Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Purkinje Cells: The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.Cerebellar Cortex: The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Cerebellar Nuclei: Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Mice, Neurologic Mutants: Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMotor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex: A member of the S-100 protein family that is present at high levels in the blood and interstitial fluid in several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis. It is a complex of a light chain (CALGRANULIN A) and a heavy chain (CALGRANULIN B). L1 binds calcium through an EF-hand motif, and has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Kainic Acid: (2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Mice, Inbred C57BLImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cerebellar Diseases: Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Dopaminergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.GABAergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Cholinergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Motor Neuron Disease: Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Calbindins: Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.Serotonergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is SEROTONIN.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Cerebellar Ataxia: Incoordination of voluntary movements that occur as a manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES. Characteristic features include a tendency for limb movements to overshoot or undershoot a target (dysmetria), a tremor that occurs during attempted movements (intention TREMOR), impaired force and rhythm of diadochokinesis (rapidly alternating movements), and GAIT ATAXIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p90)Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Conditioning, Eyelid: Reflex closure of the eyelid occurring as a result of classical conditioning.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Neocortex: The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.Cerebellar Neoplasms: Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Vestibular Nuclei: The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Ganglia, Invertebrate: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Nitrergic Neurons: Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.Adrenergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is EPINEPHRINE.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Glutamate Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.N-Methylaspartate: An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Reticular Formation: A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Receptors, Glutamate: Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Rhombencephalon: The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.Ataxia: Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Bicuculline: An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.Locus Coeruleus: Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Superior Cervical Ganglion: The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials: Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.Olfactory Bulb: Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Calbindin 2: A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Aplysia: An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione: A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.Nodose Ganglion: The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Stilbamidines: STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Electrophysiological Phenomena: The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 2: A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in the DIENCEPHALON and lower brainstem regions of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Raphe Nuclei: Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Retinal Neurons: Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Iontophoresis: Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Blinking: Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.Survival of Motor Neuron 1 Protein: A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.Myenteric Plexus: One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Trigeminal Ganglion: The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.GABA Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
"Calbindin D28k targets myo-inositol monophosphatase in spines and dendrites of cerebellar Purkinje neurons". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Cerebellum. 8 (3): 231-44. doi:10.1007/s12311-009-0125-5. PMC 3351107 . PMID 19593677. Schmidt H, Schwaller B, Eilers J (April ...
Brain MRI showed leukodystrophy with involvement of the cerebellar cortex and deep white matter. At age 8, he had spasticity, ... Several patients from with early MRI abnormalities of the cerebellum, deep cerebral white matter and corpus callosum. In this ... He developed myopathy, nystagmus, ataxia, upper motor neuron signs, and absence seizures. ... while the cerebellar abnormalities worsen and brainstem abnormalities arise. Using whole exome sequencing, four of the ...
The main area involved in motor learning is the cerebellum. Some models of cerebellar-dependent motor learning, in particular ... Atwell, P.; Cooke, S.; Yeo, C. (2002). "Cerebellar function in consolidation of motor memory". Neuron. 34: 1011-1020. doi: ... The basal ganglia-cerebellar connections are thought to increase with time when learning a motor task. Muscle memory ... These studies have shown a weakened connection from the cerebellum to the primary motor area with practice, it is presumed, ...
Dispersion of neurons within cortical layers. Decreased cerebellar size. Failure of preplate to split Failure to establish a ... This is caused by profound hypoplasia of the mouse's cerebellum, in which the normal cerebellar folia are missing. The mutation ... Cre-loxP recombination mice model that lacks Crk and CrkL in most neurons. Was used to show that Crk/CrkL lie downstream of ... Cortical neurons are generated normally but are abnormally placed, resulting in disorganization of cortical laminar layers in ...
The Na+ -K+ pump has been shown to control and set the intrinsic activity mode of cerebellar Purkinje neurons. This suggests ... Alcohol inhibits sodium-potassium pumps in the cerebellum and this is likely how it corrupts cerebellar computation and body co ... "The Sodium-Potassium Pump Controls the Intrinsic Firing of the Cerebellar Purkinje Neuron". PLoS ONE. 7 (12): e51169. doi: ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2004.07.002. PMID 15260948. Calderon DP, Fremont R, Kraenzlin F, Khodakhah K (March 2011). "The neural ...
The neurons in the accessory cuneate nucleus have axons leading to the ipsilateral cerebellum via the inferior cerebellar ... These neurons then send axons up the spinal cord, and project ipsilaterally to medial zones of the cerebellum through the ... Some neurons of the ventral spinocerebellar tract instead form synapses with neurons in layer VII of L4-S3. Most of these ... The sensory neurons synapse in an area known as Clarke's nucleus or "Clarke's column". This is a column of relay neuron cell ...
The axons of the third-order neurons cross the midline and enter the cerebellum through the inferior cerebellar peduncle. The ... once at the level of axons of second-order neurons and again at the level of axons of third-order neurons. Darby, Susan A.; ... The axons from the second-order neurons cross the midline and ascend as the spino-olivary tract in the white matter at the ... The axons enter the spinal cord from the dorsal root ganglia and terminate on unknown second-order neurons in the posterior ...
"Molecular cloning of a neuron-specific transcript and its regulation during normal and aberrant cerebellar development". Proc. ... PCP4 is abundant in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, and plays an important role in synaptic plasticity. PCP4 knockout mice ... been reported to exhibit impaired locomotor learning and markedly altered synaptic plasticity in cerebellar Purkinje neurons. ... "Impaired locomotor learning and altered cerebellar synaptic plasticity in pep-19/PCP4-null mice". Mol. Cell. Biol. 31 (14): ...
PTPrho (PTPRT) is expressed in a very specific subset of neurons in the postnatal cerebellar cortex, the granule cell layer. ... Specifically, PTPrho (PTPRT) was expressed in postmigratory granule cells of lobules 1 to 6 of the cerebellum. In adults, ... Knock-down of PTPrho expression decreases the number of synapses in cultured neurons. PTPrho interacts in cis with the ... Phosphorylation at this site attenuates synapse formation in cultured neurons. When PTPrho is phosphorylated by Fyn, PTPrho ...
Neuron 1995;15(3):675-88. Regehr W G; Atluri P P (1995) Calcium transients in cerebellar granule cell presynaptic terminals. ... Inhibition of interneuron firing extends the spread of endocannabinoid signaling in the cerebellum. Neuron 34:787-796. Foster ... Neuron 2008;57(3):420-31. Safo Patrick; Regehr Wade G (2008) Timing dependence of the induction of cerebellar LTD. ... Neuron 2002;36(6):1115-26. Carter Adam G; Regehr Wade G (2003) Quantal events shape cerebellar interneuron firing. Nature ...
... finding a smaller cerebellar vermis along with other smaller parts of the cerebellum. He has exchanged emails with neurologist ... Marco Iacoboni with questions about mirror neurons. Mitchell is also interested in Casanova's work. Casanova has described ...
... s, or Purkinje neurons (/pərˈkɪndʒiː/ pər-KIN-jee), are a class of GABAergic neurons located in the cerebellum. ... Alcohol inhibits Na+ -K+ pumps in the cerebellum and this is likely how it corrupts cerebellar computation and body co- ... "The Sodium-Potassium Pump Controls the Intrinsic Firing of the Cerebellar Purkinje Neuron". PLoS ONE. 7 (12): e51169. doi: ... Fekadu, Makonnen (27 March 2009). "Rabies encephalitis, Negri bodies within the cytoplasm of cerebellar Purkinje cell neurons ...
Alcohol inhibits sodium-potassium pumps in the cerebellum and this is likely how it impairs cerebellar computation and body co- ... Molecular neuropharmacology involves the study of neurons and their neurochemical interactions, and receptors on neurons, with ... it is important to understand how human behavior and thought processes are transferred from neuron to neuron and how ... Neurons are known as excitable cells because on its surface membrane there are an abundance of proteins known as ion-channels ...
Cerebellum-like structures and their implications for cerebellar function. Annu.Rev.Neurosci. 2008.Vol31.PMID 18275284 ... 1995). "Somatosensory effects on neurons in dorsal cochlear nucleus." J Neurophysiol 73(2): 743-65. NIF Search - Dorsal ... The cytoarchitecture and neurochemistry of the DCN is similar to that of the cerebellum, a concept that currently is important ... Wouterlood FG and Mugnaini E. Cartwheel neurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus: a Golgi-electron microscopic study in rat. J. ...
... and ascend into the cerebellum via the inferior cerebellar peduncle. The target for each climbing fiber is a specific neuron in ... These neurons are the major input source for the cerebellum. Their axons are referred to as climbing fibers. These climbing ... The PO targets the intermediate cerebellum as well as the cerebellar hemispheres. Medial Accessory Olivary Nucleus (MAO)- This ... The neurons are GABAergic. There are two distinct GABAα receptor populations that are spatially organized within each neuron ...
These axons ascend to the pons where they join the superior cerebellar peduncle to enter the cerebellum. Once in the deep white ... There it makes a synapse with the dendrites of two neurons: they send their axons bilaterally to the ventral border of the ... The ventral spinocerebellar tract then enters the cerebellum via the superior cerebellar peduncle. This is in contrast with the ... The fibers of the ventral spinocerebellar tract then eventually enter the cerebellum via the superior cerebellar peduncle. ...
... another type of cerebellar neuron) and deep cerebellar nuclei. Located between the fourth ventricle and the roofplate, the ... The outer layer of the cerebellum, the cortex, is made up of three layers containing two classes of neurons. One of these ... Around P15, granule cell proliferation requires interaction with Purkinje cells, a type of cerebellar neuron characterized by a ... including the granule neurons of the cerebellum and the pontine nucleus of the precerebellar system. The rhombic lip is ...
There is a four-neuron pathway for lower limb proprioception. This pathway initially follows the dorsal spino-cerebellar ... The secondary neuronal axons continue to ascend ipsilaterally and then pass into the cerebellum via the inferior cerebellar ... These neurons are designated primary, secondary and tertiary sensory neurons. In both pathways, primary sensory neuron cell ... Descending tracts involve two neurons: the upper motor neuron (UMN) and lower motor neuron (LMN). A nerve signal travels down ...
These signals then modulate the activity of the cerebellar cortex and nuclei, which in turn regulate descending tract neurons ... The current theory is that efference copies from CPGs travel to the cerebellum via spinocerebellar pathways. ... ENG recordings are used to record electrical activity from motor neurons and spinal cord neurons. These techniques have enabled ... Some sensory neurons can be activated by stimulation with an external object such as a parasite on the body surface. ...
Cerebellar stellate cells synapse onto the dendritic arbors of Purkinje cells. Cortical spiny stellate cells are found in layer ... In neuroscience, stellate cells are any neuron that have a star-like shape formed by dendritic processes radiating from the ... The three most common stellate cells are the inhibitory interneurons found within the molecular layer of the cerebellum, ... Chan-Palay, Victoria; Palay, Sanford L. (1972-01-01). "The stellate cells of the rat's cerebellar cortex". Zeitschrift für ...
The term cerebellar ataxia is used to indicate ataxia that is due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. The cerebellum is ... The death of neurons in the cerebellum as a result of gluten exposure is irreversible. Early diagnosis and treatment with a ... The Na+ -K+ pump has been shown to control and set the intrinsic activity mode of cerebellar Purkinje neurons. This suggests ... Manto M, Gruol D, Schmahmann J, Koibuchi N, Rossi F (2013). Handbook of the Cerebellum and Cerebellar Disorders. Springer. ...
For example, JCV has been found to infect the granule cell layer of the cerebellum, while sparing purkinje fibers, ultimately ... JCV also appears to mediate encephalopathy, due to infection of cortical pyramidal neurons (CPN) and astrocytes. Analysis of ... causing severe cerebellar atrophy. This syndrome, called JCV granule cell layer neuronopathy (JCV GCN), is characterized by a ... "Novel syndromes associated with JC virus infection of neurons and meningeal cells: no longer a gray area". Curr Opin Neurol. 28 ...
The pons is connected to the cerebellum by the cerebellar peduncles. The pons houses the respiratory pneumotaxic center and ... Neurons synapse here and, when stimulated, cause activation of neurons in the nucleus raphe magnus, which then project down ... Moving rostrally, the inferior, middle, and superior cerebellar peduncles are found connecting the midbrain to the cerebellum. ... This separates the medial motor neurons from the lateral sensory neurons. Lateral to the sulcus limitans is the area of the ...
... the tumor of cerebellum. In fact, the reduced expression of Cxcl3 forces the cerebellar granule neuron precursors to remain at ... during the morphogenesis of cerebellum. Moreover, if the expression of Cxcl3 is reduced in cerebellar granule neuron precursors ... cell autonomously the migration of the precursors of cerebellar granule neurons toward the internal layers of cerebellum, ... frequency of medulloblastoma in patched1 heterozygous mice by inhibiting the cxcl3-dependent migration of cerebellar neurons". ...
Thus, the cerebellum communicates to the outside world via the cerebellar nuclei. Input that reaches the cerebellar cortex is ... These neurons are responsible for communication between the dentate nucleus and the cerebellar cortex. Central neurons: The ... Cerebellum Cerebellar cortex Deep cerebellar nuclei Cerebral cortex Thalamus Sultan, F., Hamodeh, S., & Baizer, J. S. (2010). ... to the surface of the cerebellar cortex as well as collateral input to the cerebellar nuclei. The whole cerebellum has only one ...
Mirror/echo neurons and auditory-motor interactions[edit]. The mirror neuron system has an important role in neural models of ... as well as the dorsolateral cerebellum. Findings indicate that the dorsolateral cerebellum may act as a pitch discrimination ... Koeneke, Susan; Lutz, Kai; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Jäncke, Lutz (2004). "Long-term training affects cerebellar processing in ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.06.013. PMID 15996544.. *^ a b Buhusi, C. V.; Meck, W. H. (2005). "What makes us tick? Functional and ...
... to determine the role of calpains in mediating both types of AMPA-mediated toxicity in Purkinje neurons of the cerebellum. ... Involvement of calpain in AMPA-induced toxicity to rat cerebellar Purkinje neurons. / Mansouri, Bobbak; Henne, William M.; ... Involvement of calpain in AMPA-induced toxicity to rat cerebellar Purkinje neurons. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2007 Feb ... title = "Involvement of calpain in AMPA-induced toxicity to rat cerebellar Purkinje neurons", ...
Easy to read and short chapters Synthesis of the major advancements in cerebellum physiology and pathology Strong international ... Oscillation in the Inferior Olive Neurons: Functional Implication. Llinas, Rodolfo R.. Pages 293-298 ... Essentials of Cerebellum and Cerebellar Disorders. Book Subtitle. A Primer For Graduate Students. Editors. * Donna L. Gruol ... Essentials of Cerebellum and Cerebellar Disorders. A Primer For Graduate Students. Editors: Gruol, D.L., Koibuchi, N., Manto, M ...
... whereas in vivo the cerebellum continues to produce new cerebellar granule neurons until postnatal day 21 (Burgoyne and Cambray ... A, Rat brain tissues and cerebellar granule neurons (CBG neurons) were compared with non-neural tissue and neuron-like cell ... was higher in cerebellar granule neurons than in U937 cells (Fig.1A); therefore, lysates from cerebellar granule neurons and ... Cerebellar granule neuron-derived JNK activity is elevated above that of stressed U937 cells, whereas p38 activity from neurons ...
Neurons; *Cerebellum; *Nitric oxide; *Cyclic GMP; *Noradrenaline. Publication History. *Issue online: 23 November 2002. ... Dexamethasone Up-Regulates a Constitutive Nitric Oxide Synthase in Cerebellar Astrocytes but Not in Granule Cells in Culture. ... Abstract: Treatment of rat cerebellar astrocyte-enriched primary cultures with dexamethasone enhances the nitric oxide- ... Characteristics of nitric oxide synthase type I of rat cerebellar astrocytes, Glia, 1996, 18, 3, 224. Wiley Online Library ...
... and highly expressed in postnatal and adult mouse cerebellum with multiple... ... K+-dependent cerebellar granule neuron apoptosis. Role of task leak K+ channels. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:32068-76.PubMedCrossRef ... Cerebellum granule neurons TSC22D proteins Cerebellum glomeruli Organotypic slices Purkinje cells Adriana Bosco and Valentina ... Control of neuronal precursor proliferation in the cerebellum by Sonic Hedgehog. Neuron. 1999;22:103-14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ...
2010) Rebound discharge in deep cerebellar nuclear neurons in vitro. Cerebellum 9:352-374. ... Neurons in the cerebellar nuclei form the final stage of cerebellar processing. These spontaneously firing cells integrate ... 2002) Climbing fiber activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors on cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Neuron 36:1159-1167. ... 2007) Subunit dependence of Na channel slow inactivation and open channel block in cerebellar neurons. Biophys J 92:1938-1951. ...
Purkinje cells (PCs) are the projection neurons of the cerebellar cortex. They receive two major types of synaptic input - that ... Purkinje-cell-derived Sonic hedgehog regulates granule neuron precursor cell proliferation in the developing mouse cerebellum. ... I show here that PCs in the developing mouse cerebellum express the gene encoding the morphogen Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and that ... The precursors of granule neurons proliferate at the surface of the developing cerebellumin the external granule layer (EGL), ...
Imaging cerebellar granule neurons in zebrafish embryos reveals a further role for Cadherin-2 in neurogenesis: regulating ... Cerebellum Is the Subject Area "Cerebellum" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Neuron migration Is the Subject Area "Neuron migration" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Neurons Is the Subject Area "Neurons" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
... are the target of the axons of the Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex. Each of these nuclei receives a projection from a ... The cerebellar nuclei, together with certain vestibular nuclei, ... GlyT2+ neurons in the lateral cerebellar nucleus. Cerebellum 9: ... In: Manto M., Schmahmann J.D., Rossi F., Gruol D.L., Koibuchi N. (eds) Handbook of the Cerebellum and Cerebellar Disorders. ... Bagnall MW, Zingg B, Sakatos A, Moghadam SH, Zeilhofer HU, du Lac S (2009) Glycinergic projection neurons of the cerebellum. J ...
... the basal ganglia and the cerebellum. Take note: the output of these ... ... the cerebellar peduncles. So, the cerebellar peduncles, are the third major component of the cerebellum that we want to orient ... Is that the cerebellum does not engage the lower motor neurons directly. In this sense, its similar to the basal ganglia, ... Well, there are really three basic parts of the cerebellum that we want to consider. Theres the cerebellar cortex, which is ...
A, Multipolar neuron in the inferior cerebral cortex. B, Mossy fibers in the cerebellum. C, The cortical pyramidal cell shown ... in . D, Cerebellar granule cells. E, a compact cortical pyramidal cell. A-D are from NFL-IRES-CreER;Z/AP brains, and E is from ... In this section, three large neurons (or parts of neurons) are labeled in one hemisphere of the cerebral cortex. B-D, enlarged ... predominantly in projection neurons [neurofilament light chain (NFL)-IRES-CreER], or broadly in neurons and some glia [vesicle- ...
2011) What features of limb movements are encoded in the discharge of cerebellar neurons? Cerebellum 10:683-693. ... A part of the cerebellum functioning as the forward model receives motor commands from the motor cortex via cerebellar mossy ... Patients with Cerebellar Neurodegeneration Show Selective Defects in Internal Models.. In 10 patients with cerebellar diseases ... Changes in internal model properties in cerebellar patients. (A and B) Averaged adaptation curves for cerebellar patients with ...
... induced degeneration of the neurons. Methods: KA was given to primary cultured cortical neurons and co-cultured astrocytes were ... Methods: KA was given to primary cultured cortical neurons and co-cultured astrocytes were added as a supportive system. We ... Results: We found KA induced increased cell death and hyperphosphorylated tau in neurons; co-cultured astrocytes could prevent ... PCR-Chip assay identified that astrocytic IGF-1 could decrease the p-GSK-3 at Tyr 216 in neurons treated with KA and this ...
... gliosis and neuron loss. This transgenic strain has a more severe phenotype and earlier onset of phenotype than B6CBA(FVB)-Tg( ... Hemizygotes exhibit weight loss, kyphosis, locomotor impairment, nuclear inclusions of polyQ tracts in neurons, ... Electron microscopic examination of brain tissue shows nuclear inclusions in cerebellar granule neurons and degeneration of ... degenerating axons are evident in cerebellum; axons with reduced internal space surrounded by a distorted or thickened myelin ...
... these connections target medium spiny neurons, but also ChAT-positive interneurons, a class of tonically active interneurons ... Cerebellar computation has been proposed to control motor but also non-motor behaviors, including reward expectation and ... Cerebellar outputs contribute to motor as well as cognitive behaviors. Here, the authors elucidate the connectivity between ... Here, we elaborate the cell-type specificity of a broad connectivity matrix from the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) to the dorsal ...
Book] Serotonin and Synaptic Transmission in the Cerebellum In: Handbook of the Cerebellum and Cerebellar Disorders, (eds. M. ... Book] Handbook of the Cerebellum and Cerebellar Disorders2012. *. Author(s). Saitow F ... Research on serotonergic neurons projecting to the prefrontal cortex as a target of drug development against psychiatric ... Modulatory effects of serotonin on glutamatergic synaptic transmission and long-term depression in the deep cerebellar nuclei ...
The regular neural architecture of the cerebellum inspired different solutions to the long-standing issue of how its circuitry ... Originally, the cerebellar network was modeled using a statistical-topological approach that was later extended by considering ... Originally, the cerebellar network was modelled using a statistical-topological approach that was later extended by considering ... The regular neural architecture of the cerebellum inspired different solutions to the long-standing issue of how its circuitry ...
BP] cerebellar cortex development *[BP] cerebellar cortex formation *[BP] cerebellum development *[BP] cerebral cortex ... BP] neuron apoptotic process *[BP] neuron differentiation *[BP] neuron migration *[BP] neuron projection development *[BP] ... BP] motor neuron axon guidance *[BP] negative regulation of cell cycle *[BP] negative regulation of protein export from nucleus ... BP] positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process *[BP] positive regulation of protein binding *[BP] positive regulation of ...
... role of cerebellum in motor control and cognitive function, and amid an ageing population, diseases associated with ... ... Official publication of the Society for Research on the Cerebellum devoted to genetics of cerebellar ataxias, ... There is currently intense interest in the genetics of cerebellar ataxias and in the roles of the cerebellum in motor control ... This region contains more neurons than all the other structures of the brain. As a result of the ageing population, diseases ...
GO:0021522 [spinal cord motor neuron differentiation]. GO:0021590 [cerebellum maturation]. GO:0021679 [cerebellar molecular ... GO:0021680 [cerebellar Purkinje cell layer development]. GO:0021702 [cerebellar Purkinje cell differentiation]. GO:0021750 [ ... GO:0007270 [neuron-neuron synaptic transmission]. GO:0007274 [neuromuscular synaptic transmission]. GO:0007416 [synapse ... Cerebellum. Cerebral cortex. Cervix, uterine. Choroid plexus. Colon. Duodenum. Endometrium 1. Endometrium 2. Epididymis. ...
Progressive Purkinje neuron loss in the Mwk/+ cerebellum. Calbindin-stained parasagittal sections from 6-month-old (A), 9-month ... For survival assays of cerebellar granule neurons, primary cerebellar granule neurons were prepared from 5-day-old mice (P5) as ... Preparation of Cerebellar Lysates and Immunoblotting.. Three-week-old mice were killed, and cerebella were dissected out and ... Furthermore, the cerebellar expression of TRPC1, another TRPC channel expressed in the cerebellum that is able to form ...
Neurons of the cerebellar nuclei 2) Dividing germinal cells migrate to the surface of the cerebellum to form the external ... Major upper motor neuron nuclei for movement - Cranial nerves III and IV. - Consciousness 3) Cerebellum (hindbrain) - ... Lower motor neuron - Nerve cell body in spinal cord - Efferents are alpha motor neurons (supply muscle fibres) Upper motor ... 2) cerebellar abiotrophy - clinical signs manifest at a few months of age and are progressive. 3) cerebellar atrophy - clinical ...
... the basal ganglia and the cerebellum. Take note: the output of these ... ... the activities of upper motor neurons. As you study the lessons in this module, appreciate how the basal ganglia and cerebellum ... projects, into the cerebellum via the inferior cerebellar peduncle in parallel with that dorsal-spinal cerebellar tract. And ... the cerebellum. This pathway runs on the ipsilateral side of the cerebellum and the spinal cord. So the cerebellum is getting ...
Partial deprivation of cerebellar nuclei neurons of their main inputs, the Purkinje cells, results in a strong decrease of both ... In the cerebellum, some Golgi neurons bear Sema3A-positive PNNs ((p), arrow). Many Purkinje cells displayed a semiorganized ... neurons or embryonic cortical neurons in vitro. Growth cones of embryonic DRG neurons were exposed to Sema3A collapse and this ... In the cerebellar nuclei, where strong perineuronal Sema3A is present, both nuclear neurons and Purkinje cell axons express the ...
Learning has to be inferred from the interaction of an embodied system with its real environment, and the same cerebellar ... We have coupled a realistic cerebellar spiking neural network (SNN) with a real robot and challenged it in multiple diverse ... The implicit spiking dynamics of the cerebellar model fulfill timing, prediction and learning functions. ... it is crucial to determine the neural basis of coding and plasticity embedded into the cerebellar neural circuit and how they ...
  • Since calpains and AMPA have been linked to both necrotic cell death and programmed cell death, we sought to determine the role of calpains in mediating both types of AMPA-mediated toxicity in Purkinje neurons of the cerebellum. (elsevier.com)
  • The present study identifies an early involvement of calpains in mediating AMPA-induced dark cell degeneration, but not edematous necrosis, based upon the effectiveness of AMPA to generate calpain-derived α-spectrin cleavage products in cerebellar Purkinje neurons that express dark cell degeneration, and the effectiveness of calpain antagonists, PD150606 and MDL28170, to attenuate AMPA-induced dark cell degeneration. (elsevier.com)
  • Surprisingly, however, JNK does not respond characteristically to stress in cultured cerebellar granule (CBG) neurons, a widely exploited CNS model for studies of death and development, despite the regulation of its substrate c-Jun. (jneurosci.org)
  • Sparse Cre-mediated recombination in ChAT-IRES-CreER;Z/AP mice shows the full axonal and dendritic arbors of individual forebrain cholinergic neurons, the first time that the complete morphologies of these very large neurons have been revealed in any species. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, NG expression in the primate cerebellum by brush cells, which are excitatory, showed remarkable cell type-specific and species-specific expression patterns of a postsynaptic protein mediating calcium signaling mechanisms. (nih.gov)
  • Morphological analysis of excitatory neurons in S1 revealed increased dendritic spine densities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found that atrophy of the brainstem and cerebellar vermis in MJD patients is closely correlated not only with the size of expanded CAG repeat in the MJD1 gene but also with patient age, which suggests that the neurodegenerative process in MJD is regulated by the size of expanded CAG repeats as well as by the patient age. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by prominent cerebellar and extrapyramidal signs, dysarthria, and dysphagia. (medscape.com)
  • Primary cilia are vital signaling organelles that extend from most types of cells, including neurons and glia. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Factors that control the differentiation of fetal stem cells to neurons and glia have been defined in vitro, and multipotential cells with similar signaling logic can be cultured from the adult central nervous system. (sciencemag.org)
  • This transition has also been observed in vitro where precursor cells proliferate and differentiate into neurons ( 11-16 ) and glia ( 17 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Confirming the results of in vivo fate mapping, lineage experiments in vitro show that neurons and glia can be derived from a common fetal precursor cell ( 12 , 13 , 15 , 16 , 18-20 ) (Fig. 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • We recently showed that Shh and its signaling components, Patched and Smoothened, are expressed in postnatal and adult hippocampal neurons. (biologists.org)
  • This book is an indispensable resource for students and practitioners navigating the evolving field of cerebellar motor and cognitive neurology. (springer.com)
  • Cerebellar computation has been proposed to control motor but also non-motor behaviors, including reward expectation and cognitive flexibility. (nature.com)
  • We are also becoming increasingly interested in the contribution from the cerebellum to cognitive processes and its disruption in the poorly treated disorder autism. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Akshomoff N, Courchesne E (1992) A new role for the cerebellum in cognitive operations. (springer.com)
  • Bloedel JR, Bracha V (1997) Duality of cerebellar motor and cognitive functions. (springer.com)
  • 3-T MR imaging detects a high prevalence of cerebellar hemorrhages (CbH) in preterm infants-a finding that could carry long-range implications regarding cognitive and motor function, according to research presented at RSNA 2014. (rsna.org)
  • Several papers report cognitive and psychiatric deficits in patients with congenital or acquired cerebellar lesions," Dr. Ho said. (rsna.org)
  • That's important for our studies because cerebellar injury in preterm infants may help explain their long-term cognitive impairment. (rsna.org)
  • Directly rostral to the superior cerebellar peduncle, there is the superior medullary velum and then the two trochlear nerves. (bionity.com)
  • These structures are essential for the development of many tissues and organs, however, their function in adult tissues, particularly neurons in the brain, remains largely unknown. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Our data suggest that primary cilia play an integral role in maintaining the function of PCs in the adult cerebellum and reveal novel insights into mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration. (bioportfolio.com)
  • An inherited degenrative disease affecting the cerebellum has recently been recognized in adult American Staffordshire Terriers. (akcchf.org)
  • When crossed to the Z/AP reporter and exposed to 4-hydroxytamoxifen in the early postnatal period, the number of neurons expressing the human placental alkaline phosphatase reporter can be reproducibly lowered to fewer than 50 per brain. (nih.gov)
  • Given the importance of this postnatal period for cerebellar development, we asked whether this region might be developmentally altered by mutant ATXN1. (jci.org)
  • Here, we tested whether metabotropic glutamate receptors modulate excitability of nuclear cells in cerebellar slices from mouse. (jneurosci.org)
  • This region contains more neurons than all the other structures of the brain. (springer.com)
  • Required for normal brain development, including that of cerebellum. (uniprot.org)
  • The cerebellum is an intriguing component of the brain. (kobo.com)
  • Therefore, understanding cerebellum is a significant step towards the wider challenge of understanding the brain. (kobo.com)
  • β-tubulin produced from the TUBB2B gene is found primarily in the brain and in nerve cells (neurons). (medlineplus.gov)
  • In some affected individuals, a region of the brain called the cerebellum is particularly affected (cerebellar dysplasia). (medlineplus.gov)
  • And that's all gray matter on the outside of those parts of the brain that contain most of the neuron somas. (khanacademy.org)
  • In combination, these ethanol effects disrupt cellular homeostasis, reduce the survival and migration of neurons, and lead to various developmental defects in the brain. (mdpi.com)
  • Prenatal ethanol exposure interferes with the synaptogenesis phase of brain development, especially within the cerebellum and leads to various impairments in brain function [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Combined immunochemistry and live imaging of fluorescent protein expressing neurons in mouse brain. (otago.ac.nz)
  • The Syne-1 protein plays a role in the maintenance of the part of the brain that coordinates movement (the cerebellum). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The cerebellum is the part of the brain that controls coordination and balance. (healthline.com)
  • The cerebellum is an intriguing part of our brain. (oup.com)
  • Why does the 'little brain' contain such a disproportionate number of neurons? (oup.com)
  • The cerebellum is a part of the brain responsible for motor coordination, but how the cerebellar abnormalities found in autism affect behavior is not well understood. (autismspeaks.org)
  • A team of researchers, including Steven Middleton and Thomas Knöpfel from the RIKEN Brain Science Institute (BSI), Wako, Miles Whittington from Newcastle University, United Kingdom, and Roger Traub, now at IBM in New York, report these findings in the journal Neuron. (innovations-report.com)
  • Furthermore, the cerebellar nicotine receptor that is acting to induce the brain waves seemed to be a 'nonclassical' nicotine receptor. (innovations-report.com)
  • We conclude that cerebellar EGCs express GABAρ1, which is functionally involved in GABA(A) receptor-mediated responses that are unique among glial cells of the brain. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This information is transmitted to higher order neurons in the brain . (scholarpedia.org)
  • CHICAGO, Nov. 3 (Xinhua) -- U.S. researchers suggested that the cerebellum has a hand in every aspect of higher brain functions, not just movement, but attention, thinking, planning and decision-making. (xinhuanet.com)
  • The researchers measured the timing of brain activity and found that the cerebellum was consistently the last step in neurologic circuits. (xinhuanet.com)
  • The researchers also performed individualized network analyses on the 10 people in the data set, and found that while brain functions are arranged in roughly the same pattern in everyone's cerebellum, there is enough individual variation to distinguish brain scans performed on any two participants. (xinhuanet.com)
  • Early work revealed that fetal cells removed from the developing brain and placed in vitro could give rise to differentiated neurons ( 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Diseases that are specific to the brain, as well as diseases that occur in other parts of the body, can cause neurons to die in the cerebellum. (nih.gov)
  • The human cerebellum represents 10 percent of intracranial volume, but contains 80 percent of total neurons in the brain," Dr. Ho said. (rsna.org)