The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.
The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.
Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.
Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.
Incoordination of voluntary movements that occur as a manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES. Characteristic features include a tendency for limb movements to overshoot or undershoot a target (dysmetria), a tremor that occurs during attempted movements (intention TREMOR), impaired force and rhythm of diadochokinesis (rapidly alternating movements), and GAIT ATAXIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p90)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)
Reflex closure of the eyelid occurring as a result of classical conditioning.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
A malignant neoplasm that may be classified either as a glioma or as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood (see NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR, PRIMITIVE). The tumor occurs most frequently in the first decade of life with the most typical location being the cerebellar vermis. Histologic features include a high degree of cellularity, frequent mitotic figures, and a tendency for the cells to organize into sheets or form rosettes. Medulloblastoma have a high propensity to spread throughout the craniospinal intradural axis. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2060-1)
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A heterogenous group of degenerative syndromes marked by progressive cerebellar dysfunction either in isolation or combined with other neurologic manifestations. Sporadic and inherited subtypes occur. Inheritance patterns include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
A group of dominantly inherited, predominately late-onset, cerebellar ataxias which have been divided into multiple subtypes based on clinical features and genetic mapping. Progressive ataxia is a central feature of these conditions, and in certain subtypes POLYNEUROPATHY; DYSARTHRIA; visual loss; and other disorders may develop. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch65, pp 12-17; J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1998 Jun;57(6):531-43)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.
The anterior portion of the developing hindbrain. It gives rise to the CEREBELLUM and the PONS.
The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Fibers that arise from cell groups within the spinal cord and pass directly to the cerebellum. They include the anterior, posterior, and rostral spinocerebellar tracts, and the cuneocerebellar tract. (From Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p607)
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal ambulation (WALKING) which may result from impairments of motor function or sensory feedback. This condition may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES (including CEREBELLAR DISEASES and BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES); SPINAL CORD DISEASES; or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Performance of complex motor acts.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
Study of the anatomy of the nervous system as a specialty or discipline.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.

FGF8 induces formation of an ectopic isthmic organizer and isthmocerebellar development via a repressive effect on Otx2 expression. (1/6494)

Beads containing recombinant FGF8 (FGF8-beads) were implanted in the prospective caudal diencephalon or midbrain of chick embryos at stages 9-12. This induced the neuroepithelium rostral and caudal to the FGF8-bead to form two ectopic, mirror-image midbrains. Furthermore, cells in direct contact with the bead formed an outgrowth that protruded laterally from the neural tube. Tissue within such lateral outgrowths developed proximally into isthmic nuclei and distally into a cerebellum-like structure. These morphogenetic effects were apparently due to FGF8-mediated changes in gene expression in the vicinity of the bead, including a repressive effect on Otx2 and an inductive effect on En1, Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression. The ectopic Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression domains formed nearly complete concentric rings around the FGF8-bead, with the Wnt1 ring outermost. These observations suggest that FGF8 induces the formation of a ring-like ectopic signaling center (organizer) in the lateral wall of the brain, similar to the one that normally encircles the neural tube at the isthmic constriction, which is located at the boundary between the prospective midbrain and hindbrain. This ectopic isthmic organizer apparently sends long-range patterning signals both rostrally and caudally, resulting in the development of the two ectopic midbrains. Interestingly, our data suggest that these inductive signals spread readily in a caudal direction, but are inhibited from spreading rostrally across diencephalic neuromere boundaries. These results provide insights into the mechanism by which FGF8 induces an ectopic organizer and suggest that a negative feedback loop between Fgf8 and Otx2 plays a key role in patterning the midbrain and anterior hindbrain.  (+info)

Somatic recording of GABAergic autoreceptor current in cerebellar stellate and basket cells. (2/6494)

Patch-clamp recordings were performed from stellate and basket cells in rat cerebellar slices. Under somatic voltage clamp, short depolarizing pulses were applied to elicit action potentials in the axon. After the action potential, a bicuculline- and Cd2+-sensitive current transient was observed. A similar response was obtained when eliciting axonal firing by extracellular stimulation. With an isotonic internal Cl- solution, the peak amplitude of this current varied linearly with the holding potential, yielding an extrapolated reversal potential of -20 to 0 mV. Unlike synaptic or autaptic GABAergic currents obtained in the same preparation, the current transient had a slow rise-time and a low variability between trials. This current was blocked when 10 mM BAPTA was included in the recording solution. In some experiments, the current transient elicited axonal action potentials. The current transient was reliably observed in animals aged 12-15 d, with a mean amplitude of 82 pA at -70 mV, but was small and rare in the age group 29-49 d. Numerical simulations could account for all properties of the current transient by assuming that an action potential activates a distributed GABAergic conductance in the axon. The actual conductance is probably restricted to release sites, with an estimated mean presynaptic current response of 10 pA per site (-70 mV, age 12-15 d). We conclude that in developing rats, stellate and basket cell axons have a high density of GABAergic autoreceptors and that a sizable fraction of the corresponding current can be measured from the soma.  (+info)

Reproducibility studies with 11C-DTBZ, a monoamine vesicular transporter inhibitor in healthy human subjects. (3/6494)

The reproducibility of (+/-)-alpha-[11C] dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) measures in PET was studied in 10 healthy human subjects, aged 22-76 y. METHODS: The scan-to-scan variation of several measures used in PET data analysis was determined, including the radioactivity ratio (target-to-reference), plasma-input Logan total distribution volume (DV), plasma-input Logan Bmax/Kd and tissue-input Logan Bmax/Kd values. RESULTS: The radioactivity ratios, plasma-input Bmax/Kd and tissue-input Bmax/Kd all have higher reliability than plasma-input total DV values. In addition, measures using the occipital cortex as the reference region have higher reliability than the same measures using the cerebellum as the reference region. CONCLUSION: Our results show that DTBZ is a reliable PET tracer that provides reproducible in vivo measurement of striatal vesicular monoamine transporter density. In the selection of reference regions for DTBZ PET data analysis, caution must be exercised in circumstances when DTBZ binding in the occipital cortex or the cerebellum may be altered.  (+info)

A genetic approach to visualization of multisynaptic neural pathways using plant lectin transgene. (4/6494)

The wiring patterns among various types of neurons via specific synaptic connections are the basis of functional logic employed by the brain for information processing. This study introduces a powerful method of analyzing the neuronal connectivity patterns by delivering a tracer selectively to specific types of neurons while simultaneously transsynaptically labeling their target neurons. We developed a novel genetic approach introducing cDNA for a plant lectin, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), as a transgene under the control of specific promoter elements. Using this method, we demonstrate three examples of visualization of specific transsynaptic neural pathways: the mouse cerebellar efferent pathways, the mouse olfactory pathways, and the Drosophila visual pathways. This strategy should greatly facilitate studies on the anatomical and functional organization of the developing and mature nervous system.  (+info)

Control of neuronal precursor proliferation in the cerebellum by Sonic Hedgehog. (5/6494)

Cerebellar granule cells are the most abundant type of neuron in the brain, but the molecular mechanisms that control their generation are incompletely understood. We show that Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which is made by Purkinje cells, regulates the division of granule cell precursors (GCPs). Treatment of GCPs with Shh prevents differentiation and induces a potent, long-lasting proliferative response. This response can be inhibited by basic fibroblast growth factor or by activation of protein kinase A. Blocking Shh function in vivo dramatically reduces GCP proliferation. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms of normal growth and tumorigenesis in the cerebellum.  (+info)

Comparative effects of methylmercury on parallel-fiber and climbing-fiber responses of rat cerebellar slices. (6/6494)

The environmental neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg) causes profound disruption of cerebellar function. Previous studies have shown that acute exposure to MeHg impairs synaptic transmission in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. However, the effects of MeHg on cerebellar synaptic function have never been examined. In the present study, effects of acute exposure to MeHg on synaptic transmission between parallel fibers or climbing fibers and Purkinje cells were compared in 300- to 350-microm cerebellar slices by using extracellular and intracellular microelectrode-recording techniques. Field potentials of parallel-fiber volleys (PFVs) and the associated postsynaptic responses (PSRs) were recorded in the molecular layer by stimulating the parallel fibers in transverse cerebellar slices. The climbing-fiber responses were also recorded in the molecular layer by stimulating white matter in sagittal cerebellar slices. At 20, 100, and 500 microM, MeHg reduced the amplitude of both PFVs and the associated PSRs to complete block, however, it blocked PSRs more rapidly than PFVs. MeHg also decreased the amplitudes of climbing-fiber responses to complete block. For all responses, an initial increase in amplitude preceded MeHg-induced suppression. Intracellular recordings of excitatory postsynaptic potentials of Purkinje cells were compared before and after MeHg. At 100 microM and 20 microM, MeHg blocked the Na+-dependent, fast somatic spikes and Ca++-dependent, slow dendritic spike bursts. MeHg also hyperpolarized and then depolarized Purkinje cell membranes, suppressed current conduction from parallel fibers or climbing fibers to dendrites of Purkinje cells, and blocked synaptically activated local responses. MeHg switched the pattern of repetitive firing of Purkinje cells generated spontaneously or by depolarizing current injection at Purkinje cell soma from predominantly Na+-dependent, fast somatic spikes to predominantly Ca++-dependent, low amplitude, slow dendritic spike bursts. Thus, acute exposure to MeHg causes a complex pattern of effects on cerebellar synaptic transmission, with apparent actions on both neuronal excitability and chemical synaptic transmission.  (+info)

Long term lithium treatment suppresses p53 and Bax expression but increases Bcl-2 expression. A prominent role in neuroprotection against excitotoxicity. (7/6494)

This study was undertaken to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective actions of lithium against glutamate excitotoxicity with a focus on the role of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic genes. Long term, but not acute, treatment of cultured cerebellar granule cells with LiCl induces a concentration-dependent decrease in mRNA and protein levels of proapoptotic p53 and Bax; conversely, mRNA and protein levels of cytoprotective Bcl-2 are remarkably increased. The ratios of Bcl-2/Bax protein levels increase by approximately 5-fold after lithium treatment for 5-7 days. Exposure of cerebellar granule cells to glutamate induces a rapid increase in p53 and Bax mRNA and protein levels with no apparent effect on Bcl-2 expression. Pretreatment with LiCl for 7 days prevents glutamate-induced increase in p53 and Bax expression and maintains Bcl-2 in an elevated state. Glutamate exposure also triggers the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. Lithium pretreatment blocks glutamate-induced cytochrome c release and cleavage of lamin B1, a nuclear substrate for caspase-3. These results strongly suggest that lithium-induced Bcl-2 up-regulation and p53 and Bax down-regulation play a prominent role in neuroprotection against excitotoxicity. Our results further suggest that lithium, in addition to its use in the treatment of bipolar depressive illness, may have an expanded use in the intervention of neurodegeneration.  (+info)

The type and the localization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulate transmission of cAMP signals to the nucleus in cortical and cerebellar granule cells. (8/6494)

cAMP signals are received and transmitted by multiple isoforms of cAMP-dependent protein kinases, typically determined by their specific regulatory subunits. In the brain the major regulatory isoform RIIbeta and the RII-anchor protein, AKAP150 (rat) or 75 (bovine), are differentially expressed. Cortical neurons express RIIbeta and AKAP75; conversely, granule cerebellar cells express predominantly RIalpha and RIIalpha. Cortical neurons accumulate PKA catalytic subunit and phosphorylated cAMP responsive element binding protein very efficiently into nuclei upon cAMP induction, whereas granule cerebellar cells fail to do so. Down-regulation of RIIbeta synthesis by antisense oligonucleotides inhibited cAMP-induced nuclear signaling in cortical neurons. Expression in cerebellar granule cells of RIIbeta and AKAP75 genes by microinjection of specific expression vectors, markedly stimulated cAMP-induced transcription of the lacZ gene driven by a cAMP-responsive element promoter. These data indicate that the composition of PKA in cortical and granule cells underlies the differential ability of these cells to transmit cAMP signals to the nucleus.  (+info)

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Cerebellar Golgi Cell Model with Na+/K+ ATPase********** Developers: Fabio M Simoes de Souza & E De Schutter Work Progress: July 2009 - Dec 2009 Developed At: Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Computational Neuroscience Unit Okinawa - Japan Model Published in: Botta P, Simoes de Souza F, Sangrey T, De Schutter E, Valenzuela F (2010) Alcohol excites cerebellar Golgi cells by inhibiting the Na+/K+ ATPase. Neuropsychopharmacology 35: 1984-1996. This script is a modification from a previous published GoC model (Solinas et al., 2007). A Na+/K+ ATPase and ionic concentration pools for Na+, K+, Ca2+ were incorporated into the soma of the model. The equations that simulated the Na+/K+ ATPase are described in Table S10 of Takeuchi et al. (2006) References: Sergio M. Solinas, Lia Forti, Elisabetta Cesana, Jonathan Mapelli, Erik De Schutter and Egidio D`Angelo (2008) Computational reconstruction of pacemaking and intrinsic electroresponsiveness in cerebellar golgi cells. Frontiers in Cellular ...
Cerebellar Golgi Cell Model with Na+/K+ ATPase********** Developers: Fabio M Simoes de Souza & E De Schutter Work Progress: July 2009 - Dec 2009 Developed At: Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Computational Neuroscience Unit Okinawa - Japan Model Published in: Botta P, Simoes de Souza F, Sangrey T, De Schutter E, Valenzuela F (2010) Alcohol excites cerebellar Golgi cells by inhibiting the Na+/K+ ATPase. Neuropsychopharmacology 35: 1984-1996. This script is a modification from a previous published GoC model (Solinas et al., 2007). A Na+/K+ ATPase and ionic concentration pools for Na+, K+, Ca2+ were incorporated into the soma of the model. The equations that simulated the Na+/K+ ATPase are described in Table S10 of Takeuchi et al. (2006) References: Sergio M. Solinas, Lia Forti, Elisabetta Cesana, Jonathan Mapelli, Erik De Schutter and Egidio D`Angelo (2008) Computational reconstruction of pacemaking and intrinsic electroresponsiveness in cerebellar golgi cells. Frontiers in Cellular ...
A response to Leprince: The role of Bergmann glial cells in cerebellar development. Cancer & Metabolism 2013, 1:14. We recently demonstrated that developmentally regulated aerobic glycolysis is integral to the normal process of postnatal neurogenesis and becomes co-opted in medulloblastoma. In our work, we concluded that Hexokinase 2 (Hk2), which we found to be required for Shh-induced aerobic glycolysis, was expressed specifically by cerebellar granule neuron progenitors (CGNPs). We observed altered migration of CGNPs in hGFAP-cre;Hk2f/f mice and attributed this aspect of the phenotype to premature differentiation of CGNPs caused by loss of aerobic glycolysis. In response to our work, LePrince draws attention to the role of Bergmann glia in cerebellar development.. LePrince raises the important point that cerebellar granule neurons (CGNPs) do not develop in isolation but rather interact critically with the Bergmann glia. The Bergmann glia establish a radial scaffold on which the CGNPs migrate ...
Wang L & Liu Y. (2019). Signaling pathways in cerebellar granule cells development. Am J Stem Cells , 8, 1-6. PMID: 31139492 Shoja MM, Jensen CJ, Ramdhan R, Chern J, Oakes WJ & Tubbs RS. (2018). Embryology of the Craniocervical Junction and Posterior Cranial Fossa Part II: Embryogenesis of the hindbrain. Clin Anat , , . PMID: 29344994 DOI. Aldinger KA & Doherty D. (2016). The genetics of cerebellar malformations. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med , 21, 321-32. PMID: 27160001 DOI. Butts T, Green MJ & Wingate RJ. (2014). Development of the cerebellum: simple steps to make a little brain. Development , 141, 4031-41. PMID: 25336734 DOI. Voogd J. (2012). A note on the definition and the development of cerebellar Purkinje cell zones. Cerebellum , 11, 422-5. PMID: 22396330 DOI. Roussel MF & Hatten ME. (2011). Cerebellum development and medulloblastoma. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. , 94, 235-82. PMID: 21295689 DOI. Herculano-Houzel S. (2010). Coordinated scaling of cortical and cerebellar numbers of neurons. Front ...
BioAssay record AID 349212 submitted by ChEMBL: Activity at RYR2 receptor in rat cerebellar granule neurons assessed activation of [45Ca2+] uptake at 20 uM after 10 mins.
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Regulation of proliferation, differentiation, and migration of neural progenitor cells is critical for the normal development of the nervous system. Many factors can influence these events, including the neurotrophin family of factors. These processes have been extensively studied in cerebellar granule cell progenitors (GCP), the most abundant cell type in the brain, which undergo much of their development postnatally. GCPs proliferate in external granule layer (EGL), a transient layer of the cerebellum, and migrate internally to form the internal granule layer (IGL). In the external part of the EGL these cells proliferate, while in the internal part of the EGL the cells exit the cell cycle and start to migrae toward the inside of the developing cerebellum. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is highly expressed in the EGL during development of the cerebellum, and is absent once the cells begin to migrate. The function of p75NTR in this developing neuronal ...
Development of the vertebrate cerebellum is unusual compared to most other regions of the brain since it involves two germinal regions. Most cell types arise from the luminal, ventricular zone as in other brain regions, but granule cells arise from the second germinal layer, the external granular layer (EGL). Our analysis of the temporal and positional expression of three members of the Sox gene family of transcription factors in the cerebellum shows that granule cell development is unusual compared to most other neurons of the central nervous system (CNS). We show that granule cell precursors lose expression of cSox2 and cSox3 as they migrate to form the EGL. The EGL is the first example of a germinal layer in the CNS which does not exhibit expression of these genes. Throughout most of the CNS cSox11 expression is very low in the ventricular zone but increases dramatically as cells cease proliferation and migrate to form the subventricular zone. We also find that cSox11 expression increases when cells
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Using diffusion tensor imaging, we conducted an exploratory investigation of the relationship between white matter tract microstructure and age in 200 healthy adult subjects using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Though most tracts showed the slight decline in microstructural organization with age widely noted, in both superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP) it correlated positively with age, a result not previously reported. We confirmed this by using an alternative method, and by repeating our TBSS analysis in an additional sample of 133 healthy adults. In exploring this surprising result we considered the possibility that this might arise from the continual cognitive and motor refinement that is enacted in the cerebellum: we found that tract microstructure in both SCPs was also strongly correlated with IQ, again in contrast with all other tracts, and its relationship with age mediated by IQ, as a training model would predict. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell formation in the cortical layers of the developing human cerebellum. AU - Ábrahám, H.. AU - Tornóczky, T.. AU - Kosztolányi, G.. AU - Séress, L.. PY - 2001/2/1. Y1 - 2001/2/1. N2 - Cell proliferation has been studied in the human cerebellar cortex between the 24th gestational week and the 12th postnatal month. Intensive cell formation has been found in the external granular layer (EGL) of the human cerebellum, where the highest cell proliferation rate occurs between the 28th and 34th gestational weeks. This is followed by a gradual decrease that lasts up to the eighth postnatal month. As late in development as the fifth postnatal month, still 30% of cells of the EGL are labeled with the monoclonal antibody Ki-67, which is specific for dividing cells. The width of the EGL remained unchanged from the 28th gestational week to the end of the first postnatal month, when it starts to decrease and completely disappears by the 11th postnatal month. Large number of Ki-67 labeled ...
The relatively few well-defined cell types within the cerebellum and the stereotypical foliation pattern make the cerebellum particularly amenable to the study of morphogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). The mammalian cerebellum consists of a central vermis and two lateral hemispheres, each with its own sets of fissures. The complexity of the foliation pattern varies between species of mammals, depending on the proprioceptive input to the cerebellum. For example, the cerebellar vermis of many inbred mouse strains consists of eight major lobules with few sublobules, whereas the rat vermis consists of ten lobules and contains more sublobules. Furthermore, some inbred strains of mice have one or two additional partial lobules corresponding to additional lobules in rat. Although the basic ten lobules present in the rat are conserved in human, each human cerebellar lobule is extensively subdivided into many sublobules. The conservation of morphology within and across species suggests that ...
Examining the histogram of one reconstructed slice (figure 2b), one observes that only four of the five Gaussians can be clearly related to known morphological structures of the human cerebellum. The fifth Gaussian with the largest half width describes the Δδ-values lying between the formalin and stratum moleculare related peaks. Therefore, this Gaussian basically corresponds to the partial volume between these two components. Aside from the partial volume one finds an additional peak at Δδ = 1.3 × 10−8, which appears rather as a shoulder. This shoulder becomes more obvious in the histogram of the entire three-dimensional dataset (figure 6c). The quantitative analysis of the shoulder reveals that the related Δδ-values are located in areas of the cerebellum that were in direct contact with the formalin solution during the whole fixation period. Obviously, the formalin treatment of the human cerebellum changes the electron density at the tissue periphery.. The usefulness of the ...
Decreased cerebellar volume is associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in very preterm infants and may be a principal component in neurodevelopmental impairment. Cerebellar deposition of blood products from the subarachnoid space has been suggested as a causal mechanism in cerebellar underdevelopment following IVH. Using the preterm rabbit pup IVH model, we evaluated the effects of IVH induced at E29 (3 days prior to term) on cerebellar development at term-equivalent postnatal day 0 (P0), term-equivalent postnatal day 2 (P2), and term-equivalent postnatal day 5 (P5). Furthermore, the presence of cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) in cerebellar tissue was characterized, and cell-free Hb was evaluated as a causal factor in the development of cerebellar damage following preterm IVH. IVH was associated with a decreased proliferative (Ki67-positive) portion of the external granular layer (EGL), delayed Purkinje cell maturation, and activated microglia in the cerebellar white matter. In pups with ...
Decreased cerebellar volume is associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in very preterm infants and may be a principal component in neurodevelopmental impairment. Cerebellar deposition of blood products from the subarachnoid space has been suggested as a causal mechanism in cerebellar underdevelopment following IVH. Using the preterm rabbit pup IVH model, we evaluated the effects of IVH induced at E29 (3 days prior to term) on cerebellar development at term-equivalent postnatal day 0 (P0), term-equivalent postnatal day 2 (P2), and term-equivalent postnatal day 5 (P5). Furthermore, the presence of cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) in cerebellar tissue was characterized, and cell-free Hb was evaluated as a causal factor in the development of cerebellar damage following preterm IVH. IVH was associated with a decreased proliferative (Ki67-positive) portion of the external granular layer (EGL), delayed Purkinje cell maturation, and activated microglia in the cerebellar white matter. In pups with ...
Li, Y., Hu, S-Q., & Han, Y. (2015). Preventing H2O2-induced toxicity in primary cerebellar granule neurons via activating the PI3-K/Akt/GSK3ß pathway by kukoamine from Lycii Cortex. Journal of Functional Foods, 17, 709 - 721 ...
Cerebellar granule cells are susceptible to the excitotoxin glutamate, which acts at N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, as well as the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+), the active cytotoxic metabolite of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Paradoxically, preincubation of cultured cerebellar granule cells with low concentrations of NMDA or glutamate markedly antagonizes the neurotoxicity resulting from subsequent exposure to toxic concentrations of either MPP+ or glutamate. The neuroprotective effects of NMDA and glutamate against MPP+ toxicity are observed at agonist concentrations as low as 1 microM, are blocked by specific NMDA receptor antagonists, and require at least 30 min to develop fully. Moreover, NMDA receptor-mediated neuroprotection is prevented by the RNA synthesis inhibitor actinomycin D or the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Thus, in cerebellar granule cells activation of NMDA receptors by glutamate can result in either ...
While the cerebellum is instrumental for motor control, it is not traditionally implicated in vision. Here, we report the existence of 5 ipsilateral visual field maps in the human cerebellum. These maps are located within the oculomotor vermis and cerebellar nodes of the dorsal attention and visual networks. These findings imply that the cerebellum is closely involved in visuospatial cognition, and that its contributions are anchored in sensory coordinates. ...
Dynamic changes of glycolipid domains within the plasma membranes of cultured rat cerebellar granule cells have been investigated. For this purpose, a pyrene-labelled derivative of G(M1) ganglioside has been incorporated in the cell plasma membrane, and the rate of excimer formation, directly related to the formation of domains, has been studied by a fluorescence imaging technique (excimer-formation imaging). Fluorescence imaging showed that upon addition of 100 μM glutamate, indirectly inducing the activation of protein kinase C (PKC), glycolipid concentration within domains increases in cell bodies. Comparable effects were exerted by the addition of PMA, directly inducing the activation of PKC. On the contrary, the phorbol ester was not effective in the presence of the specific PKC inhibitor, bisindolylmaleimide. These results suggest that glycolipid-enriched domains are dynamic supramolecular structures affected by membrane-associated events, such as PKC activation. Dynamic changes of ...
The cerebellum has a striking morphology consisting of folia separated by fissures of different lengths. Since folia in mammals likely serve as a broad platform on which the anterior-posterior organization of the sensory-motor circuits of the cerebellum are built, it is important to understand how such complex morphology arises. Using a combination of genetic inducible fate mapping, high-resolution cellular analysis and mutant studies in mouse, we demonstrate that a key event in initiation of foliation is the acquisition of a distinct cytoarchitecture in the regions that will become the base of each fissure. We term these regions anchoring centers. We show that the first manifestation of anchoring centers when the cerebellar outer surface is smooth is an increase in proliferation and inward thickening of the granule cell precursors, which likely causes an associated slight invagination of the Purkinje cell layer. Thereafter, granule cell precursors within anchoring centers become distinctly elongated
The human cerebellum develops over a long time, extending from the early embryonic period until the first postnatal years. This protracted development makes the cerebellum vulnerable to a broad spectrum of developmental disorders. The development of the cerebellum occurs in four basic steps: 1) char …
Comparison of Vascular Densities of The Human Cerebellum - A Pilot Study. Vascular density corresponds to metabolic demands, which increase in highly active areas of the brain. The aim of this study was to determine the surface vascular density of three equal vertical divisions of the superior and inferior cerebellar hemispheres and to correlate with the function.. The dye Araldite was injected to the carotid and vertebral arteries of four fresh adult male human brains, maintaining a constant pressure of 93 mmHg. The cerebellums were examined, and a count was made, from the number of vessels entering each square on an overlying grid, using the light microscope and the camera Lucida. The vascular density of the three vertical columns were calculated and compared. The mean values of the vascular densities of the three vertical columns were, vessels per mm2 (from medial to lateral) left superior - 1.67, 1.89, 1.54, right superior - 1.52, 1.52, 1.28, left inferior - 1.17, 1.30, 1.19, right inferior ...
Mitochondrial and plasma membrane potential of cultured cerebellar neurons during glutamate-induced necrosis, apoptosis, and tolerance.
Several neuronal populations are generated in the dorsal rhombencephalon, at the level of the rhombic lip. They migrate following distinct dorsoventral paths identified as the pontine, olivary and superficial migratory streams. They settle in the ventral neural tube and contribute neurons to several precerebellar nuclei. Therefore, the precebellar system permits the study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of cell migration. We have focused on two populations of precerebellar neurons generated in the rhombic lip of rhombomeres 7/8 (or 8) (Cambronero and Puelles, 2000) and destined to form the inferior olive (ION), the lateral reticular (LRN) and the external cuneatus (ECN) nuclei. These neurons circumnavigate at different depths around the medulla following two routes, both orthogonal to the anteroposterior axis (Harkmark, 1954; Altman and Bayer, 1987a; Altman and Bayer, 1987b; Bourrat and Sotelo, 1988; Bourrat and Sotelo, 1990; Bourrat et al., 1989; Tan and Le ...
Fig 2. Relative lobar vermal volumes in healthy children and patients with brain malignancies. Patients tended to have lower relative vermal volumes even before the start of the radiation treatment. The volumes of the posterior vermis, lobules VIII-X, were the lowest in 3 patients with medulloblastoma treated by surgical resection, which involved removing parts of cerebellar tissue. The lines connect data from individual subjects; asterisks indicate patients with medulloblastoma. ...
The human cerebellum with lobules I-X color-coded. From the spatially unbiased infratentorial template [SUIT] of the cerebellum and brainstem (Diedrichsen et
Neurology Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies focusing on diseases of the nervous system, as well as normal neurological functioning. The journal will consider basic, translational, and clinical research, including animal models and clinical trials.
Traditionally, the cerebellum has been studied in relation to motor movement and coordination in adults. Recent studies, however, strongly suggest that it also influences childhood cognition, Wang said. Several studies also have found a correlation between cerebellar injury and the development of a disorder in the autism spectrum, the researchers report. For instance, the researchers cite a 2007 paper in the journal Pediatrics that found that individuals who experienced cerebellum damage at birth were 40 times more likely to score highly on autism screening tests. They also reference studies in 2004 and 2005 that found that the cerebellum is the most frequently disrupted brain region in people with autism.. What we realized from looking at the literature is that these two problems - autism and cerebellar injury - might be related to each other via the cerebellums influence on wider neural development, Wang said. We hope to get people and scientists thinking differently about the cerebellum ...
The effect of fluoride on murine thyroid function and cerebellar development was studied by administering NaF in drinking water (0.5 g/L) to pregnant and lactating mice, from the 15th day of pregnancy to the 14th day after delivery. Compared to a control group, the NaF-treated pups, at age 14 days, showed a 35% decrease in body weight, a 75% decrease in plasma free T4, and reductions in the cerebellar and cerebral protein concentrations by 27% and 17%, respectively. Consistent histological changes were present in the cerebellum of the treated mice with the external granular layer being markedly reduced or absent, the Purkinje cell bodies being poorly differentiated and arranged in a single layer at the surface of the internal granular layer, and with more apoptotic Purkinje cells being present.. ...
Potassium channels are key determinants of neuronal excitability. We recently identified KChIPs as a family of calcium binding proteins that coassociate and colocalize with Kv4 family potassium channels in mammalian brain (An et al. [2000] Nature 403:553). Here, we used light microscopic immunohistochemistry and multilabel immunofluorescence labeling, together with transmission electron microscopic immunohistochemistry, to examine the subcellular distribution of KChIPs and Kv4 channels in adult rat cerebellum. Light microscopic immunohistochemistry was performed on 40-μm free-floating sections using a diaminobenzidine labeling procedure. Multilabel immunofluorescence staining was performed on free-floating sections and on 1-μm ultrathin cryosections. Electron microscopic immunohistochemistry was performed using an immunoperoxidase pre-embedding labeling procedure. By light microscopy, immunoperoxidase labeling showed that Kv4.2, Kv4.3, and KChIPs 1, 3, and 4 (but not KChIP2) were expressed at ...
Synonyms for cerebellum in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for cerebellum. 10 words related to cerebellum: arteria cerebelli, cerebellar artery, neural structure, cerebellar hemisphere, dentate nucleus, vermis, vermis cerebelli.... What are synonyms for cerebellum?
Again, the physiological significance of the transient expression of SRIF receptors in the cerebellum can only be speculated on at present. At the microscopic level, SRIF receptors are associated with the external granule layer and thus may play a role in the proliferation of the stem cells of the granule cells, and their disappearance appears to coincide with the migration of the neuroblasts. The hypothesis that SRIF may act as atrophic factor involved in the regulation of cell division and/or migration in the external granular layer is supported by the absence of synaptic contacts in this layer, thus suggesting that SRIF receptors in this layer are not involved in neurotransmission. 1986). A decrease in this particular class of steroid (after adrenalectomy) appears to increase the potential for altering the expression of the propressophysin gene within this nucleus. , 1988) found that adrenalectomyinduced plasticity in VP expression is further enhanced by ablation of a specific afferent ...
Despite our knowledge that the cerebellum plays a central role in coordinating motion and behavior, we do not really know how the cerebellar circuits accomplish this. Purkinje cells, making up the core of cerebellar circuits, are thought to perform the essential integrations of sensory and motor information. Ruben Portugues and his team at the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology now uncovered a surprisingly simple yet elegant organization of the cerebellum into three behavioral modules, each encoding a distinct type of visual information.. Our world is full of sensory stimuli. Depending on what we see, smell, taste, feel, or hear, we are compelled to behave in a predictable way - like approaching tasty food or avoiding an oncoming car. The brains ability to make sense of the diverse sensory stimuli and to coordinate the appropriate behavioral response relies critically on the function of the cerebellum. This hindbrain region, critical to sensorimotor coordination, is conserved across ...
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Lead (Pb2+) is a widespread pollutant and potent central neurotoxin. We have studied its effect on energetic metabolism of cerebellar granule cells (CGC) in pre- and postnatally intoxicated rats. Pregnant Wistar rats received 0.1% lead acetate in water. CGC were prepared from 8-day-old born rats according to a standard procedure. Pb2+concentration was measured in blood and in cerebellum homogenates by AAS. Intracellular Pb2+ concentrations in CGC was studied by fl uorescent microscopy, in neurons loaded with the Ca2+-sensitive indicator Oregon Green. Intracellular Pb2+ was evaluated from the fl uorescence intensity and estimate in μM range. Pb-induced decrease in Adenylate Energy Charge (by 10%) and ATP concentration (by 35%) in cerebellum homogenates (HPLC method) was observed at Pb concentrations in whole blood (7.05 ± 2.05 μg/dL).The function of mitochondria of neurons of Pb-treated and control rats were evaluated using: Mitotracker Green FM and JC-1. We observed active mitochondria ...
Dentate nucleus is the most lateral and largest among the four nuclei of cerebellum. It is most prominent in higher animals, specially in human brain. Phylogenetically it is the latest in evolution and obviously related to neocerebellum. Dentate nucleus, on section, looks like a folded bag with its opening (concavity) facing medially. From the concave side emerge efferent fibers from the nucleus. Efferent fibers leave cerebellum through superior cerebellar peduncle ...
The neurological mutation weaver is characterized by defects in granule cell migration along Bergmann glial processes and by subsequent death and disposition of granule cells. Immunocytochemical localization of antisera raised against purified glial filament protein (AbGF) and transmission electron microscopy were used to visualize specific associations between granule neurons and astroglia in microcultures of cerebellar cells dissociated from normal (+/+), heterozygous (+/wv), and homozygous (wv/wv) B6CBA-w mouse cerebella. In microcultures of cells dissociated from normal B6CBA-Aw-J-wv (+/+) cerebella, staining with AbGF closely resembled results previously reported for cells taken from C57BL/6J (+/+) tissue. Two forms of stained astroglia were seen, one with a larger perikaryon and shorter processes, among which 12 to 20 unstained cells nestled; and another with a smaller cell soma and longer processes, along which a few unstained cells were seen. The first resembled astrocytes of the ...
Presynaptic terminals occur along unmyelinated axons in specialized compartments called axonal varicosities or synaptic boutons. Since the first descriptions of varicose axons by Cajal and others, the spatial organization of varicosities along axons has attracted the attention of neuroscientists. Quantitative light- and electron-microscopic analyses of varicosity spacing in the cerebellum and elsewhere have recently provided a clearer picture of this organization, and theoretical analyses now incorporate varicosity spacing as an essential parameter in structural models of neural connectivity. Here we review the salient features of varicosity spacing, with emphasis on cerebellar parallel fibers as a model system. Measured globally across the entire≈ 5 mm lengths of parallel fibers, the overall mean spacing of varicosities is 5.2 μm. Measured locally, however, mean spacing follows a proximodistal gradient, increasing with distance from the point of bifurcation from the ascending axon. Measured at the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Developmental assembly of calcium-mobilizing systems for excitatory amino acids in rat cerebellum. AU - Ito, Etsuro. AU - Miyazawa, Atsuo. AU - Takagi, Hiroshi. AU - Yoshioka, Tohru. AU - Horikoshi, Tetsuro. AU - Yanagisawa, Keiji. AU - Nakamura, Takeshi. AU - Kudo, Yoshihisa. AU - Umeda, Masato. AU - Inoue, Keizo. AU - Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko. PY - 1991/8. Y1 - 1991/8. N2 - The postnatal development of calcium-mobilizing systems was studied by both microfluorometric imaging analysis of Ca2+ on living rat cerebellar slices and immunohistochemical labeling of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate binding protein (IP3BP) in fixed rat cerebellum. Stimulation with quisqualate (QA) or N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) enhanced the Ca2+ level only diffusely on postnatal day (PND) 3, but more discretely on PNDs 7 and 15. On PND 21, QA-induced responses were localized in the molecular layer especially, but not in the granular layer. By contrast, NMDA ...
In the present study, we provide evidence that homophilic CHL1 trans-interactions promote the differentiation of cerebellar granule cells at approximately postnatal day 5 in the early proliferative developmental stages of the mouse cerebellum, while heterophilic trans-interactions of CHL1 with vitronectin, integrins, PAI-2, uPA, and uPAR contribute to postproliferative neurite outgrowth and granule cell migration 1-2 d later.. The number of undifferentiated granule cells was increased only when dissociated cells from cerebella of 4- to 5-d-old wild-type mice were cultured on CHL1-Fc substrate, but not on a neutral control substrate, suggesting that homophilic CHL1 trans-interactions inhibit or delay differentiation of granule cell precursors before radial glia-guided outside-in migration starts. Increased numbers of differentiated granule neurons in 5-d-old CHL1-deficient cerebella versus wild-type cerebella infer that homophilic CHL1 trans-interactions delay the differentiation of granule cell ...
Increasing evidence has linked autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with dysfunction of the brains cerebellum, but the details have been unclear. In a new study, researchers at Boston Childrens Hospital used stem cell technology to create cerebellar cells known as Purkinje cells from patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a genetic syndrome that often includes ASD-like features.
GDF15, also known as MIC-1, is a novel member of the TGFβ superfamily and is known to plays multiple roles in the processes of neural protection, regeneration and axonal elongation [5,7,9,13,28]. However, the receptor for GDF15 and its downstream effector signalling pathways have been poorly characterized. In the present study, for the first time, we show that GDF15 may activate the TGFβR2 and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathways to increase the IK amplitude, as well as the expression of Kv2.1 in CGNs, which may be associated with a developmental function.. The IK is one of the most ubiquitously expressed voltage-gated K+ channels and plays many diverse physiological roles. Kv2.1 is a major component of the IK in the central nervous system [19]. Previous studies using cultured CGNs showed that enhancement of the IK was associated with the apoptosis, migration or maturation of CGNs, depending on their normal development state or abnormal apoptosis stimulation [14,15]. Indeed, the IK amplitude and ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Norepinephrine and synaptic transmission in the cerebellum. AU - Chandler, Daniel J.. AU - Nicholson, Shevon E.. AU - Zitnik, Gerard. AU - Waterhouse, Barry D.. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - Although the presence of norepinephrine (NE) in the mammalian cerebellum was initially controversial, there is now substantial evidence of a role for the NE system in modulating the response properties of individual cerebellar neurons to synaptic inputs rather than transmitting moment-to-moment details of modality specific information. As a result of these cellular actions, the system is capable of regulating cerebellar circuit functions within the context of ongoing voluntary and reflex motor activities and in a manner appropriate to the behavioral state of the organism. The evidence for this mode of operation derives from extensive anatomical, physiological, and pharmacological investigations over a period of more than 40 years. This chapter summarizes those studies and the development ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cerebellar outflow lesions. T2 - A comparison of movement deficits resulting from lesions at the levels of the cerebellum and thalamus. AU - Bastian, A. J.. AU - Thach, W. T.. PY - 1995/12. Y1 - 1995/12. N2 - Previous work has shown that lesions in the lateral cerebellum involving the dentate nucleus impair both reaching and pinching movements in humans and monkeys. This study addressed the question of whether disruption of the cerebellar‐thalamo‐cortical pathway at the level of the thalamus would produce behavioral deficits similar to those seen after dentate damage. We compared the performance of both reaching and pinching movements in patients with lateral cerebellar lesions and in patients with discrete lesions of the ventrolateral thalamus. The patients with thalamic lesions had minimal or no sensory loss and no corticospinal signs, suggesting that the abnormal movements were due to disruption of the cerebellar projection to the thalamus. We found that lesions of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The true distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm. T2 - Clinical characteristics and strategy for treatment. AU - Zhou, Y.. AU - Kato, Y.. AU - Olugbenga, O. T.. AU - Hirotoshi, S.. AU - Karagiozov, K.. AU - Masahiro, O.. AU - Amitendu, S.. AU - Makoto, N.. AU - Tetsuo, K.. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Objective: A series of aneurysms located at the 4th or 5 th segment of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) has not been previously reported in the literature. We report six such cases and analyze their clinical characteristics and outcomes from three different treatment strategies. Material and Methods: We reviewed six patients with a diagnosis of distal PICA aneurysm. The following data were analyzed: age, sex, aneurysm size, Hunt-Hess grade at presentation, angiographic characteristics, and clinical treatment outcome determined by Glascow outcome scores (GOS). Treatments performed included clipping and wrapping, sacrificing the parent arteries of the ...
Transcription factors from the nuclear factor one (NFI) family have been shown to play a central role in regulating neural progenitor cell differentiation within the embryonic and post-natal brain. NFIA and NFIB, for instance, promote the differentiation and functional maturation of granule neurons within the cerebellum. Mice lacking Nfix exhibit delays in the development of neuronal and glial lineages within the cerebellum, but the cell-type-specific expression of this transcription factor remains undefined. Here, we examined the expression of NFIX, together with various cell-type-specific markers, within the developing and adult cerebellum using both chromogenic immunohistochemistry and co-immunofluorescence labelling and confocal microscopy. In embryos, NFIX was expressed by progenitor cells within the rhombic lip and ventricular zone. After birth, progenitor cells within the external granule layer, as well as migrating and mature granule neurons, expressed NFIX. Within the adult cerebellum, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interactions between mitochondrial bioenergetics and cytoplasmic calcium in cultured cerebellar granule cells. AU - Nicholls, David. AU - Vesce, Sabino. AU - Kirk, Liana. AU - Chalmers, Susan. PY - 2003/10. Y1 - 2003/10. N2 - The mitochondrion has moved to the center stage in the drama of the life and death of the neuron. The mitochondrial membrane potential controls the ability of the organelle to generate ATP, generate reactive oxygen species and sequester Ca(2+) entering the cell. Each of these processes interact, and their deconvolution is far from trivial. The cultured cerebellar granule cell provides a model in which knowledge gained from studies on isolated mitochondria can be applied to study the role played by the organelles in the maintenance of Ca(2+) homeostasis in the cell under resting, stimulated and pathophysiological conditions. In particular, mitochondria play a complex role in the response of the neuron to excitotoxic stimulation of NMDA and AMPA-kainate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Central vestibular system. T2 - Vestibular nuclei and posterior cerebellum. AU - Barmack, Neal H.. PY - 2003/6/15. Y1 - 2003/6/15. N2 - The vestibular nuclei and posterior cerebellum are the destination of vestibular primary afferents and the subject of this review. The vestibular nuclei include four major nuclei (medial, descending, superior and lateral). In addition, smaller vestibular nuclei include: Y-group, parasolitary nucleus, and nucleus intercalatus. Each of the major nuclei can be subdivided further based primarily on cytological and immunohistochemical histological criteria or differences in afferent and/or efferent projections. The primary afferent projections of vestibular end organs are distributed to several ipsilateral vestibular nuclei. Vestibular nuclei communicate bilaterally through a commissural system that is predominantly inhibitory. Secondary vestibular neurons also receive convergent sensory information from optokinetic circuitry, central visual system ...
Article Ethological studies in Swiss albino mice with special reference to the histology of the cerebellar tissue after an acute as well as a continuous low-dose tritiated water (HTO) exposure. Health and environmental impact of tritium released from...
Our patient with a unilateral infarction restricted to the anterior midline vermis presented with acute non-rotatory dizziness and unsteadiness during gait, and neuro-ophthalmologic evaluation showed impaired smooth pursuit and hypometric saccades in the contralesional direction, and disconjugate ocular torsion. This suggests that anterior vermis contributes to ocular motor control as well as posture and gait.. Multiple areas of the cerebral cortex, brainstem and cerebellum are involved in the generation and coordination of smooth pursuit eye movements. Neuronal signals for smooth pursuit eye movements are initiated in the frontal and parietal eye centers, and then mediated by the pontine nuclei [4]. The pontine nuclei project to the vestibulocerebellum and the cerebellar oculomotor vermis that includes the declive, folium, and tuber (Figure 1F) [4]. The uvula and part of the pyramid are also commonly damaged in patients with deficient gain of the horizontal sinusoidal smooth pursuit eye ...
We have investigated the mechanisms of the increases in BFcrb produced by activation of the CF. The CF provide a strong excitatory synaptic input to the cerebellar Purkinje cells. The CF originate from the contralateral inferior olive, project directly to the cerebellar molecular layer, and make multiple synaptic contacts with Purkinje cell dendrites and molecular layer interneurons.6 Despite the fact that a Purkinje cell receives inputs only from a single CF,6 CF activation produces powerful synaptic responses in Purkinje cell dendrites29 (see reference 30 for a review). CF-induced Purkinje cell discharges are associated with increases in cerebellar glucose utilization.31 We have found that activation of the CF using harmaline elicits profound increases in BFcrb that are independent of changes in arterial pressure and blood gases. The increases in BFcrb are protracted in time and are larger in magnitude than those produced by stimulation of the PF, hypercapnia, or topical application of ...
Vol 9: Restrictive Expression of Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 5 Asic5 in Unipolar Brush Cells of the Vestibulocerebellum.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Climbing fiber inputs to the cerebellum encode error signals that instruct learning. Recently, evidence has accumulated to suggest that the cerebellum is also involved in the processing of reward. To study how rewarding events are encoded, we recorded the activity of climbing fibers when monkeys were engaged in an eye movement task. At the beginning of each trial, the monkeys were cued to the size of the reward that would be delivered upon successful completion of the trial. Climbing fiber activity increased when the monkeys were presented with a cue indicating a large reward, but not a small reward. Reward size did not modulate activity at reward delivery or during eye movements. Comparison between climbing fiber and simple spike activity indicated different interactions for coding of movement and reward. These results indicate that climbing fibers encode the expected reward size and suggest a general role of the cerebellum in associative learning beyond error correction.. ...
Unipolar brush cell: | | | |Unipolar brush cell| | | | | ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
Wnt genes encode secreted proteins implicated in cell fate changes during development. To define specific cell populations in which Wnt genes act, we have examined Wnt expression in the cerebellum. This part of the brain has a relatively simple structure and contains well-characterized cell populations. We found that Wnt-3 is expressed during development of the cerebellum and that expression is restricted to the Purkinje cell layer in the adult. Wnt-3 expression in Purkinje cells increases postnatally as granule cells start to make contacts with Purkinje cells. To investigate whether interactions with granule cells influence Wnt-3 expression in Purkinje cells, we examined gene expression in several mouse mutants, using the expression of En-2 to follow the fate of granule cells. In the weaver mutant, in which granule cells fail to migrate and subsequently die in the external granular layer, Wnt-3 expression was normal at postnatal day 15 (P15). At that time, some granule cells are still present ...
The developing rat cerebellum is particularly sensitive to alcohol at the end of the first postnatal week, a period of intense neurogenesis. The neuropeptide Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has previously been shown to prevent the death of cultured neurons in vitro. We have thus investigated the capacity of PACAP to counteract ethanol toxicity in 8-day-old rats. Behavioral studies revealed that PACAP reduces the deleterious action of alcohol in the negative geotaxis test. Administration of ethanol induced a transient increase of the expression of pro-apoptotic genes including c-jun or caspase-3 , which could be partially blocked by PACAP. Alcohol inhibited the expression of the α6 GABA ( A ) subunit while PACAP increased neuroD2 mRNA level, two markers of neuronal differentiation. Although gene regulations occurred rapidly, a third injection of ethanol was required to strongly reduce the number of granule cells in the internal granule cell layer, an effect which was totally
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neurotrophin-3 induced by tri-iodothyronine in cerebellar granule cells promotes Purkinje cell differentiation. AU - Lindholm, D.. AU - Castren, E.. AU - Tsoulfas, P.. AU - Kolbeck, R.. AU - Berzaghi, M. D.P.. AU - Leingartner, A.. AU - Heisenberg, C. P.. AU - Tesarollo, L.. AU - Parada, L. F.. AU - Thoenen, H.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - Thyroid hormones play an important role in brain development, but the mechanism(s) by which triiodothyronine (T3) mediates neuronal differentiation is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that T3 regulates the neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), in developing rat cerebellar granule cells both in cell culture and in vivo. In situ hybridization experiments showed that developing Purkinje cells do not express NT-3 mRNA but do express trkC, the putative neuronal receptor for NT-3. Addition of recombinant NT-3 to cerebellar cultures from embryonic rat brain induces hypertrophy and neurite sprouting of Purkinje cells, and upregulates the ...
Light micrograph of the human cerebellum, the hindbrain, showing (at bottom) a row of large, flask-like Purkinje cells, which are among the largest nerve cells in the body. The long dendrites from the Purkinje cells extend into all three layers of the cerebellar cortex. The cerebellum receives input from areas of the brain responsible for initiating movement, & from the bodys sense receptors. The mechanisms by which its cells integrate motor & sensory information to coordinate fine movement are obscure. Magnification: x500 at 35mm size. - Stock Image P360/0069
Dentate granule cells become synaptically interconnected in the hippocampus of persons with temporal lobe epilepsy, forming a recurrent mossy fiber pathway. This pathway may contribute to the development and propagation of seizures. The physiology of mossy fiber-granule cell synapses is difficult to …
The developing central nervous system is particularly vulnerable to environmental contaminants such as non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs). This study investigated the potential oxidative effects in mice pups exposed via lactation to the sum of the six indicator NDL-PCBs (Sigma 6 NDL-PCBs) at 0,1, 10 and 100 ng/kg per 14 days, constituting levels below the guidance values fixed by French food safety agencies for humans at 10 ng/kg body weight per day. For this purpose, the oxidative status was assessed by flow cytometry via dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate in the cerebellum of juvenile male offspring mice during brain growth spurt [postnatal day (PND) 14]. No significant differences were found in the levels of reactive oxygen species in the cerebellar neurons or glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia) of lactationally exposed male mice at PND 14 (p | 0.05). Concordantly, oxidative-stress related gene expression was measured by qPCR for catalase, copper zinc
In Ptch+/−-driven mouse models for medulloblastoma, all mice show aberrant proliferation of cerebellar granule cell precursors, but only some develop advanced medulloblastoma. Tamayo-Orego and colleagues studied P7 external granule layer, preneoplastic lesions, and advanced medulloblastoma, and found high levels of p16Ink4a (CDKN2A) and p21 (CDKN1A) only in the preneoplastic lesions. A third of advanced medulloblastoma harbored p53 mutations, which they could replicate in other SHH models of medulloblastoma. By laser microdissection over time, Ptch1 loss of heterozygosity was the first event in preneoplastic lesions, followed by p53 mutations. In samples without p53 mutations, 60% harbored p16ink4a inactivation. They confirmed similar inactivation of p16INK4A (CDKN2A) in human SHH medulloblastoma. This study provides developmental insights into evasion of oncogene-induced senescence in advanced medulloblastoma.. Tamayo-Orrego L, Wu CL, Bouchard N, Khedher A, Swikert SM, Remke M, et al. Evasion ...
Medulloblatoma is a pediatric brain tumor originating in the human cerebellum. A collection of 23 medulloblastomas was analyzed for expression of the developmental control genes of the PAX and EN gene families by RNase protection and in situ hybridization. Of all nine PAX genes investigated, only PAX5 and PAX6 were consistently expressed in most medulloblastomas (70 and 78% of all cases, respectively), as were the genes EN1 (57%) and EN2 (78%). EN1, EN2, and PAX6 genes were also expressed in normal cerebellar tissue, and their expression in medulloblastoma is consistent with the hypothesis that this tumor originates in the external granular layer of the developing cerebellum. PAX5 transcripts were, however, not detected in the neonatal cerebellum, indicating that this gene is deregulated in medulloblastoma. In the desmoplastic variant of medulloblastoma, PAX5 expression was restricted to the reticulin-producing proliferating tumor areas containing undifferentiated cells; PAX5 was not expressed ...
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 (CXCL3) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as GRO3 oncogene (GRO3), GRO protein gamma (GROg) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2-beta (MIP2b). CXCL3 controls migration and adhesion of monocytes and mediates its effects on its target cell by interacting with a cell surface chemokine receptor called CXCR2. More recently, it has been shown that Cxcl3 regulates cell autonomously the migration of the precursors of cerebellar granule neurons toward the internal layers of cerebellum, during the morphogenesis of cerebellum. Moreover, if the expression of Cxcl3 is reduced in cerebellar granule neuron precursors, this highly enhances the frequency of the medulloblastoma, the tumor of cerebellum. In fact, the reduced expression of Cxcl3 forces the cerebellar granule neuron precursors to remain at the surface of the cerebellum, where they highly proliferate under the stimulus of Sonic hedgehog, becoming target of transforming ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Involvement of nitric oxide/reactive oxygen species signaling via 8-nitro-cGMP formation in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells and rat cerebellar granule neurons. AU - Masuda, Kumiko. AU - Tsutsuki, Hiroyasu. AU - Kasamatsu, Shingo. AU - Ida, Tomoaki. AU - Takata, Tsuyoshi. AU - Sugiura, Kikuya. AU - Nishida, Motohiro. AU - Watanabe, Yasuo. AU - Sawa, Tomohiro. AU - Akaike, Takaaki. AU - Ihara, Hideshi. PY - 2018/1/15. Y1 - 2018/1/15. N2 - To investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO)/reactive oxygen species (ROS) redox signaling in Parkinsons disease-like neurotoxicity, we used 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) treatment (a model of Parkinsons disease). We show that MPP+-induced neurotoxicity was dependent on ROS from neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) in nNOS-expressing PC12 cells (NPC12 cells) and rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Following MPP+ treatment, we found production of 8-nitroguanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-nitro-cGMP), a ...
Kumazawa A., Mita N., Hirasawa M., Adachi T., Suzuki H., Shafeghat N., Kulkarni A. B., Mikoshiba K., Inoue T. and Ohshima T. (2013) Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 is required for normal cerebellar development. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 52, 97-105 ...
Cannabis is the most used illicit substance in the world. As many countries are moving towards decriminalization, it is crucial to determine whether and how cannabis use affects human brain and behavior. The role of the cerebellum in cognition, emotion, learning, and addiction is increasingly recognized. Because of its high density in CB1 receptors, it is expected to be highly affected by cannabis use. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate how cannabis use affects cerebellar structure and function, as well as cerebellar-dependent behavioral tasks. Three databases were searched for peer-reviewed literature published until March 2018. We included studies that focused on cannabis effects on cerebellar structure, function, or cerebellar-dependent behavioral tasks. A total of 348 unique records were screened, and 40 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. The most consistent findings include (1) increases in cerebellar gray matter volume after chronic cannabis use, (2) ...
Bergmann glial Sonic hedgehog signaling activity is required for proper cerebellar cortical expansion and architecture[8] Neuronal-glial relationships play a critical role in the maintenance of central nervous system architecture and neuronal specification. A deeper understanding of these relationships can elucidate cellular cross-talk capable of sustaining proper development of neural tissues. In the cerebellum, cerebellar granule neuron precursors (CGNPs) proliferate in response to Purkinje neuron-derived Sonic hedgehog (Shh) before ultimately exiting the cell cycle and migrating radially along Bergmann glial fibers. However, the function of Bergmann glia in CGNP proliferation remains not well defined. Interestingly, the Hh pathway is also activated in Bergmann glia, but the role of Shh signaling in these cells is unknown. In this study, we show that specific ablation of Shh signaling using the tamoxifen-inducible TNCYFP-CreER line to eliminate Shh pathway activator Smoothened in Bergmann ...
The cerebellum, principally a motor organ, is responsible for the coordination of movements, especially skilled voluntary ones, the control of posture and gait, and the regulation of muscular tone. In the last decade it has come to be appreciated that the cerebellum may play a role in the modulation of the emotional state and some aspects of cognition. The mechanisms by which these functions are accomplished have been the subject of intense investigation by anatomists and physiologists. Their studies have yielded a mass of data, testimony to the complexity of the organization of the cerebellum and its afferent and efferent connections. A coherent picture of cerebellar function is now emerging, although it is not yet possible, with a few notable exceptions, to relate each of the symptoms of cerebellar disease to a derangement of a discrete anatomic or functional unit of the cerebellum. ...
Purkinje cells in the mammalian cerebellum are remarkably homogeneous in shape and orientation, yet they exhibit regional differences in gene expression. Purkinje cells that express high levels of zebrin II (aldolase C) and the glutamate transporter EAAT4 cluster in parasagittal zones that receive input from distinct groups of climbing fibers (CFs); however, the physiological properties of CFs that target these molecularly distinct Purkinje cells have not been determined. Here we report that CFs that innervate Purkinje cells in zebrin II-immunoreactive (Z(+)) zones release more glutamate per action potential than CFs in Z(-) zones. CF terminals in Z(+) zones had larger pools of release-ready vesicles, exhibited enhanced multivesicular release, and produced larger synaptic glutamate transients. As a result, CF-mediated EPSCs in Purkinje cells decayed more slowly in Z(+) zones, which triggered longer-duration complex spikes containing a greater number of spikelets. The differences in the duration ...
Cora cerebellum is divided into three layers.The inner layer, granular, made of 5 x 1010 small, tightly connected cells in the form of granules.The middle layer, Purkinje cell layer is composed of a large number of single cells.The outer layer, the molecular made of axons and dendrites of the granule cells of Purkinje cells and several other cell types.Purkinje cell layer forms the border between granular and molecular layers.. granule cells. Very small, densely packed neurons.Cerebellar granule cells make up more than half the neurons throughout the brain.These cells receive information from mossy fibers and project it to the Purkinje cells.. Purkinje cells. They are one of the most prominent types of cells in the mammalian brain.Their dendrites form a big fan of finely branched processes.Notably, this almost two-dimensional dendritic tree.In addition, all oriented parallel to Purkinje cells.This arrangement has important functional considerations.. other cell types. In addition to the main ...
The presence of 25 mm potassium (KCl) or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) in cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) induces a trophic effect, including a specific regulation of the enzymes involved in the glutamate neurotransmitter synthesis. In this study we explored the effect of these conditions on the cytosolic and mitochondrial isoenzymes of aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), and phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG) in CGN. We found that NMDA and KCl increased the AAT total activity by 40% and 70%, respectively This effect was mediated by an augmentation in the protein levels (68% by NMDA, 58% by KCl). NMDA raised the V-max and KCl raised both the maximol velocity (V-max) and Michaelis constant (K-m) of AAT. NMDA increased cytosolic AAT activity by 30% and mitochondrial activity by 70%; KCl increased cytosolic and mitochondrial AAT activity by 60% and 100%, respectively This activation was also related to an increase in the protein levels. The effect of both conditions on the activity and ...
Anticonvulsants can increase a risk of developing neurotoxicity in infants; however, the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated to date. Thyroxine (T4) plays crucial roles in the development of the central nervous system. In this study, we hypothesized that induction of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase1A1 (UGT1A1) - an enzyme involved in the metabolism of T4 - by anticonvulsants would reduce serum T4 levels and cause neurodevelopmental toxicity. An exposure of mice to phenytoin during both prenatal and postnatal period significantly induced UGT1A1 and decreased serum T4 levels on postnatal day 14. In the phenytoin-treated mice, the mRNA levels of synaptophysin and synapsin I in hippocampus were lower than those in the control mice. The thickness of external granule cell layer was greater in PHT treated mice, indicating that induction of UGT1A1 during perinatal period caused neurodevelopmental disorders. The exposure to phenytoin during only the postnatal period also caused these ...
The data presented here support the hypothesis that highly erratic activity of Purkinje cells during caffeine-induced attacks is the cause of motor abnormalities in tottering mice. This is in agreement with earlier studies that have shown that Purkinje cells are sufficient, and required, for the initiation of attacks in this mouse model (Campbell et al., 1999; Mark et al., 2011; Raike et al., 2013a), and extend them by revealing a tight correlation between the extent to which the activity of Purkinje cells is erratic with the severity of the motor abnormalities. Because a significant amount of sensory information converges on the cerebellum, one might consider the alternative hypothesis that the erratic activity of Purkinje cells in the tottering mice during the attacks simply reflects the abnormal sensory input caused by the signs. Three sets of observations make this unlikely and support the working hypothesis that the erratic activity of Purkinje cells causes the abnormal motor signs. The ...
Background: Primary craniocervical dystonia (CCD) is generally attributed to functional abnormalities in the cortico striato pallido thalamocortical loops, but cerebellar pathways have also been implicated in neuroimaging studies. Hence, our purpose was to perform a volumetric evaluation of the infratentorial structures in CCD. Methods: We compared 35 DYT1/DYT6 negative patients with CCD and 35 healthy controls. Cerebellar volume was evaluated using manual volumetry (DISPLAY software) and infratentorial volume by voxel based morphometry of gray matter (GM) segments derived from T1 weighted 3 T MRI using the SUIT tool (SPM8/Dartel). We used t-tests to compare infratentorial volumes between groups. Results: Cerebellar volume was (1.14 +/- 0.17) x 10(2) cm(3) for controls and (1.13 +/- 0.14) x 10(2) cm(3) for patients; p = 0.74. VBM demonstrated GM increase in the left I IV cerebellar lobules and GM decrease in the left lobules VI and Crus I and in the right lobules VI, Crus I and VIIIb. In a ...
Virus mediated RNA-interference (RNAi) is a powerful approach to study genes in vivo. Here we report a method using lentivirus-delivered RNAi to knockdown the glial enzyme, d-amino acid oxidase (DAO), in the mouse cerebellum. After initial characterisation in vitro, we achieved a 40-50% reduction of DAO mRNA in the cerebellum 7 and 28. days after a single injection of lentivirus encoding a DAO-specific, short-hairpin RNA. Injections also decreased DAO immunoreactivity (-33%). The major substrate for DAO is d-serine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) co-agonist. Thus, we also measured whether DAO knockdown impacted on d-serine, or expression of NMDAR subunits, and found that DAO RNAi led to increased cerebellar d-serine levels (+. 77%), and decreased NMDAR subunit NR2A mRNA (-22%), but did not affect NR1 or NR2C mRNAs. These data demonstrate the utility of lentiviruses to deliver RNAi to glial cells within the cerebellum, and confirm the role of DAO in d-serine metabolism. They also provide a tool
Recordings of single-channel activity were made from cell-attached patches on cerebellar granule cells from normal and mdx mice. Recordings from mdx granule cells show the activity of ion channels that are open for seconds at negative holding potentials near rest. These channels are permeable to divalent cations and have a conductance of 8-10 pS with either Ca2+ or Ba2+ as the charge carrier in the patch electrode. Under similar recording conditions, channel activity is virtually absent from normal mouse granule cells. The absence of dystrophin in neurons, as well as in skeletal muscle, is associated with an increase in the activity of Ca2+-permeable ion channels. Increased channel activity may be an early event leading to pathophysiological accumulation of intracellular Ca2+ in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. ...
We have studied the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) mRNA by Northern blot analysis with a specific cDNA probe (the pmGR1 probe). In 1-day-old rats, the steady state levels of mRNA were higher in the hypothalamus and olfactory bulb, with intermediate levels in the cerebellum and low levels in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. In the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex, the expression of mGluR mRNA remained constant at 8 and 30 days of postnatal life. In contrast, in the cerebellum and hippocampus, mRNA levels increased progressively with age. There was no correlation between levels of mGluR mRNA and stimulation of polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis by 1-aminocyclopentane-1S,3R-dicarboxylic acid (trans-ACPD), which was much greater in brain slices from 8-day-old rats and was nearly absent in the adult cerebellum and olfactory bulb, where we have found the highest levels of mRNA. In addition, mGluR mRNA was detectable in cultured cerebellar granule cells but not ...
The cerebellum has two hemispheres and a folded cortical surface. It is attached to the brain stem where all the communication in and out of cerebellum goes through. The surface of the cerebellum is tightly folded which makes it look somewhat different compared to the cerebral cortex. The cerebellum is evolutionally the oldest part of the human brain, but is not specific for humans, and can be found in other species. One of its main functions is to control movement and coordination when receiving sensory input from the spinal cord and other regions of the central nervous system. However, it does not execute movements but it does finetune and coordinate movement and posture. When the cerebellum is damaged it can alter movement patterns and cause symptoms such as walking irregularities, force and speed defects and balancing.. The cerebellar cortex includes three layers:. The molecular layer, containing neurons, glial cells, neuropil and dendrites. The Purkinje layer, containing purkinje cells, ...
The granule cells in the dentate gyrus are distinguished by their late time of formation during brain development. In rats, approximately 85% of the granule cells are generated after birth. In humans, it is estimated that granule cells begin to be generated during gestation weeks 10.5 to 11, and continue being generated during the second and third trimesters, after birth and all the way into adulthood. The germinal sources of granule cells and their migration pathways have been studied during rat brain development. The oldest granule cells are generated in a specific region of the hippocampal neuroepithelium and migrate into the primordial dentate gyrus around embryonic days (E) 17/18, and then settle as the outermost cells in the forming granular layer. Next, dentate precursor cells move out of this same area of the hippocampal neuroepithelium and, retaining their mitotic capacity, invade the hilus (core) of the forming dentate gyrus. This dispersed germinal matrix is the source of granule ...
Define cerebellar artery. cerebellar artery synonyms, cerebellar artery pronunciation, cerebellar artery translation, English dictionary definition of cerebellar artery. Noun 1. cerebellar artery - an artery that supplies the cerebellum arteria cerebelli arteria, arterial blood vessel, artery - a blood vessel that carries...
Synonyms for arteria superior cerebelli in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for arteria superior cerebelli. 2 words related to superior cerebellar artery: arteria cerebelli, cerebellar artery. What are synonyms for arteria superior cerebelli?
We performed axonal guidance spot assays (Meiners et al., 1999) to determine the behavior of axons as they encounter immobilized CSPGs. Axonal behavior of cultured mouse cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) was analyzed near a defined region of chicken CSPGs immobilized onto poly-L-lysine (PLL)-coated coverslips. As observed previously (Laabs et al., 2007), most axons were deflected and few crossed onto the CSPG-rich area of the coverslip (Fig. 1A). Time-lapse imaging with adult mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons showed that filopodia dynamically sampled the CSPG spot (red), and that the growing axons turned at the interface between PLL and CSPG, and continued to extend along the interface, which is in contrast to growth cone collapse (Supplemental material Movie 1). Removal of the chondroitin sulfate GAG chains by cABC abolished this negative axonal guidance cue, indicating that the repellant activity of CSPGs is specifically mediated by the chondroitin sulfate GAG chains (Fig. 1B).. We examined ...
Convergent experimental evidence points to the cerebellum as a key neural structure mediating adaptation to visual and proprioceptive perturbations. In a previous study, we have shown that activity in the anterior cerebellum varies with the rate of learning, with fast learners exhibiting more activity in this region than slow learners. Here, we investigated whether this variability in behavior may partly reflect inter-individual differences in the structural properties of cerebellar white-matter output tracts. For this purpose, we used diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to estimate fractional anisotropy (FA), and correlated the FA with the rate of adaptation to an optical rotation in 11 subjects. We found that FA in a region consistent with the superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP), containing fibers connecting the cerebellar cortex with motor and premotor cortex, was positively correlated with the rate of adaptation but not with the general level of performance or the initial deviation. The
In order to investigate the spatiotemporal organization of neuronal activity in local microcircuits, techniques allowing the simultaneous recording from multiple single neurons are required. To this end, we implemented an advanced spatial-light modulator two-photon microscope (SLM-2PM). A critical issue for cerebellar theory is the organization of granular layer activity in the cerebellum, which has been predicted by single-cell recordings and computational models. With SLM-2PM, calcium signals could be recorded from different network elements in acute cerebellar slices including granule cells (GrCs), Purkinje cells (PCs) and molecular layer interneurons. By combining WCRs with SLM-2PM, the spike/calcium relationship in GrCs and PCs could be extrapolated toward the detection of single spikes. The SLM-2PM technique made it possible to monitor activity of over tens to hundreds neurons simultaneously. GrC activity depended on the number of spikes in the input mossy fiber bursts. PC and molecular ...
When cerebellar Purkinje cells are depolarized with a constant current pulse injected at the soma, complex spike discharge patterns are observed (Llinas and Sugimori 1980b). A computer model has been constructed to analyze how the Purkinje cell ionic conductance identified to date interact to produce the observed firing behavior. The kinetics of voltage-dependent conductance used in the model were significantly simpler than Hodgkin-Huxley kinetics, which have many parameters that must be experimentally determined. Our simplified scheme was able to reproduce the complex nonlinear responses found in real Purkinje cells. A similar approach could be used to study the wide variety of neurons found in different brain regions.. ...
Cerebellum granule cells. David Marr suggested that the granule cells encode combinations of mossy fiber inputs. In order for ... Eccles JC, Ito M, Szentagothai J (1967). The cerebellum as a neural machine. Springer-Verlag. p. 56. doi:10.1007/978-3-662- ... M Manto; C De Zeeuw (2012). "Diversity and Complexity of Roles of Granule Cells in the Cerebellar Cortex". The Cerebellum. 11 ( ... Granule cells are found within the granular layer of the cerebellum, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, the superficial ...
Cerebellum[edit]. Main article: Cerebellum. The cerebellum lies behind the pons. The cerebellum is composed of several dividing ... Nuclei in the pons include pontine nuclei which work with the cerebellum and transmit information between the cerebellum and ... The body of the cerebellum holds more neurons than any other structure of the brain, including that of the larger cerebrum, but ... It includes nuclei linking distinct parts of the motor system, including the cerebellum, the basal ganglia and both cerebral ...
Cerebellum. Superior surface. Cerebellum. Inferior surface. Cerebellum. Inferior surface. Cerebellum. Inferior surface. This ...
The term cerebellar ataxia is used to indicate ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. The cerebellum is responsible for ... Indeed, an ouabain block of Na+ -K+ pumps in the cerebellum of a live mouse results in it displaying ataxia and dystonia. ... An MRI can sometimes show shrinkage of the cerebellum and other brain structures in people with ataxia. It may also show other ... The cerebellum is particularly vulnerable to autoimmune disorders. Cerebellar circuitry has capacities to compensate and ...
Changes in the cerebellum could also be mediated by alcoholic beverage consumption. Purkinje cells are especially susceptible ... In terms of pathophysiology, clinical, physiological and imaging studies point to an involvement of the cerebellum and/or ... Miwa H (2007). "Rodent models of tremor". Cerebellum. 6 (1): 66-72. doi:10.1080/14734220601016080. PMID 17366267. S2CID ... gene and GABA receptors in the cerebellum of people with essential tremor. HAPT1 mutations have also been linked to ET, as well ...
Cerebellum. Inferior surface. Cerebellum. Inferior surface. Cerebellum. Inferior surface. This article incorporates text in the ... The middle cerebellar peduncles (brachium pontis) are paired structures (left and right) that connect the cerebellum to the ...
GluD2-containing receptors are selectively/predominantly expressed in Purkinje cells in the cerebellum where they play a key ... Cerebellum. 11 (1): 78-84. doi:10.1007/s12311-010-0186-5. PMID 20535596. S2CID 16612844. Kakegawa W, Miyazaki T, Emi K, Matsuda ...
"Neural - Cerebellum Development". Glickstein M (October 2007). "What does the cerebellum really do?". Current Biology. 17 (19 ... Development of the cerebellum starts in a fetus in utero and, depending on the species, may continue for some period after ... In utero, the virus can pass from the dam to the developing fetus and may then disrupt the development of its cerebellum by ... If kittens are given a modified-live FPV vaccine too early, while their cerebellum is still developing, it may cause CH.[ ...
Consensus paper: pathological role of the cerebellum in autism. Cerebellum. Sep 2012;11(3):777-807. Zimmer, Carl. "The Brain: ... demonstrating that autism involves developmental brain defects in the cerebellum and is definitively a neural biological ...
... is a rare condition in which a brain develops without the cerebellum. The cerebellum controls smooth ... Schmahmann JD, Weilburg JB, Sherman JC (2007). "The neuropsychiatry of the cerebellum - insights from the clinic". Cerebellum. ... Agenesis of one half or another part of the cerebellum is more common than complete agenesis. Cerebellar agenesis can be caused ... The condition is not fatal on its own, but people born without a cerebellum experience severe developmental delays, language ...
Cerebellum. Inferior surface. Cerebellum. Inferior surface. Cerebellum. Inferior surface. Atlas image: n2a7p4 at the University ... It is semilunar in form, its convex border being continuous with the white substance of the cerebellum; it extends on either ... and can only be distinctly seen after the cerebellum has been separated from the medulla oblongata and pons. On either side of ...
The biventer lobule (or biventral lobule) is a region of the cerebellum. It is triangular in shape; its apex points backward, ... This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 790 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) Cerebellum. ... Cerebellum. Inferior surface. Cerebellum. Inferior surface. Anatomy portal v t e ...
WOS:000257960400010 "Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in the cerebellum"] Check ,url= value (help). Cerebellum. 7 (1): 84-95 ... when the cerebellum has been damaged and does not function to its fullest ability. Lesions to the cerebellum can cause ... increasing the risk that trauma may damage the cerebellum. This also explains why dyschronometria is seen more commonly in the ... pharmacology of cerebellar ataxia was examined by manipulating key components found at the nerve level within the cerebellum or ...
Huber KM (April 2006). "The fragile X-cerebellum connection". Trends in Neurosciences. 29 (4): 183-5. doi:10.1016/j.tins. ... Cerebellum. 15 (5): 543-5. doi:10.1007/s12311-016-0808-7. PMID 27338822. S2CID 16002209. Antar LN, Dictenberg JB, Plociniak M, ...
Makoff AJ, Phillips T, Pilling C, Emson P (1997). "Expression of a novel splice variant of human mGluR1 in the cerebellum". ... Mitoma H, Honnorat J, Yamaguchi K, Manto M (March 2021). "LTDpathies: a novel clinical concept". Cerebellum. doi:10.1007/s12311 ... Antibodies against mGluR1 receptors cause cerebellar ataxia and impair long-term depression (LTDpathies) in the cerebellum. In ... "Expression of a novel splice variant of human mGluR1 in the cerebellum". NeuroReport. 8 (13): 2943-7. doi:10.1097/00001756- ...
Cerebellum. 8 (3): 231-44. doi:10.1007/s12311-009-0125-5. PMC 3351107. PMID 19593677. Mbele GO, Deloulme JC, Gentil BJ, Delphin ...
As a consequence, in the cerebellum, the neuronal precursor pool fails to expand normally and the cerebellum is significantly ... The cerebellum is also affected. GAP43 is also haploinsufficient for the cortical phenotypes and the severity of the axon ... Cerebellum. 7 (3): 451-66. doi:10.1007/s12311-008-0049-5. PMC 4164963. PMID 18777197. Routtenberg A, Cantallops I, Zaffuto S, ... "Both cell-autonomous and cell non-autonomous functions of GAP-43 are required for normal patterning of the cerebellum in vivo ...
As the cerebellum contributes to the coordination and regulation of motor activities, as well as controlling equilibrium of the ... Cerebellum-related disorders generally transpire in individuals between the ages of 45 to 65 years, however the age of ... Acute & haemorrhagic stroke, resulting in the death of neurons in the cerebellum due to a disrupted flow of oxygen to the brain ... Phillips JR, Hewedi DH, Eissa AM, Moustafa AA (2015). "The cerebellum and psychiatric disorders". Frontiers in Public Health. 3 ...
Cerebellum. 8 (3): 231-44. doi:10.1007/s12311-009-0125-5. PMC 3351107. PMID 19593677. Schmidt H, Schwaller B, Eilers J (April ...
The eight other areas are considered associative areas and are the right anterior cerebellum, the left posterior nucleus of the ... Cerebellum. 12 (1): 131-9. doi:10.1007/s12311-012-0395-1. PMID 22752975. S2CID 16422157. Rusconi E, Pinel P, Dehaene S, ... thalamus, the left inferior frontal gyrus, the right posterior cerebellum, the right superior frontal cortex, the right ...
Matilla A, Radrizzani M (2005). "The Anp32 family of proteins containing leucine-rich repeats". Cerebellum. 4 (1): 7-18. doi: ...
Cerebellum. 4 (1): 7-18. doi:10.1080/14734220410019020. PMID 15895553. S2CID 39153579. Kochevar GJ, Brody JR, Kadkol SS, Murphy ...
... the Interplay Between Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia, and Cortex". Cerebellum. 16 (1): 203-229. doi:10.1007/s12311-016-0763-3. PMC ... The dorsal raphe nucleus and cerebellum appear to modulate some forms of reward-related cognition (i.e., associative learning, ... Moulton EA, Elman I, Becerra LR, Goldstein RZ, Borsook D (May 2014). "The cerebellum and addiction: insights gained from ...
Cerebellum. Cerebellum Microscopic Photo Cell Centered Database - Cerebellar basket cell NIF Search - Basket Cell[permanent ... In the cerebellum, the multipolar basket cells have branching dendrites, which are dilated and knotty. Basket cells synapse on ... Microcircuitry of the cerebellum. Excitatory synapses are denoted by (+) and inhibitory synapses by (-). Basket cell labeled BC ... and the cerebellum.[citation needed] In the cortex, basket cells have sparsely branched axons giving off small pericellular, ...
Cerebellum. 13: 178-83. doi:10.1007/s12311-013-0528-1. PMID 24068485. Bathla, G; A.N. Hegde (May 2012). "MRI and CT appearances ...
Cerebellum. 5: 193-198. Carletti B, Rossi F (2008). "Neurogenesis in the cerebellum". Neuroscientist. 14: 91-100. Zordan P, ... Instead, it could be a computation element in the cerebellum and the brain. Indeed, a mutation in the Na+ -K+ pump causes rapid ... The Purkinje layer of the cerebellum, which contains the cell bodies of the Purkinje cells and Bergmann glia, express a large ... Furthermore, using the poison ouabain to block Na+ -K+ pumps in the cerebellum of a live mouse induces ataxia and dystonia. ...
Cerebellum. Inferior surface. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 775 of the 20th edition of Gray's ... Each cerebellar inferior peduncle connects the spinal cord and medulla oblongata with the cerebellum, and comprises the ... This tract originates at contralateral inferior olivary nucleus and enters the cerebellum as a climbing fiber. ... It consists of the following fiber tracts entering cerebellum: Posterior spinocerebellar tract: unconsciousness proprioceptive ...
Cerebellum. Superior surface. Cerebellum. Superior surface. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 790 ...
In SCA1 some degradation in the grey matter of the cerebellum and brain stem can sometimes be detected in presymptomatic ... Typically, grey matter loss can be observed in cerebellar vermis in all lobules of the cerebellum and in the paramedian ... Mutant ataxin-1 also known to alter the neural circuitry of the developing cerebellum, which may lead to later vulnerability of ... This mutant protein causes degradation in certain types of neurons, like Purkinje neurons, which are common in the cerebellum, ...
Matilla A, Radrizzani M (2005). "The Anp32 family of proteins containing leucine-rich repeats". Cerebellum. 4 (1): 7-18. doi: ...
Cerebellum. Cell bodies located in the cerebellum of the hedgehog. This type of neuron is called a Purkinje cell. These neurons ...
... Cerebellum. Say: sair-uh-beh-lum. Yo-yoing, walking, playing soccer - you couldnt do any of it without this ... The cerebellum controls balance, coordination, and movement. Its way in the back of the brain, down low and near the spinal ...
Official publication of the Society for Research on the Cerebellum and Ataxias - devoted to genetics of cerebellar ataxias, ... Call for papers: Special Issue - 20th Anniversary of The Cerebellum To celebrate the 20th Anniversary of The Cerebellum in 2022 ... The Cerebellum is a central source for the latest developments in fundamental neurosciences including molecular and cellular ... The 11th International Symposium of the Society for Research on the Cerebellum and Ataxias (SRCA) will be held virtually on 18- ...
Cerebellum Cross references: Red Nucleus Red Nucleus Cerebellum Deep Cerebellar Nuclei Posterior Horn of the Spinal Cord ... Cerebellum (Wiki) "The cerebellum (Latin for little brain) is a region of the brain ... Drawing of the human brain, showing cerebellum and pons. The cerebellum does not initiate movement, but it contributes to ... we delineate the role of the cerebellum in several nonmotor systems simultaneously and in the same subjects using resting state ...
Most widely held works by Cerebellum Corporation Habla español? : learning Spanish, the basics by Enrique Montes( Visual ). 16 ...
... role of cerebellum in motor control and cognitive function, and amid an ageing population, diseases associated with ... ... Official publication of the Society for Research on the Cerebellum devoted to genetics of cerebellar ataxias, ... The Cerebellum will cover all the latest developments in this field to ensure readers are kept fully up to date from one source ... The Cerebellum will be of immense interest to researchers including: neuroscientists in molecular and cellular biology; ...
The cerebellum processes input from other areas of the brain, spinal cord and sensory receptors to provide precise timing for ... The cerebellum processes input from other areas of the brain, spinal cord and sensory receptors to provide precise timing for ... A stroke affecting the cerebellum may cause dizziness, nausea, balance and coordination problems. ...
Cerebellum. Say: sair-uh-beh-lum. Yo-yoing, walking, playing soccer - you couldnt do any of it without this small but powerful ... The cerebellum controls balance, coordination, and movement. Its way in the back of the brain, down low and near the spinal ...
... he said he thought it was a nerve but he also told me I had low cerebellum? I didnt ask what this meant but sinc... ... Low Cerebellum is the position of the cerebellum sometimes in individuals when it is near the opening of the brain into the ... Low Cerebellum is the position of the cerebellum sometimes in individuals when it is near the opening of the brain into the ... Low Cerebellum bekkib I have been suffering from headaches and see a neurologist who sent me for an mri scan, he said he ...
anthropomorphic overshoot breakfast cerebellum conferences cross-cultural psychiatry cultural neuroscience Daniel Kish David ...
Information about the open-access journal Cerebellum & Ataxias in DOAJ. DOAJ is an online directory that indexes and provides ...
The cerebellum is a rounded structure located behind the brain stem, to which it is linked by thick nerve tracts. It accounts ...
Cerebellum. Ingredients:. *1 oz Vodka *1/4 oz Grenadine *1/4 oz Baileys irish cream Mixing instructions:. Fill shot glass 3/4 ...
... The cerebellum is involved in the coordination of voluntary motor movement, balance and equilibrium and muscle tone ... Damage to the cerebellum can lead to: 1) loss of coordination of motor movement (asynergia), 2) the inability to judge distance ...
Schmahmann JD, Weilburg JB, Sherman JC (2007) The neuropsychiatry of the cerebellum-insights from the clinic. Cerebellum 6:254- ... ARSACS Sacsin Neuropsychiatric disorders Cerebellum Psychosis This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access ... Stoodley CJ, Schmahmann JD (2010) Evidence for topographic organization in the cerebellum of motor control versus cognitive and ...
Stimulating the cerebellum normalizes frontal cortex activity in lab rats with abnormal dopamine processing, a new study ... Contrary to the long-held belief that the cerebellum wasnt involved in cognitive processes, it now appears that the cerebellum ... Decoding the Cerebellum: A Neuroscience Holy Grail for the 21st Century. In 1504, Leonardo da Vinci made wax castings of the ... Notably, the cerebellum is only 10 percent of brain volume but houses about 80 percent of your brains total neurons, most of ...
The cerebellum is located behind the top part of the brain stem (where the spinal cord meets the brain) and is made of two ... The cerebellum is located behind the top part of the brain stem (where the spinal cord meets the brain) and is made of two ... The cerebellum is not unique to humans. Evolutionarily speaking, it is an older portion of the brain. It is present in animals ... The cerebellum receives information from the sensory systems, the spinal cord, and other parts of the brain and then regulates ...
van den Berg, N. S., Huitema, R. B., Spikman, J. M., Luijckx, G. J. & De Haan, E. H. F., 27-Feb-2020, In : Cerebellum.. ... Rede Neurogenética, Jun-2019, In : Cerebellum. 18, 3, p. 388-396 9 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › ... Keulen, S., Mariën, P., van Dun, K., Bastiaanse, R., Manto, M. & Verhoeven, J., Aug-2017, In : Cerebellum. 16, 4, p. 772-785 14 ... Consensus paper: The role of the cerebellum in perceptual processes. Baumann, O., Borra, R. J., Bower, J. M., Cullen, K. E., ...
Cerebellum in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of professional healthcare and anatomy chart templates that you ... Brainstem & Cerebellum. Brainstem controls breathing, heartbeat, and articulate speech. A stroke affecting the brain stem is ... Brain Function - Brainstem & Cerebellum. Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Brain Function - Brainstem & ... Cerebellum helps provide smooth, coordinated body movement. LifeART Collection Images Copyright © 1989-2001 by Lippincott ...
Cerebellum-like structuresEdit. Most vertebrate species have a cerebellum and one or more cerebellum-like structures, brain ... The Cerebellum as a Neuronal Machine, p. 311 *^ a b Boyden ES, Katoh A, Raymond JL (2004). "Cerebellum-dependent learning: the ... The cerebellum is located in the posterior cranial fossa. The fourth ventricle, pons and medulla are in front of the cerebellum ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cerebellum.. *Cerebellum Rodolfo Llinas and Mario N. Negrello, Scholarpedia, 10(1):4606 ...
Most vertebrate species have a cerebellum and one or more cerebellum-like structures, brain areas that resemble the cerebellum ... 2016 Cerebellum histology images The Cerebellum - Journal (Springer Nature) Cerebellum and Ataxias - Journal (BioMed Central). ... The human cerebellum changes with age. These changes may differ from those of other parts of the brain. The cerebellum is the ... Damage to the cerebellum often causes motor-related symptoms, the details of which depend on the part of the cerebellum ...
Purchase Creating Coordination in the Cerebellum, Volume 148 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780444517548, ... Is the cerebellum ready for navigation? L. Rondi-Reig and E. Burguiere. 18. The lateral cerebellum and visuomotor control N.L. ... Creating Coordination in the Cerebellum provides a multidisciplinary collection of chapters on the cerebellum with topics ... Creating Coordination in the Cerebellum, Volume 148 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ...
This review explores the basic structure and function of the basal ganglia and cerebellum. What do we know about their ... cerebellum and cortex (Habas et al., 2009; Pelzer et al., 2013; Milardi et al., 2016). The BG and cerebellum, indeed, are ... Box 1. Learning in the cortex, BG and cerebellum Current models of learning posit distinct mechanisms in different regions of ... The cerebral cortex is shown from a lateral and midsagittal view, the BG from a coronal view and the cerebellum from a ...
... cerebellum is the diminutive form of the Latin word for brain). ... stem and connected to it via bundled nerves is the cerebellum, ... Cerebellum. Located posterior to the brain stem and connected to it via bundled nerves is the cerebellum, the moniker of which ... All of the input received by the various lobes is integrated in the cortex of the cerebellum. The coordinated activity of the ... The cerebellum is relatively large in humans and is divided into two lateral hemispheres, similar to the cerebrum. An outer ...
The cerebellum is one of the most affected brain regions in schizophrenia, according to a new brain imaging study at the ... The cerebellum is one of the most affected brain regions in schizophrenia, according to a new brain imaging study at the ... Cerebellum May Play Major Role in Schizophrenia. By Traci Pedersen Associate News Editor ... Although the cerebellum occupies only about 20 percent of the human brain, it holds about 70 percent of all its neurons. The ...
The inferior olive is found in the brain stem and is one of the major inputs to the cerebellum, sending climbing fibers to ... The cerebellum is a large brain structure known primarily for its role of fine-tuning motor activity. ... Again, it was known that CRFR1 is highly expressed in the cerebellum, but little was known about its function. In another mouse ... Stress in the cerebellum. Under challenging conditions a signaling molecule is critical for the motor ability ...
My neurologist just informed me that Osteoporosis and shrinkage of the Cerebellum are very serious side effects for long term ... Shrinkage of Cerebellum and osteoporosis have both just been confirmed in me due to long term Dilantin use :( Please dont take ... Shrinkage of Cerebellum and osteoporosis have both just been confirmed in me due to long term Dilantin use :( Please dont take ... Also go in for an MRI to evaluate the other side effect: Shrinkage of the Cerebellum, which I understand can cause issues with ...
CINE flow study done back to back the CINE showed okay flow but the Doctor showed me were the Cerebellum is pushing from its ... I had a MRI & CINE flow study done back to back the CINE showed okay flow but the Doctor showed me were the Cerebellum is ...
The cerebellum is the portion of the human hindbrain that ensures a movement goes where it is supposed to go, at a proper rate ... Human Cerebellum. Human Cerebellum. About the size of a human fist, the cerebellum is the only branch of the brain between its ... A great mass of myeliniated axons (white matter), internal to the cortex, converge at the cerebellum core, the central ...
Bulbophyllum cerebellum is a species of orchid in the genus Bulbophyllum. The Bulbophyllum-Checklist The Internet Orchid ...
  • Official publication of the Society for Research on the Cerebellum and Ataxias - devoted to genetics of cerebellar ataxias, role of cerebellum in motor control and cognitive function, and amid an ageing population, diseases associated with cerebellar dysfunction. (
  • Little to no overlap was detected between these cerebellar regions and the sensorimotor cerebellum (lobules V-VI). (
  • The results suggest that the most phylogenetically recent part of the cerebellum, particularly crus I and II, make contributions to parallel cortico-cerebellar loops involved in executive control, salience detection, and episodic memory/self-reflection. (
  • There is currently intense interest in the genetics of cerebellar ataxias and in the roles of the cerebellum in motor control and cognitive functioning. (
  • Of course, there is also a strong possibility of death in cerebellar haemorrhages if the cerebellum herniates downwards from the rising pressure. (
  • This complex neural organization gives rise to a massive signal-processing capability, but almost all of the output from the cerebellar cortex passes through a set of small deep nuclei lying in the white matter interior of the cerebellum. (
  • The unusual surface appearance of the cerebellum conceals the fact that most of its volume is made up of a very tightly folded layer of gray matter: the cerebellar cortex. (
  • Cerebellar is the sister word to cerebral and means "relating to or located in the cerebellum. (
  • Dysfunctions or abnormalities within the structure of the cerebellum-or atypical cerebellar functional connectivity with other brain regions-appears to be linked to disorders such as schizophrenia, autism , and Tourette's syndrome . (
  • 13. The cerebellum in the cerebro-cerebellar network for the control of eye and hand movements - a fMRI study M.F. Nitschke, T. Arp, G. Stavrou, C. Erdmann and W. Heide . (
  • For the first time, new research from the University of Missouri provides evidence that there may be a correlation between cerebro-cerebellar functional connectivity and the balance of excitation-to-inhibition neurotransmitters in the cerebellum of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). (
  • Cerebro-Cerebellar" generally refers to the functional connectivity and interplay between regions of the cerebrum and regions of the cerebellum. (
  • Mustafa Sahin, a neurologist at Boston's Children Hospital and associate professor of neurology at Harvard Medical School, said that Wang and his co-authors build upon known links between cerebellar damage and autism to suggest that the cerebellum is essential to healthy neural development. (
  • The involvement of the cerebellum in these functions may be related to its connection to several functionally heterogeneous cortical and subcortical regions through a cerebellar-subcortical-cortical loop. (
  • 2007 ), abnormal task-related activation of the cerebellum (Bernard and Mittal 2015 ), and cerebellar functional and anatomical connectivity abnormalities (Collin et al. (
  • Based on a well-supported theory of cerebellar motor function, which ascribes to the cerebellum a role in short-term prediction through internal modeling, we hypothesize that right cerebellar Crus I/II supports prediction of upcoming sentence content. (
  • Patient and functional imaging data show that cerebellar regions contributing to language and cognition are largely confined to the posterolateral cerebellum (hemispheric portions of Lobule VII, consisting of Crus I and Crus II). (
  • The cerebrum and cerebellum are separated by the tentorium cerebelli or cerebellar tentorium, according to anatomyEXPERT. (
  • Technically, the output of the cerebellum is exclusively inhibitory through the Purkinje neurons onto the cerebellar nuclei, but the cerebellar nucleus exerts both excitatory and inhibitory influences, on the thalamus and on the Inferior Olive, respectively (Ruigrok and Voogd, 1995). (
  • The anatomical projections to and from the lateral hemispheres of the cerebellum of higher mammals would seem to imply a constant and substantial exchange between cerebellar and cortical networks beyond the sensory and motor cortices, involving multiple parietal and prefrontal regions (Sultan et al. (
  • 2012). In primates, the largest expansion of the cerebellar system was in the lateral cerebellum, dentate nucleus and principal olive (Voogd, 2010), a region associated with tool use (Imamizu et al. (
  • To examine this structurally complex brain region, the researchers applied high-resolution 3D fractal analysis to MRI data to estimate fractal dimension--a measure of structural complexity--of the outer layer of the cerebellum in 20 boys with autism ages 6 to 12 years and 18 age-matched controls with similar verbal skills and cerebellar volume. (
  • Because the right side of the cerebellum supports language processing in typically developing individuals, this finding suggests that having a flatter cerebellar surface may be related to communication difficulties in those with autism. (
  • The function of the cerebellum in motor control is a long-standing puzzle because cerebellar damage is associated with both timing and coordination deficits. (
  • Using novel cerebellar measurement software, the researchers showed that both alcohol dependence and chronic cigarette smoking were associated with reduced cerebellum volume, with some regions in the cerebellum more vulnerable to alcohol use and less affected by smoking. (
  • Using transgenic mice that had a mutation impairing exclusively LTD of the cerebellar neurons, the neuroscientists were able to show that the cerebellum participates also in the formation of the hippocampal cognitive map. (
  • One of the strongest pieces of evidence for the cerebellum's broader repertoire emerged around two decades ago, when Jeremy Schmahmann , a neurologist at Massachusetts General Hospital, described cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome after discovering behavioral changes such as impairments in abstract reasoning and regulating emotion in individuals whose cerebella had been damaged. (
  • To investigate the link between the cerebellum and the VTA, Khodakhah's team first injected the cerebellar cells of mice with herpes viruses, which act as mobile sentinels as they jump through synapses-the tiny gaps between brain cells-while carrying fluorescent tags. (
  • Disease and disorder research has been conducted in relation to the Cerebellum Development Pathway and Nervousness, Neoplasms, Medulloblastoma, Cerebellar Neoplasms, Malignant Neoplasms. (
  • The timing hypotheses of cerebellar function attempt to explain the various tasks for which the cerebellum is engaged or is necessary in terms of the need to gauge the explicit timing between events in the hundreds- of- ms range. (
  • To pinpoint the role of cerebellar Shank2 in autism, both groups compared behavioral and motor abnormalities between global and cerebellum-specific Shank2 knockout mice. (
  • However, although the lamprey possesses a region comparable to the cerebellum and display expression of LjFgf8/17 at the MHB (midbrain hindbrain boundary), it does not have Purkinje cells and cerebellar nuclei, as well as components of the rhombic lip-derived cerebellar and pre-cerebellar systems. (
  • Although the neuronal development of all areas of the brain is affected, the cerebellum and cerebellar neurons are more susceptible to the damaging effects of ethanol. (
  • Three neuropsychological experiments on a group of 16 cerebellar patients and 16 age-and education-matched controls investigated the effects of damage to the cerebellum on English grammatical morphology across production, comprehension, and grammaticality judgment tasks. (
  • These results suggest that this parallel GPU technology can be used to build very large-scale simulations whose connectivity ratios match those of the real cerebellum and that these simulations can be used guide future studies on cerebellar mediated tasks and on machine learning problems. (
  • Simulations suggest plasticity at cerebellar relays may be an important element of tremendous storage capacity reliable in the learning of coordination of actions, sensorimotor or cognitive, in which the cerebellum participates. (
  • The human cerebellum does not initiate movement, but contributes to coordination, precision, and accurate timing: it receives input from sensory systems of the spinal cord and from other parts of the brain, and integrates these inputs to fine-tune motor activity. (
  • Anatomically, the human cerebellum has the appearance of a separate structure attached to the bottom of the brain, tucked underneath the cerebral hemispheres. (
  • The human cerebellum develops over a long time, extending from the early embryonic period until the first postnatal years. (
  • Upon meeting, the two discussed the similarities in their research, and Parker began studying the human cerebellum, Parker said. (
  • Leiner also questioned why the cerebellum evolved to be so much larger in humans than in other animals (according to one estimate, the human cerebellum is, on average, 2.8 times bigger than expected in primates our size). (
  • The human cerebellum, they said, contributed to core thinking skills such as the ability to plan one's actions. (
  • Researchers in Japan have used GPUs and the Cuda parallel programming model to create a 100,000-neuron simulation of the human cerebellum, one of the largest simulations of its kind in the world - and have tested their model by applying this knowledge to teach a robot to learn to hit a ball. (
  • Tadashi Yamazaki at the University of Electro-Communications in Tokyo, and Jun Igarashi at Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University in Okinawa, recently issued a paper detailing how they used Nvidia GPUs to build a large-scale network model of the human cerebellum. (
  • Stoodley CJ, Schmahmann JD (2010) Evidence for topographic organization in the cerebellum of motor control versus cognitive and affective processing. (
  • Contrary to the long-held belief that the cerebellum wasn't involved in cognitive processes, it now appears that the cerebellum plays a complex role in executive function, creativity , attention, planning, emotional regulation, reward-seeking behavior, etc. (
  • The latest findings by Parker and colleagues provide fresh insights into how the cerebellum influences neural networks in the frontal lobes and the role of the cerebellum in cognitive processing. (
  • 31. On the role of the cerebellum and basal ganglia in cognitive signal processing. (
  • One idea is that abnormalities in the cerebellum in autism affect coordination in both the motor domain and cognitive domain, producing uncoordinated movements and thoughts. (
  • There is consistent evidence that having an alcohol use disorder is associated with abnormalities in the cerebellum, a structure attached to the bottom of the brain that is involved in coordinating posture and balance but also in supporting some cognitive functions. (
  • A report published in the journal Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research examines neuroimaging (MRI) data from 92 people in order to further investigate the impact of smoking and alcohol status on the volume of the cerebellum and related cognitive function. (
  • Specifically, a recent neuroimaging study highlighted functional subregions in the cerebellum as playing a role in both motor and cognitive tasks. (
  • There has been human neuroimaging work showing the cerebellum is involved in cognitive processing and emotional control-and investigations in animals have revealed, among other things, that the structure is important for the normal development of social and cognitive capacities. (
  • This work helps lay out the circuitry connecting the cerebellum to social and reward processing," says Julie Fiez , a cognitive neuroscientist at the University of Pittsburgh who was not involved in this study. (
  • Located in the back of the head near the base of the skull, the cerebellum is responsible for a lot of fundamental stuff-such as integrating sensory information and motor control-but nothing cognitive. (
  • The cerebellum is essential to nonmotor functions, and recent research has revealed new medically important roles of the cerebellum and cognitive processes. (
  • The 11th International Symposium of the Society for Research on the Cerebellum and Ataxias (SRCA) will be held virtually on 18-19 June 2021. (
  • This Gordon Research Seminar program highlights new research on the Cerebellum, spanning the fields of human and animal behavior, neurophysiology, computational models and genetics. (
  • During the five subsequent decades, research on the cerebellum has been devoted largely to addressing questions about how its neuronal circuits are constructed and function, and what specific roles they play. (
  • The cerebellum controls balance, coordination, and movement. (
  • The cerebellum does not initiate movement, but it contributes to coordination , precision, and accurate timing. (
  • A stroke affecting the cerebellum may cause dizziness, nausea, balance and coordination problems. (
  • The cerebellum is involved in the coordination of voluntary motor movement, balance and equilibrium and muscle tone. (
  • Damage to the cerebellum can lead to: 1) loss of coordination of motor movement (asynergia), 2) the inability to judge distance and when to stop (dysmetria), 3) the inability to perform rapid alternating movements (adiadochokinesia), 4) movement tremors (intention tremor), 5) staggering, wide based walking (ataxic gait), 6) tendency toward falling, 7) weak muscles (hypotonia), 8) slurred speech (ataxic dysarthria), and 9) abnormal eye movements (nystagmus). (
  • The cerebellum coordinates voluntary movements such as posture, balance, coordination, and speech, resulting in smooth and balanced muscular activity. (
  • The cerebellum has long been associated with body movement and coordination and so has rarely been included in studies focusing on the biological underpinnings of mental disorders. (
  • NOT SO SIMPLE New studies are turning up more jobs for the cerebellum, a brain structure thought to be involved only in movement and coordination (shown in red in this illustration). (
  • Traditionally, the cerebellum has been studied in relation to motor movement and coordination in adults. (
  • The arbor vitae lies in the center of the cerebellum and is critical in the coordination of the arms, legs and any actions requiring hand-eye coordination. (
  • The cerebellum is far smaller and is mainly responsible for balance and coordination. (
  • Damage to the cerebellum, while not causing paralysis, may cause a lack of coordination, loss of balance, and an inability to perform fine movements. (
  • Cerebellum function is involved in movement coordination and sensory processing, both of which are dysfunctional in autism. (
  • Dr. Wang hypothesizes that proper coordination may require the ability to make predictions based on incoming stimuli, but how the cerebellum would do this is unclear. (
  • This research project aims to elucidate basic cerebellum function in mice, and ultimately its role in coordination. (
  • We suggest that timing and coordination are behaviorally distinct modes of motor control and that the anterior cerebellum is a crucial node in state-dependent motor control, computing a predictive state estimate of one effector (e.g., the arm) to coordinate actions of another effector (the thumb). (
  • The following tests serve to examine each function of the cerebellum-balance,coordination, and proprioception(knowing where the parts of the body are without the need of sight)-in a non-clinical setting by using tests that are used as part of a physician's screening. (
  • This] set the dogma that the cerebellum was involved in motor coordination," says Kamran Khodakhah , a neuroscientist at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, adding: "For many years, we ignored the signs that suggested it was involved in other things. (
  • What Is the Difference between the Cerebrum and Cerebellum? (
  • The cerebrum and cerebellum , while both being parts of the brain , differ significantly in both size and function. (
  • Consisting of four main regions - the brain stem, diancephelon, cerebrum, and cerebellum - it controls the entire nervous system. (
  • While they are located right next to each other, the cerebrum and cerebellum are very different. (
  • Damage to any parts of the cerebrum and cerebellum can result in partial or complete loss of the functions of that particular part. (
  • Two major regions of the brain include the cerebrum and cerebellum. (
  • The basal ganglia (BG) and the cerebellum historically have been relegated to a functional role in producing or modulating motor output. (
  • The basal ganglia (BG) and the cerebellum traditionally have been assigned to roles within the motor domain, yet recent research has recognized their contributions to a variety of functions, including affective processing. (
  • Specifically, while examining the brain circuits underlying dystonia-a movement disorder that causes uncontrollable muscle contractions-in mice, Khodakhah's team discovered the cerebellum directly communicated with the basal ganglia (involved in movement, motivation and reward functions) to control complex movements. (
  • Traditionally, because interval timing depends on the intact striatum but not on the intact cerebellum, the cerebellum has been charged with millisecond timing and the basal ganglia with interval timing. (
  • Despite this simplistic dissociation, two recent findings have shed new light on the involvement of the basal ganglia and cerebellum in motor control and interval timing . (
  • Hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum: follow-up and pathology. (
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum is a recently defined disorder. (
  • CONCLUSION: Hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum is a syndrome diagnosed by distinctive MRI findings. (
  • The cerebellum processes input from other areas of the brain, spinal cord and sensory receptors to provide precise timing for coordinated, smooth movements of the skeletal muscular system. (
  • The cerebellum receives information from the sensory systems, the spinal cord, and other parts of the brain and then regulates motor movements. (
  • Notably, the sensory networks, vision, hearing and touch, are missing, and only 20 percent of the cerebellum is devoted to movement, roughly the same amount as in the cerebral cortex. (
  • Signals were received through sensory systems and processed in intermediate networks in the cerebral cortex before being sent to the cerebellum. (
  • 15. Mossy-fibre sensory input to the cerebellum. (
  • 28. Is the cerebellum sensory for motors sake, or motor for sensorys sake: the view from the whiskers of a rat? (
  • The cerebellum an area located in the lower rear of the brain is known to process external and internal information such as sensory cues that influence the development of other brain regions, the researchers report in the journal Neuron . (
  • In autism, something in that process goes wrong and one thing could be that sensory information is not processed correctly in the cerebellum. (
  • The finding adds to the growing evidence that the cerebellum "isn't only involved in sensory-motor function, it's involved in everything we do," says Dr. Jeremy Schmahmann , a neurology professor at Harvard and director of the ataxia unit at Massachusetts General Hospital. (
  • This research will clarify how the basic repeating circuit within the cerebellum processes sensory stimuli, and may be relevant to understanding how predictions based on incoming stimuli are stored and represented in the brains of normal and autistic people. (
  • In the cerebellum, sensory input activates neurons called Purkinje cells that have to filter the information and respond only to relevant inputs to produce an appropriate movement response. (
  • Although the cerebellum is generally viewed as primarily a motor structure, it has also been proposed to be a general-purpose interval timer in the range of tens to hundreds of ms. "General purpose" in this sense encompasses both sensory and motor timing . (
  • The cerebellum gets information from the sensory systems, the spinal cord, and different parts of the brain and then controls engine developments. (
  • Autism spectrum disorders are associated with abnormalities in the cerebellum. (
  • Structural and functional abnormalities of the cerebellum in schizophrenia have been reported. (
  • 10. Synaptic transmission and long-term depression in Purkinje cells in an in vitro block preparation of the cerebellum isolated from neonatal rats A. Arata, and M. Ito . (
  • The inferior olive is found in the brain stem and is one of the major inputs to the cerebellum, sending climbing fibers to Purkinje cells. (
  • 16. Reciprocal trophic interactions between climbing fibres and purkinje cells in the rat cerebellum. (
  • 22. Characterization of purkinje cells in the goldfish cerebellum during eye movement and adaptive modification of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. (
  • The model that has influenced much of the work in the field for the past 30 years suggests that motor learning is mediated by a single plasticity mechanism in the cerebellum: long-term depression (LTD) of parallel fiber synapses onto Purkinje cells. (
  • What layer of the cerebellum has the dendrites of the purkinje cells? (
  • Research at the University of Calgary's Hotchkiss Brain Institute (HBI) has demonstrated the novel expression of an ion channel in Purkinje cells - specialized neurons in the cerebellum, the area of the brain responsible for movement. (
  • By taking the TV repair class, Khodakhah wanted to learn to build an electronic circuit to enhance his camera images in order to better visualize the Purkinje cells within slices of the cerebellum and to study the InsP3/calcium ion signaling pathway. (
  • This lack of inhibition correlates well with the absence of stellate and basket cells in the molecular layer of this cerebellum and strongly supports the idea that these interneurones are the agents responsible for the prolonged inhibition seen in the Purkinje cells of other species. (
  • The Shank2 protein is abundantly found in the cerebellum, particularly in the Purkinje Cells (PCs), but that does not necessarily mean that the motor problems observed in these autism models come from the cerebellum. (
  • Purkinje cells form the junction between the granular and molecular layers of the grey matter of the cerebellum. (
  • At the level of gross anatomy, the cerebellum consists of a tightly folded layer of cortex, with white matter underneath and a fluid-filled ventricle at the base. (
  • In particular, we felt that as the discrete anatomy of the cerebellum is quite well known, only certain aspects of the structure should be discussed here. (
  • Together, they are unearthing previously unknown and enigmatic influences that the cerebellum has on cognition. (
  • Things are slowly beginning to change, however, as evidence builds that the cerebellum makes important contributions to cognition, emotion and social behavior. (
  • Investigations of the cerebellum have really exploded over the last few years, says Catherine Stoodley, a neuroscientist at American University and a coauthor of a 2019 paper in the Annual Review of Neuroscience on the cerebellum's role in cognition. (
  • Still, the cerebellum communicates with parts of the brain that are responsible for cognition and plays an important role in the processing of language and music. (
  • The Cerebellum and Cognition. (
  • The Cerebellum and Cognition pulls together a preeminent group of authors. (
  • And what they found was that just 20 percent of the cerebellum was dedicated to areas involved in physical motion, while 80 percent was dedicated to areas involved in functions such as abstract thinking, planning, emotion, memory and language. (
  • For instance, the researchers cite a 2007 paper in the journal Pediatrics that found that individuals who experienced cerebellum damage at birth were 40 times more likely to score highly on autism screening tests. (
  • They also reference studies in 2004 and 2005 that found that the cerebellum is the most frequently disrupted brain region in people with autism. (
  • We hope to get people and scientists thinking differently about the cerebellum or about autism so that the whole field can move forward. (
  • New York, NY (July 11, 2018)--Structural differences in the cerebellum may be linked to some aspects of autism spectrum disorder, according to a neuroimaging study from Columbia University Irving Medical Center (CUIMC). (
  • Most brain imaging studies in autism focus on the cerebrum, which is larger than the cerebellum despite having fewer neurons. (
  • In previous studies, atypical features in the cerebellum were associated with autism, but the findings were inconsistent. (
  • What this means for people with autism: It has been suspected that the cerebellum is involved in autism, but the cerebellum-related dysfunctions have yet to be uncovered. (
  • This result supports prior studies pointing to involvement of the cerebellum in autism," says Dr. Grange. (
  • On top of that, studies suggest that the cerebellum may play a key role in autism, schizophrenia and other brain disorders. (
  • The cerebellum (Latin for little brain ) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control . (
  • The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates. (
  • Cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") in red. (
  • Located posterior to the brain stem and connected to it via bundled nerves is the cerebellum, the moniker of which was coined to reflect its appearance, which is similar to that of a small brain (cerebellum is the diminutive form of the Latin word for brain). (
  • The cerebellum--which means 'little brain' in Latin--constitutes only 10 percent of the brain's total volume, though it contains 80 percent of all neurons in the human brain. (
  • For about two centuries the scientific community believed the cerebellum (Latin for "little brain"), which contains approximately half of the brain's neurons, was dedicated solely to the control of movement. (
  • The earliest experiments with the cerebellum - Latin for "little brain" - date back centuries. (
  • What layer of the cerebellum has granule cells and mossy fiber rosettes? (
  • Using mathematical modelling, we attempted to reconstruct information transmission at the granular layer of the cerebellum, a circuit whose role in dysfunctions remain yet to be fully explored. (
  • They are found in the cerebellum and have a high density of InsP3 receptors. (
  • These findings clearly show that the cerebellum plays a major role in schizophrenia," said lead author Dr. Torgeir Moberget. (
  • The number of neurons in the cerebellum is related to the number of neurons in the neocortex. (
  • There are about 3.6 times as many neurons in the cerebellum as in the neocortex, a ratio that is conserved across many different mammalian species. (
  • This research fills a substantial gap in understanding how neurons in the cerebellum process information. (
  • These results suggest that the cerebellum has a fundamental role to play in both sub- and supra-second time perception . (
  • What we have found will help us understand how the cerebellum functions normally. (
  • Researchers are now probing the brains of both mice and people to understand how the cerebellum contributes to these conditions. (
  • This allowed the team to quantify the various connections between the cerebellum and other brain areas. (
  • Earlier investigations in his lab had hinted there might be unexpected connections between the cerebellum and other parts of the brain. (
  • Because of its large number of tiny granule cells, the cerebellum contains more neurons than the total from the rest of the brain, but takes up only 10% of the total brain volume. (
  • Sagittal section of the cerebellum CRFR1 expressed in granule cells (green) which are reached by CRH positive fibers (red). (
  • In previous work we have used a simulation containing 12000 granule cells to develop new predictions and to account for various aspects of eyelid conditioning, a form of motor learning mediated by the cerebellum. (
  • In humans, the cerebellum plays an important role in motor control. (
  • The cerebellum is not unique to humans. (
  • The cerebellum is relatively large in humans and is divided into two lateral hemispheres, similar to the cerebrum. (
  • Lesions and other degenerative conditions in the cerebellum of humans lead to impairments beyond the realm of motor function. (
  • The cerebellum, a brain structure humans share with fish and lizards, appears to control the quality of many functions in the brain, according to a team of researchers. (
  • Non-invasive stimulation of the cerebellum at a delta frequency normalizes brain activity in the frontal cortex of lab rats with schizophrenia -like thinking disorders, according to a first-of-its-kind new study from the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine. (
  • In this experiment, the researchers also used optogenetics to stimulate the rats' cerebellum at the precise delta-wave frequency of 2 Hertz, which restored normal delta wave activity in the rats' frontal cortex and normalized the rats' performance on a timing test. (
  • The pathways through the thalamus that connect the BG and cerebellum directly to each other and with extensive regions of the cortex provide a structural basis for their combined influence on limbic function. (
  • All of the input received by the various lobes is integrated in the cortex of the cerebellum. (
  • About the size of a human fist, the cerebellum is the only branch of the brain between its inline division going from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex. (
  • A great mass of myeliniated axons (white matter), internal to the cortex, converge at the cerebellum core, the central medullary body. (
  • We also have the cortex for cerebellum. (
  • The research Parker was involved with when mentored by Andreasen looked at the connection between the cerebellum and the frontal cortex in patients with schizophrenia, Parker said. (
  • She became captivated by the cerebellum as she pondered the purpose of the thick tract of nerve fibers that connect it to the cerebral cortex. (
  • These have generally been linked to malfunction of the cerebral cortex, but recent studies have also implicated the cerebellum. (
  • It distinguishes consonance and dissonance before the cortex weighs in, and its largest clump, the cerebellum, "is involved closely with timing. (
  • fMRI studies on the rats show a clear increase in activity in the prefrontal cortex , highlighting the interconnectedness of the cerebellum to higher order brain regions. (
  • Researchers claim this could later contribute to schizophrenia, as people with the mental illness sometimes have abnormally small cerebellums. (
  • The cerebellum is one of the most affected brain regions in schizophrenia , according to a new brain imaging study at the University of Oslo in Norway. (
  • The brain imaging study is the largest to date to focus on the cerebellum in schizophrenia and carries important implications for our understanding of the disorder. (
  • The researchers were surprised to find that the cerebellum was among the brain regions with the strongest and most consistent differences in schizophrenia. (
  • In this study, we aimed to elicit the connectivity alterations of the cerebellum in schizophrenia in a hypothesis-free approach. (
  • however, alterations in rsFCD of the cerebellum in schizophrenia remain largely unknown. (
  • Schmahmann, who wasn't involved in the new study, has been arguing for decades that the cerebellum plays a key role in many aspects of human behavior, as well as mental disorders such as schizophrenia. (
  • Throughout her time at the University of Iowa, psychiatry Professor Nancy Andreasen has pioneered research on schizophrenia and the cerebellum. (
  • The cerebellum is located behind the top part of the brain stem (where the spinal cord meets the brain) and is made of two hemispheres (halves). (
  • Early 20th-century anatomical illustration of the human brain (from below) showing the left and right hemispheres of both the cerebellum and cerebrum. (
  • These are the lateral hemispheres, or the hemispheres of the cerebellum, one hemisphere, two hemispheres, and here's the vermis. (
  • well, really, all you see when you look at the cerebellum are the two hemispheres, because they are, they have expanded to cover up the vermis, which is, is right inside of there, underneath there. (
  • While the cerebellum likely contributes to performance of a wide range of skilled behaviors, it appears to be especially important when the tasks entail event timing. (
  • The cerebellum contributes to the creation of this map through altering the chemical communication between its neurones. (
  • The cerebellum is a rounded structure located behind the brain stem, to which it is linked by thick nerve tracts. (
  • The bicep, like other muscles, is primarily controlled by the cerebrum, a section of the brain located just above the brain stem and the cerebellum. (
  • e delineate the role of the cerebellum in several nonmotor systems simultaneously and in the same subjects using resting state functional connectivity MRI. (
  • This review will discuss the basic structure and function of the BG and cerebellum and propose an updated view of their functional role in human affective processing. (
  • However, the functional contribution of the cerebellum in language remains unclear. (
  • we have three functional divisions of cerebellum. (
  • Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we contrasted these two conditions and found that lobule V of the cerebellum ipsilateral to the arm movement was consistently more activated during state-dependent control. (
  • The present study investigated the effect of curcumin in the functional regulation of muscarinic and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, insulin receptors, acetylcholine esterase and Glut3 in the cerebellum of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. (
  • The ependymal glial cells (EGCs) from the periventricular zone of the cerebellum were studied to determine their distribution and the functional properties of their γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A) ) receptors. (
  • Understanding timing, plasticity and functional roles of cerebellum involve large-scale and microcircuit reconstructions validating molecular mechanisms in population activity. (
  • Several theoretical models have been developed to explain sensorimotor calibration in terms of synaptic plasticity within the cerebellum. (
  • Cerebellum-dependent learning: the role of multiple plasticity mechanisms. (
  • However, recent studies of simple behaviors such as the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) indicate that multiple plasticity mechanisms contribute to cerebellum-dependent learning. (
  • 4. The distribution of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), CRF binding sites and CRF1 receptor mRNA in the mouse cerebellum. (
  • This is a histology slide of a mouse cerebellum. (
  • γ-Aminobutyric acid-ρ expression in ependymal glial cells of the mouse cerebellum. (
  • Common behavioral functions subservient on an intact cerebellum include many oculomotor models (saccadic adaptation, vestibulo-ocular reflex, optokinetic reflex) as well as the acquisition of well timed conditioned responses (eye blink conditioning ), as well as motoric compensations (force-field adaptation, motor remapping), or rhythmic perception (finger-tapping tasks). (
  • STRESS or diet may suppress growth of the brain's cerebellum in the womb. (
  • CHICAGO, Nov. 3 (Xinhua) -- U.S. researchers suggested that the cerebellum has a hand in every aspect of higher brain functions, not just movement, but attention, thinking, planning and decision-making. (
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The cerebellum is traditionally seen as a motor structure that allows for smooth movement by predicting upcoming signals. (
  • The cerebellum is located under the distal portion of the cerebrum and has the primary function of coordinating muscle movement and maintaining posture and balance. (
  • The cerebellum doesn't directly carry out tasks like thinking, just as it doesn't directly control movement, Marek says. (
  • Damage in the cerebellum manifests itself as problems with fine movement, equilibrium and posture. (
  • Whether something similar happened in Purkinje neurons wasn't clear, but if it did, the process might reveal something about how the cerebellum coordinates movement, Khodakhah thought. (
  • We know that when the cerebellum is damaged, it causes movement disorders in both speech and non-speech actions," says UW-Madison Waisman Center investigator Ben Parrell . (
  • Cerebellum has been long known for its role in movement and articulation. (
  • Cerebellum has been known to show homogeneity in circuit organization and hence the "modules" or various circuits in the cerebellum are attributed to the diversity of functions such as timing, pattern recognition, movement planning and dysfunctions such as ataxia related to the cerebellum. (
  • The cerebellum, located in the lower back of the skull, plays a key role in regulating voluntary movement like balance, motor learning and speech. (
  • 2. Zebrins: Molecular Markers of Compartmentation in the Cerebellum. (
  • Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Brain Function - Brainstem & Cerebellum in minutes with SmartDraw. (
  • Again, it was known that CRFR1 is highly expressed in the cerebellum, but little was known about its function. (
  • The executive function networks are way overrepresented in the cerebellum," said postdoctoral researcher and first author Scott Marek. (
  • Just as a person staggers drunkenly because his or her compromised cerebellum is unable to perform the customary quality checks on motor function, alcohol-fueled bad decisions might also reflect a breakdown of quality control over executive functions. (
  • Based on a review of existing research, the researchers offer a new theory that an injury to the cerebellum during early life potentially disrupts this process and leads to what they call "developmental diaschisis," which is when a loss of function in one part of the brain leads to problems in another region. (
  • What is the function of the cerebellum? (
  • That's partly a function of the unique, irregular shape of the cerebellum, which is difficult to analyze with conventional imaging techniques. (
  • These chapters represent important aspects of the morphology, development, and function of the cerebellum and related structures. (
  • The following test exams the balance function of the cerebellum. (
  • Tumors in the cerebellum can disrupt function. (
  • This work highlights for the first time an unsuspected function of the cerebellum in shaping the representation of our body in space. (
  • Princeton University researchers offer a new theory that an early-life injury to the cerebellum disrupts the brain's processing of external and internal information and leads to 'developmental diaschisis,' wherein a loss of function in one brain region leads to problems in another. (
  • UI Assistant Professor of psychiatry Krystal Parker had studied cerebellum function in animals before meeting Andreasen. (
  • The cerebellum plays a role in somatic motor function, the control of muscle tone, and balance[ZFA]. (
  • Prenatal ethanol exposure interferes with the synaptogenesis phase of brain development, especially within the cerebellum and leads to various impairments in brain function [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Taken together, these results suggest that different mechanisms are involved in KYNA production in the rat cerebellum, and that, specifically, DAAO and ROS can function as alternative routes for KYNA production. (
  • Low Cerebellum' is the position of the cerebellum sometimes in individuals when it is near the opening of the brain into the spinal cord which is lower down. (
  • Damage to the cerebellum, while not causing paralysis or intellectual impairment, might lead to a lack of balance, slower movements, and tremors (shaking). (
  • People with damage to their cerebellum are known to become uncoordinated, with an unsteady gait, slurred speech and difficulty with fine motor tasks such as eating. (
  • Damage to the cerebellum disrupts performance on a range of tasks that require precise timing including the production of skilled movements, eyeblink conditioning, and perceptual tasks such as duration discrimination. (
  • Damage to the cerebellum may lead to a loss of mobility in some people. (
  • In a recent study, he and his colleagues discovered that damage to the cerebellum diminishes our ability to predict consequences of an action and issue specific motor commands to the body - what researchers call "feedforward control. (
  • Parrell, who conducted the bulk of the study during his time as a postdoc at the University of California, Berkley, tested both the predictive (feedforward) and reactive (feedback) systems in individuals with and without damage to the cerebellum. (
  • The results suggest that damage to the cerebellum can result in subtle impairments in the use of grammatical morphology, and are discussed in light of hypothesized roles for the cerebellum in language. (
  • 23. Role of the y-group of the vestibular nuclei and flocculus of the cerebellum in motor learning of the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex. (
  • Developmental disorders of the cerebellum are often accompanied by malformations of the precerebellar nuclei. (
  • Also, we have lots of nuclei of cerebellum. (
  • And then inside of the cerebellum, we have several nuclei here. (
  • An international journal devoted to the science of the cerebellum and its role in ataxia and other medical disorders. (
  • In addition to its direct role in motor control, the cerebellum is necessary for several types of motor learning, most notably learning to adjust to changes in sensorimotor relationships. (
  • The cerebellum is a large brain structure known primarily for its role of fine-tuning motor activity. (
  • In the cerebellum, NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors play an important role in neuronal differentiation and excitatory synaptic transmission. (
  • Mounting evidence indicates that posterolateral portions of the cerebellum (right Crus I/II) contribute to language processing, but the nature of this role remains unclear. (
  • Here, multiple approaches including behavioral tests and electrophysiology are adopted to explore the role of Dp71 in the cerebellum. (
  • The cerebellum plays a key role in the development of motor skills, such as using scissors. (
  • Curcumin has a significant role in a therapeutic application for the prevention or progression of diabetic complications in the cerebellum. (
  • Neuroprotective role of curcumin in the cerebellum of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. (
  • Thus, curcumin has a significant role in a therapeutic application for the prevention or progression of diabetic complications in the cerebellum. (
  • Researchers have long thought that a specific part of our brain - the cerebellum - plays a key role in the muscle control we need to speak. (
  • Parrell's research shows that the cerebellum plays a vital role in our predictive systems, which in turn greatly affects how we speak and communicate. (
  • Furthermore, the role of the cerebellum in the manifestation of intelligence is now under consideration. (
  • 6. Cholinergic innervation and receptors in the cerebellum. (
  • Our results showed an increased gene expression of acetylcholine esterase, Glut3, muscarinic M1, M3, alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine and insulin receptors in the cerebellum of diabetic rats in comparison to control. (
  • Curcumin and insulin inhibited diabetes-induced elevation in the gene expression of acetylcholine esterase, Glut3, insulin and cholinergic receptors in the cerebellum of diabetic rats. (
  • Dr. Denisova also notes, "one interpretation of the findings is that increased structural complexity of the cerebellum may enhance implicit learning in atypically developing boys. (
  • The findings about the cerebellum challenge years of dogma. (
  • Although many of these findings suggested the cerebellum played an important part both in reward-related and social behavior, a clear neural mechanism to explain this link was lacking. (
  • In the second study, the researchers investigated the CRF type 1 receptor (CRFR1) in the cerebellum. (
  • Having access to more than 10 hours of scans on each of 10 people though the Midnight Scan Club dataset, and using the cortex's networks as a template, the researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis could identify the networks in the cerebellum. (
  • The researchers measured the timing of brain activity and found that the cerebellum was consistently the last step in neurologic circuits. (
  • The researchers also performed individualized network analyses on the 10 people in the data set, and found that while brain functions are arranged in roughly the same pattern in everyone's cerebellum, there is enough individual variation to distinguish brain scans performed on any two participants. (
  • Most data involve demonstrations that the cerebellum is activated during, or is required for, tasks that we view as examples of timing. (
  • cerebellum is required for tasks where timing is explicitly represented, as in the discontinuous task. (
  • 7. Long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission at the mossy fiber - granule cell relay of cerebellum E. D'Angelo, P. Rossi, D. Gall, F. Pestori, T. Nieus, A. Maffei and E. Sola . (
  • In motor control, the cerebellum is thought to acquire and store internal models of the motor system. (
  • The cerebellum is the center of motor control within the brain, according to Healthline. (
  • The cerebellum functions in motor control by coordinating movements including those involving precise and accurate movements. (
  • And in turn, they hope to shed more light on how cerebellum motor control works. (
  • The cerebellum has been previously considered as a highly complex structure involved only with motor control. (
  • 2. Transverse and longitudinal patterns in the mammalian cerebellum. (
  • 9. The unipolar brush cells of the mammalian cerebellum and cochlear nucleus: cytology and microcircuitry. (
  • Figure 2: Comparison of the surfaces of unfolded mammalian cerebella, from (Sultan and Braitenberg, 1993). (
  • We have posterior lobe, the brown part of cerebellum. (
  • 10. Physiology of transmission at a giant glutamatergic synapse in cerebellum. (
  • In another mouse model , scientists deleted CRFR1 in the granular cells of the cerebellum and explored the behavioral and cellular consequences. (
  • Remarkably, the behavioral analyses and computational modeling converged to support the existence of a tandem model and reveal its unique features in cerebellum-based motor learning. (
  • The fourth ventricle, pons and medulla are in front of the cerebellum. (
  • The pons is a relay station that allows communication between different areas of the brain, especially the cerebrum and the cerebellum. (
  • However, the cerebellum is also consistently implicated in nonmotor functions such as language and working memory. (