Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Anterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Cerebral Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Infarction, Anterior Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY system, including branches such as Heubner's artery. These arteries supply blood to the medial and superior parts of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, Infarction in the anterior cerebral artery usually results in sensory and motor impairment in the lower body.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Infarction, Posterior Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS induced by ISCHEMIA in the POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which supplies portions of the BRAIN STEM; the THALAMUS; TEMPORAL LOBE, and OCCIPITAL LOBE. Depending on the size and location of infarction, clinical features include OLFACTION DISORDERS and visual problems (AGNOSIA; ALEXIA; HEMIANOPSIA).Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Reperfusion: Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.Malaria, Cerebral: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Pia Mater: The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Mesenteric Artery, Superior: A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Constriction: The act of constricting.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Celiac Artery: The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Moyamoya Disease: A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Intracranial Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Thoracic Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Muscle Tonus: The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Bronchial Arteries: Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Ulnar Artery: The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Nimodipine: A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Uterine Artery: A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations: Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Meningeal Arteries: Arteries which supply the dura mater.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Myography: The recording of muscular movements. The apparatus is called a myograph, the record or tracing, a myogram. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Echoencephalography: Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.Hypocapnia: Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Papio: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Axillary Artery: The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection: The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Endarterectomy, Carotid: The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Papaverine: An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Technetium Tc 99m Exametazime: A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Mice, Inbred C57BLPostoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Biological Factors: Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency: Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Iofetamine: An amphetamine analog that is rapidly taken up by the lungs and from there redistributed primarily to the brain and liver. It is used in brain radionuclide scanning with I-123.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Nitroarginine: An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).

Loss of endothelium and receptor-mediated dilation in pial arterioles of rats fed a short-term high salt diet. (1/2638)

A high salt diet often is regarded as an accessory risk factor in hypertension, coincidental to the deleterious effect of high blood pressure on vasodilator function. The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term ingestion of a high salt diet per se impairs vasodilator function in the cerebral circulation independent of blood pressure changes. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal salt (0.8%) or high salt (4%) diet for 3 days. Mean arterial pressures were similar in the normal and high salt groups (123+/-2 and 125+/-2 mm Hg, respectively). Subsequently, the responses of the in situ pial arterioles to acetylcholine, iloprost, and sodium nitroprusside were determined in cranial windows using intravital videomicroscopy. Pial arterioles of rats fed normal and high salt diets showed similar resting diameters of 69+/-2 and 72+/-3 microm, respectively, but their reactivity patterns to vasodilator stimuli were markedly different. Arterioles of rats fed a normal salt diet dilated progressively up to 17+/-3% in response to the endothelium-dependent agent acetylcholine (10(-9) to 10(-6) mol/L) and dilated by 22+/-2% in response to the prostaglandin I2 receptor agonist iloprost (3x10(-11) mol/L). In contrast, pial arterioles of rats fed a high salt diet constricted by 4+/-3% and 8+/-2% in response to acetylcholine and iloprost, respectively. Sodium nitroprusside (10(-6) mol/L), a nitric oxide donor, dilated pial arterioles of rats fed low and high salt diets by a similar amount (19+/-3% and 16+/-2%, respectively), suggesting that signaling mechanisms for dilation distal to the vascular smooth muscle membrane were intact after high salt intake. These results provide the first evidence that the short-term ingestion of a high salt diet may severely impair the vasodilator function of the in situ cerebral microcirculation independent of blood pressure elevation.  (+info)

The trigeminovascular system in humans: pathophysiologic implications for primary headache syndromes of the neural influences on the cerebral circulation. (2/2638)

Primary headache syndromes, such as cluster headache and migraine, are widely described as vascular headaches, although considerable clinical evidence suggests that both are primarily driven from the brain. The shared anatomical and physiologic substrate for both of these clinical problems is the neural innervation of the cranial circulation. Functional imaging with positron emission tomography has shed light on the genesis of both syndromes, documenting activation in the midbrain and pons in migraine and in the hypothalamic gray in cluster headache. These areas are involved in the pain process in a permissive or triggering manner rather than as a response to first-division nociceptive pain impulses. In a positron emission tomography study in cluster headache, however, activation in the region of the major basal arteries was observed. This is likely to result from vasodilation of these vessels during the acute pain attack as opposed to the rest state in cluster headache, and represents the first convincing activation of neural vasodilator mechanisms in humans. The observation of vasodilation was also made in an experimental trigeminal pain study, which concluded that the observed dilation of these vessels in trigeminal pain is not inherent to a specific headache syndrome, but rather is a feature of the trigeminal neural innervation of the cranial circulation. Clinical and animal data suggest that the observed vasodilation is, in part, an effect of a trigeminoparasympathetic reflex. The data presented here review these developments in the physiology of the trigeminovascular system, which demand renewed consideration of the neural influences at work in many primary headaches and, thus, further consideration of the physiology of the neural innervation of the cranial circulation. We take the view that the known physiologic and pathophysiologic mechanisms of the systems involved dictate that these disorders should be collectively regarded as neurovascular headaches to emphasize the interaction between nerves and vessels, which is the underlying characteristic of these syndromes. Moreover, the syndromes can be understood only by a detailed study of the cerebrovascular physiologic mechanisms that underpin their expression.  (+info)

Transforming growth factor-alpha acting at the epidermal growth factor receptor reduces infarct volume after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. (3/2638)

Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) is a ligand for the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR), and is more abundant than EGF in the brain. The authors studied whether administration of exogenous TGF-alpha into the brain can protect neurons against ischemia in a model of permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in the rat, and whether any effect of TGF-alpha was mediated by EGFR by administering 4,5-dianilinophthalimide (DAPH), a protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitor with high selectivity for EGFR. Rats received either TGF-alpha (10 or 25 ng), DAPH (100 ng), DAPH plus TGF-alpha (25 ng), or vehicle in the ipsilateral first ventricle. Drugs were administered twice: 30 minutes before and 30 minutes after MCA occlusion, and infarct volume was evaluated 24 hours later. Transforming growth factor-alpha at the dose of 25 ng caused a statistically significant reduction of infarct volume (60%) in relation to ischemic rats administered vehicle. This reduction was no longer seen when TGF-alpha was administered in combination with DAPH. The present results show that TGF-alpha can protect neurons from ischemic damage, and that this effect is mediated by EGFR. It is suggested that activation of EGFR-mediated intracellular signalling pathways contributes to the survival of neural cells susceptible to ischemic injury.  (+info)

Role of iNOS in the vasodilator responses induced by L-arginine in the middle cerebral artery from normotensive and hypertensive rats. (4/2638)

1. The substrate of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), L-arginine (L-Arg, 0.01 microM - 1 mM), induced endothelium-independent relaxations in segments of middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and hypertensive rats (SHR) precontracted with prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). These relaxations were higher in SHR than WKY arteries. 2. L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and 2-amine-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-1,3-tiazine (AMT), unspecific and inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitors, respectively, reduced those relaxations, specially in SHR. 3. Four- and seven-hours incubation with dexamethasone reduced the relaxations in MCAs from WKY and SHR, respectively. 4. Polymyxin B and calphostin C, protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, reduced the L-Arg-induced relaxation. 5. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 7 h incubation) unaltered and inhibited these relaxations in WKY and SHR segments, respectively. LPS antagonized the effect polymyxin B in WKY and potentiated L-Arg-induced relaxations in SHR in the presence of polymyxin B. 6. The contraction induced by PGF2alpha was greater in SHR than WKY arteries. This contraction was potentiated by dexamethasone and polymyxin B although the effect of polymyxin B was higher in SHR segments. LPS reduced that contraction and antagonized dexamethasone- and polymyxin B-induced potentiation, these effects being greater in arteries from SHR. 7. These results suggest that in MCAs: (1) the induction of iNOS participates in the L-Arg relaxation and modulates the contraction to PGF2alpha; (2) that induction is partially mediated by a PKC-dependent mechanism; and (3) the involvement of iNOS in such responses is greater in the hypertensive strain.  (+info)

Two similar cases of encephalopathy, possibly a reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome: serial findings of magnetic resonance imaging, SPECT and angiography. (5/2638)

Two young women who had encephalopathy that resembled reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome are presented. The brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of these patients exhibited similar T2-high signal lesions, mostly in the white matter of the posterior hemispheres. Xe-SPECT during the patients' symptomatic period showed hypoperfusion in the corresponding areas, and angiography demonstrated irregular narrowing of the posterior cerebral artery. Clinical manifestations subsided soon after treatment, and the abnormal radiological findings also were almost completely resolved. Thus, we concluded that transient hypoperfusion followed by ischemia and cytotoxic edema might have had a pivotal role in these cases.  (+info)

Age and stimulus dependency of visually evoked cerebral blood flow responses. (6/2638)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: During visual stimulation, the increased metabolic demand is coupled with an increase of cerebral blood flow velocity (pCBFV) in the posterior cerebral artery (PCA). Investigation of the visually evoked flow responses (VEFR, expressed as percentage of increase from baseline pCBFV values) was suggested for different conditions of vasoneuronal disorders in the absence of any systematic investigation in healthy subjects. METHODS: We investigated VEFRs from both PCAs to various increasingly complex paradigms (diffuse light, alternating checkerboard patterns, and a color video movie stimulation; 5, 10, 20, and 30-second intervals) in 60 healthy volunteers (mean age, 41.5+/-14.9 years; range, 24 to 80 years; 28 male, 32 female) at different recording sites (P1 versus P2 segments of PCAs). RESULTS: With increasing complexity of stimulation, the VEFRs increased significantly (24.3+/-10.3%, 28.5+/-13.5%, and 43.4+/-10.7%, respectively). Twenty-second stimulation intervals yielded maximal responses (41.5+/-13.2%) compared with 5-, 10-, and 30-second intervals (22.6+/-14.1%, P=0.001; 34.4+/-11.7%, P=0.0042; and 35.5+/-9.9%, P=0.0032, respectively). Significantly higher responses were gained from P2 segments than from P1 segments (42.7+/-7.2% versus 28.2+/-7.1%). Although VEFRs tended to decrease in amplitude with age (mean, 41. 7+/-10.5% [20 to 40 years], 35+/-9.2% [40 to 60 years], and 33.9+/-8.6% [60 to 80 years]); without significant sex-related differences, only the percentage decrement of the pulsatility indices during stimulation were significant (mean, 24+/-10.7% [20 to 40 years], 20+/-7.3% [40 to 60 years], and 13+/-11.2% [60 to 80 years]). CONCLUSIONS: For optimal stimulus conditions for maximum VEFRs, a colored video stimulation of 20-second intervals should be used to combine responses not only from the primary visual projection fields (V1 and V2) but also from temporal lobe areas (V3 through V5) often supplied by the PCA.  (+info)

Blockade and reversal of endothelin-induced constriction in pial arteries from human brain. (7/2638)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Substantial evidence now implicates endothelin (ET) in the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular disorders such as the delayed vasospasm associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. We investigated the ET receptor subtypes mediating vasoconstriction in human pial arteries. METHODS: ET receptors on human pial and intracerebral arteries were visualized with the use of autoradiography, and the subtypes mediating vasoconstriction were identified by means of wire myography. RESULTS: ET-1 was more potent than ET-3 as a vasoconstrictor, indicating an ETA-mediated effect. Similarly, the selective ETB agonist sarafotoxin S6c had no effect on contractile action at concentrations up to 30 nmol/L. The nonpeptide ETA receptor antagonist PD156707 (3 to 30 nmol/L) caused a parallel rightward shift of the ET-1-induced response, yielding a pA2 of 9.2. Consistent with these results, PD156707 (30 nmol/L) fully reversed an established constriction in pial arteries induced by 1 nmol/L ET-1, while the selective ETB receptor antagonist BQ788 (1 micromol/L) had little effect. The calcium channel blocker nimodipine (0.3 to 3 micromol/L) significantly attenuated the maximum response to ET-1 in a concentration-dependent manner without changing potency. In agreement with the functional data, specific binding of [125I]PD151242 to ETA receptors was localized to the smooth muscle layer of pial and intracerebral blood vessels. In contrast, little or no [125I]BQ3020 binding to ETB receptors was detected. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate an important role for ETA receptors in ET-1-induced constriction of human pial arteries and suggest that ETA receptor antagonists may provide additional dilatory benefit in cerebrovascular disorders associated with raised ET levels.  (+info)

Cerebrovascular alterations in protein kinase C-mediated constriction in stroke-prone rats. (8/2638)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebrovascular pressure-dependent constriction may involve the smooth muscle production of diacylglycerol, which could facilitate constriction by activating protein kinase C (PKC). A dysfunctional PKC system could promote the loss of pressure-dependent constriction. We attempted to determine whether the alterations in pressure-dependent constriction in the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) observed in relation to stroke development in Wistar-Kyoto stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRsp) were associated with defects in the ability of the arteries to constrict in response to PKC activation. METHODS: MCAs were sampled from SHRsp before and after stroke development and in stroke-resistant Wistar-Kyoto spontaneously hypertensive rats. A pressure myograph was used to test the ability of the arteries to constrict in response to a 100 mm Hg pressure step and subsequently to contract in response to phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate in the presence of nifedipine (3 micromol/L). RESULTS: Pressure-dependent constriction and constriction in response to phorbol dibutyrate in the MCAs were inhibited by PKC inhibitors (staurosporine [40 nmol/L], chelerythrine [12 micromol/L], bisindolylmaleimide [5 micromol/L]), declined with age before stroke development in SHRsp, and were absent after stroke. There was a significant relationship between pressure- and phorbol dibutyrate-induced constriction (r=0.815, P<0. 05). CONCLUSIONS: Phorbol esters interact with the same activation site as diacylglycerol to stimulate PKC. An inability to constrict in response to phorbol dibutyrate may reflect unresponsiveness to diacylglycerol and may contribute to the loss of pressure-dependent constriction associated with stroke in the MCAs of SHRsp. The loss of this autoregulatory function before stroke could increase the risk of cerebral hemorrhage.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Voltage-gated K+ channels in rat small cerebral arteries. T2 - Molecular identity of the functional channels. AU - Albarwani, Sulayma. AU - Nemetz, Leah T.. AU - Madden, Jane A.. AU - Tobin, Ann A.. AU - England, Sarah K.. AU - Pratt, Phillip F.. AU - Rusch, Nancy J.. PY - 2003/9/15. Y1 - 2003/9/15. N2 - Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent an important dilator influence in the cerebral circulation, but the composition of these tetrameric ion channels remains unclear. The goals of the present study were to evaluate the contribution of Kv1 family channels to the resting membrane potential and diameter of small rat cerebral arteries, and to identify the α-subunit composition of these channels using patch-clamp, molecular and immunological techniques. Initial studies indicated that 1 μmol l-1 correolide (COR), a specific antagonist of Kv1 channels, depolarized vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in pressurized (60 mmHg cerebral arteries from -55 ± 1 mV to -34 ± 1 mV, ...
The isolated cat cerebral arteries (basilar, middle cerebral, anterior cerebral, and internal carotid) were studied in vitro. ACh at low concentration (3 x 10(-8) to 3 x 10(-6) M) induced relaxation, and at high concentration (10(-5) to 3 x 10(-3) M) induced constriction of the arteries with endothelial cells. In contrast, concentration of any magnitude (10(-6) to 3 x 10(-3) M) induced constriction exclusively in arteries without endothelium. Atropine (3 x 10(-6) to 3 x 10(-5) M) blocked and physostigmine (3 x 10(-6) M) potentiated both ACh-induced relaxation and constriction. These results suggest that the relaxation induced by exogenous ACh is solely dependent on the endothelial cells and that the primary effect of the direct action of ACh on the smooth muscle cells is constriction. Transmural nerve stimulation (TNS) induced a frequency-dependent relaxation in the arteries with or without endothelium. Neither atropine nor physostigmine affected the TNS-induced dilator response in either ...
Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent vasodilator that was initially described as the mediator of endothelium-dependent relaxation (endothelium-derived relaxing factor, EDRF). It is now known that NO is produced by a variety of other cell types.. Endothelium produces NO (EDRF) under basal conditions and in response to a variety of vasoactive stimuli in large cerebral arteries and the cerebral microcirculation. Endothelium-dependent relaxation is impaired in the presence of several pathophysiological conditions. This impairment may contribute to cerebral ischemia or stroke. Activation of glutamate receptors appears to be a major stimulus for production of NO by neurons. Neuronally derived NO may mediate local increases in cerebral blood flow during increases in cerebral metabolism. NO synthase-containing neurons also innervate large cerebral arteries and cerebral arterioles on the brain surface. Activation of parasympathetic fibers that innervate cerebral vessels produces NO-dependent increases in ...
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Simultaneous measurements were made of spike activity and perfusion pressure (PA) in intact segments of rabbit middle cerebral artery in vitro. The segments were mounted on a Teflon tube designed so that the perfusing solution flowed in the annular space between the tube and the artery wall, thus magnifying the PA changes occurring when the artery constricted or dilated. A widened portion of the Teflon tube immobilized 1--2 mm of the artery segment for electrical recording with fine glass microelectrodes. Spontaneous spike activity (extra- and intracellular) was regularly observed. When a steady PA and spike discharge was obtained, tests were performed by substituting for the normal perfusion liquid, solutions containing 5 microgram/ml norepinephrine, 5 microgram/ml angiotensin II or 7.5 microgram/ml isoproterenol. Norepinephrine and angiotensin each increased spike frequency (+ 293 and + 126%) and PA (+ 6.6 and + 7.9 mm Hg) whereas isoproterenol decreased spike frequency (-89%) and PA (-22.9 mm ...
Synonyms for cerebral artery, posterior in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for cerebral artery, posterior. 11 synonyms for artery: vein, blood vessel, route, way, course, round, road, passage, avenue, arteria, arterial blood vessel. What are synonyms for cerebral artery, posterior?
Recommendations from experts and recently established guidelines on how to improve the face and predictive validity of animal models of stroke have stressed the importance of using older animals and long-term behavioral-functional endpoints rather than relying almost exclusively on acute measures of infarct volume in young animals. The objective of the present study was to determine whether we could produce occlusions in older rats with an acceptable mortality rate and then detect reliable, long-lasting functional deficits. A reversible intraluminar suture middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) procedure was used to produce small infarcts in middle-aged rats. This resulted in an acceptable mortality rate, and robust disabilities were detected in functional assays, although the degree of total tissue loss measured 90 d after MCAO was quite modest. Infarcted animals were functionally impaired relative to sham control animals even 90 d after the occlusions, and when animals were subgrouped based ...
Maintaining constant blood flow in the face of fluctuations in blood pressure is a critical autoregulatory feature of cerebral arteries. An increase in pressure within the artery lumen causes the vessel to constrict through depolarization and contraction of the encircling smooth muscle cells. This pressure-sensing mechanism involves activation of two types of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels: TRPC6 and TRPM4. We provide evidence that the activation of the γ1 isoform of phospholipase C (PLCγ1) is critical for pressure sensing in cerebral arteries. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), generated by PLCγ1 in response to pressure, sensitized IP3 receptors (IP3Rs) to Ca2+ influx mediated by the mechanosensitive TRPC6 channel, synergistically increasing IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release to activate TRPM4 currents, leading to smooth muscle depolarization and constriction of isolated cerebral arteries. Proximity ligation assays demonstrated colocalization of PLCγ1 and TRPC6 with TRPM4, suggesting ...
In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms by which TNF-α, a pleiotropic cytokine, regulates the diameter of small cerebral arteries. Our data indicate that TNF-α activates smooth muscle cell NAD(P)H oxidase, leading to the generation of ROS that activate Ca2+ sparks and thus transient KCa currents. The ensuing decrease in global [Ca2+]i leads to vasodilation. These findings show for the first time that an inflammatory mediator that is central to a variety of vascular diseases induces vasodilation through Ca2+ spark activation.. TNF-α is produced in the brain during ischemia and is implicated in the etiology of several cardiovascular diseases, including stroke, cardiac failure, coronary artery disease, and atherosclerosis (15, 46). TNF-α is reported to induce both vasoconstriction and vasodilation. Topical application of TNF-α dilated cerebral arterioles (7, 37), whereas intracranial injection of TNF-α induced cerebrovascular constriction and reduced blood flow (29, 38, 44). ...
Shaker-type, voltage-gated K+ (KV1) channels are an important determinant of the resting membrane potential and diameter of small cerebral arteries. During hype...
Hardening of the arteries in the brain or other parts of the body is known as atherosclerosis, and it is typically caused by an accumulation of LDL cholesterol in the arteries, WebMD reports....
Research says, 3D ultrasound can compensate for the thickness of the skull and image the brains arteries in real time. Research says, 3D ultrasound can compensate for the thickness of the skull and image the brains arteries in real time.Experts believe that these advances will ultimately improve the treatment of
BRAIN DAMAGING HABITS. 1.. No BreakfastPeople who do not take breakfast are going to have a lower blood. sugar level. This leads to an insufficient supply of nutrients to the. brain causing brain degeneration.. 2. . Overeating=2 0It causes hardening of the brain arteries, leading to a decrease in. mental power.. 3.. SmokingIt causes multiple brain shrinkage and may lead to Alzheimer disease.. 4.. High Sugar consumptionToo much sugar will interrupt the absorption of proteins and nutrients causing malnutrition and may. interfere with brain development.. 5.. Air PollutionThe brain is the largest oxygen consumer in our 20 body. Inhaling polluted air decreases the supply of. oxygen to the brain, bringing about a decrease in brain efficiency.. 6. . Sleep DeprivationSleep allows our brain to rest.. Long term deprivation from sleep will accelerate the death of brain. cells... 7.. Head covered while sleepingSleeping with the head covered increases the concentration of carbon dioxide and ...
A stroke is a medical emergency characterized a blocked or ruptured brain artery that interrupts the flow of oxygenated blood and nutrients to the brain....
I had a stroke in November 2009. MRI showed infarc in the back of my brain at lower right. An angigram was done this month that showed that the right cerbral artery was completely blocked while the lef...
This paper presents a method for the visual quantification of cerebral arteries, known as the Circle of Willis (CoW). The CoW is an arterial structure that is responsible for the brains blood supply. Dysfunctions of this ...
... - Veja grátis o arquivo hidroterapia PC enviado para a disciplina de Hidro Paralisia Cerebral Categoria: Outros - 5 - Full Text Available O nascimento de
Backghround: To analyze the co-occurrence of atherosclerotic lesions in CT angiograms of extra- and intracranial arteries in patients with cerebral circulation insufficiency.Material and Methods: Extra- and intracranial CTA was performed in 70 patien...
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J Mol Neurosci. DOI 10.1007/s12031 -017-0944-7. CrossMark. Proteomic Expression Changes in Large Cerebral Arteries After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rat Are Regulated by the MEK-ERK1/2 Pathway. Anne H. Müller1 • Alistair V.G. Edwards2 • Martin R. Larsen2 • Janne Nielsen1 • Karin Warfvinge1,3 • Gro K. Povlsen1 • Lars Edvinsson1,3. Received: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 # The Author(s) 2017. This article is an open access publication. Abstract Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious clinical condition where leakage of blood into the subarachnoid space causes an acute rise in intracranial pressure and reduces cerebral blood flow, which may lead to delayed cerebral ischemia and poor outcome. In experimental SAH, we have previously shown that the outcome can be significantly improved by early inhibition of the MAPK/ERK kinase/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK1/2) pathway. The aim of this study was to apply mass spectrometry to investigate the ...
We have reported for the first time some characteristics of the membrane potential of SMCs of human pial arteries. The main finding of this study was that in these vessels rhythmic contractions were associated with generation of APs during spontaneous or K+-induced depolarization. The resting membrane potential of human pial arteries in vitro varied between −40 and −70 mV. The membrane potential of SMCs in rhythmically constricting arteries was significantly less negative than that of the silent ones. This finding indicates that spontaneous activity may be the result of a depolarized state of SMCs. The incidence of spontaneous activity was higher in those arteries that were obtained from patients ,40 years old. Therefore, we cannot exclude an influence of age-related vascular changes or of disease on the determined properties of human pial arteries. Periodic spontaneous activity has been demonstrated in human coronary arteries22 23 24 and was most frequent in vessels taken from older ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sex-Dependent Differences in Physical Exercise-Mediated Cognitive Recovery Following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Aged Rats. AU - Cohan, Charles H.. AU - Youbi, Mehdi. AU - Saul, Isabel. AU - Ruiz, Alex A.. AU - Furones, Concepcion C.. AU - Patel, Pujan. AU - Perez, Edwin. AU - Raval, Ami P.. AU - Dave, Kunjan R.. AU - Zhao, Weizhao. AU - Dong, Chuanhui. AU - Rundek, Tatjana. AU - Koch, Sebastian. AU - Sacco, Ralph L.. AU - Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.. PY - 2019/9/18. Y1 - 2019/9/18. N2 - Stroke remains a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. No current treatments exist to promote cognitive recovery in survivors of stroke. A previous study from our laboratory determined that an acute bout of forced treadmill exercise was able to promote cognitive recovery in 3 month old male rats after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that 6 days of intense acute bout of forced treadmill exercise (physical exercise - PE) ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor responses in the rat middle cerebral artery are blocked by inhibiting IKCa channels alone, contrasting with peripheral vessels where block of both IKCa and SKCa is required. As the contribution of IKCa and SKCa to endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization differs in peripheral arteries, depending on the level of arterial constriction, we investigated the possibility that SKCa might contribute to equivalent hyperpolarization in cerebral arteries under certain conditions. METHODS: Rat middle cerebral arteries (approximately 175 microm) were mounted in a wire myograph. The effect of KCa channel blockers on endothelium-dependent responses to the protease-activated receptor 2 agonist, SLIGRL (20 micromol/L), were then assessed as simultaneous changes in tension and membrane potential. These data were correlated with the distribution of arterial KCa channels revealed with immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: SLIGRL hyperpolarized and relaxed cerebral
Migraine attacks are conventionally thought to involve a dysfunction in the regulation of tone in intra- and extracranial blood vessels. A number of agents have been suggested as responsible for the altered vasomotor responses seen in conjunction with migraine attacks. Previous histochemical studies have shown that human cerebral arteries are surrounded by adrenergic and cholinergic nerve fibres. In addition, peptide-containing nerve fibres, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), have been observed around the cerebral blood vessels of laboratory animals. Few studies have been carried out on human temporal and cerebral arteries, but none on meningeal arteries. This chapter examines the distribution of NPY-, VIP-, SP- and CGRP-immunoreactive fibres around the three types of human cranial arteries and compared the pharmacological effects of the perivascularly located neuropeptides on arterial segments. ...
Looking for online definition of cerebral artery in the Medical Dictionary? cerebral artery explanation free. What is cerebral artery? Meaning of cerebral artery medical term. What does cerebral artery mean?
Thrombosis of a cerebral artery. The cerebral thrombosis (obstruction of a cerebral artery by thrombus) or cerebral embolism (obstruction of a cerebral artery by an element coming from another part of the body) leads to an ischemia (reduction of the blood intake), verily a cerebral infarction (death or necrosis of the unirrigated region of the brain). - Stock Image C006/3975
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CGRP plays a major role in the pathophysiology of migraine. Concomitant, CGRP plays a role in endogenous neurovascular protection from severe vasoconstriction associated with e.g. cerebral or cardiac ischemia. The CGRP antagonistic antibodies Fremanezumab (TEVA Pharmaceuticals) and Erenumab (Novartis/Amgen) have successfully been developed for the prevention of frequent migraine attacks. Whereas these antibodies might challenge endogenous neurovasular protection during severe cerebral or coronary vasoconstriction, potential future therapeutic CGRP agonists might induce migraine-like headaches in migraineurs. In the current study segments of cerebral artery have been used to obtain mechanistic insight of the CGRP-neutralizing anti-body Fremanezumab in neurovascular regulation in vitro. The basilar artery was selected due to its relevance in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Erenumab is known to block the human CGRP receptor and Fremanezumab to neutralize both human and rat CGRP. Results confirmed ...
Strong correlations between plasma lipoprotein concentrations and the risk of stroke have never been clearly established. Unlike coronary heart disease, there is no significant direct relation between an increased risk of stroke and increased plasma total cholesterol or low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol; nor is there an inverse relation with high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.1 Indeed, an inverse relation exists between total cholesterol concentrations and cerebral haemorrhage.2. The reasons for this weak or absent relation are several. The most compelling is that virtually all coronary heart disease can be ascribed to coronary atheroma, whereas less than half the incidence of stroke is due to large vessel atheroma. Non-atheromatous causes such as cardiac arrhythmias, small cerebral artery disease, and cortical degeneration are responsible for most of the rest. Another is that, in general, coronary deaths occur at a younger age than strokes, so the population with raised plasma ...
In vitro pharmacological studies demonstrated that exogenously applied vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) relaxes the smooth muscle cells of cat cerebral arteries, whereas substance P constricts them. Ultrastructural-immunocytochemical techniques show that a VIP-like substance is present in the large granular vesicles of nonsympathetic nerve axons and terminals in the cerebral arterial walls. These results provide strong evidence in favor of the hypothesis that a VIP-like substance is the transmitter for vasodilation in cerebral blood vessels. ...
Ischemia can also occur in the arteries of the brain, where blockages can lead to a stroke. About 80-85% of all strokes are ischemic. Most blockages in the cerebral arteries are due to a blood clot, often in an artery narrowed by plaque. Sometimes, a blood clot in the heart or aorta travels to a cerebral artery. A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a "mini-stroke" caused by a temporary deficiency of blood supply to the brain. It occurs suddenly, lasts a few minutes to a few hours, and is a strong warning sign of an impending stroke. Ischemia can also effect intestines, legs, feet and kidneys. Pain, malfunctions, and damage in those areas may result ...
This study will determine the safety of 500mg of aspirin added to IV TPA at standard doses to prevent re-occlusion of cerebral vessels after successful reperfusion. In ischemic stroke brain arteries are occluded either by an embolus originating in the heart or large vessels leading to the brain or by a process of acute thrombosis of the cerebral arteries over a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque. Rupture of the plaque exposes thrombogenic elements within the plaque and leads to accumulation and activation of platelets and induction of the clotting cascade eventually leading to acute thrombosis and occlusion of the artery. TPA is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat heart and brain problems caused by blockage of arteries. It activates plasminogen and leads to disintegration of the thrombus/embolus. It is effective only if begun within 3 to 4.5 hours of onset of the stroke because of potential deleterious side effects including life threatening symptomatic intracranial ...
Authors: Allen, Rachael S. , Sayeed, Iqbal , Oumarbaeva, Yuliya , Morrison, Katherine C. , Choi, Paul H. , Pardue, Machelle T. , Stein, Donald G. Article Type: Research Article Abstract: Background/Objective: To determine whether inflammation increases in retina as it does in brain following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and whether the neurosteroid progesterone, shown to have protective effects in both retina and brain after MCAO, reduces inflammation in retina as well as brain. Methods: MCAO rats treated systemically with progesterone or vehicle were compared with shams. Protein levels of cytosolic NF-κ B, nuclear NF-κ B, phosphorylated NF-κ B, IL-6, TNF-α, CD11b, progesterone receptor A and B, and pregnane X receptor were assessed in retinas and brains at 24 and 48 h using western blots. Results: …Following MCAO, significant increases were observed in the following inflammatory markers: pNF-κ B and CD11b at 24 h in both brain and retina, nuclear NF-κ B at 24 h in brain and ...
Atherosclerosis, sometimes called "hardening of the arteries," occurs when cholesterol, calcium, and other substances build up in the inner lining of the arteries, forming a material called plaque. Over time, plaque buildup may narrow the artery and limit blood flow through it.. Coronary artery disease is atherosclerosis in the heart (coronary) arteries. Peripheral arterial disease of the legs is atherosclerosis in the leg arteries. If atherosclerosis affects the brain arteries (carotid or cerebral arteries), a stroke can occur.. ...
Stroke, or cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is the third leading cause of death in the United States, resulting in more than 150,000 deaths per year. About 80 percent of strokes are caused by a decrease in blood flow to the brain (called ischemic strokes). This is usually the result of a blood clot that has formed within an artery to the brain or has formed elsewhere (e.g., the heart) and traveled to a brain artery, where it has become lodged. Loss of blood flow can also occur if the heart malfunctions and no longer pumps blood effectively. Strokes can also be caused by a break in a blood vessel, causing blood to flow into the brain, compressing and damaging brain tissue. These are referred to as hemorrhagic strokes.. Stroke types The most common causes of stroke are hypertension and atherosclerosis. In both cases, these result in damage to the arteries that feed the brain with blood and oxygen. ...
Endovascular therapy (group two) received a lower dose (0.09mg per kg bolus and 0.54mg/kilogram infusion over 40 minutes, maximum dose 53.6mg) or after Amendment #5, a standard dose of IV rt-PA (.9mg/kg with 10% as a bolus and the remainder over one hour) and then underwent an angiogram test (cerebral angiography) right after the medicine was given to check for blood clots. If a clot was not seen, then no more treatment was given. If a clot was seen, the neurointerventionalist chose (based on the location and extent of the blood clot) a protocol approved endovascular treatment given directly in the brain artery that would be most effective in reopening the blocked artery ...
Dr. Kemmling is using high-precision 3D printing to create models of brain arteries to personalize operations and reduce risks such as stroke.
Ischemic strokes occur when blood cannot flow to cerebral structures. Neuron metabolism tolerates a brief period of interrupted oxygen and glucose delivery. Cell death is imminent after approximately ... more
This stock medical exhibit compares three coronal views of the head and brain to describe the Progression of Brain Ischemia. The following views are illustrated: 1- Initial infarct in the region of the left cerebral artery. 2- Generalized spread of hypoxia and swelling from the left to right side. 3- Involvement of the right cerebral artery with further brain damage.
Cerebral Cortex is a comprehensive and detailed work covering the dual nature of the organization of the architecture and connections of the cerebral cortex. After establishing the evolutionary approach of the cerebral cortexs origin, the authors have systematically analyzed, in detail, the common principle underlying the structure and connections of sensory and motor systems.
The cerebral cortex is a telencephalic structurepresent in some vertebrate species located at the surface of the cerebral hemispheres
Hi all-- Can you please comment to help me confirm the appropriate 36000 series for this given cerebral angiogram scenario? Patient is normal arch art
Originally published 5/19/09 at www.jelletlambie.wordpress.com Dontrelle Willis needed this. He needed to step onto that mound at Comerica Park and feel the evening sun shine upon him, the clouds in retreat, the swirling winds at bay...
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J Neurosurg 127:725-731, 2017. The study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of 320-detector row nonsubtracted and subtracted volume CT angiography (VCTA) in detecting small cerebral aneurysms (, 3 mm) compared with 3D digital subtraction angiography (3D DSA).. METHODS Six hundred sixty-two patients underwent 320-detector row VCTA and 3D DSA for suspected cerebral aneurysms. Five neuroradiologists independently reviewed VCTA and 3D DSA images. The 3D DSA was considered the reference standard, and the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of nonsubtracted and subtracted VCTA in depicting small aneurysms were analyzed. A p value , 0.05 was considered a significant difference.. RESULTS According to 3D DSA images, 98 small cerebral aneurysms were identified in 90 of 662 patients. Nonsubtracted VCTA depicted 90 small aneurysms. Ten small aneurysms were missed, and 2 small aneurysms were misdiagnosed. The missed small aneurysms were located almost in the internal carotid artery, near bone tissue. ...
Blood vessels atherosclerosis is a dangerous and widespread complication of increased cholesterol level. At emergence of its first symptoms it is necessary to begin full treatment immediately. Perhaps, a surgical intervention will be required.. Vessels intima of brain is damaged. Round sclerotic plaques the connecting tissue expands, on vessel walls calcium salts accumulate that leads to narrowing of clearance which can "be overgrown" completely.. Cerebral atherosclerosis is shown by changes in mentality of person. Working capacity drops, fatigability grows. Hyper excitability is a result of disease. Cerebral atherosclerosis is a main reason of sleeplessness in the night and daytime sleepiness.. At slow progress of cerebral atherosclerosis giddiness accrues, there are exhausting headaches, sweating and face reddening, flicker of points before eyes, tinnitus, gait with slight lameness. Sometimes the absurdity features of character become aggravated: diligence turns into greediness, accuracy turns ...
Doppler ultrasound was used to measure blood flow velocity in the anterior cerebral artery of six premature infants with posthaemorrhagic hydrocephalus, before and after intermittent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, on 23 occasions. There was a significant increase in mean blood flow velocity after the drainage procedures (+5.6 cm/s, 95% confidence interval +2.9 to +8.3 cm/s), which was accompanied by a decrease in velocity waveform pulsatility. CSF pressure also fell significantly. In patients with posthaemorrhagic hydrocephalus, intermittent CSF drainage was associated with acute changes in cerebral haemodynamics.. ...
NECROSIS occurring in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY system, including branches such as Heubners artery. These arteries supply blood to the medial and superior parts of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, Infarction in the anterior cerebral artery usually results in sensory and motor impairment in the lower body ...
Cerebral atherosclerosis is a type of atherosclerosis where build-up of plaque in the blood vessels of the brain occurs. Some of the main components of the plaques are connective tissue, extracellular matrix, including collagen, proteoglycans, fibronectin, and elastic fibers; crystalline cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and phospholipids; cells such as monocyte derived macrophages, T-lymphocytes, and smooth muscle cells. The plaque that builds up can lead to further complications such as stroke, as the plaque disrupts blood flow within the intracranial arterioles. This causes the downstream sections of the brain that would normally be supplied by the blocked artery to suffer from ischemia. Diagnosis of the disease is normally done through imaging technology such as angiograms or magnetic resonance imaging. The risk of cerebral atherosclerosis and its associated diseases appears to increase with increasing age; however there are numerous factors that can be controlled in attempt to lessen risk. ...
BRAIN ischemia stroke is a devastating disease, with more than 10% stroke patients either severely disabled or dead. Although rodent fil- ament middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model can mimic human brain ischemic stroke well, its wide use was
Evidence suggests that brain infiltration of lymphocytes contributes to acute neural injury after cerebral ischemia. However, the spatio-temporal dynamics of brain-infiltrating lymphocytes during the late stage after cerebral ischemia remains unclear. C57BL/6 (B6) mice were subjected to sham, photothrombosis, or 60-min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) procedures. Infarct volume, neurodeficits, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory factors, brain-infiltrating lymphocytes, and their activation as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ production were assessed. Brain-infiltrating lymphocytes were also measured in tissue sections from post-mortem patients after ischemic stroke by immunostaining. In mice subjected to transient MCAO or photothrombotic stroke, we found that lymphocyte infiltration persists in the ischemic brain until at least day 14 after surgery, during which brain infarct volume significantly diminished. These brain-infiltrating lymphocytes express
Fig 2. Classification of the anatomic variations in the circle of Willis. In the "textbook" type, both the precommunicating segment of the anterior cerebral artery (A1) and that of the posterior cerebral artery (P1) were normal in size. The next group included both right and left A1 hypoplasia. Because no significant difference between cerebral arteries on the right and left sides has been established,5,18 we combined right and left A1 hypoplasia into A1 hypoplasia. The next group included right and left P1 hypoplasia, which again were treated as a single category, P1 hypoplasia. "Other" type included a combination of A1 hypoplasia and P1 hypoplasia, bilateral P1 hypoplasia, as well as other unclassified variations. ACA indicates anterior cerebral artery; ACo, anterior communicating artery; MCA, middle cerebral artery; ICA, internal cerebral artery; PCo, posterior communicating artery; PCA, posterior cerebral artery; BA, basilar artery ...
The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is one of a pair of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the posterior aspect of the brain (occipital lobe) in human anatomy. It arises near the intersection of the posterior communicating artery and the basilar artery and connects with the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) and internal carotid artery via the posterior communicating artery (PCommA). The development of the PCA in fetal brain comes relatively late and arises from the fusion of several embryonic vessels near the caudal end of the PCommA supplying the mesencephalon and diencephalon of the fetus. The PCA begins as such, as a continuation of the PCommA in the fetus with only 10-30% of fetuses having a prominent basilar origin. The fetal carotid origin of the PCA usually regresses as the vertebral and basilar arteries develop with the PCommA reducing is size. In most adults, the PCA sources from the anterior portion of the basilar artery. Only about 19% of adults retain PCommA ...
While a wide array of pathological changes occur in cerebral arteries following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the most consistent is endothelial damage. Since the endothelium normally modulates reflexes that influence vascular tone, any damage to it may represent a significant contributor to cerebral vasospasm following SAH. This experimental study investigates the correlation between ...
Details of the image Haemorrhagic transformation of right middle cerebral artery ischaemic stroke Modality: CT (non-contrast)
The volume of cerebral tissue perturbed in experimental models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) can be highly variable. Thus, the territories of reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) or oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)) following MCAO might properly be defined using statistical parametric mapping within a population. In order to establish such a method, we mapped CBF and CMRO(2) in 18 pigs with acute MCAO. Parametric maps were flipped about the axis of symmetry, and CBF and CMRO(2) in the infarcted hemisphere were calculated as percentages of the magnitudes in mirror-image pixels. There were log-linear relationships between the volumes of affected tissue and the percentages of normal CFB or CMRO(2). This graphical analysis showed that the volume of the core deficit was smaller for CBF that for CMRO(2), but expanded more rapidly with decreasing CBF deficit than did the corresponding volumes of reduced CMRO(2). Thus, acute changes in CBF and CMRO(2) following MCAO in the pig can be defined as ...
Video articles in JoVE about cerebral infarction include Quantification of Neurovascular Protection Following Repetitive Hypoxic Preconditioning and Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Mice, A Thrombotic Stroke Model Based On Transient Cerebral Hypoxia-ischemia, Intravascular Perfusion of Carbon Black Ink Allows Reliable Visualization of Cerebral Vessels, Combined Near-infrared Fluorescent Imaging and Micro-computed Tomography for Directly Visualizing Cerebral Thromboemboli, Modeling Stroke in Mice: Permanent Coagulation of the Distal Middle Cerebral Artery, Photothrombotic Ischemia: A Minimally Invasive and Reproducible Photochemical Cortical Lesion Model for Mouse Stroke Studies, Embolic Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) for Ischemic Stroke with Homologous Blood Clots in Rats, Permanent Cerebral Vessel Occlusion via Double Ligature and Transection, Performing Permanent Distal Middle Cerebral with Common Carotid Artery Occlusion in Aged Rats to Study Cortical Ischemia
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether neuroprotection is feasible without cerebral blood flow augmentation in experimental permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. METHODS: Rats were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion by the suture occlusion method and were treated 1 hour thereafter with a single 5-minute intravenous infusion of the postsynaptic density-95 protein inhibitor Tat-NR2B9c (7.5 mg/kg) or saline (n=8/group). Arterial spin-labeled perfusion-weighted MRI and diffusion weighted MRI were obtained with a 4.7-T Bruker system at 30, 45, 70, 90, 120, 150, and 180 minutes postmiddle cerebral artery occlusion to determine cerebral blood flow and apparent diffusion coefficient maps, respectively. At 24 hours, animals were neurologically scored (0 to 5), euthanized, and the brains stained with 2-3-5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride to ascertain infarct volumes corrected for edema. Additionally, the effects of Tat-NR2B9c on adenosine 5
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Middle Cerebral Artery CVA, Cerebrovascular Accident of Middle Cerebral Artery, MCA CVA.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelial influences on cerebrovascular tone. AU - Andresen, Jon. AU - Shafi, Nadeem. AU - Bryan, Robert M.. PY - 2006/1/1. Y1 - 2006/1/1. N2 - The cerebrovascular endothelium exerts a profound influence on cerebral vessels and cerebral blood flow. This review summarizes current knowledge of various dilator and constrictor mechanisms intrinsic to the cerebrovascular endothelium. The endothelium contributes to the resting tone of cerebral arteries and arterioles by tonically releasing nitric oxide (NO • ). Dilations can occur by stimulated release of NO • , endothelium-derived hyperpolarization factor, or prostanoids. During pathological conditions, the dilator influence of the endothelium can turn to that of constriction by a variety of mechanisms, including decreased NO • bioavailability and release of endothelin-1. The endothelium may participate in neurovascular coupling by conducting local dilations to upstream arteries. Further study of the cerebrovascular ...
cap - stl file processed Have embodi3D 3D print this model for you. This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Callosomarginal artery, Anterior parietal artery, Pericallosal artery, Frontal polar artery, Third segment of the anterior cerebral artery or pericallosal artery, Posterior temporal artery, Second segment of the anterior cerebral artery (from here on referred to as the pericallosal artery), Second segment of the middle cerebral artery, Anterior communicating artery of the cerebrum, First segment of the middle cerebral artery (sphenoid part), Temporal polar artery, Internal carotid artery, CTA, ct, with, contrast, .stl, 3d, model, printable, printing, head, skull, vascular, temporal, occipital, brain, head, Willis, polygon ...
A fetal (origin of the) posterior cerebral artery is a common variant in the posterior cerebral circulation, estimated to occur in 20-30% of individuals 2. The posterior communicating artery (PCOM) is larger than the P1 segment of the posterior ...
References: Avci E, Fossett D, Aslan M, Attar A, Egemen N. Branches of the anterior cerebral artery near the anterior communicating artery complex: an anatomic study and surgical perspective. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2003 Jul;43(7):329-33; discussion 333. Review. ...
Cerebral arteries are innervated by nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilator nerves, and hypoxia has been shown to attenuate neurogenic vasorelaxation. The present study examines the effects of hypothermia on neurogenic vasorelaxation and on the hypoxia-induced inhibition of the neurogenic vasorelaxation response. In isolated canine cerebral arteries, relaxant responses to transmural electrical stimulation (5 Hz for 40 s), mediated via NO synthesized from L-arginine, were not influenced by lowering the bathing media temperature from 37°C to 30°C but were attenuated at 25°C. On the other hand, relaxations caused by nicotine and exogenous NO were not significantly attenuated but were prolonged by cooling to 25°C. The responses associated with nerve stimulation by electrical pulses or nicotine were depressed by hypoxia (from about 500 mmHg of partial O,SUB,2,/SUB, pressure to about 45 mmHg) under normothermia. However, hypothermia at 25°C prevented the inhibition by hypoxia of the neurogenic ...
We provide the first evidence that arterial smooth muscle membrane CLR critically controls alcohol responses of resistance-size, middle cerebral arteries in 2 rodent models widely used for studying EtOH-induced cerebral artery constriction in humans.4,6,8 Independent of circulating or endothelial factors, artery exposure to EtOH for several minutes leads to an average decrease in diameter of at least 5.5% (in rats) and up to 14% (in mice). Both numbers are consistent with previous reports on rat and mouse models, respectively.6,8 According to Poiseuilles law, liquid flow in a tube is proportional to radius by a 4th power. Moreover, experimental studies on cerebral vessels demonstrated that artery diameter was related to blood flow by a factor of 3 to 4.26 Therefore, EtOH action on cerebral artery diameter would lead to at least a 17% decrease in cerebral regional blood flow. The EtOH concentration chosen for our experiments matched BAL found in circulation during moderate-heavy episodic alcohol ...
The importance of recognizing and proactively managing impaired swallowing should not be underestimated. Dysphagia is seen in 42-67% of patients within the first 72 hours post stroke.{ref5} Per stroke... more
Acute large cerebral artery occlusions respond poorly to systemic thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rTPA) alone. The value of stent retriever-based mechanical thrombectomy in
This study proposes more objective methods for deciding the appropriate direction of the sylvian fissure dissection during surgical clipping in middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation aneurysms. We reviewed data of 36 consecutive patients with
Differences between middle cerebral artery bifurcations with normal anatomy and those with aneurysms.: The objectives of this study were to elucidate the normal
Are the branches of the middle cerebral artery considered seperate and distinct vessels for the purposes of catheter placement and interventions (ie.
Blood vessels atherosclerosis is a dangerous and widespread complication of increased cholesterol level. At emergence of its first symptoms it is necessary to begin full treatment immediately. Perhaps, a surgical intervention will be required.. Vessels intima of brain is damaged. Round sclerotic plaques the connecting tissue expands, on vessel walls calcium salts accumulate that leads to narrowing of clearance which can "be overgrown" completely.. Cerebral atherosclerosis is shown by changes in mentality of person. Working capacity drops, fatigability grows. Hyper excitability is a result of disease. Cerebral atherosclerosis is a main reason of sleeplessness in the night and daytime sleepiness.. At slow progress of cerebral atherosclerosis giddiness accrues, there are exhausting headaches, sweating and face reddening, flicker of points before eyes, tinnitus, gait with slight lameness. Sometimes the absurdity features of character become aggravated: diligence turns into greediness, accuracy turns ...
Stroke in Africa and more specifically in Ethiopia remains an almost taboo subject. It is shrouded in superstitious beliefs of curses and hidden poisons among most of the population who receive little public health education in what schooling they attend. A significant form of stroke is that due to rupture of a cerebral artery which creates the phenomena of subarachnoid hemorrhage. It is estimated that worldwide 9 in 100,000 years of human life or 1 in 50 people will suffer a subarachnoid hemorrhage.. Although rupture of a brain artery causing subarachnoid hemorrhage may lead to sudden death there are many patients who if given advanced treatment can be saved and return to functional lives. To receive this treatment requires special trained medical centers with experts in emergency medicine, neurology, radiology, anesthesiology, and neurosurgery. Up to now these centers have been lacking in most of Africa.. How subarachnoid hemorrhage causes damage ...
Background and Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of race, sex, and other risk factors on the location of atherosclerotic occlusive lesions in cerebral vessels. Previous angiographic studies of patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack TIA suggest that extracranial atherosclerosis is more common in whites and...
Diagnosis Code I60.12 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Ms. Caldwell had an abrupt blockage of a cerebral artery that caused her to fall to the ground without warning, and robbed her of movement on the right side of her body and the ability to speak. She was given intravenous medication (tPA) at a comprehensive stroke center, with an incomplete response. Perfusion CT technology was first used to determine that salvageable brain tissue was present. She then was treated by emergency endovascular surgery, entirely from within the blood vessel system, utilizing ultramodern microcatheter, hydrophilic coating and digital imaging technology to locate and eliminate the specific brain artery blockage with the highest degree of accuracy. The microcatheter was navigated the long distance from the femoral artery in her right leg to the occluded vessel in her left brain, through an incision the size of an eyelash. She was neurologically normal within 12 hours after the surgery. Ms. Caldwells stroke also would have resulted in permanent paralysis and loss of ...
Clinical studies of nimodipine did not include Nimotop without Rx numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond Nimotop without Rx from younger subjects. cheap Tenoretic a calcium channel blocker. The contractile processes of smooth muscle cells are dependent upon calcium ions, which enter these cells during depolarization as slow ionic transmembrane currents. Nimodipine inhibits calcium ion transfer into these cells and Nimotop without Rx inhibits contractions of Nimotop without Rx smooth muscle, Nimotop Without Rx. In animal experiments, nimodipine had a greater effect on cerebral arteries than on arteries elsewhere in the body perhaps because it is highly lipophilic, allowing it to cross the blood-brain barrier ; concentrations of nimodipine as high as 12. The length of films. Is Nimotop without Rx is not attempt to remember their own. This flap may take a specialist surgeons. V contrast enema if not, it may seem to make sure you wait for excision of the bladder, ...
Ischemic stroke is primarily caused by thromboembolic occlusion of a major artery that supplies the brain (9). When emboli or thrombi in situ occlude cerebral arteries, circulating platelets are rapidly recruited to the site of the occluded vessels (14). Platelets, along with thrombin and fibrin resulting from tissue factor-activated blood coagulation, are the primary contributors to thrombus development at the site of the occluded artery (14, 15). Concomitantly, occlusion of a major cerebral artery triggers development of secondary thrombosis in downstream microvessels, which causes dysfunction of cerebral endothelial cells, pericytes, and astrocytes and leads to disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and ischemic cell damage (16-19). The evolution of downstream microvascular thrombosis is heterogeneous and continues for hours and is highly associated with the progression of ischemic neuronal death from reversible to irreversible damage (14, 16-18). Thus, the primary goal for treatment of ...
The fact that AM behaves as a local autocrine and/or paracrine hormone raises the possibility that AM released by CECs acts primarily on AM receptors present in the cerebral endothelium itself and on neighboring cells. The expression of CRLR, RAMP-1, -2, -3, was characterized on isolated rat cerebral microvessels [4], in rat CECs and cerebral pericytes [3], and in rat astrocytes [2]. In cultured rat CECs and peri-cytes RAMP-2 showed the highest expression, followed by RAMP-3 and RAMP-1, and exogenous AM increased the intracellular cAMP concentration suggesting the existence of functional AM receptors on these cells [3]. Although astrocyte-derived factors increased the AM production of rat CECs, they did not change the expression of AM receptor components in rat CECs. Oliver et al. [5] reported the same expression pattern of RAMPs in human cerebral vasculature.. Was this article helpful?. ...
Cerebral Palsy is a disease that usually manifests during the early years of a childs life, and is the umbrella for a range of disorders that can affect the control of movement in some way. The symptoms of this disease usually present themselves before the age of three, and the causes of cerebral palsy can vary. There are a number of symptoms that can present themselves during the early years of a childs life, and could indicate the presence of cerebral palsy. In some cases, it can be difficult to diagnose cerebral palsy because some of the symptoms may be so subtle that they are barely noticeable. There are a number of causes involved in cerebral palsy, and in some cases the causes cannot even be identified. The causes of cerebral palsy come under two main categories: Acquired cerebral palsy: This accounts for up to twenty percent of young cerebral palsy sufferers, and is where the disorder is acquired after birth. Causes include but are not limited to brain damage or brain infections very ...
|br/|Three-dimensional visualizations of cerebral vessel structures are helpful for diagnosing diseases. However, when viewing several overlapping cerebral
Arterial spin labelling (ASL) MRI offers a non-invasive means to create blood-borne contrast in vivo for dynamic angiographic imaging. By spatial modulation of the ASL process it is possible to uniquely label individual arteries over a series of measurements, allowing each to be separately identified in the resulting angiographic images. This separation requires appropriate analysis for which a general Bayesian framework has previously been proposed. Here this framework is adapted for clinical dynamic angiographic imaging. This specifically addresses the issues of computational speed of the algorithm and the robustness required to deal with real patient data. An algorithm is proposed that can incorporate planning information about the arteries being imaged whilst adapting for subsequent patient movement. A fast maximum a posteriori solution is adopted and shown to be only marginally less accurate than Monte Carlo sampling under simulation. The final algorithm is demonstrated on in vivo data with
Cerebral metabolism (typically given by the cerebral metabolic requirement for oxgygen, CMRO2) has a linear association with cerebral blood flow - this is known as flow-metabolism coupling. This is controlled locally through the release of vasoactive mediators, such as H+, adenosine, and NO. Determinants of cerebral metabolism include:. ...
Cerebral palsy CP is a static neuro developmental disorder . Do you know what causes cerebral palsy ? Do you know who can diagnose cerebral palsy ? Cerebral palsy CP treatment in gurgaon.
The link leads to "Singled Out": My response from March 2009 to the remarks about my appearance heard round the science blogosphere when Chris and I joined the Discover network. Luke followed up with a second post asking whether hes sexist, a third summarizing the hundreds of comments piling in, and a fourth on objectification. He also emailed me personally and seems genuinely interested to hear my perspective. So Ive decided to weigh in and explore the topic with readers.. Long before I set out to write a book dealing with human sexual behavior, I knew that evolution primed us to notice the alluring qualities of other members of our species. These are often indicative of health and fertility and women are held to different standards of judgment than men. But even if biology has an influence on how we behave, its not an adequate scapegoat. After all, we also have a large cerebral cortex that allows us to choose the way we interact in our communities.. In my profession today I work closely ...
This revised and enlarged edition of Cerebral Angiography, which includes new angiographic studies and illustrative drawings, offers detailed guidance on diagnostic use of the procedure. The first part of the book describes the normal anatomy of the cerebral arteries and veins, with attention to mor.... Full description. ...
Our mission is to drive towards a cure for the chronic phase of cerebral palsy (CP).. Despite years of research by scientists worldwide, doctors still send parents home with the statement, "there is no cure for cerebral palsy".. BRIGHTs Cerebral Palsy Cure Project is helping scientists break that paradigm. Our ultimate goal is to use the Scientific and perhaps even more so, the Engineering process, to produce workable treatments that reverse the debilitating effects of cerebral palsy. Although our focus is on the chronic phase of CP, we are also helping scientists to develop safer, more effective acute treatments and to create new methods for diagnosing CP earlier.. Background & History:. The BRIGHT Foundation, was founded in 2002 by Matt Palaszynski, the father of a child who suffered an HIE brain injury at birth that led to CP. BRIGHT has two focus areas: Care for CP and Cure for CP. BRIGHT began with an e-mail distribution list in 2001 which quickly grew to several hundred parents exchanging ...
Cerebral Edema is an extremely serious pathological condition in which there is swelling of the brain which leads to increased pressure within the brain. Know what causes cerebral edema, what happens if your brain swells, treatment and prognosis of cerebral edema.
Looking for cerebral depressant? Find out information about cerebral depressant. any one of various substances that diminish functional activity, usually by depressing the nervous system nervous system, network of specialized tissue that... Explanation of cerebral depressant
Looking for cerebral commissure? Find out information about cerebral commissure. A joint, seam, or closure line where two structures unite. in human and animal anatomy, a site of union or junction.The commisura labiorum oris is the... Explanation of cerebral commissure
67 Bilateral infarction in the posterior cerebral artery ofr bution is the most common etiology and is often due to ver- tebrobasilar ischemia. 27.
Your cerebral cortex seems to me that all celebrated way of advertising your cerebral cortex might be devised, which would be just as icy and yet not so trying to a great many Charles Bukowskis angry poems. Le corps législatif est un, indivisible et permanent. an anarchy of zipper ...
There is much that is still unknown about cerebral palsy, among them, the cause. Here are some basics and a few suggestions to possibly prevent it.
Another name for Cerebral Palsy is Cerebral Palsy. To better understand cerebral palsy, it helps to understand the anatomy of the brain. The brain is ...
... is the result of thickening and hardening of the walls of the arteries in the brain. Symptoms of cerebral arteriosclerosi...
Cerebral palsy is a disorder of movement, muscle tone or posture that is caused by an insult to the immature, developing brain, most often before birth.
There are different types of cerebral palsy (CP). Cerebral palsy is normally classified by the type of movement or muscle tone the child has.
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As I have described recently, I had surgery Dec. 19th for an M2, M3 right middle cerebral anuerysm clipped and have a question. Are/were any of you exhausted to...
Histological section of the cerebral cortex from a control (a) and lissencephalic (b) brain. Both sections were taken at the same magnification. Whereas in the
Find and save ideas about Learn assembly on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Nine patch quilt, Patchwork patterns and Function of cerebral cortex.
Various movement disorders associated with cerebral infarction have been introduced. However patients with anterior cerebral artery territory infarction presenting with hemichoreoballism have never been reported. We present a 64-year-old man with hemichoreoballism and frontal alien hand syndrome on his right hand. Diffusion weighted brain MRI revealed hyperintensities in anterior two third of corpus callosum and superior frontal gyrus. Hemichoreoballism was improved after one day treated by clonazepam. We report the case with hemichoreoballism after anterior cerebral artery territory infarction. ...
Looking for online definition of precommunicating part of anterior cerebral artery in the Medical Dictionary? precommunicating part of anterior cerebral artery explanation free. What is precommunicating part of anterior cerebral artery? Meaning of precommunicating part of anterior cerebral artery medical term. What does precommunicating part of anterior cerebral artery mean?
1. Bang OY, Lee PH, Heo KG, Joo US, Yoon SR, Kim SY. Specific DWI lesion patterns predict prognosis after acute ischaemic stroke within the MCA territory. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005. 76: 1222-8. 2. Berrouschot J, Sterker M, Bettin S, Köster J, Schneider D. Mortality of space-occupying ("malignant") middle cerebral artery infarction under conservative intensive care. Intensive Care Med. 1998. 24: 620-3. 3. Carter BS, Ogilvy CS, Candia GJ, Rosas HD, Buonanno F. One-year outcome after decompressive surgery for massive nondominant hemispheric infarction. Neurosurgery. 1997. 40: 1168-75. 4. Cho DY, Chen TC, Lee HC. Ultra-early decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction. Surg Neurol. 2003. 60: 227-32. 5. Clarke DJ, Forster A. Improving post-stroke recovery: The role of the multidisciplinary health care team. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2015. 8: 433-42. 6. Demchuk AM, Wein TH, Felberg RA, Christou I, Alexandrov AV. Evolution of rapid middle cerebral artery ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bilateral anterior cerebral artery infarction resulting from explosion-type injury to the head and neck. AU - Lipschutz, Joshua H.. AU - Pascuzzi, Robert. AU - Bognanno, James. AU - Putty, Tim. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - A 43-year-old woman suffered a blast-type injury to the head and neck. She subsequently developed bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion and bilateral anterior cerebral artery infarction not demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging scan 24 hours after the explosion, but confirmed by a second scan 8 days after the explosion. In patients with blast-type injury to the head and neck who develop coma with a nonfocal neurological exam, the possibility of bilateral carotid artery occlusion and bilateral ischemic infarction should be considered.. AB - A 43-year-old woman suffered a blast-type injury to the head and neck. She subsequently developed bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion and bilateral anterior cerebral artery infarction not demonstrated by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Outcome following decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction in children. AU - Smith, Sabrina E.. AU - Kirkham, Fenella J.. AU - Deveber, Gabrielle. AU - Millman, Guy. AU - Dirks, Peter B.. AU - Wirrell, Elaine C. AU - Telfeian, Albert E.. AU - Sykes, Kim. AU - Barlow, Karen. AU - Ichord, Rebecca. PY - 2011/1. Y1 - 2011/1. N2 - Aim: Mortality from malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI) approaches 80% in adult series. Although decompressive craniectomy decreases mortality and leads to an acceptable outcome in selected adult patients, there are few data on MMCAI in children with stroke. This study evaluated the frequency of MMCAI and the use of decompressive craniectomy in children. Method: We retrospectively reviewed cases of MMCAI from five pediatric tertiary care centers. Results: Ten children (two females, eight males; median age 9y 10mo, range 22mo-14y) had MMCAI, with a median Glasgow Coma Scale score of 6 (range 3-9). MMCAI ...
Giant fusiform aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation pose significant treatment challenges. A giant fusiform aneurysm of the left MCA in a pediatric patient, which persisted despite Hunterian ligation of the M1 and double barrel superficial temporal artery (STA) to M2 bypasses, is reported. The aneurysm was trapped by endovascular coiling of the feeding M2 trunk through the STA anastamosis. Hunterian ligation combined with extracranial-intracranial bypass is an effective technique for treating giant fusiform aneurysms of the MCA bifurcation for patients who fail balloon test occlusions. However, in certain cases, flow reversal may not eliminate the aneurysm and continued aneurysm filling may occur through retrograde filling from the bypass recipient vessels. In these cases, endovascular trapping of the aneurysm may be undertaken through the bypass graft. The feasibility of this management scheme is demonstrated. ...
Recently, short-term visual deprivation has been shown to affect a variety of non-visual processes and regional cortical activity (Sathian & Zangaladze, 2001). Surprisingly, very little is known about how such visual deprivation impacts regional cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) or its adaptation with the underlying neuronal activity (i.e., neurovascular coupling). The current study sought to investigate the effects of short-term (two-hour) visual deprivation on regional CBFv and neurovascular coupling. CBFv (transcranial Doppler ultrasound) was measured concurrently in the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Neurovascular coupling was assessed using established methods, consisting of two minutes of baseline (eyes closed and reading), five cycles of 40 seconds reading - 20 seconds eyes-closed (primary protocol), and five cycles of 40 seconds eyes-moving - 20 seconds eyes-closed (secondary protocol). Neurovascular coupling, using both protocols, was collected ...
Anterior cerebral artery theory[edit]. Another theory into the cause of cold-stimulus headaches is explained by increased blood ... When the anterior cerebral artery constricts, reining in the response to this increased blood volume, the pain disappears. The ... This increase in blood volume and resulting increase in size in this artery is thought to bring on the pain associated with a ... flow to the brain through the anterior cerebral artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to most medial portions of the frontal ...
"Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke". Medscape Reference. Medscape. Retrieved 23 October 2011.. *^ Siegel, Allan; Sapru, Hreday N ... This selective sparing is due to the collateral circulation offered to macular tracts by the middle cerebral artery.[9] ... In the case of occipitoparietal ischemia owing to occlusion of elements of either posterior cerebral artery, patients may ...
anterior cerebral artery. *middle cerebral artery *anterolateral central arteries *internal striate. *external striate ... internal carotid artery[edit]. *ophthalmic artery *Orbital group *Lacrimal artery *lateral palpebral arteries ... common hepatic artery *proper hepatic artery *Terminal branches *right hepatic artery *Cystic artery ... posterior tibial artery *fibular artery (sometimes from popliteal artery) *communicating branch to the anterior tibial artery ...
Artery. Middle cerebral artery. Function. Primary somatosensory cortex. Identifiers. Latin. Gyrus postcentralis. ...
The vertebral arteries arise from the subclavian arteries. The anterior communicating artery connects the two anterior cerebral ... The anterior cerebral artery forms the anterolateral portion of the circle of Willis, while the middle cerebral artery does not ... Posterior communicating artery (left and right). The middle cerebral arteries, supplying the brain, are not considered part of ... The right and left posterior cerebral arteries arise from the basilar artery, which is formed by the left and right vertebral ...
168-181, 193-194.) Thrombosis of cerebral arteries. (Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., 1909-10, 3, Neurol. Sect., 30.) Cerebral haemorrhage ... Brain, 1917, 40, 188-263.) Sensation and the cerebral cortex. (Brain, 1918, 41, 58-253.) Cases of wounds of the nervous system ... M., 1923, 28, 99-122.) Speech and cerebral localization (Brain, 1923, 46, 355-528.) A case of acute verbal aphasia followed ... J. Dermai., 1911,23,150-153.) With Gordon Holmes: Sensory disturbances from cerebral lesions. (Brain, 1911-12, 34, 102-254.) ...
Artery. Middle cerebral artery. Identifiers. Latin. Cortex praemotorius. NeuroNames. 2331. FMA. 224852. ... Campbell, A. W. (1905). Histological Studies on the Localization of Cerebral Function. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University ... The premotor cortex occupies the part of Brodmann area 6 that lies on the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere. The ... Penfield, W. and Boldrey, E. (1937). "Somatic motor and sensory representation in the cerebral cortex of man as studied by ...
"Mitochondria control functional CaV1.2 expression in smooth muscle cells of cerebral arteries". Circulation Research. 107 (5): ... In the arteries of the brain, high levels of calcium in mitochondria elevates activity of nuclear factor kappa B NF-κB and ... "Effects of the CACNA1C risk allele for bipolar disorder on cerebral gray matter volume in healthy individuals". The American ...
Those of the basilar artery and posterior cerebral artery are hard to reach surgically and are more accessible for endovascular ... aneurysms of the anterior cerebral artery and anterior communicating artery (together the "anterior circulation"), who ... In 85 percent of spontaneous cases the cause is a cerebral aneurysm-a weakness in the wall of one of the arteries in the brain ... Arteriogram showing a partially coiled aneurysm (indicated by yellow arrows) of the posterior cerebral artery with a residual ...
Muscular artery. *Предна мозъчна артерия (a. cerebri anterior). *middle cerebral artery *anterolateral central arteries * ... deep artery of the penis ♂ (Helicine arteries of penis)/Deep artery of clitoris ♀ • Dorsal artery of the penis ♂/Dorsal artery ... Colic branch of ileocolic artery, Anterior cecal artery, posterior cecal, Ileal branch of ileocolic artery, Appendicular artery ... Gastroduodenal artery (Right gastro-omental artery, Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery, Supraduodenal artery) ...
Ayotte, J. (2000). "Patterns of music agnosia associated with middle cerebral artery infarcts". Brain. 123 (9): 1926-38. doi: ... Many of the cases of music agnosia have resulted from surgery involving the middle cerebral artery. Patient studies have ... Halpern, Andrea R. (2006). "Cerebral Substrates of Musical Imagery". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 930 (1): 179- ... With more difficult rhythms such as a 1:2.5, more areas in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum are involved.[14] EEG recordings ...
Aneurysm in a cerebral artery,. one cause of hypoxic anoxic injury (HAI). ... diffuse cerebral hypoxia (DCH), focal cerebral ischemia, cerebral infarction, and global cerebral ischemia. Prolonged hypoxia ... Cerebral infarction - A "stroke", caused by complete oxygen deprivation due to an interference in cerebral blood flow which ... increased density in a cerebral artery". AJR Am J Roentgenol. 149 (3): 583-6. doi:10.2214/ajr.149.3.583. PMID 3497548.. ...
Bleton, H; Perera, S; Sejdic, E (2016). "Cognitive tasks and cerebral blood flow through anterior cerebral arteries: a study ... related cognitive styles determined using Fourier analysis of mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries ... Each basal cerebral artery of the circle of Willis gives origin to two different systems of secondary vessels. The shorter of ... Spectral density plots right and left middle cerebral arteries cross-amplitude plots in men. ...
Bolia suffered a ruptured middle cerebral artery, and an autopsy revealed a pre-existing condition. The ride was closed for ...
It contains: The anterior cerebral arteries (A1 and proximal A2). The anterior communicating artery. Heubner's artery. The ... The posterior cerebral artery. Its infratentorial portion contains: The superior cerebellar artery. The fourth (IV) nerve. ... It contains: The middle cerebral artery. The middle cerebral veins. The fronto-orbital veins. Collaterals to the basal vein. ... It contains: The optic chiasm The bifurcation of the basilar artery. Peduncular segments of the posterior cerebral arteries ( ...
Blood from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm clots around a cerebral artery, releasing thrombin. This can induce an acute and ... Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 36 (6): 1059-74. doi:10.1177/0271678X15606462. PMID 26661165. Howell DC, Laurent ... prolonged narrowing of the blood vessel, potentially resulting in cerebral ischemia and infarction (stroke). Beyond its key ...
The internal carotid artery becomes the anterior cerebral artery and the middle central artery. The ACA transmits blood to the ... From the basilar artery are two posterior cerebral arteries. Branches of the basilar and PCA supply the occipital lobe, brain ... Narrowed cerebral arteries can lead to ischemic stroke, but continually elevated blood pressure can also cause tearing of ... The carotid arteries cover the majority of the cerebrum. The common carotid artery divides into the internal and the external ...
MRA showed smaller distal branches of cerebral arteries.. Specialty. Psychiatry, Sleep medicine, Neuropathology. ...
"Neuroprotective effect of Acorus calamus against middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced ischaemia in rat". Hum Exp Toxicol. ...
"Carotid artery blood flow and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity during physical exercise". Journal of Applied ... Moraine, J. J.; Lamotte, M.; Berré, J.; Niset, G.; Leduc, A.; Naeije, R. (1993). "Relationship of middle cerebral artery blood ... Animal research from the Russian Bion-M1 mission indicates duress of the cerebral arteries may induce reduced blood flow, ... Jørgensen, LG; Perko, M; Hanel, B; Schroeder, TV; Secher, NH (March 1992). "Middle cerebral artery flow velocity and blood flow ...
You J, Golding EM, Bryan RM (September 2005). "Arachidonic acid metabolites, hydrogen peroxide, and EDHF in cerebral arteries ... including mesenteric and tail arteries from rats as well as genital arteries from rabbits. These findings together suggest that ... In some arteries, eicosanoids and K+ ions may themselves initiate a conducted endothelial hyperpolarization, thus suggesting ... Although Nitric Oxide (NO) is recognized as the primary factor at level of arteries, increased evidence for the role of another ...
The study was performed on 53 stroke patients with a left or right hemisphere middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction one week ... "Patterns of music agnosia associated with middle cerebral artery infarcts". Brain. 123: 1926-1938. doi:10.1093/brain/123.9.1926 ... Research has been shown that amusia may be related to an increase in size of the cerebral cortex, which may be a result of a ... Cerebral Cortex. 11: 946-953. doi:10.1093/cercor/11.10.946. Ayotte J., Peretz I., Rousseau I., Bard C., Bojanowski M. (2000). " ...
Short segment internal maxillary artery to middle cerebral artery: A novel technique for extracranial-to-intracranial bypass. ... NeurosurgeryMarch 2011, 68(3);804-8. "Short Segment Internal Maxillary Artery to Middle Cerebral A... : Neurosurgery". Journals ... Cerebral Revascularization: Techniques in Extracranial to Intracranial Bypass Surgery. Copyright 2011 Elsevier, Inc. ISBN 978-1 ... Extracranial-to-intracranial bypass using radial artery grafting for complex skull base tumors: Technical note. Skull Base: An ...
2008) Proximal cerebral artery stenosis in a patient with hemolytic uremic syndrome. From AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 29(5), e34., ...
Globally, the vessel most commonly affected is the middle cerebral artery. Embolisms can originate from multiple parts of the ... of contraction leads to a formation of a clot in the atrial chamber that can become dislodged and travel to a cerebral artery. ... Both are caused by a disruption in blood flow to the brain, or cerebral blood flow (CBF). The definition of TIA was classically ... A portion of the plaque can become dislodged and lead to embolic pathology in the cerebral vessels. In-situ thrombosis, an ...
Park, M. G., Joo, H., Park, K. P., & Kim, D. S. (2005). Macropsia caused by acute posterior cerebral artery infarction. J ... This lesion can be due to an ischemic cell death after an acute posterior cerebral infarction. The most prevalent research on ... The MRI may show swelling of the cerebral cortex, transient T2 prolongation, and transient lesions. Unlike in MRI's, no ...
This causes death by respiratory failure leading to cerebral anoxia. No antidote is known, but if breathing can be kept going ... The blood vessels consist of arteries, capillaries and veins and are lined with a cellular endothelium which is quite unlike ...
... and EDHF in cerebral arteries". Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 289 (3): H1077-83. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.01046.2004. PMID ... including mesenteric and tail arteries from rats as well as genital arteries from rabbits. These findings together suggest that ... Although Nitric Oxide (NO) is recognized as the primary factor at level of arteries, increased evidence for the role of another ... In some arteries, eicosanoids and K+ ions may themselves initiate a conducted endothelial hyperpolarization, thus suggesting ...
Anterior Cerebral Artery Brain Cerebral Infarction Clonazepam Corpus Callosum Diffusion Hand Humans Infarction Magnetic ... Anterior cerebral artery territory infarction Alien hand syndrome MeSH Terms expand_less. expand_more. Alien Hand Syndrome ... Hemichoreoballism with Anterior Cerebral Artery Territory Infarction.. Bae YJ , Lee JT , Kim EH , Lee HW , Jung DK , Suh CK , ... However patients with anterior cerebral artery territory infarction presenting with hemichoreoballism have never been reported ...
What is precommunicating part of anterior cerebral artery? Meaning of precommunicating part of anterior cerebral artery medical ... What does precommunicating part of anterior cerebral artery mean? ... online definition of precommunicating part of anterior cerebral ... artery in the Medical Dictionary? precommunicating part of anterior cerebral artery explanation free. ... cating part of anterior cerebral artery. [TA] portion of anterior cerebral artery proximal to the anterior communicating artery ...
A 40-year-old man with mutism developed after clipping a left distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysm is presented. The most ... Postoperative mutism after the clipping of a distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysm. A case report ...
1967) Carotid arteries and cerebral infarction due to scleroderma. Neurology 17:18-22, . ... subclavian arteries to 55% in the positive cohorts ulnar arteries and 50% in the negative cohorts internal carotid arteries. ... Because the ulnar artery is usually the dominant arterial supply to the hand, assessment of the ulnar artery status in ... CONCLUSION The ulnar artery seems to be specifically targeted in patients with scleroderma. Assessment of the ulnar artery ...
... underwent right superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis in 1991. From March 2000, dizziness occurred ... His arteriogram revealed late filling of the occluded right subclavian artery by reversed flow from the right vertebral artery ... An 8mm ePTFE tube with a ring was anastomosed to both axillary arteries in end-to-side fashion with continuous sutures. ... One month after the procedure, his arteriogram showed that the bypass filled the right vertebral artery in an antegrade fashion ...
Main article: Middle cerebral artery syndrome. Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery results in Middle cerebral artery ... Middle cerebral artery. Outer surface of cerebral hemisphere, showing areas supplied by cerebral arteries. (Pink is region ... The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is one of the three major paired arteries that supply blood to the cerebrum. The MCA arises ... The arterial circle and arteries of the brain. The middle cerebral arteries (top of figure) arise from the internal carotid ...
Definition of arteries of cerebral hemorrhage. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms ... Synonym(s): anterolateral central arteries. Further information. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the ...
Ischemic strokes occur when blood cannot flow to cerebral structures. Neuron metabolism tolerates a brief period of interrupted ... Drugs & Diseases , Neurology , Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Q&A How does cerebral artery (PCA) stroke occur?. Updated: Jul ... angiogram demonstrating bilateral fetal posterior cerebral artery (PCA) variants (black arrows) with the basilar artery ... de Monyé C, Dippel DW, Siepman TA, Dijkshoorn ML, Tanghe HL, van der Lugt A. Is a fetal origin of the posterior cerebral artery ...
Ischemic strokes occur when blood cannot flow to cerebral structures. Neuron metabolism tolerates a brief period of interrupted ... Drugs & Diseases , Neurology , Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Q&A How does cerebral artery (PCA) stroke occur?. Updated: Jul ... encoded search term (How does cerebral artery (PCA) stroke occur?) and How does cerebral artery (PCA) stroke occur? What to ... angiogram demonstrating bilateral fetal posterior cerebral artery (PCA) variants (black arrows) with the basilar artery ...
An angigram was done this month that showed that the right cerbral artery was completely blocked while the lef... ... My basal artery is unusually small, the radiologist declared. My questions are: 1. Could the blocked cerebral artery be ... My basal artery is unusually small, the radiologist declared. My questions are: 1. Could the blocked cerebral artery be ... 3. Should I consider stent/shunt for all the 3 locations i.e both cerebral arteries and basal artery all at once? 4. If yes, ...
Are the branches of the middle cerebral artery considered seperate and distinct vessels for the purposes of catheter placement ... Are the branches of the middle cerebral artery considered seperate and distinct vessels for the purposes of catheter placement ... Coding pressure wires for artery branches (2013). By rebeccadyke84 in forum Cardiology ...
The anterior cerebral artery supplies most of the superior-medial parietal lobes and portions of the frontal lobes with fresh ... The anterior cerebral artery is a component of the circle of Willis, an interconnected section of arteries in the brain. ... The anterior cerebral artery supplies most of the superior-medial parietal lobes and portions of the frontal lobes with fresh ... Blockages of these arteries can result in cerebral dementia and speech difficulties. A blockage may also cause apraxia of gait ...
... Hyun Goo Kang,1 Seogki Lee,2 Han Uk Ryu,3 and ... Cerebral artery stenosis is currently diagnosed by transcranial Doppler (TCD), computed tomographic angiography (CTA), or ... The extracted features were used to identify normal subjects and those with cerebral artery stenosis using a linear ... The technique proposed is expected to detect early stage asymptomatic cerebral artery stenosis and help prevent ischemic stroke ...
... Hyun Goo Kang,1 Seogki Lee,2 Han Uk Ryu,3 and ... J.-M. Kim, K. H. Jung, C. H. Sohn, J. Moon, M. H. Han, and J. K. Roh, "Middle cerebral artery plaque and prediction of the ... H.-J. Seo, J. R. Pagsisihan, J.-C. Paeng et al., "Hemodynamic significance of internal carotid or middle cerebral artery ... "MR angiography and imaging for the evaluation of middle cerebral artery atherosclerotic disease," American Journal of ...
... , Cerebrovascular Accident of Posterior Cerebral Artery, PCA CVA. ... Posterior Cerebral Artery, Posterior Cerebral Artery Infarction, Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke, Stroke, Posterior Cerebral ... Posterior Cerebral Artery CVA. Aka: Posterior Cerebral Artery CVA, Cerebrovascular Accident of Posterior Cerebral Artery, PCA ... POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY INFARCT, stroke of posterior cerebral artery, stroke of posterior cerebral artery (diagnosis), ...
... , Cerebrovascular Accident of Middle Cerebral Artery, MCA CVA. ... Middle Cerebral Artery, Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke, Stroke, Middle Cerebral Artery, MCA ... MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY CIRC INFARCT, MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY INFARCT, INFARCT MCA, CEREBRAL INFARCT MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY, ... middle cerebral artery infarct, middle cerebral artery stroke, mca infarction, Middle cerebral artery infarct, Middle cerebral ...
... , ACA CVA, Cerebrovascular Accident of Anterior Cerebral Artery. ... Anterior Cerebral Artery, Anterior Cerebral Artery Stroke, Stroke, Anterior Cerebral Artery, anterior cerebral artery stroke, ... Anterior Cerebral Artery CVA. Anterior Cerebral Artery CVA Aka: Anterior Cerebral Artery CVA, ACA CVA, Cerebrovascular Accident ... ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY INFARCT, stroke of anterior cerebral artery (diagnosis), stroke of anterior cerebral artery, ACA ...
After 2 days, the middle cerebral artery, basilar artery, and posterior communicating artery were harvested. Pharmacological ... In the middle cerebral artery and basilar artery from rats with induced SAH, enhanced biphasic responses to ET-1 were observed ... Subarachnoid hemorrhage enhances endothelin receptor expression and function in rat cerebral arteries.. Hansen-Schwartz J1, ... we investigated whether such changes occur in cerebral arteries in a rat subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) model. ...
Middle cerebral artery intraplaque hemorrhage: prevalence and clinical relevance.. Xu WH1, Li ML, Gao S, Ni J, Yao M, Zhou LX, ... Little is known about the composition of middle cerebral artery (MCA) plaques and how they relate to clinical status. Using ...
Definition of periarterial plexus of anterior cerebral artery. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes ... periarterial plexus of anterior cerebral artery. Definition: an autonomic plexus accompanying the anterior cerebral artery, ...
Its formed when two vertebral arteries conjoin. It gives blood to the inner ear and parts of the bra... ... This artery is located at the bottom of the skull. ... basilar posterior cerebral artery (thing). See all of basilar ... This artery is located at the bottom of the skull. Its formed when two vertebral arteries conjoin. It gives blood to the inner ... If this artery becomes blocked, blindness and [paralysis can occur. Related: basilar plexus. These are a network of small ...
The three main arteries consist of the: Anterior cerebral artery (ACA) Middle cerebral artery (MCA) Posterior cerebral artery ( ... Cerebral arteries describe three main pairs of arteries and their branches, which perfuse the cerebrum of the brain. ... The three pairs of arteries are linked via the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries. All ... PCA) Both the ACA and MCA originate from the cerebral portion of internal carotid artery, while PCA branches from the ...
The posterior temporal branch of the posterior cerebral artery is one of the branches of the artery located in the outer layer ... Posterior temporal branch of the posterior cerebral artery. Posterior temporal branch of the posterior cerebral artery. ... The posterior temporal branch of the posterior cerebral artery is one of the branches of the artery located in the outer layer ... This branch comes off the posterior cerebral artery at the section of the artery that lies nearest the insular cortex, which is ...
The posterior cerebral arteries arise from the termination of the basilar artery. Major branches course around the midbrain and ... Posterior Cerebral Artery Supplies the occipital lobe and the inferior portion of temporal lobe. A branch supplies the choroid ... The posterior cerebral arteries arise from the termination of the basilar artery. Major branches course around the midbrain and ... Perforating arteries from the posterior cerebral arteries supply the midbrain, hypothalamus and inferior thalami. The posterior ...
Blockage Affects: Unilateral occlusion of Middle Cerebral Arteries at the stem ( ... Middle Cerebral Artery Supplies blood to most of the temporal lobe, anterolateral frontal lobe, and parietal lobe. Perforating ... Unilateral occlusion of Middle Cerebral Arteries at the stem ( proximal M1 segment ) results in: *Contralateral hemiplegia ...
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed enhanced expression of TNF-α, TNF-R1 and TNF-R2 in the walls of cerebral arteries at 48 h after MCAO and SAH compared with control. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cerebral perfusion reserve testing using fluorine-18-fluoromethane and position emission tomographic brain scanning to define cerebral blood flow abnor- malities was performed in 5 patients being considered for combined coronary and carotid reconstructive surgery. (ebscohost.com)
  • Continuous Retrograde Cardiac Perfusion Decreases Risk of Reoperative Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting. (ebscohost.com)
  • Aims and Objective: The aim of this study to evaluate the role of color Doppler velocimetry of the fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) velocity waveforms, systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D), pulsatility index (PI), and resistance index (RI) in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) pregnancies in II and III trimesters. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Foetal middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity demonstrated simple continues increase and strong positive correlation with gestational age. (ajol.info)
  • The anastomotic supply was through a fine network of basal ganglia perforating arteries that gave the pattern of a "puff of smoke" associated with moyamoya disease in two-dimensional (Figure 1 ) and three-dimensional CT angiography (Figure 2 ) and digital subtraction angiography (Figure 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • A repeat CT scan showed large gliotic area in left basal ganglia and left frontotemporal periventricular white matter with moderate hydrocephalus and right middle cerebral artery {MCA} was not visualized but left MCA was totally occluded. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • METHODS We reviewed stereoscopic angiograms of duplicated MCAs in four patients and accessory MCAs in four patients with reference to the origin, size, and cortical supply of these anomalous vessels, along with the presence of perforating arteries and the recurrent artery of Heubner (RAH). (ajnr.org)
  • However, methods to conduct off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery with a beating heart have decreased the use of CPB. (ebscohost.com)
  • METHODS: Bilateral cerebral angiograms with antero-posterior, lateral and oblique frontal views were obtained in 100 neurological patients aged from 5 to 90 years. (uzh.ch)
  • The arteries are usually divided into different segments from 1-4 or 5 to denote how far the level of the branch with the lower numbers denoting vessels closer to the source artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though the arteries branching off these vessels retain some aspect of constancy in terms of size and position, a great amount of variety in topography, position, source and prominence nevertheless exists. (wikipedia.org)
  • A tonometry device named SphygmoCor is used to assess the pressure wave proceeding in the radial artery, from which the stiffness of the systemic vessels can be concluded. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A transcranial ultrasonic method for the recording of murmurs from cerebral vessels is described. (thejns.org)
  • The arachnoid membrane was dissected off the cerebral hemispheres for proper visualization and identification of the vessels. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • He studied vessels on both the sides of the placenta, umbilical artery and umbilical vein. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Infarctions of the posterior cerebral arteries most commonly affect vision ( occipital lobes ) but also may affect memory ( temporal lobes ), smell ( hippocampus ), emotion ( splenium ) and other midbrain and thalamic function. (psyweb.com)
  • Male-female differences in upregulation of vasoconstrictor responses in human cerebral arteries. (lu.se)
  • 7 A NO synthase inhibitor, N G -nitro- l -arginine methyl ester, reduced these relaxations, suggesting that tetrahydrobiopterin may activate NO synthase and increase production of NO. 7 In contrast, our previous study on canine cerebral arteries demonstrated that exogenous tetrahydrobiopterin causes endothelium-dependent contractions, mediated by auto-oxidation of tetrahydrobiopterin and subsequent generation of superoxide anions. (ahajournals.org)