Cerebral Arterial Diseases
Peripheral Arterial Disease
Peripheral Vascular Diseases
Ankle Brachial Index
Arterial Occlusive Diseases
Middle Cerebral Artery
Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery
Intracranial Arterial Diseases
Blood Flow Velocity
Severity of Illness Index
Ischemic Attack, Transient
Magnetic Resonance Angiography
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Predictive Value of Tests
Carotid Artery Diseases
Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors
Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous
Anterior Cerebral Artery
Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex
Angiography, Digital Subtraction
Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy
Posterior Cerebral Artery
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
Disease Models, Animal
Reproducibility of Results
Cerebral arterial lesions resulting from inflammatory emboli. (1/277)In order to study the effects of septic embolism on the brain, silicone rubber emboli of various types were injected into the carotid arteries of 35 dogs. Pathologic and angiographic studies were performed to assess the resultant arterial and parenchymal lesions. Pure silicone rubber emboli (14 dogs) produced occasional intra-arterial thrombosis but no arteritis. Sterile and bacterially contaminated emboli containing a lead-chromate pigment (similar to those used in previous studies of septic embolism) (11 dogs) and pure silicone rubber emboli with transversely oriented canals (10 dogs), after brief placement in a bacterial suspension, were associated with intense inflammatory arteritis. This was accompanied by focal meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, thrombosis, and cerebritis of the underlying cortex. The findings resembled those found in mycotic aneurysm. Aneurysmal dilatation was observed in one postmortem angiogram. In previous models of mycotic aneurysm, the inflammation attributed to bacterial contamination was probably due to the lead-chromate pigment used. (+info)
Epilepsy after two different neurosurgical approaches to the treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysm. (2/277)One-hundred-and-fifty-two patients who underwent surgery for intracranial aneurysm were studied to determine the incidence of postoperative epilepsy in relation to the site of the aneurysm and the type of surgical approach. The overall incidence of epilepsy was 22%. Of the 116 patients treated by the intracranial approach 27.5% developed epilepsy, in contrast with only 5% of the 36 patients who had carotid artery ligation in the neck. Epilepsy occurred most frequently (35%) with middle cerebral artery aneurysms, especially if moderate or severe operative trauma was sustained and there was postoperative dysphasia. (+info)
Arterial spasm and recovery from subarachnoid haemorrhage. (3/277)In a series of 120 cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm the occurrence of preoperative arterial spasm was found to have no effect upon the clinical outcome. After surgery, generalised arterial spasm was found to lead to an increased probability of fatality, and to an increased probability of psychological impariment among the survivors. The occurrence of spasm only in the vessels immediately adjacent to the haemorrhage did not constitute a risk to survival. However, the presence of generalised or localised spasm led to an increased risk of neurological impairment. It is suggested that the mechanisms by which postoperative arterial spasm is responsible for fatalities and for neurological impairment are distinct. (+info)
Upregulation of MAP1B and MAP2 in the rat brain after middle cerebral artery occlusion: effect of age. (4/277)Although stroke in humans usually afflicts the elderly, most experimental studies on the nature of cerebral ischemia have used young animals. This is especially important when studying restorative processes that are age dependent. To explore the potential of older animals to initiate regenerative processes after cerebral ischemia, the authors studied the expression of the juvenile-specific cytoskeletal protein, microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 1B, and the adult-specific protein, MAP2, in male Sprague-Dawley rats at 3 months and 20 months of age. The levels of MAP1B and MAP2 transcripts and the corresponding proteins declined with increasing age in the hippocampus. In the cortex, the levels of the transcripts did not change significantly with age, but the morphologic features of immunostained fibers were clearly affected by age; that is, cortical MAP1B fibers became thicker, and MAP2 fibers, more diffuse, in aged rats. Focal cerebral ischemia, produced by reversible occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery, resulted in a large decrease in the expression of both MAP1B and MAP2 in the infarct core at the messenger ribonucleic acid and protein levels. However, at 1 week after the stroke, there was vigorous expression of MAP1B and its messenger ribonucleic acid, as well as MAP2 protein, in the border zone adjacent to the infarct of 3-month-old and 20 month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. The upregulation of these key cytologic elements generally was diminished in aged rats compared with young animals, although the morphologic features of fibers in the infarct border zone were similar in both age groups. These results suggest that the regenerative potential of the aged rat brain appears to be competent, although attenuated, at least with respect to MAP1B and MAP2 expression up to 20 months of age. (+info)
Transluminal angioplasty for middle cerebral artery stenosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke. (5/277)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Precutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is currently performed to treat supraaortic atherosclerotic lesions. Our purpose was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of PTA for middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We performed PTA with the use of a microballoon (2-2.5 mm in diameter and 10-13 mm in length) in 10 consecutive patients (mean age, 48 years) who met the following criteria: high-grade M1 stenosis (> 70%) and mild neurologic deficits (NIH stroke scale < 4) and/or recurrent transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) resistant to anticoagulation, or a large area of hypoperfusion in the MCA territory on brain perfusion SPECT scans. During follow-up, we administered antiplatelet agents and evaluated the status of restenosis by angiography (n = 2), brain perfusion SPECT (n = 4), and/or transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) (n = 7). RESULTS: Stenotic arteries were successfully dilated in nine of 10 patients. Angioplasty failed in one patient because the balloon could not pass through the tortuous cavernous internal carotid artery. None of the patients experienced either peri- or postangioplasty complications. Residual stenosis was less than 50%, and clinical improvement, including elimination of TIAs in four patients who had suffered resistant TIAs, was observed in all patients; improvement of the cerebral perfusion was also noted in two patients with a large hypoperfusion area in the MCA territory. The average follow-up period was 11 months (range, 2 to 36 months). None experienced recurrent stroke during the follow-up period. TCD revealed decreased flow velocity of the MCA after angioplasty in seven patients. CONCLUSION: PTA of the proximal portion of the MCA seems to be a safe and effective therapeutic technique for the prevention of secondary ischemic stroke. (+info)
Various patterns of perfusion-weighted MR imaging and MR angiographic findings in hyperacute ischemic stroke. (6/277)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Various clinical subtypes of patients presenting with sudden-onset ischemic stroke have been recognized, but classification of those types is not simple. We identified various patterns of perfusion-weighted MR imaging and MR angiographic findings in hyperacute ischemic stroke with relation to clinical outcomes. METHODS: Twelve patients with symptoms of acute ischemic stroke due to middle cerebral artery occlusion underwent perfusion-weighted MR imaging and MR angiography within 6 hours after the onset of symptoms. Perfusion-weighted imaging was performed with a conventional dynamic contrast-enhanced T2*-weighted sequence, and cerebral blood volume (CBV) maps were then created. CBV maps and MR angiographic findings were compared with 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT scans, short-term outcomes, and follow-up imaging findings. RESULTS: The combined CBV and MR angiographic findings were classified into three patterns: arterial occlusion and decreased CBV (n = 8), arterial occlusion and increased CBV (n = 2), and no arterial occlusion and normal CBV (n = 2). These three patterns were strongly related to SPECT findings, short-term outcomes, and follow-up imaging findings. Perfusion on SPECT decreased markedly in the affected regions in all patients with the first pattern, decreased slightly in the second pattern, and was normal in the third pattern. Symptoms were not significantly changed at 24 hours after onset in any of the patients with the first pattern, but resolved completely in all patients with the latter two patterns. Follow-up imaging showed large infarctions in all patients with the first pattern. Initially, no infarction was seen in the second pattern, but watershed infarction developed later in one of these patients. CONCLUSION: Hyperacute ischemic stroke may be differentiated into three imaging patterns with different clinical outcomes. The combined use of perfusion-weighted MR imaging and MR angiography may play a substantial role in guiding the choice of treatment of this disease. (+info)
Carotid artery tandem lesions: frequency of angiographic detection and consequences for endarterectomy. (7/277)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several prospective trials have shown that ischemic stroke can be prevented by performing an endarterectomy in patients with high-grade carotid stenosis. Our purpose was to ascertain the frequency of carotid artery tandem lesions and to determine whether their presence alters the surgeon's decision to perform an endarterectomy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the cerebral angiograms obtained between January 1994 and June 1996 in 853 patients with carotid occlusive disease. Studies were analyzed for the presence of internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis as well as for tandem lesions (defined as > or = 50% diameter stenosis) within the common carotid artery, carotid siphon, or proximal intracranial arteries. The frequency of intracranial saccular aneurysms was determined. RESULTS: Six hundred seventy-two of the 853 patients had a carotid bifurcation stenosis of 70% or greater or underwent an endarterectomy. Of these, a carotid siphon stenosis of 50% or greater was noted in 65 patients (9.7%) and was ipsilateral to an ICA stenosis in 37 patients (5.5%). A common carotid stenosis was present in 29 patients (4.3%), ipsilateral to an ICA stenosis in 14 patients (2.1%). A stenosis of 50% or greater within the proximal intracranial circulation was present in 28 patients (4.2%), ipsilateral to an ICA stenosis in 15 patients (2.2 %). Four patients had tandem stenoses at more than one site. Tandem stenoses in the siphon or intracranial segments were noted in 13.5% with a bifurcation stenosis and in 8.8% of those with no bifurcation stenosis. Endarterectomy was performed in 48 of the 66 patients with tandem stenotic lesions. CONCLUSION: The presence of a tandem lesion infrequently alters the surgeon's decision to perform an endarterectomy. However, the importance of detecting tandem stenoses cannot be underestimated, since they may have important implications for long-term medical management in symptomatic patients. (+info)
Cerebral hemodynamics in relation to patterns of collateral flow. (8/277)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We sought to investigate the relation between collateral flow via different pathways and hemodynamic parameters measured by dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI in patients with severe carotid artery disease. METHODS: Dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI was performed in 66 patients and 33 control subjects. Patients had severe stenosis (>70%, n=12), unilateral occlusion (n=38), or bilateral occlusion (n=16) of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Cerebripetal flow and collateral flow via the circle of Willis were investigated with MR angiography. Collateral flow via the ophthalmic artery was investigated with transcranial Doppler sonography. RESULTS: Patients with ICA stenosis had well-preserved cerebral perfusion and were in general not dependent on collateral supply. Patients with unilateral ICA occlusion had impaired cerebral perfusion. However, appearance time, peak time, and mean transit time in white matter were less increased in patients with than in patients without collateral flow via the circle of Willis (P<0.05). Furthermore, patients with collateral flow via both anterior and posterior communicating arteries had less increased regional cerebral blood volume than patients with collateral flow via the posterior communicating artery only (P<0.05). Patients with bilateral ICA occlusion had severely compromised hemodynamic status despite recruitment of collateral supply. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with unilateral ICA occlusion, the pattern of collateral supply has significant influence on hemodynamic status. Collateral flow via the anterior communicating artery is a sign of well-preserved hemodynamic status, whereas no collateral flow via the circle of Willis or flow via only the posterior communicating artery is a sign of deteriorated cerebral perfusion. (+info)
Cerebral arterial diseases refer to a group of disorders that affect the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain. These diseases can lead to a variety of symptoms, including headaches, dizziness, vision problems, and even stroke. Some common examples of cerebral arterial diseases include: 1. Atherosclerosis: This is a condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries, narrowing them and reducing blood flow to the brain. 2. Cerebral vasospasm: This occurs when the blood vessels in the brain constrict, reducing blood flow and potentially leading to stroke. 3. Moyamoya disease: This is a rare condition in which the blood vessels at the base of the brain are narrowed or blocked, leading to reduced blood flow. 4. Dissection: This occurs when a tear develops in the wall of an artery, causing blood to leak into the artery wall and potentially leading to stroke. Treatment for cerebral arterial diseases depends on the specific condition and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery. Early detection and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) is a medical condition that occurs when the blood vessels that supply blood to the legs, arms, stomach, and other parts of the body become narrowed or blocked due to atherosclerosis, a buildup of plaque in the arteries. This can lead to reduced blood flow to the affected area, which can cause pain, numbness, and weakness in the legs and feet, especially during physical activity. PAD is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide, and it is more common in older adults, smokers, and people with diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol.，PAD，、、。
Peripheral Vascular Diseases (PVDs) are a group of conditions that affect the blood vessels outside of the heart and brain. These vessels include the arteries and veins in the arms, legs, pelvis, and abdomen. PVDs can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, numbness, and weakness in the affected areas, as well as skin changes and ulcers. PVDs can be caused by a variety of factors, including smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol. Treatment for PVDs depends on the specific condition and may include lifestyle changes, medications, and surgery.
Intermittent claudication is a medical condition characterized by pain, cramping, or numbness in the legs, usually in the calf muscles, that occurs during physical activity and resolves with rest. The pain is usually described as a "pins and needles" sensation or a burning ache, and it is caused by reduced blood flow to the muscles due to narrowed or blocked arteries in the legs. Intermittent claudication is a common symptom of peripheral artery disease (PAD), which is a condition that affects the blood vessels in the legs and feet. PAD occurs when the buildup of plaque, a fatty deposit that can harden and narrow the arteries, restricts blood flow to the legs. As a result, the muscles in the legs may not receive enough oxygen and nutrients, leading to pain and discomfort during physical activity. Treatment for intermittent claudication typically involves lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and maintaining a healthy diet, as well as medications to improve blood flow and reduce inflammation. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove plaque buildup or bypass blocked arteries.
The Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) is a medical test used to measure the blood flow in the lower extremities. It compares the blood pressure in the ankle to the blood pressure in the arm. The test is typically performed by a healthcare provider and involves placing inflatable cuffs around the upper arm and both lower legs. The cuffs are then inflated to a specific pressure and the blood pressure is measured in each location. The ABI is calculated by dividing the blood pressure in the ankle by the blood pressure in the arm. A normal ABI is typically between 0.9 and 1.3. An ABI below 0.9 may indicate reduced blood flow to the lower extremities and could be a sign of peripheral artery disease (PAD).
Cerebral arteries are blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the brain. There are two main types of cerebral arteries: the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries. These arteries branch off from the aorta and travel up through the neck and into the brain, where they give rise to smaller arteries and arterioles that supply blood to different regions of the brain. The internal carotid arteries are located on either side of the neck and supply blood to the front and sides of the brain. The vertebral arteries are located in the vertebral canal and supply blood to the back and base of the brain. Cerebral arteries are critical for maintaining proper brain function, as the brain requires a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients to function properly. Damage or blockage of cerebral arteries can lead to a variety of neurological problems, including stroke, headache, and cognitive impairment.
In the medical field, the ankle is a complex joint that connects the lower leg (tibia and fibula) to the foot (tarsus). It is made up of three bones: the talus, which sits on top of the tibia and fibula, and the calcaneus and navicular bones, which make up the heel and the base of the foot. The ankle joint is surrounded by ligaments, which provide stability and support, and by muscles and tendons, which allow movement and provide power to the foot and leg. The ankle is an important joint that allows for a wide range of motion, including dorsiflexion (lifting the front of the foot), plantarflexion (dropping the heel), inversion (turning the foot inward), and eversion (turning the foot outward). Injuries to the ankle, such as sprains and fractures, can cause pain, swelling, and limited mobility, and may require medical treatment.
Arterial occlusive diseases refer to a group of medical conditions in which the arteries become narrowed or blocked, leading to reduced blood flow to the affected area. This can result in a range of symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the blockage. The most common types of arterial occlusive diseases include: 1. Atherosclerosis: A condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries, causing them to narrow and harden. 2. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): A condition that affects the arteries in the legs, causing pain, cramping, and weakness in the legs, especially during physical activity. 3. Coronary artery disease (CAD): A condition that affects the arteries that supply blood to the heart, leading to chest pain, shortness of breath, and other symptoms. 4. Carotid artery disease: A condition that affects the arteries in the neck, leading to a reduced blood flow to the brain, which can cause stroke. Treatment for arterial occlusive diseases may include lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising regularly, as well as medications to manage symptoms and prevent further progression of the disease. In some cases, surgery or other medical procedures may be necessary to open or bypass blocked arteries.
Cerebral infarction, also known as a stroke, is a medical condition that occurs when blood flow to a part of the brain is interrupted, causing brain tissue to die. This can happen when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked by a clot or when a blood vessel bursts and leaks blood into the surrounding brain tissue. Cerebral infarction can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the location and size of the affected area of the brain. Common symptoms include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; dizziness or loss of balance; and severe headache. Cerebral infarction is a medical emergency that requires prompt treatment to minimize the risk of long-term disability or death. Treatment options may include medications to dissolve or remove the blood clot, surgery to remove the clot or repair the damaged blood vessel, and rehabilitation to help patients recover from the effects of the stroke.
Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a group of neurological disorders that affect a person's ability to move and control their muscles. It is caused by damage to the developing brain, usually before or during birth, which can result in a range of symptoms including muscle stiffness, weakness, tremors, and difficulty with coordination and balance. CP is a non-progressive condition, meaning that it does not get worse over time. However, the severity of symptoms can vary widely depending on the extent of the brain damage and the specific areas of the brain that were affected. There are four main types of CP: spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed. Spastic CP is the most common and is characterized by muscle stiffness and spasms. Athetoid CP is characterized by uncontrolled, writhing movements of the muscles. Ataxic CP is characterized by difficulty with balance and coordination. Mixed CP is a combination of two or more of these types. Treatment for CP typically involves a combination of physical therapy, occupational therapy, and assistive devices such as braces or wheelchairs. In some cases, medication or surgery may also be used to manage symptoms. While there is no cure for CP, early intervention and ongoing therapy can help individuals with the condition to achieve the best possible quality of life.
Cerebrovascular circulation refers to the blood flow to and from the brain and spinal cord. It is responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the brain and removing waste products. The brain is a highly metabolically active organ, and it requires a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients to function properly. The cerebrovascular system is made up of the arteries, veins, and capillaries that supply blood to the brain. Any disruption in the cerebrovascular circulation can lead to serious health problems, including stroke and brain injury.
The brachial artery is a large artery in the upper arm that supplies oxygenated blood to the muscles and tissues of the arm and hand. It is a continuation of the axillary artery, which branches off from the aorta, the main artery of the body. The brachial artery begins in the axillary region, just below the collarbone, and travels down the arm to the elbow, where it divides into two smaller arteries, the radial artery and the ulnar artery. The brachial artery is an important landmark for medical procedures such as blood pressure measurement, arterial catheterization, and brachial plexus block anesthesia. It is also a common site for blood donation.
Cerebral angiography is a medical imaging procedure used to visualize the blood vessels in the brain. It involves injecting a contrast dye into the bloodstream, which highlights the blood vessels on X-ray images. This allows doctors to identify any blockages, narrowing, or aneurysms in the blood vessels that may be causing symptoms such as headaches, seizures, or stroke. Cerebral angiography is typically performed as an outpatient procedure and is used to diagnose and treat a variety of neurological conditions, including stroke, aneurysms, and tumors. It is considered a safe and effective diagnostic tool, but like any medical procedure, it carries some risks, including bleeding, infection, and allergic reactions to the contrast dye.
Ischemia is a medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of blood flow to a particular part of the body. This can happen when the blood vessels that supply blood to the affected area become narrowed or blocked, either due to a physical obstruction or a decrease in blood pressure. Ischemia can affect any part of the body, but it is most commonly associated with the heart and brain. In the heart, ischemia can lead to a condition called angina, which is characterized by chest pain or discomfort. If the blood flow to the heart is completely blocked, it can result in a heart attack. In the brain, ischemia can cause a stroke, which can lead to permanent damage or even death if not treated promptly. Ischemia can also occur in other organs, such as the kidneys, limbs, and intestines, and can cause a range of symptoms depending on the affected area. Treatment for ischemia typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the blockage or narrowing of the blood vessels, such as through medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.
Infarction of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is a type of stroke that occurs when blood flow to a specific area of the brain is blocked, usually by a blood clot. The middle cerebral artery supplies blood to the front and side of the brain, and when it becomes blocked, it can cause damage to the brain tissue in that area. Symptoms of MCA infarction can include weakness or numbness on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, and loss of balance or coordination. In severe cases, MCA infarction can lead to or even death. Treatment for MCA infarction typically involves medications to dissolve or remove the blood clot, as well as rehabilitation to help patients recover from the effects of the stroke. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair any damage to the artery.
Malaria, cerebral, also known as cerebral malaria, is a severe and potentially life-threatening complication of malaria caused by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. It is characterized by high fever, headache, confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness. In cerebral malaria, the parasite invades the brain and causes inflammation and damage to the blood vessels, leading to swelling and bleeding. This can result in a range of neurological symptoms, including confusion, disorientation, seizures, and coma. Cerebral malaria is a medical emergency and requires prompt diagnosis and treatment with antimalarial drugs and supportive care. Without treatment, cerebral malaria can lead to permanent brain damage, coma, and death.
Brain ischemia is a medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of blood flow to the brain, which can lead to brain damage or even death. This can happen due to a blockage in one or more of the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain, or due to a decrease in the amount of oxygenated blood reaching the brain. Brain ischemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including stroke, heart disease, high blood pressure, and certain medical conditions such as sickle cell anemia. Symptoms of brain ischemia can include headache, confusion, dizziness, weakness, and loss of consciousness. Treatment for brain ischemia typically involves medications to dissolve blood clots or to reduce blood pressure, as well as surgery in some cases.
In the medical field, the brain is the most complex and vital organ in the human body. It is responsible for controlling and coordinating all bodily functions, including movement, sensation, thought, emotion, and memory. The brain is located in the skull and is protected by the skull bones and cerebrospinal fluid. The brain is composed of billions of nerve cells, or neurons, which communicate with each other through electrical and chemical signals. These neurons are organized into different regions of the brain, each with its own specific functions. The brain is also divided into two hemispheres, the left and right, which are connected by a bundle of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. Damage to the brain can result in a wide range of neurological disorders, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Treatment for brain disorders often involves medications, surgery, and rehabilitation therapies to help restore function and improve quality of life.
Cerebral veins are blood vessels that drain blood from the brain back to the heart. They are responsible for removing waste products and excess fluid from the brain, and for maintaining the proper balance of fluids and electrolytes in the brain. There are several different types of cerebral veins, including the straight sinus, the cavernous sinus, and the sigmoid sinus. These veins are connected to each other by a network of smaller veins called the venous sinuses. Cerebral veins are an important part of the circulatory system in the brain, and any problems with these veins can have serious consequences. For example, a condition called cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, which is the formation of a blood clot in one of the cerebral veins, can cause headaches, nausea, vomiting, and other symptoms. In severe cases, it can lead to brain damage or even death.
Amputation is a surgical procedure in which a body part, such as a limb, toe, finger, or digit, is removed completely or partially. This is typically done to remove a diseased or damaged body part that cannot be repaired or that is causing significant pain or other health problems. Amputations can be performed for a variety of reasons, including: - Trauma: Injuries from accidents or violence can cause severe damage to a limb that requires amputation to save the patient's life or prevent further harm. - Cancer: Tumors or other types of cancer can spread to a limb and cause it to become infected or unable to function properly. In these cases, amputation may be necessary to remove the cancerous tissue and prevent it from spreading further. - Nerve damage: In some cases, nerve damage can cause a limb to become paralyzed or lose sensation. In these cases, amputation may be necessary to prevent further damage or to improve the patient's quality of life. - Congenital defects: Some people are born with birth defects that affect their limbs or digits. In these cases, amputation may be necessary to improve the patient's mobility or to prevent further complications. Amputations can be performed using a variety of techniques, including open surgery, endoscopic surgery, and robotic surgery. The type of procedure used will depend on the location and severity of the amputation, as well as the patient's overall health and medical history. After the procedure, the patient will typically need to undergo physical therapy to help them regain strength and mobility in their remaining limbs.
Vascular diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels, including arteries, veins, and capillaries. These diseases can affect any part of the circulatory system, from the heart to the smallest blood vessels in the body. Some common examples of vascular diseases include: 1. Atherosclerosis: A condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries, narrowing them and reducing blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. 2. Arteriosclerosis: A condition in which the walls of the arteries become thickened and stiff, reducing blood flow and increasing the risk of heart attack and stroke. 3. Peripheral artery disease: A condition in which the blood vessels in the legs and feet become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, cramping, and other symptoms. 4. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the legs, and can travel to the lungs and cause a life-threatening condition called pulmonary embolism. 5. Varicose veins: Abnormal, enlarged veins that often appear on the legs and are caused by weakened valves in the veins that allow blood to flow backward. 6. Raynaud's phenomenon: A condition in which the blood vessels in the fingers and toes constrict, leading to numbness, tingling, and sometimes pain. Vascular diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices (such as smoking, poor diet, and lack of exercise), and underlying medical conditions (such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol). Treatment for vascular diseases may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.
Intracranial arterial diseases refer to a group of disorders that affect the blood vessels within the skull (intracranial) that supply blood to the brain. These diseases can lead to a variety of symptoms, including headache, dizziness, vision problems, and even stroke. Some common types of intracranial arterial diseases include: 1. Intracranial Atherosclerosis: This is a condition in which fatty deposits (plaques) build up inside the walls of the arteries that supply blood to the brain. This can narrow the arteries and reduce blood flow to the brain, leading to symptoms such as headache, dizziness, and memory problems. 2. Moyamoya Disease: This is a rare disorder in which the blood vessels at the base of the brain become narrowed or blocked, leading to reduced blood flow to the brain. This can cause symptoms such as headache, seizures, and stroke. 3. Dissection: This is a condition in which a tear occurs in the wall of an artery, causing blood to leak into the artery wall or surrounding tissue. This can lead to symptoms such as severe headache, neck pain, and vision problems. 4. Vasculitis: This is an inflammation of the blood vessels that can affect any part of the body, including the brain. Vasculitis can cause symptoms such as headache, fever, and vision problems. Treatment for intracranial arterial diseases depends on the specific condition and the severity of symptoms. Treatment options may include medications to manage symptoms, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.
Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels as the heart pumps blood through the body. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is typically expressed as two numbers: systolic pressure (the pressure when the heart beats) and diastolic pressure (the pressure when the heart is at rest between beats). Normal blood pressure is considered to be below 120/80 mmHg, while high blood pressure (hypertension) is defined as a systolic pressure of 140 mmHg or higher and/or a diastolic pressure of 90 mmHg or higher. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease, stroke, and other health problems.
Cerebral hemorrhage, also known as intracerebral hemorrhage, is a medical emergency that occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing blood to leak into the surrounding brain tissue. This can cause severe brain damage and can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. Cerebral hemorrhage is a type of stroke, which is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. It can occur due to a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, aneurysms, brain tumors, and certain medications. Symptoms of cerebral hemorrhage can include sudden and severe headache, nausea and vomiting, confusion, loss of consciousness, weakness or numbness in the face, arms, or legs, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, and vision problems. Treatment for cerebral hemorrhage typically involves reducing blood pressure, controlling bleeding, and managing symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the blood clot or repair the ruptured blood vessel. The outcome of cerebral hemorrhage depends on the severity of the bleeding, the location of the hemorrhage in the brain, and the promptness and effectiveness of treatment.
Thromboangiitis obliterans, also known as Buerger's disease, is a rare inflammatory disorder that affects the blood vessels in the arms and legs. It is characterized by the formation of blood clots and inflammation in the walls of the blood vessels, which can lead to pain, numbness, and tissue damage in the affected limbs. The condition is more common in young men and is often associated with smoking. Treatment typically involves medications to prevent blood clots and surgery to remove damaged tissue or bypass blocked blood vessels.
In the medical field, arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. They are typically thick-walled and muscular, and their walls are lined with smooth muscle and elastic tissue that helps to maintain their shape and elasticity. There are three main types of arteries: 1. Ascending aorta: This is the largest artery in the body, and it carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. 2. Descending aorta: This artery carries oxygenated blood from the ascending aorta to the abdomen and lower extremities. 3. Coronary arteries: These arteries supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscle. Arteries are an essential part of the circulatory system, and any damage or blockage to them can lead to serious health problems, including heart attack and stroke.
Blood flow velocity refers to the speed at which blood flows through a blood vessel or artery. It is typically measured in units of meters per second (m/s) or centimeters per second (cm/s). Blood flow velocity is an important parameter in the assessment of cardiovascular health, as it can provide information about the functioning of the heart, blood vessels, and blood circulation. Blood flow velocity can be measured using various techniques, including Doppler ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT) angiography. These techniques use sound waves or electromagnetic signals to detect the movement of blood through the blood vessels and calculate the velocity of blood flow. Abnormal blood flow velocities can indicate a variety of cardiovascular conditions, such as stenosis (narrowing) of the blood vessels, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), and blood clots. Therefore, measuring blood flow velocity is an important diagnostic tool in the evaluation and management of cardiovascular diseases.
Cerebrovascular disorders refer to conditions that affect the blood vessels in the brain, leading to a disruption in blood flow and oxygen supply to the brain tissue. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including atherosclerosis (hardening and narrowing of the arteries), high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, and genetic factors. Cerebrovascular disorders can be classified into two main categories: ischemic and hemorrhagic. Ischemic cerebrovascular disorders are caused by a lack of blood flow to the brain, which can result from a blockage or narrowing of the blood vessels. Hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disorders, on the other hand, are caused by bleeding in the brain, which can result from a ruptured blood vessel or an aneurysm. Some common examples of cerebrovascular disorders include stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and aneurysm. Stroke is a type of cerebrovascular disorder that occurs when blood flow to the brain is completely blocked or reduced, leading to brain damage or death. TIA, also known as a mini-stroke, is a temporary disruption in blood flow to the brain that usually lasts only a few minutes. An aneurysm is a bulge in a blood vessel in the brain that can rupture and cause bleeding. Cerebrovascular disorders can have serious consequences, including disability, cognitive impairment, and even death. Treatment options for these disorders depend on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Early detection and prompt medical intervention are crucial for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.
Diabetic Angiopathies refer to a group of circulatory disorders that affect the blood vessels of people with diabetes. These disorders can occur in any part of the body, but are most commonly seen in the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and heart. The most common type of diabetic angiopathy is diabetic retinopathy, which affects the blood vessels in the retina of the eye. This can lead to vision loss or blindness if left untreated. Another type of diabetic angiopathy is diabetic nephropathy, which affects the blood vessels in the kidneys and can lead to kidney failure. Diabetic neuropathy, which affects the nerves, is also a common type of diabetic angiopathy. Diabetic angiopathies are caused by damage to the blood vessels that occurs as a result of high blood sugar levels over a long period of time. This damage can lead to the formation of abnormal blood vessels, which can become blocked or leaky, leading to a range of complications. Treatment for diabetic angiopathies typically involves managing blood sugar levels through diet, exercise, and medication, as well as addressing any underlying risk factors such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat more severe cases of diabetic angiopathy.
Arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) is a type of peripheral artery disease (PAD) that occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the legs become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque. This can lead to reduced blood flow to the affected area, which can cause pain, cramping, and even tissue death (gangrene) if left untreated. ASO is typically caused by a combination of factors, including smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and a family history of the condition. The condition is more common in older adults and men, and is often associated with other cardiovascular risk factors such as coronary artery disease and stroke. Treatment for ASO may include lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising regularly, as well as medications to lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. In some cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary to open or bypass the blocked arteries.
Atherosclerosis is a medical condition characterized by the hardening and narrowing of the arteries due to the buildup of plaque. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances that accumulate on the inner walls of the arteries over time. As the plaque builds up, it can restrict blood flow to the organs and tissues that the arteries supply, leading to a range of health problems. Atherosclerosis is a common condition that can affect any artery in the body, but it is most commonly associated with the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart. When atherosclerosis affects the coronary arteries, it can lead to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD), which is a major cause of heart attacks and strokes. Atherosclerosis can also affect the arteries that supply blood to the brain, legs, kidneys, and other organs, leading to a range of health problems such as peripheral artery disease, stroke, and kidney disease. Risk factors for atherosclerosis include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, obesity, and a family history of the condition.
An ischemic attack, also known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA), is a temporary disruption of blood flow to a part of the brain. This can cause symptoms such as weakness or numbness on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, or dizziness. Unlike a stroke, which is a more permanent disruption of blood flow, a TIA usually resolves on its own within a few hours. However, a TIA is a warning sign that a person is at increased risk of having a stroke, and prompt medical treatment is important to reduce that risk.
Perinephritis is an inflammation of the tissue surrounding the kidneys, including the renal fascia, fat, and connective tissue. It can be caused by bacterial or viral infections, as well as by other factors such as trauma, autoimmune disorders, or kidney stones. Symptoms of perinephritis may include fever, flank pain, nausea and vomiting, and difficulty urinating. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, as well as pain management and supportive care. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
In the medical field, a stroke is a medical emergency that occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted or reduced, causing brain cells to die. This can happen in two ways: 1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of stroke, accounting for about 85% of all strokes. It occurs when a blood clot blocks a blood vessel in the brain, cutting off blood flow to the affected area. 2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing bleeding into the brain. Hemorrhagic strokes are less common than ischemic strokes, accounting for about 15% of all strokes. Strokes can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the brain damage. Common symptoms include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; dizziness or loss of balance; and severe headache. Prompt medical treatment is crucial for stroke patients, as the sooner treatment is given, the better the chances of recovery. Treatment options may include medications to dissolve blood clots or prevent further clot formation, surgery to remove a blood clot or repair a ruptured blood vessel, and rehabilitation to help patients recover from the effects of the stroke.
Arteriosclerosis is a medical condition characterized by the hardening and thickening of the walls of arteries due to the buildup of plaque. This buildup can restrict blood flow to the organs and tissues that the arteries supply, leading to a range of health problems, including heart disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease. The process of arteriosclerosis involves the accumulation of fatty deposits, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances in the inner lining of the arteries. Over time, these deposits can harden and form plaques, which can narrow the arteries and reduce blood flow. The plaques can also rupture, causing blood clots that can block blood flow and lead to serious complications. Arteriosclerosis is a common condition that can affect people of all ages, but it is more likely to occur in older adults and people with certain risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, and a family history of heart disease. Treatment for arteriosclerosis typically involves lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising regularly, as well as medications to lower blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood sugar levels. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove plaque or open blocked arteries.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for more than 17 million deaths each year. CVDs include conditions such as coronary artery disease (CAD), heart failure, arrhythmias, valvular heart disease, peripheral artery disease (PAD), and stroke. These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, obesity, and a family history of CVDs. Treatment for CVDs may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, surgery.
Carotid artery diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the carotid arteries, which are the main blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the brain. These diseases can lead to a reduced blood flow to the brain, which can cause symptoms such as dizziness, weakness, and even stroke. The most common types of carotid artery diseases are carotid artery stenosis and carotid artery dissection. Carotid artery stenosis occurs when the inside of the carotid artery becomes narrowed or blocked by a buildup of plaque, which is made up of fat, cholesterol, and other substances. Carotid artery dissection occurs when the inner lining of the carotid artery is torn, which can cause a blood clot to form and block the flow of blood. Other types of carotid artery diseases include carotid artery aneurysm, carotid artery occlusion, and carotid artery inflammation. Carotid artery aneurysm occurs when a section of the carotid artery becomes weakened and bulges outwards. Carotid artery occlusion occurs when the carotid artery is completely blocked, which can cause a stroke. Carotid artery inflammation, also known as carotid artery vasculitis, is an inflammatory condition that can cause the walls of the carotid artery to become thickened and narrowed. Treatment for carotid artery diseases depends on the specific type and severity of the condition. In some cases, lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising regularly may be sufficient to manage the condition. In more severe cases, medications such as blood thinners or cholesterol-lowering drugs may be prescribed. In some cases, surgery or endovascular procedures may be necessary to remove plaque or repair damaged arteries.
Angiography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the blood vessels in the body. It involves injecting a contrast dye into a blood vessel, usually through a small puncture in the skin, and then using an X-ray machine or other imaging device to capture images of the dye as it flows through the blood vessels. This allows doctors to see any blockages, narrowing, or other abnormalities in the blood vessels, which can help them diagnose and treat a variety of medical conditions, including heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Angiography is often used in conjunction with other imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to provide a more complete picture of the patient's condition.
Biological markers, also known as biomarkers, are measurable indicators of biological processes, pathogenic processes, or responses to therapeutic interventions. In the medical field, biological markers are used to diagnose, monitor, and predict the progression of diseases, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments. Biological markers can be found in various biological samples, such as blood, urine, tissue, or body fluids. They can be proteins, genes, enzymes, hormones, metabolites, or other molecules that are associated with a specific disease or condition. For example, in cancer, biological markers such as tumor markers can be used to detect the presence of cancer cells or to monitor the response to treatment. In cardiovascular disease, biological markers such as cholesterol levels or blood pressure can be used to assess the risk of heart attack or stroke. Overall, biological markers play a crucial role in medical research and clinical practice, as they provide valuable information about the underlying biology of diseases and help to guide diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring.
Pathologic constriction refers to a medical condition in which a blood vessel or other tubular structure becomes narrowed or blocked, leading to reduced blood flow or obstruction of the flow of other substances through the vessel. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including inflammation, scarring, abnormal growths, or the presence of a foreign object. Pathologic constriction can have serious consequences, depending on the location and severity of the constriction, and may require medical intervention to treat.
Angioplasty, balloon is a medical procedure used to widen a narrowed or blocked blood vessel in the body. It is a minimally invasive procedure that involves threading a thin, flexible tube called a catheter through a small incision in the skin and into the narrowed blood vessel. A small balloon is then attached to the end of the catheter and inflated to widen the narrowed area of the blood vessel, allowing blood to flow more freely. This procedure is often used to treat conditions such as coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and stroke. It is typically performed on an outpatient basis and can be done using local anesthesia or sedation.
Cross-sectional studies are a type of observational research design used in the medical field to examine the prevalence or distribution of a particular health outcome or risk factor in a population at a specific point in time. In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of individuals who are all measured at the same time, rather than following them over time. Cross-sectional studies are useful for identifying associations between health outcomes and risk factors, but they cannot establish causality. For example, a cross-sectional study may find that people who smoke are more likely to have lung cancer than non-smokers, but it cannot determine whether smoking causes lung cancer or if people with lung cancer are more likely to smoke. Cross-sectional studies are often used in public health research to estimate the prevalence of diseases or conditions in a population, to identify risk factors for certain health outcomes, and to compare the health status of different groups of people. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions or to identify potential risk factors for disease outbreaks.
Blood gas monitoring, transcutaneous (TCOG) is a non-invasive method of measuring the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in a person's blood. It involves the use of a small device that is placed on the skin of the patient's finger or earlobe to measure the partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2) in the blood. This information can be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, as well as to guide treatment decisions. TCOG is a quick and painless procedure that does not require the use of needles or other invasive instruments.
The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is a major blood vessel in the brain that supplies blood to the front part of the brain, including the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, and the temporal lobe. It is one of the two main branches of the internal carotid artery, which is the main artery that supplies blood to the brain from the neck. The ACA arises from the internal carotid artery and runs forward through the base of the brain, where it divides into two branches, the anterior communicating artery and the pericallosal artery. The anterior communicating artery supplies blood to the front part of the brain, while the pericallosal artery supplies blood to the parietal and temporal lobes. The ACA is an important blood vessel in the brain because it supplies oxygen and nutrients to the brain cells, which are essential for their proper functioning. Damage or blockage of the ACA can lead to a stroke, which can cause a range of neurological symptoms, including weakness, numbness, and loss of sensation on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, and changes in vision or balance.
Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the blood vessels in the body. It is a type of angiography, which is a procedure that uses imaging to visualize blood vessels and blood flow. In DSA, a contrast dye is injected into a vein or artery, and X-ray images are taken of the blood vessels before and after the dye is injected. The images are then processed using a computer to create a series of images that show the blood vessels in detail. The computer subtracts the images taken before the dye is injected from the images taken after the dye is injected, which allows the blood vessels to be seen more clearly. DSA is often used to diagnose and treat a variety of conditions that affect the blood vessels, including aneurysms, blockages, and abnormalities in the arteries and veins. It is also used to guide procedures such as angioplasty and stent placement, which are used to treat these conditions.
Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy (CAA) is a condition characterized by the accumulation of abnormal protein deposits called amyloid-beta in the walls of blood vessels in the brain. These deposits can lead to inflammation, thickening, and weakening of the blood vessels, which can cause them to leak or rupture, leading to brain damage or stroke. CAA is a common finding in older adults and is often associated with other age-related conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Lewy body dementia. The symptoms of CAA can vary widely and may include headaches, dizziness, confusion, memory loss, and changes in behavior or personality. Treatment for CAA typically focuses on managing symptoms and preventing complications such as stroke or brain hemorrhage.
Cerebral ventricles are the cavities within the brain that are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). They are responsible for producing and circulating CSF, which serves as a cushion and lubricant for the brain and spinal cord, and helps to protect them from injury. The cerebral ventricles are divided into four main parts: the lateral ventricles, the third ventricle, the fourth ventricle, and the cerebellar ventricles. Disorders of the cerebral ventricles can lead to a variety of neurological symptoms, including headaches, seizures, and cognitive impairment.
Case-control studies are a type of observational study used in the medical field to investigate the relationship between an exposure and an outcome. In a case-control study, researchers identify individuals who have experienced a particular outcome (cases) and compare their exposure history to a group of individuals who have not experienced the outcome (controls). The main goal of a case-control study is to determine whether the exposure was a risk factor for the outcome. To do this, researchers collect information about the exposure history of both the cases and the controls and compare the two groups to see if there is a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of the exposure between the two groups. Case-control studies are often used when the outcome of interest is rare, and it is difficult or unethical to conduct a prospective cohort study. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to recall bias, where participants may not accurately remember their exposure history. Additionally, because case-control studies only provide information about the association between an exposure and an outcome, they cannot establish causality.
Brain edema is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of excess fluid in the brain tissue, leading to swelling and increased pressure within the skull. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including injury, infection, inflammation, or certain medical conditions such as hypertension or heart failure. Brain edema can cause a range of symptoms, including headache, nausea, vomiting, confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness. In severe cases, it can lead to brain damage, coma, and even death. Treatment for brain edema typically involves addressing the underlying cause and reducing the pressure within the skull. This may involve medications to reduce inflammation or lower blood pressure, as well as procedures such as surgery to relieve pressure or remove excess fluid. In some cases, supportive care such as oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation may also be necessary.
Aspirin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fever. It is also used to prevent blood clots and reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke. Aspirin works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, which are chemicals that cause inflammation and pain. It is available over-the-counter in various strengths and is also used as a prescription medication for certain medical conditions. Aspirin is generally considered safe when taken as directed, but it can cause side effects such as stomach pain, nausea, and bleeding.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a medical condition that occurs when blood leaks into the space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater, which are two layers of tissue that cover the surface of the brain. This can happen due to a ruptured aneurysm, which is a bulge in a blood vessel in the brain that can burst and cause bleeding. SAH is a serious medical emergency that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. The symptoms of SAH can include severe headache, nausea and vomiting, sensitivity to light, confusion, and loss of consciousness. If left untreated, SAH can lead to brain damage, stroke, and even death. Treatment for SAH typically involves surgery to repair or remove the ruptured aneurysm, as well as medications to manage symptoms and prevent further bleeding. The prognosis for SAH depends on several factors, including the severity of the bleeding, the location of the aneurysm, and the patient's overall health.
A leg ulcer is a wound that forms on the skin of the leg, typically on the lower leg or ankle. It is usually a chronic condition that does not heal on its own and can be caused by a variety of factors, including poor circulation, venous insufficiency, arterial disease, diabetes, and obesity. Leg ulcers can be painful and may lead to infection if not properly treated. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the ulcer, as well as cleaning and dressing the wound to promote healing. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to improve blood flow or remove damaged tissue.
The carotid arteries are two major blood vessels in the neck that supply oxygenated blood to the brain and other parts of the head and neck. They are located on either side of the neck, just below the Adam's apple, and are responsible for approximately 15% of the total blood flow to the brain. The carotid arteries begin as two small arteries in the chest, called the internal carotid arteries, which then travel up the neck and join together to form the common carotid artery. The common carotid artery then branches off into the internal and external carotid arteries. The internal carotid artery supplies blood to the brain, while the external carotid artery supplies blood to the face, neck, and upper extremities. The carotid arteries are important for maintaining proper blood flow to the brain, which is essential for cognitive function, balance, and coordination. Damage or blockage of the carotid arteries can lead to serious health problems, including stroke.
Carotid stenosis is a medical condition in which the carotid artery, which supplies blood to the brain, becomes narrowed or blocked. This can lead to a reduced flow of blood to the brain, which can cause symptoms such as dizziness, weakness, and difficulty speaking or thinking. Carotid stenosis is typically caused by the buildup of plaque in the walls of the artery, which can thicken and harden over time. Other risk factors for carotid stenosis include high blood pressure, smoking, and diabetes. Treatment for carotid stenosis may include medication to manage symptoms and prevent further narrowing of the artery, or surgery to remove the plaque and restore blood flow to the brain.
The diabetic foot is a condition that affects people with diabetes, particularly those with poorly controlled blood sugar levels. It refers to a group of foot-related problems that can occur as a result of diabetes, including infections, ulcers, nerve damage, and circulation problems. The diabetic foot can lead to serious complications, such as amputation, if left untreated. It is important for people with diabetes to take good care of their feet by inspecting them regularly for any signs of injury or infection, keeping them clean and dry, wearing properly fitting shoes, and seeking medical attention promptly if any problems arise.
Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis are medical conditions that involve the formation of blood clots or other foreign substances within the blood vessels of the brain. These clots or foreign substances can block the flow of blood to the brain, leading to a lack of oxygen and nutrients to the brain cells, which can cause damage or even death. Intracranial Embolism occurs when a blood clot or other foreign substance travels through the bloodstream and lodges in a blood vessel within the brain. This can occur as a result of a heart attack, stroke, or other medical condition. Thrombosis, on the other hand, refers to the formation of a blood clot within a blood vessel, which can occur as a result of injury, infection, or other medical conditions. Both Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis can lead to serious and potentially life-threatening complications, such as stroke, brain damage, and even death. Treatment typically involves the use of medications to dissolve the clot or prevent it from growing larger, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Auscultation is a medical procedure in which a healthcare provider listens to sounds within the body, typically using a stethoscope. It is commonly used to diagnose various medical conditions, such as heart murmurs, lung infections, and bowel sounds. During auscultation, the healthcare provider places the stethoscope on the patient's skin and listens for specific sounds, such as heartbeats, breath sounds, or bowel movements. The healthcare provider may also use different techniques, such as changing the angle of the stethoscope or using a diaphragm or bell, to better hear the sounds within the body. Auscultation is a valuable tool in the diagnostic process and is often used in conjunction with other medical tests and procedures.
Cardiovascular agents are drugs that are used to treat conditions related to the heart and blood vessels, such as high blood pressure, heart failure, angina, and arrhythmias. These agents can be classified into several categories, including diuretics, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and nitrates. These drugs work by affecting various physiological processes in the body, such as blood pressure regulation, heart rate, and blood vessel dilation, to improve cardiovascular function and reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke.
In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.
Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is a medical condition in which the force of blood against the walls of the arteries is consistently too high. This can lead to damage to the blood vessels, heart, and other organs over time, and can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other health problems. Hypertension is typically defined as having a systolic blood pressure (the top number) of 140 mmHg or higher, or a diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) of 90 mmHg or higher. However, some people may be considered hypertensive if their blood pressure is consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Hypertension can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices (such as a diet high in salt and saturated fat, lack of physical activity, and smoking), and certain medical conditions (such as kidney disease, diabetes, and sleep apnea). It is often a chronic condition that requires ongoing management through lifestyle changes, medication, and regular monitoring of blood pressure levels.
Blood pressure determination is the process of measuring the force of blood against the walls of arteries as it flows through the body. This measurement is an important indicator of cardiovascular health and is typically taken using a sphygmomanometer, a device that consists of an inflatable cuff and a gauge to measure the pressure inside the cuff. During a blood pressure determination, the cuff is placed around the upper arm and inflated to a point where blood flow is temporarily blocked. The pressure is then slowly released, and the gauge records the pressure at which blood flow begins to resume. This pressure is known as the systolic pressure, which represents the maximum pressure in the arteries during a heartbeat. The pressure at which blood flow returns to normal after the heartbeat is known as the diastolic pressure, which represents the minimum pressure in the arteries between heartbeats. Blood pressure determination is typically performed in a healthcare setting by a healthcare provider, such as a doctor or nurse. It is an important part of routine health screenings and is used to diagnose and manage conditions such as hypertension (high blood pressure) and hypotension (low blood pressure).
Brain diseases refer to a wide range of medical conditions that affect the structure, function, or chemistry of the brain. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, infections, injuries, toxins, and degenerative processes. Some common examples of brain diseases include: 1. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory loss, cognitive decline, and behavioral changes. 2. Parkinson's disease: A movement disorder caused by the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the brain. 3. Multiple sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder that affects the central nervous system, causing inflammation and damage to the myelin sheath that surrounds nerve fibers. 4. Huntington's disease: A genetic disorder that causes the progressive breakdown of nerve cells in the brain, leading to movement, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms. 5. Epilepsy: A neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures, which can be caused by a variety of factors, including brain injury, genetic mutations, and brain tumors. 6. Stroke: A medical emergency caused by a disruption of blood flow to the brain, which can result in brain damage or death. 7. Brain tumors: Benign or malignant growths of abnormal cells in the brain that can cause a range of symptoms, depending on their location and size. These are just a few examples of the many different types of brain diseases that can affect people. Treatment options for brain diseases depend on the specific condition and its severity, and may include medications, surgery, physical therapy, and other interventions.
An intracranial aneurysm is a bulge or balloon-like dilation of a blood vessel in the brain. It occurs when a weakened area in the wall of the blood vessel balloons out and forms a sac. This can cause the blood vessel to become stretched and prone to rupture, which can lead to a life-threatening brain hemorrhage. Intracranial aneurysms are most commonly found in the arteries that supply blood to the brain, particularly the anterior communicating artery, the middle cerebral artery, and the internal carotid artery. They can occur at any age, but are more common in people over the age of 50. Risk factors for developing an intracranial aneurysm include smoking, high blood pressure, a family history of the condition, and certain genetic disorders. Treatment options for intracranial aneurysms include surgery to clip or coagulate the aneurysm, or endovascular coiling, which involves inserting a catheter through a blood vessel in the groin and threading it up to the aneurysm, where a coil is placed to fill the aneurysm and prevent it from rupturing.
Cohort studies are a type of observational study in the medical field that involves following a group of individuals (a cohort) over time to identify the incidence of a particular disease or health outcome. The individuals in the cohort are typically selected based on a common characteristic, such as age, gender, or exposure to a particular risk factor. During the study, researchers collect data on the health and lifestyle of the cohort members, and then compare the incidence of the disease or health outcome between different subgroups within the cohort. This can help researchers identify risk factors or protective factors associated with the disease or outcome. Cohort studies are useful for studying the long-term effects of exposure to a particular risk factor, such as smoking or air pollution, on the development of a disease. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions or treatments for a particular disease. One of the main advantages of cohort studies is that they can provide strong evidence of causality, as the exposure and outcome are measured over a long period of time and in the same group of individuals. However, they can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and may be subject to biases if the cohort is not representative of the general population.
A foot ulcer is an open sore or wound on the skin of the foot that does not heal on its own. Foot ulcers are a common problem in people with diabetes, peripheral artery disease, and other conditions that affect blood flow to the feet. They can also occur as a complication of wearing ill-fitting shoes or standing or walking for long periods of time. Foot ulcers can range in size from small, shallow wounds to deep, open sores that extend down to the bone. They can be painful and may become infected if not properly treated. In severe cases, foot ulcers can lead to gangrene, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. Treatment for foot ulcers typically involves cleaning and dressing the wound, controlling pain, and addressing any underlying medical conditions that may be contributing to the ulcer. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or repair damaged blood vessels. It is important for people with foot ulcers to follow their healthcare provider's instructions for wound care and to wear appropriate footwear to prevent further injury.
Cerebral revascularization is a medical procedure that involves improving blood flow to the brain in order to treat or prevent stroke. This can be done through a variety of methods, including surgery, angioplasty, and the use of stents or other devices to open up blocked or narrowed blood vessels in the brain. The goal of cerebral revascularization is to increase the amount of oxygen and nutrients that reach the brain, which can help to prevent further damage and improve the outcome for patients who have suffered a stroke. It is typically performed in cases where other treatments have been unsuccessful or are not possible, and it may be recommended for patients who are at high risk of stroke due to factors such as a history of stroke, high blood pressure, or atherosclerosis.
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Frontal right stroke in the chronic phase: self and external report of impulsivity and dysexecutive functioning
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- Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) Basilar artery: Supplies the midbrain, cerebellum, and usually branches into the posterior cerebral artery Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) Pontine branches Superior cerebellar artery (SCA) Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) Posterior communicating artery The venous drainage of the cerebrum can be separated into two subdivisions: superficial and deep. (wikipedia.org)
- The most prominent of these sinuses is the superior sagittal sinus which is located in the sagittal plane under the midline of the cerebral vault, posteriorly and inferiorly to the confluence of sinuses, where the superficial drainage joins with the sinus that primarily drains the deep venous system. (wikipedia.org)
- The deep venous system The deep venous system is primarily composed of traditional veins inside the deep structures of the brain, which join behind the midbrain to form the great cerebral vein (vein of Galen). (wikipedia.org)
- Recommendations are also provided for the prevention of recurrent stroke in a variety of specific circumstances, including aortic arch atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, patent foramen ovale, hyperhomocysteinemia, hypercoagulable states, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, sickle cell disease, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, and pregnancy. (nih.gov)
- The deep penetrating arteries are small, nonbranching end arteries (usually smaller than 500 μm in diameter), which arise directly from much larger arteries (eg, the middle cerebral artery, anterior choroidal artery, anterior cerebral artery, posterior cerebral artery, posterior communicating artery, cerebellar arteries, basilar artery). (medscape.com)
- Cerebral circulation is the movement of blood through a network of cerebral arteries and veins supplying the brain. (wikipedia.org)
- The anterior and posterior cerebral circulations are interconnected via bilateral posterior communicating arteries. (wikipedia.org)
- In case one of the supply arteries is occluded, the Circle of Willis provides interconnections between the anterior and the posterior cerebral circulation along the floor of the cerebral vault, providing blood to tissues that would otherwise become ischemic. (wikipedia.org)
- Anterior cerebral artery (ACA) Anterior communicating artery: Connects both anterior cerebral arteries, within and along the floor of the cerebral vault. (wikipedia.org)
- TCD enables continuous monitoring of mean blood flow velocity through the cerebral arteries and therefore the evaluation of cerebral blood flow [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Moyamoya disease is an idiopathic, nonatherosclerotic, noninflammatory, chronic progressive cerebrovascular disease characterized by bilateral stenosis or occlusion of the arteries around the circle of Willis, typically the supraclinoid internal carotid arteries, followed by extensive collateralization, which are prone to thrombosis, aneurysm, and hemorrhage. (jpgmonline.com)
- ApoE protein was expressed mainly in the endothelial cells of arterial walls both in control arteries and cerebral aneurysms. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Cerebral aneurysms can occur anywhere in the brain, but most form in the major arteries along the base of the skull. (nih.gov)
- Cerebral aneurysms form when the walls of the arteries in the brain become thin and weaken. (nih.gov)
- Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, commonly known as CARASIL, is an inherited condition that causes stroke and other impairments. (medlineplus.gov)
- Stroke is the third leading cause of death in developed countries after coronary heart disease and cancer.4 Patients who survive a first stroke are at a high risk of a first recurrent stroke.5 PRoFESS is the first trial to directly compare the efficacy and safety of the two antiplatelet agents, ER-DP plus aspirin and clopidogrel, in the prevention of recurrent stroke after non-cardioembolic ischaemic stroke. (webwire.com)
- So far CVR-L-Arg has been used to study cerebral endothelial function in many pathological conditions such as stroke, migraine, etc. (hindawi.com)
- Our aim was to measure the CBF, oxygen extraction fraction, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen use in patients with different severities of middle cerebral artery stenosis or acute stroke by using the arterial spin-labeling and susceptibility-weighted imaging techniques. (ajnr.org)
- Hemispheres with occluded MCA (group 3) or acute stroke (group 4) had a significantly lower CBF and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen and a significantly higher oxygen extraction fraction than the contralateral hemisphere. (ajnr.org)
- Moreover, the oxygen extraction fraction and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the occluded MCA region during acute stroke. (ajnr.org)
- It is possible to use both parameters and the arterial oxygen content to derive cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) use, which is of critical importance in the occurrence of stroke. (ajnr.org)
- Atherosclerotic vascular disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the U.S. Often, the first manifestation is myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke or sudden death. (mayo.edu)
- Since MMS is a progressive disease, it is important to diagnose and initiate treatment to prevent worsening of the disease and recurrence of stroke. (jpgmonline.com)
- Although moyamoya disease (MMD) is a common cause of transient ischemic stroke in Asian children and young adults, there have been very few cases of MMS in thalassemia published in the literature. (jpgmonline.com)
- Ischemic Stroke Ischemic stroke is sudden neurologic deficits that result from focal cerebral ischemia associated with permanent brain infarction (eg, positive results on diffusion-weighted MRI). (msdmanuals.com)
- She is the former director of the UCSF Pediatric Stroke and Cerebrovascular Disease Center, which she established in 2006. (ucsf.edu)
- The original VIPS study, completed in 2016, enrolled more than 700 children at 37 hospitals worldwide and established that common childhood infections, particularly herpesviruses, can trigger arterial ischemic stroke. (ucsf.edu)
- Subjects with ICH, greater than 1/3 MCA distribution stroke or severe cerebral edema were excluded. (bestbets.org)
- The first device to gain FDA approval was the MERCI (Mechanical Embolus Removal in Cerebral Ischemia) device which had a revascularization rate of 48% when used alone and 60% when used with adjunctive therapy. (bestbets.org)
- however, microatheroma now is thought to be the most common mechanism of arterial occlusion (or stenosis). (medscape.com)
- Noninvasive imaging of asymptomatic brain aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and intracranial arterial stenosis became available. (hindawi.com)
- Dr. Kullo's lab is creating a vascular diseases biorepository containing DNA, serum, plasma and cell line samples from volunteers with common vascular diseases - including carotid artery stenosis, aortic aneurysm and peripheral arterial disease - and rare vascular traits, including fibromuscular dysplasia. (mayo.edu)
- We used, in the present study, a previously established cerebral aneurysm model of rats and mice whose histological features were closely similar to human cerebral aneurysms. (spandidos-publications.com)
- The mRNA expression of ApoE in arterial walls was not different between the controls and cerebral aneurysms. (spandidos-publications.com)
- We will cover 10 years of experience in this area and divide our observations in 3 parts: cerebral angiograms (part I), carotid angioplasties (part II) and intracranial aneurysms (part III). (thieme-connect.de)
- Some cerebral aneurysms, particularly those that are very small, do not bleed or cause other problems. (nih.gov)
- All cerebral aneurysms have the potential to rupture and cause bleeding within the brain or surrounding area. (nih.gov)
- Most cerebral aneurysms do not show symptoms until they either become very large or rupture. (nih.gov)
- Occasionally, cerebral aneurysms may be present from birth, usually resulting from an abnormality in an artery wall. (nih.gov)
- The next day, arterial hypertension and tachycardia developed in the patient. (cdc.gov)
- Do not prescribe drospirenone, ethinyl estradiol and levomefolate calcium tablets and levomefolate calcium tablets for women with uncontrolled hypertension or hypertension with vascular disease. (nih.gov)
- Symptoms can mimic disease advancement and may include intracranial hypertension and focal neurologic dysfunction. (online-family-doctor.com)
- Because the brain would quickly suffer damage from any stoppage in blood supply, the cerebral circulatory system has safeguards including autoregulation of the blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
- Cerebral autoregulation maintains constant blood flow (CBF) through the brain in spite of changing mean arterial pressure [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow consists of mechano- and chemoregulation. (hindawi.com)
- the internal carotid artery branches into the anterior cerebral artery and continues to form the middle cerebral artery. (wikipedia.org)
- The treatment of this disease entity is changing rapidly with changes in the IV tPA time window, the use of intra-arterial thrombolytics and now the increasing use of mechanical clot extraction devices. (bestbets.org)
- Intrathecal and intra-arterial administration maximizes drug action. (online-family-doctor.com)
- We provide medical care for patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases, who have developed chronic disorders or undergone surgery due to an acute illness, for example a cardiac operation or angioplasty. (fachklinik-st-georg.de)
Coronary heart d2
- 5) Behavior Questionnaire elicited data on behavior which may be associated with coronary heart disease for examined persons ages 25-74. (cdc.gov)
- Dr. Kullo's laboratory conducts clinical trials in genomic medicine, such as the recently concluded Myocardioal Infarction Genes (MI-GENES) study, which assessed the effect on LDL cholesterol of disclosing a genetic risk score for coronary heart disease based on 28 susceptibility variants. (mayo.edu)
- Genetics of arterial plaques (atherosclerosis). (mayo.edu)
- A repeat CT scan showed a lesion in the right frontal lobe and diffuse cerebral edema ( Figure 1A ). (cdc.gov)
- Palliative measures for gliomas, astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and ependymomas include dexamethasone for cerebral edema and antacids and histamine receptor antagonists for stress ulcers. (online-family-doctor.com)
- Conclusion Cerebral angiography in adults, children and infants is a safe procedure with low risk of permanent neurological complications. (thieme-connect.de)
- Other diagnostic tools include a patient history, a neurologic assessment, skull X-rays, a brain scan, and cerebral angiography. (online-family-doctor.com)
- The following description is based on idealized human cerebral circulation. (wikipedia.org)
- The laboratory is investigating the clinical utility of measures of arterial stiffness such as aortic pulse wave velocity and characteristic impedance. (mayo.edu)
- The laboratory is engaged in clinical investigation related to PAD, including epidemiology of symptomatic PAD, the genetic bases of PAD and alterations in arterial function in patients with PAD. (mayo.edu)
- Before using gadolinium in patients with renal disease, clinicians should consult with a radiologist and a nephrologist. (msdmanuals.com)
- In conclusion CVR-L-Arg is a promising noninvasive research method that could provide means for evaluation of cerebral endothelial function in physiological and pathological conditions. (hindawi.com)
- These include genetic markers, circulating biomarkers, and noninvasive tests of arterial function and structure. (mayo.edu)
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to the rupture of a cerebral aneurysm is a life-threatening disease. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Despite this, the detailed mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of cerebral aneurysm are unclear. (spandidos-publications.com)
- The relation of hypercholesterolemia and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) to cerebral aneurysm formation, has been unclear until now. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Owing to the deficiency of ApoE, mice presented marked hypercholesterolemia, but there was no difference in cerebral aneurysm formation. (spandidos-publications.com)
- In the present study, we clarified that ApoE was not responsible for cerebral aneurysm formation. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Aoki T, Moriwaki T, Takagi Y, Kataoka H, Yang J, Nozaki K and Hashimoto N: The efficacy of apolipoprotein E deficiency in cerebral aneurysm formation. (spandidos-publications.com)
- What is a cerebral aneurysm? (nih.gov)
- A cerebral aneurysm (also known as a brain aneurysm) is a weak or thin spot on an artery in the brain that balloons or bulges out and fills with blood. (nih.gov)
- Also known as a berry aneurysm (because it resembles a berry hanging from a vine), this is the most common form of cerebral aneurysm. (nih.gov)
- Who is more likely to get a cerebral aneurysm? (nih.gov)
- With the advances of magnetic resonance technology, the CBF, oxygen extraction fraction, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen can be measured in MRI. (ajnr.org)
- Arterial spin-labeling and SWI sequences were used to acquire CBF, oxygen extraction fraction, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen. (ajnr.org)
- When this offset a decrease in CBF, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen remained at a normal level. (ajnr.org)
- An occluded MCA led to reduction in both the CBF and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen. (ajnr.org)
- In this review, the role of cerebrovascular reactivity to L-arginine (CVR-L-Arg) for assessment of cerebral endothelial function is discussed. (hindawi.com)
- However, it seems to show specific cerebral endothelial function. (hindawi.com)
- Endothelial function is not uniform throughout the arterial system. (hindawi.com)
- Cerebral endothelial dysfunction is mentioned in the pathophysiology of several neurological diseases. (hindawi.com)
- Until recently it was impossible to determine specific cerebral endothelial function. (hindawi.com)
- However, these techniques do not enable any evaluation of cerebral endothelial function. (hindawi.com)
- In the past few years cerebrovascular reactivity to L-arginine by means of TCD has emerged as a parameter for evaluation of cerebral endothelial function [ 3 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The rate of cerebral blood flow in an adult human is typically 750 milliliters per minute, or about 15% of cardiac output. (wikipedia.org)
- The neurovascular unit regulates cerebral blood flow so that activated neurons can be supplied with energy in the right amount and at the right time. (wikipedia.org)
- The volume of blood in circulation is called the cerebral blood flow. (wikipedia.org)
- The anterior cerebral circulation is the blood supply to the anterior portion of the brain including eyes. (wikipedia.org)
- Middle cerebral artery (MCA) The posterior cerebral circulation is the blood supply to the posterior portion of the brain, including the occipital lobes, cerebellum and brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
- Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is the blood supply to the brain in a given period of time. (wikipedia.org)
- Transcranial Doppler sonography is used for evaluation of cerebral blood flow changes. (hindawi.com)
- Cerebral endothelium is probably one of the most specific types since it is the crucial element of the well-known blood-brain barrier. (hindawi.com)
- In the past few decades the immense development of neuroradiological methods enabled better imaging of cerebral blood vessels. (hindawi.com)
- Ultrasound remains the ultimate method for real time functional cerebral blood flow imaging. (hindawi.com)
- Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is an indirect marker of neuronal function. (frontiersin.org)
- A reduction in cerebral blood flow in brain tissue is typically accompanied by a compensatory increase in the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) to maintain normal neuronal function. (ajnr.org)
- Arterial with the following inclusion criteria: single- blood gases and blood cord pH are useful ton pregnancy, no underlying disease and for measuring the degree of asphyxia and gestational age of 38-42 weeks. (who.int)
-  This term was used to describe the smoky angiographic appearance of tangled, tiny, collateral vasculature which develops as a compensation to reduced cerebral blood flow. (jpgmonline.com)
- Although the bones of the scull remain an obstacle for ultrasound waves and therefore ultrasound may not seem to be the optimal technique for cerebral vessel imaging, transcranial ultrasound techniques were improved and found their place and indications. (hindawi.com)
- The goal of part I is to statistically assess the cerebral angiograms, their indications, risks and complications, as well as to do a technical review. (thieme-connect.de)
- Most affected individuals die within a decade after signs and symptoms first appear, although few people with the disease have survived for 20 to 30 years. (medlineplus.gov)
- Sudden intense accelerations change the gravitational forces perceived by bodies and can severely impair cerebral circulation and normal functions to the point of becoming serious life-threatening conditions. (wikipedia.org)
- This may result in consent was taken from the pregnant fetal mortality or later problems of cerebral women and they were enrolled in the study palsy and mental retardation [ 4,5 ]. (who.int)
- The moth- are also good criteria for assessing the like- er's age, gestational age, gravidity and any lihood of neonatal asphyxia and cerebral history of high-risk pregnancy with its rea- palsy [ 6 ]. (who.int)
- Active liver disease or tumor. (empr.com)
- The main focus of Dr. Kullo's laboratory is to improve the ability to predict adverse cardiovascular events in asymptomatic individuals using genetic susceptibility markers, circulating biomarkers and measurements of arterial function. (mayo.edu)
- In addition, imaging of the cerebral function became possible by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) scan. (hindawi.com)
- Although recent reports have noted that cognitive impairment is common in NMOSD, little longitudinal information is available on the trajectories of cognitive function in the disease. (researchgate.net)
- Cerebral hypoxia leads to prolonged inspiration (i.e., deep sighs), which result in low CO2 concentration and elevated arterial pH (respiratory alkalosis). (dentalcare.com)
- Dr. Kullo's team studies the connections between novel protein markers and measurable traits of vascular disease, such as coronary artery calcium, cerebral leukoaraiosis, albuminuria and ankle-brachial index, with the goal of identifying new proteomic markers for vascular disease. (mayo.edu)
- few studies have investigated the stenotic or occluded middle cerebral artery. (ajnr.org)
- Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain [Figure 1] showed loss of normal flow void signal in the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) with multiple flow voids in the region of lenticulostriate branches. (jpgmonline.com)
- Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is the most common human prion disease. (msdmanuals.com)