as well as genital arteries from rabbits. These findings together suggest that ... In some arteries, eicosanoids and K+ ions may themselves initiate a conducted endothelial hyperpolarization, thus suggesting ... Although nitric oxide (NO) is recognized as the primary factor at level of arteries, increased evidence for the role of another ...
It is commonly performed in the cerebral arteries (interventional neuroradiology). The effectiveness of thrombectomy was ... the stent is pulled out from the artery, usually under continuous aspiration in the larger catheters.[citation needed] A ... usually through a percutaneous access to the right femoral artery. A microcatheter is finally positioned beyond the occluded ...
The study was performed on 53 stroke patients with a left or right hemisphere middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction one week ... Ayotte J, Peretz I, Rousseau I, Bard C, Bojanowski M (2000). "Patterns of music agnosia associated with middle cerebral artery ... Research has been shown that amusia may be related to an increase in size of the cerebral cortex, which may be a result of a ... Zatorre RJ, Berlin P (2001). "Spectral and temporal processing in human auditory cortex". Cerebral Cortex. 11 (10): 946-53. doi ...
The causes of death were given as "Cardiopulmonary arrest, Coronary Artery Disease, and Cerebral Vascular Disease".[1][71] She ...
... had sustained a hemorrhagic stroke involving the left middle cerebral artery. Over the next two days he received a variety of ... more prominent in the cerebral arteries. These are the result of hypertension. The results of the pathologic examination ... localized to the area of subcortical centers of the left cerebral hemisphere. This hemorrhage destroyed important areas of the ... Czechoslovak leader Gottwald died shortly after attending Stalin's funeral on 14 March 1953 after one of his arteries burst. ...
Globally, the vessel most commonly affected is the middle cerebral artery. Embolisms can originate from multiple parts of the ... of contraction leads to a formation of a clot in the atrial chamber that can become dislodged and travel to a cerebral artery. ... Both are caused by a disruption in blood flow to the brain, or cerebral blood flow (CBF). The definition of TIA was classically ... A portion of the plaque can become dislodged and lead to embolic pathology in the cerebral vessels. In-situ thrombosis, an ...
Blood from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm clots around a cerebral artery, releasing thrombin. This can induce an acute and ... Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 36 (6): 1059-74. doi:10.1177/0271678X15606462. PMID 26661165. Howell DC, Laurent ... prolonged narrowing of the blood vessel, potentially resulting in cerebral ischemia and infarction (stroke). Beyond its key ...
Park, M. G., Joo, H., Park, K. P., & Kim, D. S. (2005). Macropsia caused by acute posterior cerebral artery infarction. J ... This lesion can be due to an ischemic cell death after an acute posterior cerebral infarction. The most prevalent research on ... The MRI may show swelling of the cerebral cortex, transient T2 prolongation, and transient lesions. Unlike in MRI's, no ...
The middle cerebral artery is most often affected.[citation needed] Parenchymal syphilis occurs years to decades after initial ... or large arteries supplying the CNS. The parenchymal syphilis, presents as tabes dorsalis and general paresis. Tabes dorsalis ... along with astrocytic and microglial proliferation and damage may preferentially occur in the cerebral cortex, striatum, ...
MRA showed smaller distal branches of cerebral arteries.. Specialty. Psychiatry, Sleep medicine, Neuropathology. ...
Short segment internal maxillary artery to middle cerebral artery: A novel technique for extracranial-to-intracranial bypass. ... "Minimally invasive superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery bypass through an enlarged bur hole: The use of ... "Short Segment Internal Maxillary Artery to Middle Cerebral Artery Bypass: A Novel Technique for Extracranial-to-Intracranial ... Cerebral Revascularization: Techniques in Extracranial to Intracranial Bypass Surgery. Copyright 2011 Elsevier, Inc. ISBN 978-1 ...
"Detection and characterization of molecular-level collagen damage in overstretched cerebral arteries". Acta Biomaterialia. 67: ...
This causes death by respiratory failure leading to cerebral anoxia. No antidote is known, but if breathing can be kept going ... The blood vessels consist of arteries, capillaries and veins and are lined with a cellular endothelium which is quite unlike ...
The heart of the blue whale is the largest of any animal,[38] and the walls of the arteries in the heart have been described as ... Hof, Patrick R.; Van Der Gucht, Estel (2007). "Structure of the cerebral cortex of the humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae ( ...
"Edinburgh Artery Study: prevalence of asymptomatic and symptomatic peripheral arterial disease in the general population". Int ... It is classically associated with early-stage peripheral artery disease, and can progress to critical limb ischemia unless ... testing is often performed to confirm the diagnosis of peripheral artery disease. ... resonance angiography and duplex ultrasonography appear to be slightly more cost-effective in diagnosing peripheral artery ...
Instead of using the cerebral cortex like mammals, birds use the mediorostral HVC for cognition.[74] Not only have parrots ... a different arrangement of the carotid arteries, a gall bladder, differences in the skull bones, and lack the Dyck texture ...
... are associated with atheroma formation in the walls of arteries, a condition known as atherosclerosis, which is the principal ... cancer and cerebral hemorrhage. Generally, the low cholesterol levels seem to be a consequence of an underlying illness, rather ... particles are strongly associated with the presence of atheromatous disease within the arteries. For this reason, LDL is ... of functional HDL are strongly associated with cardiovascular disease because these promote atheroma development in arteries ( ...
... of the carotid arteries. These arteries are the large blood vessels in your neck that feed your brain. Transcranial Doppler ( ... In the elderly population, amyloid angiopathy is associated with cerebral infarcts as well as hemorrhage in superficial ... Cerebral amyloid angiopathy Intracranial neoplasm Coagulopathy Hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic infarct Cerebral ... cerebral venous sinus thrombosis). Nonpenetrating and penetrating cranial trauma can also be common causes of intracerebral ...
APS provokes blood clots (thrombosis) in both arteries and veins as well as pregnancy-related complications such as miscarriage ... "Thrombosis, abortion, cerebral disease, and the lupus anticoagulant". Br. Med. J. (Clin. Res. Ed.). 287 (6399): 1088-9. doi ...
মস্তিষ্ক গোলার্ধ (Cerebral hemisphere). *আন্তর মস্তিষ্ক (Diencephalon). *মস্তিষ্ককাণ্ড (Brain stem) *মধ্যমস্তিষ্ক ( ... ধমনী (Artery). *শিরা (Vein). *কৈশিকনালী (Capillary). *লোহিত রক্তকণিকা (Red blood cell). *অণুচক্রিকা (Platelet) ...
Bilateral renal artery stenosis should always be considered as a differential diagnosis for the presentation of HN. Kidney ... This leads to a build-up of plaques and they can be deposited in the renal arteries causing stenosis and ischemic kidney ... Also, luminal narrowing or the arteries and arterioles of the kidney system. However, this type of procedure is likely to be ... The large renal arteries exhibit intimal thickening, medial hypertrophy, duplication of the elastic layer. The changes in small ...
Cerebral Cortex, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2012, pp372-380. Slotnick, S. D., Thompson, W. L., and Kosslyn, S. M., Visual memory and ... assess the effects of a guided imagery audiotape intervention on psychological outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery ... Kosslyn, S. M., Seeing and imagining in the cerebral hemispheres-A computational approach. Psychological Review, Vol. 94, No. 2 ... Kosslyn, S. M. (1987). Seeing and imagining in the cerebral hemispheres-A computational approach. Psychological Review, Vol. 94 ...
"Motor, cognitive, and affective areas of the cerebral cortex influence the adrenal medulla". Proceedings of the National ... Artery. superior suprarenal artery, middle suprarenal artery, Inferior suprarenal artery. Vein. suprarenal veins. ...
... and cerebral palsy. Recently the U.S. Public Health Service reported that if all pregnant women in the United States stopped ... any affliction related to the heart but most commonly the thickening of arteries due to excess fat build-up). Studies indicate ... weight babies face an increased risk of serious health problems as newborns have chronic lifelong disabilities such as cerebral ...
... and EDHF in cerebral arteries". Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 289 (3): H1077-83. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.01046.2004. PMID ... including mesenteric and tail arteries from rats as well as genital arteries from rabbits. These findings together suggest that ... Although Nitric Oxide (NO) is recognized as the primary factor at level of arteries, increased evidence for the role of another ... In some arteries, eicosanoids and K+ ions may themselves initiate a conducted endothelial hyperpolarization, thus suggesting ...
5. brain (cerebral ganglia). 6. prothorax. 7. dorsal blood vessel. 8. tracheal tubes (trunk with spiracle). 9. mesothorax. 10. ... The insect circulatory system has no veins or arteries. The 'blood' is called haemolymph, and moves around in the space called ...
"Neuroprotective effect of Acorus calamus against middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced ischaemia in rat". Hum Exp Toxicol. ...
2007). "Donepezil for cognitive decline following coronary artery bypass surgery: a pilot randomized controlled trial". ... particularly in the cerebral cortex and other areas of the brain.[18][19] It is noted that the hippocampal formation plays an ... coronary artery bypass surgery cognitive impairment,[32] cognitive impairment associated with multiple sclerosis, CADASIL ...
Coronary artery angioscopy, which first was used to reveal the presence of a blood clot in the coronary arteries of patients ... In this technique, a flexible fiberoptic catheter inserted directly into an artery.[1] It can be helpful in diagnosing e.g. ... Forrester JS, Litvack F, Grundfest W, Hickey A (1987). "A perspective of coronary disease seen through the arteries of living ...
... baik yang bersifat intrakranial seperti moderate middle cerebral artery stenosis, ekstrakranial seperti vertebral artery origin ... impaired cerebral autoregulation dan perubahan protrombotik dipercaya merupakan penyebab cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). ... Cryptogenic cerebral infarction (CCI)[sunting , sunting sumber]. CCI paling banyak ditemukan dalam penderita patent foramen ... Sistem TOAST membagi stroke menjadi 5 subtipe yaitu,[11][12] large artery atherosclerosis (LAAS), cardiaoembolic infarct (CEI ...
The morphology for heat exchange occurs via cerebral arteries and the ophthalmic rete, a network of arteries originating from ... The interatrial artery of the ostrich is small in size and exclusively supplies blood to only part of the left auricle and ... The coronary arteries start in the right and left aortic sinus and provide blood to the heart muscle in a similar fashion to ... The blood supply by the coronary arteries are fashioned starting as a large branch over the surface of the heart. It then moves ...
... including cerebral Autoregulation and Cerebral Compliance).. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography[edit]. The TCD measures the ... Ophthalmic artery (OA) - a unique vessel with intracranial and extracranial segments is used as pressure sensor and as a ... Cerebral ventricle[edit]. Michaeli [7] proposed that ICP be inferred from the magnitude and shape of pulsations of the third ... At the pressure balance point, where pressure in the cuff equals systolic artery pressure, a 'whooshing' noise can be heard as ...
Coronary artery vasospasm. *Raynaud's phenomenon, a vasospastic disorder. *Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome ... This can lead to tissue ischemia and tissue death (necrosis). Cerebral vasospasm may arise in the context of subarachnoid ... Symptomatic vasospasm or delayed cerebral ischemia is a major contributor to post-operative stroke and death especially after ... L-type calcium channel blockers can induce dilation of the coronary arteries while also decreasing the heart's demand for ...
Cerebral infarction. *Coronary artery disease. E. *Endocarditis. H. *Heart block. M. *Myocardial infarction ...
Some examples of neurological damage include hypertensive encephalopathy, cerebral vascular accident/cerebral infarction, ... leading to pathologic changes in the small arteries of the kidney. Affected arteries develop endothelial dysfunction and ... is a manifestation of the dysfunction of cerebral autoregulation.[7] Cerebral autoregulation is the ability of the blood ... On the other hand, sudden or rapid rises in blood pressure may cause hyperperfusion and increased cerebral blood flow, causing ...
Cerebral contusionEdit. Main article: Cerebral contusion. Cerebral contusion is bruising of the brain tissue. The piamater is ... It may result from laceration of an artery, most commonly the middle meningeal artery. This is a very dangerous type of injury ... Main article: cerebral hemorrhage. Intra-axial hemorrhage is bleeding within the brain itself, or cerebral hemorrhage. This ... Temperoparietal locus (most likely) - Middle meningeal artery Frontal locus - anterior ethmoidal artery Occipital locus - ...
The brain can regulate blood flow over a range of blood pressure values by vasoconstriction and vasodilation of the arteries.[ ... "Altitude Illness - Cerebral Syndromes". eMedicine Specialties , Emergency Medicine , Environmental.. *^ Alberts, Bruce (2002 ... When the arterial blood pressure rises the arterioles are stimulated to dilate making it easier for blood to leave the arteries ... Low pressure in the arteries, causes the opposite reflex of constriction of the arterioles, and a speeding up of the heart rate ...
In the brain, these include the A9 dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, astrocytes in the cerebral cortex and ... Padmanaban, P.; Toora, B. (2011). "Hemoglobin: Emerging marker in stable coronary artery disease". Chronicles of Young ... A recent study done in Pondicherry, India, shows its importance in coronary artery disease.[83] ... "Simultaneous measurements of cerebral oxygenation changes during brain activation by near-infrared spectroscopy and functional ...
Main article: Middle cerebral artery syndrome. Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery results in Middle cerebral artery ... Middle cerebral artery. Outer surface of cerebral hemisphere, showing areas supplied by cerebral arteries. (Pink is region ... The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is one of the three major paired arteries that supply blood to the cerebrum. The MCA arises ... The arterial circle and arteries of the brain. The middle cerebral arteries (top of figure) arise from the internal carotid ...
Definition of arteries of cerebral hemorrhage. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes medical terms ... Synonym(s): anterolateral central arteries. Further information. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the ...
Ischemic strokes occur when blood cannot flow to cerebral structures. Neuron metabolism tolerates a brief period of interrupted ... Drugs & Diseases , Neurology , Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Q&A How does cerebral artery (PCA) stroke occur?. Updated: Jul ... angiogram demonstrating bilateral fetal posterior cerebral artery (PCA) variants (black arrows) with the basilar artery ... de Monyé C, Dippel DW, Siepman TA, Dijkshoorn ML, Tanghe HL, van der Lugt A. Is a fetal origin of the posterior cerebral artery ...
Ischemic strokes occur when blood cannot flow to cerebral structures. Neuron metabolism tolerates a brief period of interrupted ... Drugs & Diseases , Neurology , Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Q&A How does cerebral artery (PCA) stroke occur?. Updated: Jul ... encoded search term (How does cerebral artery (PCA) stroke occur?) and How does cerebral artery (PCA) stroke occur? What to ... angiogram demonstrating bilateral fetal posterior cerebral artery (PCA) variants (black arrows) with the basilar artery ...
Anterior Cerebral Arteries at their stems results in infarction of the anteromedial surface of the cerebral hemispheres:. ... Move the cursor along the course of the anterior and middle cerebral artery and its branches to identify individual segments ... of the Anterior Cerebral Artery as it arches superiorly and posteriorly.. Supplies the medial surface of the cerebral ... Anterior Communicating Artery. (connects both sides of anterior circulations).. Medial Lenticulostriate Arteries (supply basal ...
Anterior Cerebral Arteries at their stems results in infarction of the anteromedial surface of the cerebral hemispheres:. ... Move the cursor along the course of the anterior and middle cerebral artery and its branches to identify individual segments ... of Anterior Cerebral Arteries at their stems results in infarction of the anteromedial surface of the cerebral hemispheres: * ... of the Anterior Cerebral Artery as it arches superiorly and posteriorly.. Supplies the medial surface of the cerebral ...
An angigram was done this month that showed that the right cerbral artery was completely blocked while the lef... ... My basal artery is unusually small, the radiologist declared. My questions are: 1. Could the blocked cerebral artery be ... My basal artery is unusually small, the radiologist declared. My questions are: 1. Could the blocked cerebral artery be ... 3. Should I consider stent/shunt for all the 3 locations i.e both cerebral arteries and basal artery all at once? 4. If yes, ...
Cerebral artery definition at, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up ... cerebral, cerebral accident, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, cerebral anesthesia, cerebral aqueduct, cerebral artery, cerebral ... An artery that is formed by a bifurcation of the basilar artery and is divided into three parts supplying part of the thalamus ... An artery that is one of two terminal branches of the internal carotid artery, divided into two parts and supplying the ...
... pathogenesis and therapy of cerebral artery dissection. Several topics, such as the first animal model of cervical artery ... The book also gives an insight into the clinical manifestations of carotid and vertebral artery dissection and to the ... The last part of the publication presents the prognosis, thrombolysis and antithrombotic therapy of cervical artery dissection ... genetic approaches in the study of risk factors as well as the main etiologies of spontaneous and traumatic cervical artery ...
Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke is less common than stroke involving the anterior circulation. An understanding of PCA ... encoded search term (Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke) and Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke What to Read Next on Medscape ... The posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs) are paired vessels, usually arising from the top of the basilar artery and curving ... The P2 segment bifurcates into the posterior temporal artery and the internal occipital artery. The posterior temporal artery ...
Are the branches of the middle cerebral artery considered seperate and distinct vessels for the purposes of catheter placement ... Are the branches of the middle cerebral artery considered seperate and distinct vessels for the purposes of catheter placement ... Coding pressure wires for artery branches (2013). By rebeccadyke84 in forum Cardiology ...
The anterior cerebral artery supplies most of the superior-medial parietal lobes and portions of the frontal lobes with fresh ... Anterior cerebral artery. Anterior cerebral artery. Medically reviewed by Healthlines Medical Network - Written by - Updated ... The anterior cerebral artery is a component of the circle of Willis, an interconnected section of arteries in the brain. ... The anterior cerebral artery supplies most of the superior-medial parietal lobes and portions of the frontal lobes with fresh ...
... is the largest of the three major arteries that channels fresh blood to the brain. It branches off the internal carotid artery ... Middle cerebral artery. Middle cerebral artery. Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network - Written by the ... Anterior cerebral artery. Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network. The anterior cerebral artery supplies most of ... The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the largest of the three major arteries that channels fresh blood to the brain. It branches ...
... Hyun Goo Kang,1 Seogki Lee,2 Han Uk Ryu,3 and ... Cerebral artery stenosis is currently diagnosed by transcranial Doppler (TCD), computed tomographic angiography (CTA), or ... The extracted features were used to identify normal subjects and those with cerebral artery stenosis using a linear ... The technique proposed is expected to detect early stage asymptomatic cerebral artery stenosis and help prevent ischemic stroke ...
... Hyun Goo Kang,1 Seogki Lee,2 Han Uk Ryu,3 and ... J.-M. Kim, K. H. Jung, C. H. Sohn, J. Moon, M. H. Han, and J. K. Roh, "Middle cerebral artery plaque and prediction of the ... H.-J. Seo, J. R. Pagsisihan, J.-C. Paeng et al., "Hemodynamic significance of internal carotid or middle cerebral artery ... "MR angiography and imaging for the evaluation of middle cerebral artery atherosclerotic disease," American Journal of ...
... , Cerebrovascular Accident of Posterior Cerebral Artery, PCA CVA. ... Posterior Cerebral Artery, Posterior Cerebral Artery Infarction, Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke, Stroke, Posterior Cerebral ... Posterior Cerebral Artery CVA. Aka: Posterior Cerebral Artery CVA, Cerebrovascular Accident of Posterior Cerebral Artery, PCA ... POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY INFARCT, stroke of posterior cerebral artery, stroke of posterior cerebral artery (diagnosis), ...
... , Cerebrovascular Accident of Middle Cerebral Artery, MCA CVA. ... Middle Cerebral Artery, Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke, Stroke, Middle Cerebral Artery, MCA ... MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY CIRC INFARCT, MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY INFARCT, INFARCT MCA, CEREBRAL INFARCT MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY, ... middle cerebral artery infarct, middle cerebral artery stroke, mca infarction, Middle cerebral artery infarct, Middle cerebral ...
... , ACA CVA, Cerebrovascular Accident of Anterior Cerebral Artery. ... Anterior Cerebral Artery, Anterior Cerebral Artery Stroke, Stroke, Anterior Cerebral Artery, anterior cerebral artery stroke, ... Anterior Cerebral Artery CVA. Anterior Cerebral Artery CVA Aka: Anterior Cerebral Artery CVA, ACA CVA, Cerebrovascular Accident ... ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY INFARCT, stroke of anterior cerebral artery (diagnosis), stroke of anterior cerebral artery, ACA ...
After 2 days, the middle cerebral artery, basilar artery, and posterior communicating artery were harvested. Pharmacological ... In the middle cerebral artery and basilar artery from rats with induced SAH, enhanced biphasic responses to ET-1 were observed ... Subarachnoid hemorrhage enhances endothelin receptor expression and function in rat cerebral arteries.. Hansen-Schwartz J1, ... we investigated whether such changes occur in cerebral arteries in a rat subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) model. ...
The three main arteries are the: Anterior cerebral artery (ACA) Middle cerebral artery (MCA) Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) ... The cerebral arteries describe three main pairs of arteries and their branches, which perfuse the cerebrum of the brain. ... The three pairs of arteries are linked via the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries. All ... Both the ACA and MCA originate from the cerebral portion of internal carotid artery, while PCA branches from the intersection ...
Middle cerebral artery intraplaque hemorrhage: prevalence and clinical relevance.. Xu WH1, Li ML, Gao S, Ni J, Yao M, Zhou LX, ... Little is known about the composition of middle cerebral artery (MCA) plaques and how they relate to clinical status. Using ...
Definition of periarterial plexus of anterior cerebral artery. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes ... periarterial plexus of anterior cerebral artery. Definition: an autonomic plexus accompanying the anterior cerebral artery, ...
Its formed when two vertebral arteries conjoin. It gives blood to the inner ear and parts of the bra... ... This artery is located at the bottom of the skull. ... basilar posterior cerebral artery (thing). See all of basilar ... This artery is located at the bottom of the skull. Its formed when two vertebral arteries conjoin. It gives blood to the inner ... If this artery becomes blocked, blindness and [paralysis can occur. Related: basilar plexus. These are a network of small ...
The posterior cerebral arteries arise from the termination of the basilar artery. Major branches course around the midbrain and ... Posterior Cerebral Artery Supplies the occipital lobe and the inferior portion of temporal lobe. A branch supplies the choroid ... The posterior cerebral arteries arise from the termination of the basilar artery. Major branches course around the midbrain and ... Perforating arteries from the posterior cerebral arteries supply the midbrain, hypothalamus and inferior thalami. The posterior ...
Blockage Affects: Unilateral occlusion of Middle Cerebral Arteries at the stem ( ... Middle Cerebral Artery Supplies blood to most of the temporal lobe, anterolateral frontal lobe, and parietal lobe. Perforating ... Unilateral occlusion of Middle Cerebral Arteries at the stem ( proximal M1 segment ) results in: *Contralateral hemiplegia ...
Posterior cerebral artery syndrome is a condition whereby the blood supply from the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is ... Stroke syndromes: Posterior cerebral artery - unilateral occipital. [Internet]. [updated 1999 July; cited 2011 May 13]. ... Left posterior cerebral artery syndrome presents alexia without agraphia; the lesion is in the splenium of the corpus callosum ... "The influence of the non-Newtonian properties of blood on blood-hammer through the posterior cerebral artery". Mathematical ...
Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke is less common than stroke involving the anterior circulation. An understanding of PCA ... encoded search term (Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke) and Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke What to Read Next on Medscape ... Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Workup. Updated: Jul 30, 2018 * Author: Erek K Helseth, MD; Chief Editor: Helmi L Lutsep, MD ... angiogram demonstrating bilateral fetal posterior cerebral artery (PCA) variants (black arrows) with the basilar artery ...
This topic contains 24 study abstracts on Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) indicating that the following substances may ... Diseases : Brain Ischemia, Cerebral Ischemia, Cerebral Stroke, Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO), Stroke: Attenuation/ ... Diseases : Cerebral Ischemia, Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO). Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants, Heat Shock ... Diseases : Cerebral Ischemia, Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO). Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants, Apoptotic, ...
Home » Professionals » Stroke Diagnosis » Stroke Syndromes » Posterior Cerebral Artery - Unilateral Occipital Posterior ... Middle Cerebral Artery - Inferior Division. *Middle Cerebral Artery - Superior Division. *Posterior Cerebral Artery - ...
The Effect of Sevoflurane on Cerebral CO2 Sensitivity and Systemic Arteries. The safety and scientific validity of this study ... Blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery [ Time Frame: Changes from baseline in blood flow velocity at the 15th, 20th ... Mean blood flow velocity (MBFV) and pulsatility index (PI) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) are obtained. MCA is insonated ... Sevoflurane alters cerebral carbon-dioxide sensitivity and the stiffness of systemic arteries. ...
  • Isolated lateral thalamic infarction: the role of posterior cerebral artery disease. (
  • Confusional states following posterior cerebral artery infarction. (
  • These arteries supply blood to the medial and superior parts of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, Infarction in the anterior cerebral artery usually results in sensory and motor impairment in the lower body. (
  • The purpose of this study is to determine if patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction have a better clinical outcome after early decompressive surgery compared to standard medical management. (
  • The Decompressive Craniectomy In MALignant middle cerebral artery infarction (DECIMAL) trial is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, open (single blind for the evaluation of the primary outcome measure) controlled study of the efficacy of decompressive craniectomy plus the standard medical therapy as compared with the standard medical therapy alone in patients with a malignant middle cerebral artery infarction. (
  • The aim of the trial is to determine if patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction have a better clinical outcome after early decompressive surgery compared to standard medical therapy alone. (
  • Although the clinical features of space-occupying ischemic stroke are well known, there are limited prospective data on the clinical course of complete middle cerebral artery territory infarction and on the predisposing factors leading to subsequent herniation and brain death. (
  • The clinical course of patients with complete middle cerebral artery territory infarction, defined by computed tomography and vascular imaging, was evaluated. (
  • Fifty-five patients with complete middle cerebral artery territory infarction caused by occlusion of either the distal intracranial carotid artery or the proximal middle cerebral artery trunk were studied. (
  • The cerebral thrombosis (obstruction of a cerebral artery by thrombus) or cerebral embolism (obstruction of a cerebral artery by an element coming from another part of the body) leads to an ischemia (reduction of the blood intake), verily a cerebral infarction (death or necrosis of the unirrigated region of the brain). (
  • Novel Hemicraniectomy Technique for Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction: Technical Note. (
  • Decompressive hemicraniectomy (DH) is the mainstay of treatment for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMI). (
  • The relationship between colloid transfusion during surgical decompression hemicraniectomy period and post-operative pneumonia or long-term outcome after space-occupying cerebral infarction: A retrospective study. (
  • The colloid transfusion during surgical decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) after space-occupying cerebral infarction induced by middle cerebral artery (MCA), is controversial. (
  • Stereotactic Aspiration of Necrotic Brain Tissue for treating Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction: A Report of 13 consecutive Cases. (
  • Non-invasive Absolute Intracranial Pressure Measurement in Patients With Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction for Determination of Timing to Descompressive Craniectomy. (
  • Various movement disorders associated with cerebral infarction have been introduced. (
  • However patients with anterior cerebral artery territory infarction presenting with hemichoreoballism have never been reported. (
  • We report the case with hemichoreoballism after anterior cerebral artery territory infarction. (
  • Background and Purpose Malignant middle cerebral artery infarction(MMI) affects 5-10% of acute ischaemic stroke patients. (
  • Repeat MRI three weeks later showed an area of chronic infarction (figure, E). Despite recanalisation of the left internal carotid artery (figure, F) there was still haematoma surrounding the recanalised lumen on transverse T2 weighted slices (figure, D). (
  • Decompressive hemicraniectomy reduces secondary brain injury related to brain edema and increased intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMI). (
  • Spectrum of anterior cerebral artery territory infarction: clinical and MRI findings. (
  • Middle cerebral artery infarction in a cancer patient: a fatal case of Trousseau's syndrome. (
  • Takahashi S, Goto G, Fukasawa H, Kawata Y, Uemura K, Suzuki K (1985) Computed tomography of cerebral infarction along the distribution of the basal perforating arteries. (
  • Following treatment with β-asarone or nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) inhibitor for 20 consecutive days, the cerebral infarction was detected via TTC staining and Cresyl Violet staining in brain tissues. (
  • However, Nrf2 inhibitor worsened the cerebral infarction and the apoptosis of neurons. (
  • Our findings suggest that β-asarone treatment ameliorated the cerebral infarction in MCAO rats, which could be related to activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway. (
  • Acorus calamus has a neuroprotective effect against middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced ischaemia in rat. (
  • Acupuncture attenuates neuronal cell death in middle cerebral artery occlusion model of focal ischemia. (
  • Astaxanthin has neuroprotective properties in an animal model of focal cerebral artery occlusion. (
  • We describe an unusual pattern of anastomosis associated with isolated severe middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion in Caucasians. (
  • It is classically defined as bilateral occlusion at the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery together with an abnormal vascular network at the base of the brain. (
  • Takeuchi, 1961 )The patho-physiology of moyamoya is thought to involve progression of stenosis or occlusion of the intracranial major arteries including the distal ends of the internal carotid artery as the primary lesion and the formation of the abnormal vascular network secondarily as collateral supply. (
  • There are less frequent reports of moyamoya pattern collateralization associated with middle cerebral artery occlusion in Japanese patients. (
  • We report three patients with isolated middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion associated with moyamoya pattern collateralization in Caucasian patients. (
  • The purpose of this study is to present our observations on cerebral vasoconstriction in ipsilateral anterior circulation during immediate poststenting angiography in patients with near-total occlusion of the proximal ICA. (
  • It occurs more frequently in patients with near-total occlusion and with isolation of the cerebral circulation. (
  • The carotid angiogram, performed immediately after coronary angiography at the beginning of cerebral symptoms, reveals total embolic occlusion of the M2 part of the left MCA with TIMI 0 flow (arrow). (
  • 3-5 Furthermore, the apposition of thrombus to the embolic material may be an important component of cerebral artery occlusion. (
  • An immediate carotid angiogram to assess cerebral artery occlusion appears to be the best and least time-consuming approach. (
  • 1 MR angiography using an ultrafast gadolinium contrast enhanced three dimensional technique with 30 s aquisition time (TR 5 ms/TE 2 ms) showed proximal occlusion (arrow) of the internal carotid artery (figure, C). 2 A haematoma of the vessel wall was demonstrated up to the intracranial internal carotid artery on T2 weighted transverse slices. (
  • Quercetin Might Promote Autophagy in a Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion-Mediated Ischemia Model: Comments on Fawad-Ali Shah et al. (
  • Hemiplegia vegetativa alterna (ipsilateral Horner's syndrome and contralateral hemihiperhidrosis) following proximal posterior cerebral artery occlusion. (
  • Male Wistar rats were subjected to a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 0, 30,60, and 120 min. (
  • Occlusion of the anterior cerebral artery brings contralateral weakness, possibly personality changes such as disinhibition or lack of motivation, and sensory changes, with the leg being more often affected than the face or arm. (
  • We found that activation of nuclear factor-κB, a transcription factor that coordinates postischemic gene expression, is attenuated in CD36-null mice subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. (
  • Various murine models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) are widely used in experimental brain research. (
  • Thus, we are investigating the common mechanism of inflammation in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, a stroke model that affects both the brain and eye. (
  • Acute bilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) M1 segment occlusion is, however, rare, but raises significant issues for stroke neurologists and interventional radiologists regarding which lesion should be treated first. (
  • This study provides new insight to the large scale protein changes resulting from transient occlusion of the ophthalmic artery via the MCAO model. (
  • Ischemic stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. (
  • We conducted a chronological and comparative analysis of the levels of the electrogenic Na+/HCO3-cotransporter (eNBC) and Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1) on ischemic penumbra, using the rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate if hypertension has an effect on vasoconstrictive receptor responses to endothelin 1, sarafotoxin 6c and angiotensin II after stroke by inducing transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats using the wire-myograph. (
  • How does cerebral artery (PCA) stroke occur? (
  • Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke is less common than stroke involving the anterior circulation . (
  • If blood flow is blocked in the anterior cerebral arteries, paralysis or sensory deficits may occur, or even a stroke. (
  • The middle cerebral artery is often obstructed, or blocked, during a stroke. (
  • The technique proposed is expected to detect early stage asymptomatic cerebral artery stenosis and help prevent ischemic stroke. (
  • Stroke syndromes: Posterior cerebral artery - unilateral occipital. (
  • Essential components of workup in posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke depend on the patient's age, stroke risk factors, and prior medical history. (
  • There are many reports about the association of coronary artery disease (CAD) and cerebral artery stenosis (CAS), which had been proved to induce stroke and cognition decline after the revascularization including coronary bypass surgery (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention. (
  • Furthermore, for the undetermined ischemic stroke patients who had no obvious culprit artery or embolism source, the paroxysmal arrhythmia had long been regarded as the cause. (
  • The prognosis of complete middle cerebral artery territory stroke is very poor and can be estimated by early clinical and neuroradiological data within the first few hours after the onset of symptoms. (
  • Outcomes of Hypothermia in Addition to Decompressive Hemicraniectomy in Treatment of Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial. (
  • Space-occupying, malignant middle cerebral artery (M-MCA) infarctions are still one of the most devastating forms of ischemic stroke, with a mortality of up to 80% in untreated patients. (
  • This is a open label study to assess the safety of autologous bone marrow transplantation in patients with a ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory within 90 days from sym. (
  • Carotid artery stenting (CAS) and carotid endarterectomy are widely performed for the treatment of carotid stenosis to improve cerebral perfusion and prevent stroke recurrence. (
  • We report 2 consecutive cases of successful local intra-arterial thrombolysis (LIT) for embolic stroke of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) during diagnostic coronary angiography that resulted in complete neurological recovery. (
  • The MCA is a large artery that arises from the internal carotid artery and is the one that is often blocked or damaged if you have a stroke . (
  • So a middle cerebral artery blockage or bleed might be referred to as an MCA stroke. (
  • Strokes that affect the middle cerebral artery on one side of the body can cause weakness ( hemiplegia ) and numbness in the face, and/or arm and/or leg in the side of the body opposite the stroke. (
  • Because a middle cerebral artery stroke is usually a large stroke, long-term recovery and rehabilitation may take months or even years. (
  • Each person suffering from a middle cerebral artery stroke has a different recovery time and need for long-term care. (
  • During the first hours after acute ischemic stroke, the CT usually shows no abnormalities.Therapeutic trials of ischemia in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory involves decision-making when the CT may not show obvious ischemic changes. (
  • Ocular ischemia is often observed in cases of cerebral stroke and atherosclerosis of the ophthalmic or carotid arteries. (
  • Stroke-like episode involving a cerebral artery in a patient with MELAS. (
  • We demonstrated an increased contractile response to endothelin 1 and extracellular potassium as well as an increased carbachol-induced dilator response in the middle cerebral arteries from hypertensive rats after stroke. (
  • Digital substraction angiography and 3-D Computerised Angiogram (CT) revealed a saccular aneurysm at bifurca tion of azygos anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and other vascular variations such as vertebral artery fenestration and hypoplasia in one anterior cerebral artery. (
  • 1986) Azygos anterior cerebral artery aneurysm associated with fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery. (
  • Park, J. and Kan, D.H. (2009) In situ rescue bypass for iatrogenic avulsion of parent artery during clipping large pericallosal artery aneurysm. (
  • Relationship between middle cerebral parent artery asymmetry and middle cerebral artery aneurysm rupture risk factors. (
  • The aim of the research was to evaluate independent risk factors for the presence of middle cerebral artery aneurysm. (
  • In this paper, we report a patient with a subarachnoid hemorrhage from a saccular aneurysm on azygos ACA associated with a microaneurysm at the middle cerebral artery bifurcation and a fenestration at the vertebrobasilar junction detected by 3D CT angiography. (
  • Conventional cerebral angiography showed hypoplasia at the left A1, an azygos ACA with saccular aneurysm at the bifurcation. (
  • 3D CT angiogram demonstrating azygos ACA and aneurysm, another microaneurysm at the middle cerebral artery bifurcation and fenestration at the vertebrobasilar junction on the same image. (
  • Following proximal and distal control of arteries, dissection of the neck of the aneurysm was performed and a curved clip was applied. (
  • The surgical team used, for the first time in the region, a trans-carotid approach to treat a very deeply located, highly irregular appearing anterior cerebral artery aneurysm as well as tortuous arteries and a grade III aorta, which usually makes endovascular treatment almost impossible. (
  • Object: The investigation of surgical cases of a ruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm to identify the risk factors of an intraoperative premature rupture. (
  • The aneurysm growth model was presented in a companion paper by Kroon and Holzapfel ("A Model for Saccular Cerebral Aneurysm Growth by Collagen Fibre Remodelling," J. Theor. (
  • An instant loss of the media in a region of the artery wall initiates the growth of the saccular aneurysm. (
  • The aneurysm wall is assumed to be a development of the adventitia of the original healthy artery, and collagen is assumed to be the only load-bearing constituent in the adventitia and in the aneurysm wall. (
  • This method is typically used when a large (high-flow) artery is affected or needs to be sacrificed to treat a tumor or aneurysm. (
  • Anomalies, aneurysm and histology of the middle cerebral artery in Nigerian Africans/Anomalias, aneurisma e histologia de la arteria cerebral media en Africanos Nigerianos. (
  • A 51-year-old female with an unruptured aneurysm at the junction of the right internal carotid artery (ICA) and the ophthalmic artery was admitted to our hospital for a preoperative evaluation. (
  • My carotid arteries were open and didn't show any stenosis. (
  • This discussion is related to Vertebral Artery Stenosis . (
  • Cerebral artery stenosis is currently diagnosed by transcranial Doppler (TCD), computed tomographic angiography (CTA), or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). (
  • This study aims to provide a technique that can simply discriminate between people with normal blood vessels and those with cerebral artery stenosis using photoplethysmography (PPG), which is noninvasive and inexpensive. (
  • The extracted features were used to identify normal subjects and those with cerebral artery stenosis using a linear discriminant analysis. (
  • Hemodynamic significance of internal carotid or middle cerebral artery stenosis detected on magnetic resonance angiography," Yonsei Medical Journal , vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 1686-1693, 2015. (
  • This pattern of collateralization associated with isolated middle cerebral artery stenosis and the natural history of this entity have not been well described. (
  • All cases of middle cerebral artery stenosis associated with a rete pattern of collateralization were included in this series. (
  • There were three cases of middle cerebral artery stenosis associated with a moyamoya pattern of collateralization. (
  • No stenosis was seen in the supraclinoid internal carotid arteries or elsewhere in the intracranial vasculature. (
  • Carotid artery stent placement is widely performed for treatment of carotid stenosis. (
  • Hyperperfusion syndrome with hemorrhage after angioplasty for middle cerebral artery stenosis. (
  • The catheter is inserted percutaneously into the patient's arterial system and is advanced and manipulated to place the dilatation balloon within the stenosis in the artery. (
  • Progressive carotid artery stenosis with a novel tRNA phenylalanine mitochondrial DNA mutation. (
  • An artery that is formed by a bifurcation of the basilar artery and is divided into three parts supplying part of the thalamus and hypothalamus, the thalamus, cerebral peduncles, and choroid plexuses of the lateral and third ventricles, and the cortex of the temporal and occipital lobes. (
  • In general, patients with PCA distribution strokes exhibit less overall chronic disability than do those with anterior cerebral, middle cerebral, or basilar artery infarctions. (
  • The posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs) are paired vessels, usually arising from the top of the basilar artery and curving laterally, posteriorly, and superiorly around the midbrain. (
  • The three main arteries are the: Anterior cerebral artery (ACA) Middle cerebral artery (MCA) Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) Both the ACA and MCA originate from the cerebral portion of internal carotid artery, while PCA branches from the intersection of the posterior communicating artery and the anterior portion of the basilar artery. (
  • After 2 days, the middle cerebral artery, basilar artery, and posterior communicating artery were harvested. (
  • In the middle cerebral artery and basilar artery from rats with induced SAH, enhanced biphasic responses to ET-1 were observed. (
  • The posterior cerebral arteries arise from the termination of the basilar artery. (
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We scanned the internal carotid artery, the anterior cerebral artery, the basilar artery, and the middle cerebral artery in 10 subjects with a single 4D and multiple 2D PCMRI acquisitions by use of a 3T system and a 32-channel head coil. (
  • Fractional release of NE per stimulation pulse was more than 5 times greater from the rabbit basilar artery than from the ear artery. (
  • Thus, while the NE content of the two vessels is quite similar, transmitter release is considerably greater in the basilar artery. (
  • Since NE accumulation is also much greater in the basilar artery, it seems possible that an active parameter such as NE release or accumulation may be a better index of functional nerve capacity than NE content. (
  • Previous studies have shown that alpha adrenergic blocking agents do not block the contractile response to nerve stimulation of the basilar artery, but actually increase it. (
  • We report a similar complication after distal intracranial (middle cerebral artery [MCA] M2 segment) angioplasty. (
  • The overall aim of this dissertation was to explore cerebral blood flow and intracranial pulsatility using MRI, with respect to measurement, physiological and pathophysiological aspects. (
  • Manually segmented intracranial vessels (internal carotid, middle cerebral, anterior cerebral, posterior cerebral, and basilar arteries) served as ground truth labels. (
  • However, surgical resection is especially challenging when tumors distort the intracranial arteries by compressing or growing around them. (
  • Neurosurgeons utilize intraoperative navigation systems when large tumors have severely distorted the intracranial arteries, as these systems are useful adjuncts for executing nuanced surgical plans, as well as confirming the extent of resection. (
  • Arboix A, Arbe G, García-Eroles L, Oliveres M, Parra O, Massons J. Infarctions in the vascular territory of the posterior cerebral artery: clinical features in 232 patients. (
  • Inspired by organ culture-induced changes in the vascular endothelin (ET) receptor population, we investigated whether such changes occur in cerebral arteries in a rat subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) model. (
  • An example would be a young individual with neck trauma in whom vascular imaging demonstrates a cervical artery dissection with thrombosis. (
  • Fear of such strokes thus far has prevented the widespread use of balloon angioplasty in the cerebral vascular system. (
  • We found that Ca 2+ -permeable transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels were present and colocalized with NADPH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 2 (NOX2), a major source of ROS, in the endothelium of cerebral arteries but not in other vascular beds. (
  • Results obtained in this preliminary series show how preoperative noninvasive testing of cerebral perfusion reserve adds to the diagnostic evaluation of patients with widespread vascular disease. (
  • Multi-detector row CT (MDCT) scanners with high spatial and temporal resolutions are now available and are increasingly used for non-invasive assessment of vascular disease, including coronary arteries and coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG). (
  • When the arteries were precontracted (by 3 X 10(-6) M prostaglandin F2 alpha), however, all three agents caused vascular relaxation with an order of effectiveness as follows: histamine = impromidine much much greater than PEA. (
  • Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that histamine H2 receptors are present in cerebral vascular smooth muscle as identified both in vitro and in situ. (
  • Does intrathecal midazolam can dampen vascular indices of maternal middle cerebral artery in ladies with severe preeclampsia? (
  • Multiplanar MRI enabled precise evaluation of involved vascular territories of cerebral infarcts in the basal grey matter region. (
  • Characteristics of posterior cerebral artery aneurysms: an angiographic analysis of 93 aneurysms in 81 patients. (
  • Common location for cerebral aneurysms. (
  • Although azygos arteries are rare in healthy population, aneurysms of azygos ASA are not rare due to increased haemodynamic stress. (
  • Eom, K.S. and Kang, S.D. (2001) A2 anomalies associated with anterior cerebral artery aneurysms. (
  • Auguste, K.I., Vare, M.L. and Lawton, M.T. (2004) Nonsaccular aneurysms of the azygos anterior cerebral artery. (
  • In BriefThe authors demonstrated that a greater degree of parent artery asymmetry for middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms is associated with high-risk features. (
  • Aneurysms and ectasias of saphenous vein grafts are infrequent complications of coronary artery bypass surgery. (
  • In most populations, the MCA is a frequent site for cerebral aneurysms. (
  • In a clinical series of 1314 consecutive patients with cerebral aneurysms, from a catchment area in Finland with a population of 870,000, MCAAs were present in 561(43%), (Rinne et al. (
  • 1995) while amongst the Taiwanese, cerebral aneurysms are located in the distributions of the MCA in about a fifth (19.6%) of patients (Howng et al. (
  • Authors: Sabet Sarvestani F, Azarpira N Abstract Heart and cerebral infarctions, as two important ischemic diseases, lead to the death of tissues due to inadequate blood supply and high mortality worldwide. (
  • Apigenin may play an important neuroprotective role in acute transient focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. (
  • We previously found in males that cerebral ischemia upregulates contractile receptors in cerebral arteries, which is associated with lower blood flow. (
  • We investigated whether CD36 participates in the molecular events underlying the inflammatory reaction that accompanies cerebral ischemia and may contribute to the tissue damage. (
  • The infiltration of neutrophils and the glial reaction induced by cerebral ischemia were suppressed. (
  • In contrast to cerebral ischemia, the molecular and cellular inflammatory changes induced by intracerebroventricular injection of interleukin-1β were not attenuated in CD36-null mice. (
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain showing hypodense areas in the right occipital lobe consistent with a recent posterior cerebral artery (PCA) ischemic infarct. (
  • The P2 segment bifurcates into the posterior temporal artery and the internal occipital artery. (
  • The internal occipital artery divides into calcarine and occipitoparietal branches. (
  • Infarctions of the posterior cerebral arteries most commonly affect vision ( occipital lobes ) but also may affect memory ( temporal lobes ), smell ( hippocampus ), emotion ( splenium ) and other midbrain and thalamic function. (
  • Posterior cerebral artery syndrome is a condition whereby the blood supply from the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is restricted, leading to a reduction of the function of the portions of the brain supplied by that vessel: the occipital lobe, the inferomedial temporal lobe, a large portion of the thalamus, and the upper brainstem and midbrain. (
  • Anterior cerebral arteries run in a rostro-occipital direction with the development of the corpus callosum [11]. (
  • The middle cerebral arteries supply the majority of the lateral surface of the hemisphere, except the superior portion of the parietal lobe (via the ACA) and the inferior portion of the temporal lobe and occipital lobe (via the PCA ). (
  • If the STA is too small or unsuitable, another vessel such as the occipital artery may be used. (
  • Posterior cerebral artery territory infarcts: clinical features, infarct topography, causes and outcome. (
  • Unenhanced head computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrating a subacute L posterior cerebral artery (PCA) infarct. (
  • Diagnosis of deep subcortical infarcts based on atherosclerosis of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is important because this type of infarct is usually more aggressive than typical lacunar infarcts. (
  • Obstructionor rupture of the left anterior cerebral artery in such cases might result in infarct of the medial surfaces of both cerebral hemispheres. (
  • One case involved the right middle cerebral artery and one case involved the left middle cerebral artery, and one case involved both middle cerebral arteries. (
  • The recordings were made from the right middle cerebral artery, slightly distal of the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. (
  • A repeat CT scan showed large gliotic area in left basal ganglia and left frontotemporal periventricular white matter with moderate hydrocephalus and right middle cerebral artery {MCA} was not visualized but left MCA was totally occluded. (
  • The middle cerebral artery is the largest of the cerebral arteries and the vessel most commonly affected by a cerebrovascular accident . (
  • Near the superior frontal gyrus these arteries anastamose with branches from the pericallosal artery of the anterior cerebral artery. (
  • These penetrating arteries include the thalamogeniculate, splenial (posterior pericallosal artery), and lateral and medial posterior choroidal arteries. (
  • The posterior pericallosal artery are also branches of the posterior cerebral arteries. (
  • Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTA 57-year-old man presented with a bilateral posterior cerebral artery attack and was visually impaired. (
  • METHODS: Bilateral cerebral angiograms with antero-posterior, lateral and oblique frontal views were obtained in 100 neurological patients aged from 5 to 90 years. (
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage enhances endothelin receptor expression and function in rat cerebral arteries. (
  • Background and Purpose -Hemodynamics of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage remain unclear, and the discrepancy between ultrasonographic or angiographic evidence of arterial narrowing and neurological ischemic deficit is still debated. (
  • Cerebral vasospasm has emerged as one of the most serious threats after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). (
  • Using the new approach the authors have observed musical murmurs of pure tone quality in 15 patients with increased flow velocities in the cerebral arteries after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). (
  • Cerebral vasospasm (CVS) is the most common serious complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage. (
  • The MCA arises from the internal carotid and continues into the lateral sulcus where it then branches and projects to many parts of the lateral cerebral cortex. (
  • Lateral frontobasal (orbitiofrontal): This artery branches out anteriorly, superiorly and laterally to vascularize the inferior frontal gyrus. (
  • This artery branches once or twice and is relatively invariant across anatomies. (
  • In some cases it branches from the rolandic artery or from the posterior parietal artery. (
  • Branches include lateral lentciulostriate arteries. (
  • Supplies most of the medial surface of the cerebral cortex (anterior three fourths), frontal pole (via cortical branches), and anterior portions of the corpus callosum. (
  • Perforating branches (including the recurrent artery of Heubner and Medial Lenticulostriate Arteries) supply the anterior limb of the internal capsule, the inferior portions of head of the caudate and anterior globus pallidus. (
  • An artery that is one of two terminal branches of the internal carotid artery, divided into two parts and supplying the branches to the thalamus and corpus striatum and to the cortex of the medial parts of the frontal and parietal lobes. (
  • An artery that is one of two terminal branches of the internal carotid artery, divided into three parts and supplying the perforating branches to the internal capsule, thalamus, and corpus striatum, the insula and adjacent cortical areas, and a large part of the central cortical convexity. (
  • Are the branches of the middle cerebral artery considered seperate and distinct vessels for the purposes of catheter placement and interventions (ie. (
  • The anterior cerebral artery originates at the internal carotid and travels at a right angle with penetrating branches supplying blood to various parts of the brain. (
  • It branches off the internal carotid artery. (
  • This segment "burrows into" the brain tissue via branches called the lateral lenticulostriate arteries. (
  • NECROSIS occurring in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY system, including branches such as Heubner's artery. (
  • The cerebral arteries describe three main pairs of arteries and their branches, which perfuse the cerebrum of the brain. (
  • PURPOSE Our goal was to analyze the anatomic similarity between the duplicated middle cerebral artery (MCA) and the accessory MCA and their relationship to the early branches of the MCA. (
  • The MCA arises from the internal carotid artery as the larger of the two main terminal branches (the other being the anterior cerebral artery ), coursing laterally into the lateral sulcus where it branches to perfuse the cerebral cortex. (
  • Three groups were obtained: arteries with solely the horizontal segment visible, horizontal and vertical segments visible and horizontal and vertical with intraparenchymal branches visible. (
  • The arterial circle and arteries of the brain. (
  • In the brain, oxygenated blood travels through an extensive and central cerebral arterial circle. (
  • Changes in the velocity of cerebral blood flow and arterial stiffness due to the different exhaled carbon-dioxide concentrations will allow us to conclude how sevoflurane affects these parameters during the course of the narcosis. (
  • The dilatation balloon then is inflated under substantial pressure to press the plaque and plaque-laden arterial wall radially outwardly to enlarge the stenosed region of artery. (
  • This work focused on assessing the pulsatile waveform of cerebral arterial, venous and CSF flows. (
  • Two-dimensional phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (2D PCMRI) was used to assess the pulsatile waveforms of cerebral arterial, venous and CSF flow. (
  • It is one of the arteries involved in the formation of the arterial circle of Willis at the base of the brain. (
  • Knowing the basic anatomy and function of this important artery can help you understand the functional anatomy of your brain's arterial system. (
  • The M1 segment perforates the brain with numerous anterolateral central (lateral lenticulostriate) arteries, which irrigate the basal ganglia . (
  • Medial Lenticulostriate Arteries (supply basal ganglia, anterior limb of internal capsule). (
  • These arteries are responsible for supplying blood to the basal ganglia. (
  • The anastomotic supply was through a fine network of basal ganglia perforating arteries that gave the pattern of a "puff of smoke" associated with moyamoya disease in two-dimensional (Figure 1 ) and three-dimensional CT angiography (Figure 2 ) and digital subtraction angiography (Figure 3 ). (
  • This MCA segment perforates parts of the brain with numerous small arteries and irrigates the basal ganglia. (
  • The aim of the study is to demonstrate that patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarcti. (
  • The arteries are usually divided into different segments from 1-4 or 5 to denote how far the level of the branch with the lower numbers denoting vessels closer to the source artery. (
  • Even though the arteries branching off these vessels retain some aspect of constancy in terms of size and position, a great amount of variety in topography, position, source and prominence nevertheless exists. (
  • A tonometry device named SphygmoCor is used to assess the pressure wave proceeding in the radial artery, from which the stiffness of the systemic vessels can be concluded. (
  • Most blood flow studies have been involved with large arteries, and thus, very little is known regarding the hemodynamic behavior of small perforating vessels. (
  • The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of cerebral vasospasm on perforating vessels using a phantom model of cerebral vasospasm. (
  • METHODS We reviewed stereoscopic angiograms of duplicated MCAs in four patients and accessory MCAs in four patients with reference to the origin, size, and cortical supply of these anomalous vessels, along with the presence of perforating arteries and the recurrent artery of Heubner (RAH). (
  • The previous attempts to perform cerebral percutaneous transluminal angioplasty have been limited to a small number of dilatations of proximal, extra-cranial vessels, and rare cases of distal intra-cranial vessels. (
  • It appears that postsynaptic events in cerebral arteries are atypical, while release of transmitter, including modulation by presynaptic alpha adrenergic receptors is similar to other blood vessels. (
  • A transcranial ultrasonic method for the recording of murmurs from cerebral vessels is described. (
  • Common vessels used as a graft are the saphenous vein in the leg or the radial or ulnar arteries in the arm. (
  • To compensate for the narrowing arteries, the brain creates collateral blood vessels in an attempt to deliver oxygen-rich blood to deprived areas of the brain. (
  • The arachnoid membrane was dissected off the cerebral hemispheres for proper visualization and identification of the vessels. (
  • He studied vessels on both the sides of the placenta, umbilical artery and umbilical vein. (
  • Doctors search for acute middle cerebral thrombosis - a blood clot in the vessel -because this is a very sound indicator of thromboembolic middle cerebral artery obstruction, blockage of the middle cerebral artery that is caused by a clot or particle that came from somewhere else. (
  • Evaluation of fetal middle cerebral artery Doppler indices in pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction: A cross-sectional study. (
  • Aims and Objective: The aim of this study to evaluate the role of color Doppler velocimetry of the fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) velocity waveforms, systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D), pulsatility index (PI), and resistance index (RI) in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) pregnancies in II and III trimesters. (
  • Some have measured the S/D, PI, and RI in the umbilical artery and fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA). (
  • Perlmutter, D. and Rhoton Jr., A.L. (1978) Microsurgical anatomy of the distal anterior cerebral artery. (
  • Unpaired distal anterior cerebral artery (ACA), also known as azygos ACA, is a rare condition in anatomical and angiographic studies. (
  • Pink is region supplied by middle cerebral artery. (
  • Given the particular anatomy of perforating arteries, characterized by an abrupt decrease in lumen diameter and a right-angle bifurcation from the parent artery, it seems unlikely that those arteries would behave according to the same hemodynamic rules as for end arteries. (
  • Microsurgical anatomy of the middle cerebral artery. (
  • Both the morphology of the stenotic vessel and hemodynamics of cerebral perfusion change after CAS. (
  • Cerebral perfusion reserve testing using fluorine-18-fluoromethane and position emission tomographic brain scanning to define cerebral blood flow abnor- malities was performed in 5 patients being considered for combined coronary and carotid reconstructive surgery. (
  • Continuous Retrograde Cardiac Perfusion Decreases Risk of Reoperative Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting. (
  • These arteries fan out over the insula and exit to the cortex via the medial surface of the frontal operculum . (
  • Pre-Rolandic artery (precentral): The artery extends out on the medial surface of the operculum and supplies the posterior parts of the middle and inferior frontal gyri as well as the lower parts of the pre-central gyrus. (
  • Supplies the medial surface of the cerebral hemispheres and corpus callosum. (
  • The anterior cerebral artery supplies most of the superior-medial parietal lobes and portions of the frontal lobes with fresh blood. (
  • All three arteries send out arteries that perforate brain in the medial central portions prior to branching and bifurcating further. (
  • In 18-mm embryos (40 days) the anterior cerebral artery takes a medial course. (
  • The unusual fusion of paired post-communicant segments of ACA originates either from the medial branch of the olfactory artery at the initial 16-mm stage of embryogenesis or the persistance of the median artery in the corpus callosum at the 20 - 24 mm stage [2,4]. (
  • The book also gives an insight into the clinical manifestations of carotid and vertebral artery dissection and to the possibilities and limitations of the main diagnostic tools, ultrasound, CT and MR imaging, and angiography. (
  • NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. (
  • Seventeen arteries arose from the lateral wall of the ACA and seven from the superior wall of the A1 segment of the ACA. (
  • Other cases include duplication of the MCA at the internal carotid artery (ICA) or an accessory MCA (AccMCA) which arise not from the ICA but as a branch from the anterior cerebral artery. (
  • Recurrent Artery of Heubner (supplies head of caudate and anteroinferior internal capsule). (
  • INTRODUCTION: Heubner's recurrent artery (RAH) in brain selective catheter angiograms (digital subtraction angiography, DSA) was evaluated. (
  • The symptoms that prompted cerebral angiography were ischemic in all cases. (
  • Middle cerebral artery intraplaque hemorrhage: prevalence and clinical relevance. (
  • Little is known about the composition of middle cerebral artery (MCA) plaques and how they relate to clinical status. (
  • A large-scale study is necessary to assess the clinical implications of cerebral vasoconstriction after carotid artery stenting. (
  • The article discusses the findings from the Coronary Artery Revascularisation in Diabetes (CARDia) clinical trial. (
  • The clinical and radiological spectrum of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. (
  • Under isoflurane anesthesia, a filament was inserted through an incision in the external carotid artery and slid into the internal carotid artery so that it blocked the right middle cerebral and ophthalmic arteries. (
  • The right ophthalmic artery was occluded for 2 hours prior to reperfusion in nine wistar rats, while the left served as an internal control. (
  • RESULTS The duplicated MCAs supplied the cortical territory of the temporopolar and the anterior temporal and/or middle temporal arteries. (
  • The accessory MCAs supplied the cortical territory of the orbitofrontal and/or prefrontal arteries. (
  • If there is a blockage in one artery near the Circle of Willis, blood can be diverted around the blockage and continue to nourish the brain. (
  • A cerebral bypass can be performed in a variety of ways depending on where the blockage has occurred, the underlying condition being treated, and the size of the brain area to be revascularized. (
  • Patients with symptomatic vasospasm, however, often present with neurological signs suggesting involvement of deep-sited areas of the brain supplied by perforating arteries. (
  • Conclusions -The present results show that local cerebral vasospasm induces changes in postvasospastic velocity profile affecting the shear rate and may eventually lead to flow separation. (
  • These alterations of cerebral hemodynamics may account for at least part of the vasospasm symptomatology, especially in the vertebrobasilar system, where vasospasm is commonly focal rather than diffuse. (
  • Furthermore, these changes proved to be affected significantly by manipulations of pressure and viscosity, supporting the use of hyperdynamic therapy in the management of cerebral vasospasm. (
  • Cerebral complications due to diffuse cerebral vasospasm are most common and serious. (
  • Intrathecal midazolam with its gamma amino butyric action may antidote glutamate mediated sympathetic surge and decreasing cerebral vasospasm. (
  • Cerebral vasospasm is a corner stone in endothelial failure due sympathetic surge. (
  • Most fatal complications are due to diffuse cerebral vasospasm [7]. (
  • Molecular mechanisms involved in development of cerebral vasospasm. (
  • The middle cerebral artery ( MCA ) is one of the three major paired arteries that supply blood to the cerebrum . (
  • Ischemic strokes occur when blood cannot flow to cerebral structures. (
  • The brachial artery is a major blood vessel located in the upper arm and is the main supplier of blood to the arm and hand. (
  • The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the largest of the three major arteries that channels fresh blood to the brain. (
  • Blockages of the proximal portion of the vessel produce only minor deficits due to the collateral blood flow from the opposite hemisphere via the posterior communicating artery. (
  • An ultrasound device called transcranial doppler (TCD) is used to measure the velocity of blood flow within a main artery located inside the skull. (
  • Mean blood flow velocity (MBFV) and pulsatility index (PI) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) are obtained. (
  • SphygmoCor is placed on the left radial artery to obtain data about the central aortic blood pressure, augmentation pressure (AP) and augmentation index normalised to a 75 beat per minute heart rate (Alx75). (
  • Differences in the depth of anesthesia could influence cerebral activity, thereby cerebral metabolism and blood flow. (
  • Although this operation significantly reduces mortality and improves functional outcomes, the conventional technique involves a reverse question mark incision starting anterior to the tragus that can injure the scalp's major blood supply, the superficial temporal artery (STA), which increases the risk of postoperative complications. (
  • Maintaining constant blood flow in the face of fluctuations in blood pressure is a critical autoregulatory feature of cerebral arteries. (
  • The middle cerebral artery (also known as MCA) is the main blood vessel that brings oxygen and nutrients to important areas of your brain. (
  • The Circle of Willis creates a network of arteries in your brain that allow blood to flow from one side to the other. (
  • The middle cerebral artery travels to important structures in your brain, bringing blood and nutrients to these areas. (
  • The middle cerebral artery is a large artery that travels to various parts of your brain, bringing in blood and nutrients and removing carbon dioxide and waste. (
  • Cerebral arteries must maintain constant blood flow to the brain even though blood pressure fluctuates constantly. (
  • None of the subjects had dementia, although 18 subjects had impaired blood flow at the beginning of the study, as measured by ultrasounds of the middle cerebral artery , a major life channel in the brain. (
  • Systemic artery blood pressure was elevated in β(1)(-/-) mice. (
  • In contrast, pulmonary artery blood pressure was normal in β(1)(-/-) mice. (
  • Middle cerebral artery (MCA) and umbilical artery (UA) Doppler blood flow pulsatility indices (PIs) and MCA peak systolic velocity (PSV) are essential variables for clinically evaluating fetal well-being. (
  • In gestational weeks 30 and 36, we observed a postprandial influence that was apparently specific to fetal cerebral blood flow. (
  • Blood flow testing during normocapnia and following hypercapnia was utilized in these patients to determine the hemodynamic significance of known extracranial carotid artery occlusive lesions. (
  • Clinically the presence of musical murmurs indicated that pathologically increased blood velocities were present in the artery under investigation. (
  • Cerebral bypass surgery is performed to restore, or 'revascularize,' blood flow to the brain. (
  • The surgery connects a blood vessel from outside the brain to a vessel inside the brain to reroute blood flow around a damaged or blocked artery. (
  • Blood carries nutrients and oxygen to the brain through four main arteries: the right and left carotid arteries and the right and left vertebral arteries. (
  • In a cerebral artery bypass, the surgeon reroutes blood flow around a blocked or damaged artery to improve or restore blood flow to an oxygen-deprived (ischemic) area of the brain. (
  • The graft is connected above and below the blocked artery so that blood flow is rerouted (bypassed) through the graft. (
  • The scalp artery now supplies blood to the brain and bypasses the blocked or damaged vessel. (
  • This method is typically used when a smaller (low-flow) artery has narrowed and is incapable of delivering enough blood to the brain. (
  • The superficial temporal artery (STA) normally provides blood to the face and scalp. (
  • The middle cerebral artery (MCA) normally provides blood to the frontal, temporal and parietal lobes of the brain. (
  • Blood flow through the MCA is often reduced when narrowing of the internal carotid artery occurs. (
  • Temporal view transcranial Doppler imaging maternal middle cerebral artery is used to examine blood flow indices namely pulsat i lity index and resistiv e index. (
  • A silicone filament was inserted through the internal carotid artery until blood flow reduction was confirmed in the middle cerebral artery via laser-doppler. (
  • Suspected mechanisms of seizure were a cerebral blood flow change induced by BTO and neurotoxicity of accumulated contrast medium. (
  • A multiscale model of cerebral blood flow regulation: K+ mediated neurovascular coupling in capillaries and arteries. (
  • Neuronal activity leads to increases in local cerebral blood flow (CBF) to allow adequate supply of O2 and nutrients to active neurons. (
  • Blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAv) may be used as a proxy measure of cerebral blood flow. (
  • Outer surface of cerebral hemisphere, showing areas supplied by cerebral arteries. (
  • origin) of Anterior Cerebral Artery produces contralateral sensorimotor deficits mainly involving the lower extremity with sparing of face and hands (think of the humunculus). (
  • Five RAHs were visible only after contrast injection in the contralateral internal carotid artery. (
  • At the base of the brain, the carotid and vertebrobasilar arteries form a circle of communicating arteries known as the Circle of Willis. (
  • Leading international experts summarize up-to-date findings on the presentation, diagnosis, pathogenesis and therapy of cerebral artery dissection. (
  • Several topics, such as the first animal model of cervical artery dissection, the epidemiology and its association with connective tissue abnormalities in skin and arteries, genetic approaches in the study of risk factors as well as the main etiologies of spontaneous and traumatic cervical artery dissection are discussed. (
  • The last part of the publication presents the prognosis, thrombolysis and antithrombotic therapy of cervical artery dissection and concludes with an overview of intracranical dissection. (
  • We found a rare variation of the right anterior cerebral artery during the dissection of the brain. (
  • A diagnosis of middle cerebral artery ischaemia due to internal carotid artery dissection was made and treated aggressively. (
  • This phenomenon may, in turn, result in a venturi-like effect over the aperture of perforating arteries branching out of the postvasospastic portion of the affected parent artery. (
  • The initial segment of the artery was hypoplastic and plexiform. (
  • Chuang, Y.-M., Liu, C.-Y., Pan, P.-J. and Lin, C.-P. (2007) Anterior cerebral artery A1 segment hypoplasia may contribute to A1 hypoplasia syndrome. (
  • RESULTS: A total of 24 RAHs were recognised in 20 patients: 7 arose from the A1, 5 from the anterior cerebral artery (ACA)-anterior communicating artery (Acom), 11 from the A2, whereas in 1 case, the segment of origin from the ACA could not be identified. (
  • A horizontal segment was visible in 7 arteries, a horizontal followed by a vertical segment without visible intraparenchymal branching pattern was seen in 6 and a horizontal and vertical segment with visible intraparenchymal branching pattern was seen in 11. (
  • In five, the artery made a half loop with an inferior-convex curve just before the vertical segment, and in two cases, a full loop was observed. (
  • The middle cerebral arteries (top of figure) arise from the internal carotid arteries . (
  • The left and right MCAs rise from trifurcations of the internal carotid arteries and thus are connected to the anterior cerebral arteries and the posterior communicating arteries , which connect to the posterior cerebral arteries . (
  • From Internal Carotid Bifurcation to Anterior Communicating Artery. (
  • an autonomic plexus accompanying the anterior cerebral artery, derived from the internal carotid plexus. (
  • Hyperperfusion syndrome is a well-documented complication of carotid endarterectomy, as well as internal carotid artery angioplasty and stent placement. (
  • After systemic heparinization (bolus of 5000 UI), a 6F Amplatz Right Guide catheter was placed in the left internal carotid artery. (
  • Using an infusion catheter (Ultrafuse 3.6 F) that was advanced to the upper end of the cervical part of the internal carotid artery, we performed LIT with urokinase (total dose, 700 000 U) near the proximal end of the occluding thrombus. (
  • Anterior cerebral artery is the smaller terminal branch of the internal carotid artery. (
  • The isolated cat cerebral arteries (basilar, middle cerebral, anterior cerebral, and internal carotid) were studied in vitro. (
  • A: Spectral display of the musical murmurs (lower) and the Doppler signal (upper) in the region where the right internal carotid artery divides into the middle and anterior cerebral arteries. (
  • a narrowing of the internal carotid arteries at the base of the brain that can cause multiple strokes or hemorrhages. (
  • The MCAs were injected with Congo red dye after adequately ligating the distal one-third of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the proximal one-third of the posterior communicating artery. (
  • We report a case of prolonged seizures and left hemiparesis during and after BTO of the right internal carotid artery. (
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: 4D PCMRI can be used to quantify pulsatile hemodynamics in multiple cerebral arteries. (
  • The aim of this study was to compare 4D PCMRI and 2D PCMRI for assessments of pulsatile hemodynamics in major cerebral arteries. (
  • Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ), generated by PLCγ1 in response to pressure, sensitized IP 3 receptors (IP 3 Rs) to Ca 2+ influx mediated by the mechanosensitive TRPC6 channel, synergistically increasing IP 3 R-mediated Ca 2+ release to activate TRPM4 currents, leading to smooth muscle depolarization and constriction of isolated cerebral arteries. (
  • The present study thus investigated the mechanisms underlying sustained myogenic constriction in isolated rat posterior cerebral arteries. (
  • Conclusions PKC isoforms have different roles in the development and maintain of the myogenic constriction in rat posterior cerebral arteries: cPKC (α and/or γ) mediates Ca 2+ sensitization in the initial phase, whereas PKCδ mediates [Ca 2+ ] i elevation via the activation of RuR-resistant cation channels in the sustained phase. (
  • ACh at low concentration (3 x 10(-8) to 3 x 10(-6) M) induced relaxation, and at high concentration (10(-5) to 3 x 10(-3) M) induced constriction of the arteries with endothelial cells. (
  • In contrast, concentration of any magnitude (10(-6) to 3 x 10(-3) M) induced constriction exclusively in arteries without endothelium. (
  • Male-female differences in upregulation of vasoconstrictor responses in human cerebral arteries. (