Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Purkinje Cells: The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.Cerebellar Cortex: The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.Cerebellar Diseases: Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cerebellar Nuclei: Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.Mice, Neurologic Mutants: Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.Cerebellar Ataxia: Incoordination of voluntary movements that occur as a manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES. Characteristic features include a tendency for limb movements to overshoot or undershoot a target (dysmetria), a tremor that occurs during attempted movements (intention TREMOR), impaired force and rhythm of diadochokinesis (rapidly alternating movements), and GAIT ATAXIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p90)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cerebellar Neoplasms: Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)Conditioning, Eyelid: Reflex closure of the eyelid occurring as a result of classical conditioning.Nerve Tissue ProteinsBrain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Ataxia: Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Blinking: Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.Medulloblastoma: A malignant neoplasm that may be classified either as a glioma or as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood (see NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR, PRIMITIVE). The tumor occurs most frequently in the first decade of life with the most typical location being the cerebellar vermis. Histologic features include a high degree of cellularity, frequent mitotic figures, and a tendency for the cells to organize into sheets or form rosettes. Medulloblastoma have a high propensity to spread throughout the craniospinal intradural axis. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2060-1)S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Calbindins: Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Spinocerebellar Degenerations: A heterogenous group of degenerative syndromes marked by progressive cerebellar dysfunction either in isolation or combined with other neurologic manifestations. Sporadic and inherited subtypes occur. Inheritance patterns include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Mice, Inbred C57BLSynapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Spinocerebellar Ataxias: A group of dominantly inherited, predominately late-onset, cerebellar ataxias which have been divided into multiple subtypes based on clinical features and genetic mapping. Progressive ataxia is a central feature of these conditions, and in certain subtypes POLYNEUROPATHY; DYSARTHRIA; visual loss; and other disorders may develop. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch65, pp 12-17; J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1998 Jun;57(6):531-43)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Rhombencephalon: The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular: A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.Metencephalon: The anterior portion of the developing hindbrain. It gives rise to the CEREBELLUM and the PONS.Diencephalon: The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Spinocerebellar Tracts: Fibers that arise from cell groups within the spinal cord and pass directly to the cerebellum. They include the anterior, posterior, and rostral spinocerebellar tracts, and the cuneocerebellar tract. (From Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p607)Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Gait Ataxia: Impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal ambulation (WALKING) which may result from impairments of motor function or sensory feedback. This condition may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES (including CEREBELLAR DISEASES and BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES); SPINAL CORD DISEASES; or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Neuroanatomy: Study of the anatomy of the nervous system as a specialty or discipline.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Receptors, Glutamate: Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.

FGF8 induces formation of an ectopic isthmic organizer and isthmocerebellar development via a repressive effect on Otx2 expression. (1/6494)

Beads containing recombinant FGF8 (FGF8-beads) were implanted in the prospective caudal diencephalon or midbrain of chick embryos at stages 9-12. This induced the neuroepithelium rostral and caudal to the FGF8-bead to form two ectopic, mirror-image midbrains. Furthermore, cells in direct contact with the bead formed an outgrowth that protruded laterally from the neural tube. Tissue within such lateral outgrowths developed proximally into isthmic nuclei and distally into a cerebellum-like structure. These morphogenetic effects were apparently due to FGF8-mediated changes in gene expression in the vicinity of the bead, including a repressive effect on Otx2 and an inductive effect on En1, Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression. The ectopic Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression domains formed nearly complete concentric rings around the FGF8-bead, with the Wnt1 ring outermost. These observations suggest that FGF8 induces the formation of a ring-like ectopic signaling center (organizer) in the lateral wall of the brain, similar to the one that normally encircles the neural tube at the isthmic constriction, which is located at the boundary between the prospective midbrain and hindbrain. This ectopic isthmic organizer apparently sends long-range patterning signals both rostrally and caudally, resulting in the development of the two ectopic midbrains. Interestingly, our data suggest that these inductive signals spread readily in a caudal direction, but are inhibited from spreading rostrally across diencephalic neuromere boundaries. These results provide insights into the mechanism by which FGF8 induces an ectopic organizer and suggest that a negative feedback loop between Fgf8 and Otx2 plays a key role in patterning the midbrain and anterior hindbrain.  (+info)

Somatic recording of GABAergic autoreceptor current in cerebellar stellate and basket cells. (2/6494)

Patch-clamp recordings were performed from stellate and basket cells in rat cerebellar slices. Under somatic voltage clamp, short depolarizing pulses were applied to elicit action potentials in the axon. After the action potential, a bicuculline- and Cd2+-sensitive current transient was observed. A similar response was obtained when eliciting axonal firing by extracellular stimulation. With an isotonic internal Cl- solution, the peak amplitude of this current varied linearly with the holding potential, yielding an extrapolated reversal potential of -20 to 0 mV. Unlike synaptic or autaptic GABAergic currents obtained in the same preparation, the current transient had a slow rise-time and a low variability between trials. This current was blocked when 10 mM BAPTA was included in the recording solution. In some experiments, the current transient elicited axonal action potentials. The current transient was reliably observed in animals aged 12-15 d, with a mean amplitude of 82 pA at -70 mV, but was small and rare in the age group 29-49 d. Numerical simulations could account for all properties of the current transient by assuming that an action potential activates a distributed GABAergic conductance in the axon. The actual conductance is probably restricted to release sites, with an estimated mean presynaptic current response of 10 pA per site (-70 mV, age 12-15 d). We conclude that in developing rats, stellate and basket cell axons have a high density of GABAergic autoreceptors and that a sizable fraction of the corresponding current can be measured from the soma.  (+info)

Reproducibility studies with 11C-DTBZ, a monoamine vesicular transporter inhibitor in healthy human subjects. (3/6494)

The reproducibility of (+/-)-alpha-[11C] dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) measures in PET was studied in 10 healthy human subjects, aged 22-76 y. METHODS: The scan-to-scan variation of several measures used in PET data analysis was determined, including the radioactivity ratio (target-to-reference), plasma-input Logan total distribution volume (DV), plasma-input Logan Bmax/Kd and tissue-input Logan Bmax/Kd values. RESULTS: The radioactivity ratios, plasma-input Bmax/Kd and tissue-input Bmax/Kd all have higher reliability than plasma-input total DV values. In addition, measures using the occipital cortex as the reference region have higher reliability than the same measures using the cerebellum as the reference region. CONCLUSION: Our results show that DTBZ is a reliable PET tracer that provides reproducible in vivo measurement of striatal vesicular monoamine transporter density. In the selection of reference regions for DTBZ PET data analysis, caution must be exercised in circumstances when DTBZ binding in the occipital cortex or the cerebellum may be altered.  (+info)

A genetic approach to visualization of multisynaptic neural pathways using plant lectin transgene. (4/6494)

The wiring patterns among various types of neurons via specific synaptic connections are the basis of functional logic employed by the brain for information processing. This study introduces a powerful method of analyzing the neuronal connectivity patterns by delivering a tracer selectively to specific types of neurons while simultaneously transsynaptically labeling their target neurons. We developed a novel genetic approach introducing cDNA for a plant lectin, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), as a transgene under the control of specific promoter elements. Using this method, we demonstrate three examples of visualization of specific transsynaptic neural pathways: the mouse cerebellar efferent pathways, the mouse olfactory pathways, and the Drosophila visual pathways. This strategy should greatly facilitate studies on the anatomical and functional organization of the developing and mature nervous system.  (+info)

Control of neuronal precursor proliferation in the cerebellum by Sonic Hedgehog. (5/6494)

Cerebellar granule cells are the most abundant type of neuron in the brain, but the molecular mechanisms that control their generation are incompletely understood. We show that Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which is made by Purkinje cells, regulates the division of granule cell precursors (GCPs). Treatment of GCPs with Shh prevents differentiation and induces a potent, long-lasting proliferative response. This response can be inhibited by basic fibroblast growth factor or by activation of protein kinase A. Blocking Shh function in vivo dramatically reduces GCP proliferation. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms of normal growth and tumorigenesis in the cerebellum.  (+info)

Comparative effects of methylmercury on parallel-fiber and climbing-fiber responses of rat cerebellar slices. (6/6494)

The environmental neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg) causes profound disruption of cerebellar function. Previous studies have shown that acute exposure to MeHg impairs synaptic transmission in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. However, the effects of MeHg on cerebellar synaptic function have never been examined. In the present study, effects of acute exposure to MeHg on synaptic transmission between parallel fibers or climbing fibers and Purkinje cells were compared in 300- to 350-microm cerebellar slices by using extracellular and intracellular microelectrode-recording techniques. Field potentials of parallel-fiber volleys (PFVs) and the associated postsynaptic responses (PSRs) were recorded in the molecular layer by stimulating the parallel fibers in transverse cerebellar slices. The climbing-fiber responses were also recorded in the molecular layer by stimulating white matter in sagittal cerebellar slices. At 20, 100, and 500 microM, MeHg reduced the amplitude of both PFVs and the associated PSRs to complete block, however, it blocked PSRs more rapidly than PFVs. MeHg also decreased the amplitudes of climbing-fiber responses to complete block. For all responses, an initial increase in amplitude preceded MeHg-induced suppression. Intracellular recordings of excitatory postsynaptic potentials of Purkinje cells were compared before and after MeHg. At 100 microM and 20 microM, MeHg blocked the Na+-dependent, fast somatic spikes and Ca++-dependent, slow dendritic spike bursts. MeHg also hyperpolarized and then depolarized Purkinje cell membranes, suppressed current conduction from parallel fibers or climbing fibers to dendrites of Purkinje cells, and blocked synaptically activated local responses. MeHg switched the pattern of repetitive firing of Purkinje cells generated spontaneously or by depolarizing current injection at Purkinje cell soma from predominantly Na+-dependent, fast somatic spikes to predominantly Ca++-dependent, low amplitude, slow dendritic spike bursts. Thus, acute exposure to MeHg causes a complex pattern of effects on cerebellar synaptic transmission, with apparent actions on both neuronal excitability and chemical synaptic transmission.  (+info)

Long term lithium treatment suppresses p53 and Bax expression but increases Bcl-2 expression. A prominent role in neuroprotection against excitotoxicity. (7/6494)

This study was undertaken to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective actions of lithium against glutamate excitotoxicity with a focus on the role of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic genes. Long term, but not acute, treatment of cultured cerebellar granule cells with LiCl induces a concentration-dependent decrease in mRNA and protein levels of proapoptotic p53 and Bax; conversely, mRNA and protein levels of cytoprotective Bcl-2 are remarkably increased. The ratios of Bcl-2/Bax protein levels increase by approximately 5-fold after lithium treatment for 5-7 days. Exposure of cerebellar granule cells to glutamate induces a rapid increase in p53 and Bax mRNA and protein levels with no apparent effect on Bcl-2 expression. Pretreatment with LiCl for 7 days prevents glutamate-induced increase in p53 and Bax expression and maintains Bcl-2 in an elevated state. Glutamate exposure also triggers the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. Lithium pretreatment blocks glutamate-induced cytochrome c release and cleavage of lamin B1, a nuclear substrate for caspase-3. These results strongly suggest that lithium-induced Bcl-2 up-regulation and p53 and Bax down-regulation play a prominent role in neuroprotection against excitotoxicity. Our results further suggest that lithium, in addition to its use in the treatment of bipolar depressive illness, may have an expanded use in the intervention of neurodegeneration.  (+info)

The type and the localization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulate transmission of cAMP signals to the nucleus in cortical and cerebellar granule cells. (8/6494)

cAMP signals are received and transmitted by multiple isoforms of cAMP-dependent protein kinases, typically determined by their specific regulatory subunits. In the brain the major regulatory isoform RIIbeta and the RII-anchor protein, AKAP150 (rat) or 75 (bovine), are differentially expressed. Cortical neurons express RIIbeta and AKAP75; conversely, granule cerebellar cells express predominantly RIalpha and RIIalpha. Cortical neurons accumulate PKA catalytic subunit and phosphorylated cAMP responsive element binding protein very efficiently into nuclei upon cAMP induction, whereas granule cerebellar cells fail to do so. Down-regulation of RIIbeta synthesis by antisense oligonucleotides inhibited cAMP-induced nuclear signaling in cortical neurons. Expression in cerebellar granule cells of RIIbeta and AKAP75 genes by microinjection of specific expression vectors, markedly stimulated cAMP-induced transcription of the lacZ gene driven by a cAMP-responsive element promoter. These data indicate that the composition of PKA in cortical and granule cells underlies the differential ability of these cells to transmit cAMP signals to the nucleus.  (+info)

*Cerebellum

Most vertebrate species have a cerebellum and one or more cerebellum-like structures, brain areas that resemble the cerebellum ... 2016 Cerebellum histology images The Cerebellum - Journal (Springer Nature) Cerebellum and Ataxias - Journal (BioMed Central). ... The human cerebellum changes with age. These changes may differ from those of other parts of the brain. The cerebellum is the ... Damage to the cerebellum often causes motor-related symptoms, the details of which depend on the part of the cerebellum ...

*Culmen (cerebellum)

Cerebellum. Superior surface. Cerebellum. Superior surface. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th ... The culmen is the portion of the anterior vermis adjacent to the primary fissure of cerebellum. The culmen and the anterior ...

*Bulbophyllum cerebellum

... is a species of orchid in the genus Bulbophyllum. The Bulbophyllum-Checklist The Internet Orchid ...

*The Cerebellum

... is a bi-monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal founded in 2002. It is published by Springer Science+Business ... It is entirely devoted to research about the cerebellum and its roles in ataxias and other disorders. The journal is abstracted ... Media on behalf of the Society for Research on the Cerebellum and Ataxias. ...

*Glomerulus (cerebellum)

The cerebellar glomeruli are the first "processing station" for afferent nerve fibers entering the cerebellum. Input comes from ...

*Lingula of cerebellum

Cerebellum. Inferior surface. Cerebellum. Inferior surface. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th ...

*Uvula of cerebellum

Cerebellum. Inferior surface. Cerebellum. Inferior surface. Cerebellum. Inferior surface. This article incorporates text in the ...

*White cerebellum sign

The white cerebellum sign, also known as reversal sign or dense cerebellum sign, is a radiological sign denoting the relatively ... White cerebellum sign can be associated with raised intracranial pressure that occurs due to anoxic or ischemic changes in the ... Chalela, JA; Rothlisberger, J; West, B; Hays, A (June 2013). "The white cerebellum sign: an under recognized sign of increased ... "White cerebellum sign , Radiology Reference Article , Radiopaedia.org". radiopaedia.org. Retrieved 2017-03-26. ...

*Mossy fiber (cerebellum)

Axons enter the cerebellum via the middle and inferior cerebellar peduncles, where some branch to make contact with deep ... Mossy fibers are one of the major inputs to cerebellum. There are many sources of this pathway, the largest of which is the ... They ascend into the white matter of the cerebellum, where each axon branches to innervate granule cells in several cerebellar ... cerebral cortex, which sends input to the cerebellum via the pontocerebellar pathway. Other contributors include the vestibular ...

*Granular layer (cerebellum)

The cerebellum is mainly responsible for managing the coordination of skeletal muscles and body movements. The neurons of the ...

*Vallecula of cerebellum

On the superior surface of cerebellum, the vermis protrudes above the level of the hemispheres, but on the inferior surface it ... this depression is called the vallecula of the cerebellum, and lodges the posterior part of the medulla oblongata and the ...

*Posterior lobe of cerebellum

The posterior lobe of cerebellum or neocerebellum, is the portion of the cerebellum below the primary fissure. It is sometimes ... "utah.edu". [self-published source?][unreliable medical source?] "The Cerebellum". Siegel, Allan Siegel, Hreday N. Sapru ; case ... called the neocerebellum since phylogenetically it is the newest part of the cerebellum. It plays an important role in fine ...

*Anterior lobe of cerebellum

The anterior lobe of cerebellum is the portion of the cerebellum responsible for mediating unconscious proprioception. Inputs ... Anterior Lobe of the Cerebellum[permanent dead link] via the Neuroscience Information Framework. ... into the anterior lobe of the cerebellum are mainly from the spinal cord. In alcoholics, it can deteriorate. It is sometimes ... ". "The Cerebellum". Atlas image: n2a7p4 at the University of Michigan Health System NIF Search - ...

*Anatomy of the cerebellum

In the cerebellum, the PICA supplies blood to the posterior inferior portion of the cerebellum, the inferior cerebellar ... The anatomy of the cerebellum can be viewed at three levels. At the level of gross anatomy, the cerebellum consists of a ... The cerebellum is located at the bottom of the brain, with the large mass of the cerebral cortex above it and the portion of ... The human cerebellum contains on the order of 60 to 80 billion granule cells, making this single cell type by far the most ...

*Horizontal fissure of cerebellum

The largest and deepest fissure in the cerebellum is named the horizontal fissure (or horizontal sulcus). It commences in front ... and divides the cerebellum into an upper and a lower portion. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th ...

*Primary fissure of cerebellum

The monticulus of the cerebellum is divided by the primary fissure (or preclival fissure) into an anterior, raised part, the ...

*Falx cerebelli

The falx cerebelli generally lies somewhere between 2.8 and 4.5 cm in length and is approximately 1-2 mm thick. In its lower ... The falx cerebelli is a small sickle shaped fold of dura mater, projecting forwards into the posterior cerebellar notch as well ... The name comes from the Latin word falx meaning "curved blade or scythe" and cerebellum meaning "brain". Its base is attached, ... Absence of the falx cerebelli in a Chiari II malformation. Clin Anat. 2002;15(3):193-195. Shoja MM, Tubbs RS, Shokouhi GH, ...

*Sarah Bellum

... cerebellum). Cerebellum. ...

*Central lobule

Cerebellum. Superior surface. Cerebellum. Inferior surface. Cerebellum. Inferior surface. Cerebellum. Inferior surface. This ...

*Ataxia

The term cerebellar ataxia is used to indicate ataxia that is due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. The cerebellum is ... Indeed, an ouabain block of Na+ -K+ pumps in the cerebellum of a live mouse results in it displaying ataxia and dystonia. ... The death of neurons in the cerebellum as a result of gluten exposure is irreversible. Early diagnosis and treatment with a ... Ataxia may depend on hereditary disorders consisting of degeneration of the cerebellum and/or of the spine; most cases feature ...

*Middle cerebellar peduncle

Cerebellum. Inferior surface. Cerebellum. Inferior surface. Cerebellum. Inferior surface. This article incorporates text in the ... The middle cerebellar peduncles (brachia pontis) are paired structures (left and right) that connect the cerebellum to the pons ...

*GRID2

GluD2-containing receptors are selectively/predominantly expressed in Purkinje cells in the cerebellum where they play a key ... Cerebellum. 11 (1): 78-84. doi:10.1007/s12311-010-0186-5. PMID 20535596. Kakegawa W, Miyazaki T, Emi K, Matsuda K, Kohda K, ...

*Eric Courchesne

Consensus paper: pathological role of the cerebellum in autism. Cerebellum. Sep 2012;11(3):777-807. Zimmer, Carl. "The Brain: ... demonstrating that autism involves developmental brain defects in the cerebellum and is definitively a neural biological ...

*Cerebellar agenesis

... is a rare condition in which a brain develops without the cerebellum. The cerebellum controls smooth ... Schmahmann JD, Weilburg JB, Sherman JC (2007). "The neuropsychiatry of the cerebellum - insights from the clinic". Cerebellum. ... Agenesis of one half or another part of the cerebellum is more common than complete agenesis. Cerebellar agenesis can be caused ... The condition is not fatal on its own, but people born without a cerebellum experience severe developmental delays, language ...

*Nodule of vermis

Cerebellum. Inferior surface. Cerebellum. Inferior surface. Cerebellum. Inferior surface. Atlas image: n2a7p4 at the University ... It is semilunar in form, its convex border being continuous with the white substance of the cerebellum; it extends on either ... and can only be distinctly seen after the cerebellum has been separated from the medulla oblongata and pons. On either side of ...
Looking for online definition of decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles in the Medical Dictionary? decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles explanation free. What is decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles? Meaning of decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles medical term. What does decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles mean?
Wang L & Liu Y. (2019). Signaling pathways in cerebellar granule cells development. Am J Stem Cells , 8, 1-6. PMID: 31139492 Shoja MM, Jensen CJ, Ramdhan R, Chern J, Oakes WJ & Tubbs RS. (2018). Embryology of the Craniocervical Junction and Posterior Cranial Fossa Part II: Embryogenesis of the hindbrain. Clin Anat , , . PMID: 29344994 DOI. Aldinger KA & Doherty D. (2016). The genetics of cerebellar malformations. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med , 21, 321-32. PMID: 27160001 DOI. Butts T, Green MJ & Wingate RJ. (2014). Development of the cerebellum: simple steps to make a little brain. Development , 141, 4031-41. PMID: 25336734 DOI. Voogd J. (2012). A note on the definition and the development of cerebellar Purkinje cell zones. Cerebellum , 11, 422-5. PMID: 22396330 DOI. Roussel MF & Hatten ME. (2011). Cerebellum development and medulloblastoma. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. , 94, 235-82. PMID: 21295689 DOI. Herculano-Houzel S. (2010). Coordinated scaling of cortical and cerebellar numbers of neurons. Front ...
BioAssay record AID 349212 submitted by ChEMBL: Activity at RYR2 receptor in rat cerebellar granule neurons assessed activation of [45Ca2+] uptake at 20 uM after 10 mins.
Development of the vertebrate cerebellum is unusual compared to most other regions of the brain since it involves two germinal regions. Most cell types arise from the luminal, ventricular zone as in other brain regions, but granule cells arise from the second germinal layer, the external granular layer (EGL). Our analysis of the temporal and positional expression of three members of the Sox gene family of transcription factors in the cerebellum shows that granule cell development is unusual compared to most other neurons of the central nervous system (CNS). We show that granule cell precursors lose expression of cSox2 and cSox3 as they migrate to form the EGL. The EGL is the first example of a germinal layer in the CNS which does not exhibit expression of these genes. Throughout most of the CNS cSox11 expression is very low in the ventricular zone but increases dramatically as cells cease proliferation and migrate to form the subventricular zone. We also find that cSox11 expression increases when cells
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell formation in the cortical layers of the developing human cerebellum. AU - Ábrahám, H.. AU - Tornóczky, T.. AU - Kosztolányi, G.. AU - Séress, L.. PY - 2001/2/1. Y1 - 2001/2/1. N2 - Cell proliferation has been studied in the human cerebellar cortex between the 24th gestational week and the 12th postnatal month. Intensive cell formation has been found in the external granular layer (EGL) of the human cerebellum, where the highest cell proliferation rate occurs between the 28th and 34th gestational weeks. This is followed by a gradual decrease that lasts up to the eighth postnatal month. As late in development as the fifth postnatal month, still 30% of cells of the EGL are labeled with the monoclonal antibody Ki-67, which is specific for dividing cells. The width of the EGL remained unchanged from the 28th gestational week to the end of the first postnatal month, when it starts to decrease and completely disappears by the 11th postnatal month. Large number of Ki-67 labeled ...
The relatively few well-defined cell types within the cerebellum and the stereotypical foliation pattern make the cerebellum particularly amenable to the study of morphogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). The mammalian cerebellum consists of a central vermis and two lateral hemispheres, each with its own sets of fissures. The complexity of the foliation pattern varies between species of mammals, depending on the proprioceptive input to the cerebellum. For example, the cerebellar vermis of many inbred mouse strains consists of eight major lobules with few sublobules, whereas the rat vermis consists of ten lobules and contains more sublobules. Furthermore, some inbred strains of mice have one or two additional partial lobules corresponding to additional lobules in rat. Although the basic ten lobules present in the rat are conserved in human, each human cerebellar lobule is extensively subdivided into many sublobules. The conservation of morphology within and across species suggests that ...
Examining the histogram of one reconstructed slice (figure 2b), one observes that only four of the five Gaussians can be clearly related to known morphological structures of the human cerebellum. The fifth Gaussian with the largest half width describes the Δδ-values lying between the formalin and stratum moleculare related peaks. Therefore, this Gaussian basically corresponds to the partial volume between these two components. Aside from the partial volume one finds an additional peak at Δδ = 1.3 × 10−8, which appears rather as a shoulder. This shoulder becomes more obvious in the histogram of the entire three-dimensional dataset (figure 6c). The quantitative analysis of the shoulder reveals that the related Δδ-values are located in areas of the cerebellum that were in direct contact with the formalin solution during the whole fixation period. Obviously, the formalin treatment of the human cerebellum changes the electron density at the tissue periphery.. The usefulness of the ...
Decreased cerebellar volume is associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in very preterm infants and may be a principal component in neurodevelopmental impairment. Cerebellar deposition of blood products from the subarachnoid space has been suggested as a causal mechanism in cerebellar underdevelopment following IVH. Using the preterm rabbit pup IVH model, we evaluated the effects of IVH induced at E29 (3 days prior to term) on cerebellar development at term-equivalent postnatal day 0 (P0), term-equivalent postnatal day 2 (P2), and term-equivalent postnatal day 5 (P5). Furthermore, the presence of cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) in cerebellar tissue was characterized, and cell-free Hb was evaluated as a causal factor in the development of cerebellar damage following preterm IVH. IVH was associated with a decreased proliferative (Ki67-positive) portion of the external granular layer (EGL), delayed Purkinje cell maturation, and activated microglia in the cerebellar white matter. In pups with ...
Decreased cerebellar volume is associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in very preterm infants and may be a principal component in neurodevelopmental impairment. Cerebellar deposition of blood products from the subarachnoid space has been suggested as a causal mechanism in cerebellar underdevelopment following IVH. Using the preterm rabbit pup IVH model, we evaluated the effects of IVH induced at E29 (3 days prior to term) on cerebellar development at term-equivalent postnatal day 0 (P0), term-equivalent postnatal day 2 (P2), and term-equivalent postnatal day 5 (P5). Furthermore, the presence of cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) in cerebellar tissue was characterized, and cell-free Hb was evaluated as a causal factor in the development of cerebellar damage following preterm IVH. IVH was associated with a decreased proliferative (Ki67-positive) portion of the external granular layer (EGL), delayed Purkinje cell maturation, and activated microglia in the cerebellar white matter. In pups with ...
Li, Y., Hu, S-Q., & Han, Y. (2015). Preventing H2O2-induced toxicity in primary cerebellar granule neurons via activating the PI3-K/Akt/GSK3ß pathway by kukoamine from Lycii Cortex. Journal of Functional Foods, 17, 709 - 721 ...
Cerebellar granule cells are susceptible to the excitotoxin glutamate, which acts at N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, as well as the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+), the active cytotoxic metabolite of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Paradoxically, preincubation of cultured cerebellar granule cells with low concentrations of NMDA or glutamate markedly antagonizes the neurotoxicity resulting from subsequent exposure to toxic concentrations of either MPP+ or glutamate. The neuroprotective effects of NMDA and glutamate against MPP+ toxicity are observed at agonist concentrations as low as 1 microM, are blocked by specific NMDA receptor antagonists, and require at least 30 min to develop fully. Moreover, NMDA receptor-mediated neuroprotection is prevented by the RNA synthesis inhibitor actinomycin D or the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Thus, in cerebellar granule cells activation of NMDA receptors by glutamate can result in either ...
Dynamic changes of glycolipid domains within the plasma membranes of cultured rat cerebellar granule cells have been investigated. For this purpose, a pyrene-labelled derivative of G(M1) ganglioside has been incorporated in the cell plasma membrane, and the rate of excimer formation, directly related to the formation of domains, has been studied by a fluorescence imaging technique (excimer-formation imaging). Fluorescence imaging showed that upon addition of 100 μM glutamate, indirectly inducing the activation of protein kinase C (PKC), glycolipid concentration within domains increases in cell bodies. Comparable effects were exerted by the addition of PMA, directly inducing the activation of PKC. On the contrary, the phorbol ester was not effective in the presence of the specific PKC inhibitor, bisindolylmaleimide. These results suggest that glycolipid-enriched domains are dynamic supramolecular structures affected by membrane-associated events, such as PKC activation. Dynamic changes of ...
Comparison of Vascular Densities of The Human Cerebellum - A Pilot Study. Vascular density corresponds to metabolic demands, which increase in highly active areas of the brain. The aim of this study was to determine the surface vascular density of three equal vertical divisions of the superior and inferior cerebellar hemispheres and to correlate with the function.. The dye Araldite was injected to the carotid and vertebral arteries of four fresh adult male human brains, maintaining a constant pressure of 93 mmHg. The cerebellums were examined, and a count was made, from the number of vessels entering each square on an overlying grid, using the light microscope and the camera Lucida. The vascular density of the three vertical columns were calculated and compared. The mean values of the vascular densities of the three vertical columns were, vessels per mm2 (from medial to lateral) left superior - 1.67, 1.89, 1.54, right superior - 1.52, 1.52, 1.28, left inferior - 1.17, 1.30, 1.19, right inferior ...
Several neuronal populations are generated in the dorsal rhombencephalon, at the level of the rhombic lip. They migrate following distinct dorsoventral paths identified as the pontine, olivary and superficial migratory streams. They settle in the ventral neural tube and contribute neurons to several precerebellar nuclei. Therefore, the precebellar system permits the study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of cell migration. We have focused on two populations of precerebellar neurons generated in the rhombic lip of rhombomeres 7/8 (or 8) (Cambronero and Puelles, 2000) and destined to form the inferior olive (ION), the lateral reticular (LRN) and the external cuneatus (ECN) nuclei. These neurons circumnavigate at different depths around the medulla following two routes, both orthogonal to the anteroposterior axis (Harkmark, 1954; Altman and Bayer, 1987a; Altman and Bayer, 1987b; Bourrat and Sotelo, 1988; Bourrat and Sotelo, 1990; Bourrat et al., 1989; Tan and Le ...
The human cerebellum with lobules I-X color-coded. From the spatially unbiased infratentorial template [SUIT] of the cerebellum and brainstem (Diedrichsen et
Neurology Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies focusing on diseases of the nervous system, as well as normal neurological functioning. The journal will consider basic, translational, and clinical research, including animal models and clinical trials.
Traditionally, the cerebellum has been studied in relation to motor movement and coordination in adults. Recent studies, however, strongly suggest that it also influences childhood cognition, Wang said. Several studies also have found a correlation between cerebellar injury and the development of a disorder in the autism spectrum, the researchers report. For instance, the researchers cite a 2007 paper in the journal Pediatrics that found that individuals who experienced cerebellum damage at birth were 40 times more likely to score highly on autism screening tests. They also reference studies in 2004 and 2005 that found that the cerebellum is the most frequently disrupted brain region in people with autism.. "What we realized from looking at the literature is that these two problems - autism and cerebellar injury - might be related to each other" via the cerebellums influence on wider neural development, Wang said. "We hope to get people and scientists thinking differently about the cerebellum ...
The effect of fluoride on murine thyroid function and cerebellar development was studied by administering NaF in drinking water (0.5 g/L) to pregnant and lactating mice, from the 15th day of pregnancy to the 14th day after delivery. Compared to a control group, the NaF-treated pups, at age 14 days, showed a 35% decrease in body weight, a 75% decrease in plasma free T4, and reductions in the cerebellar and cerebral protein concentrations by 27% and 17%, respectively. Consistent histological changes were present in the cerebellum of the treated mice with the external granular layer being markedly reduced or absent, the Purkinje cell bodies being poorly differentiated and arranged in a single layer at the surface of the internal granular layer, and with more apoptotic Purkinje cells being present.. ...
Potassium channels are key determinants of neuronal excitability. We recently identified KChIPs as a family of calcium binding proteins that coassociate and colocalize with Kv4 family potassium channels in mammalian brain (An et al. [2000] Nature 403:553). Here, we used light microscopic immunohistochemistry and multilabel immunofluorescence labeling, together with transmission electron microscopic immunohistochemistry, to examine the subcellular distribution of KChIPs and Kv4 channels in adult rat cerebellum. Light microscopic immunohistochemistry was performed on 40-μm free-floating sections using a diaminobenzidine labeling procedure. Multilabel immunofluorescence staining was performed on free-floating sections and on 1-μm ultrathin cryosections. Electron microscopic immunohistochemistry was performed using an immunoperoxidase pre-embedding labeling procedure. By light microscopy, immunoperoxidase labeling showed that Kv4.2, Kv4.3, and KChIPs 1, 3, and 4 (but not KChIP2) were expressed at ...
Synonyms for cerebellum in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for cerebellum. 10 words related to cerebellum: arteria cerebelli, cerebellar artery, neural structure, cerebellar hemisphere, dentate nucleus, vermis, vermis cerebelli.... What are synonyms for cerebellum?
Again, the physiological significance of the transient expression of SRIF receptors in the cerebellum can only be speculated on at present. At the microscopic level, SRIF receptors are associated with the external granule layer and thus may play a role in the proliferation of the stem cells of the granule cells, and their disappearance appears to coincide with the migration of the neuroblasts. The hypothesis that SRIF may act as atrophic factor involved in the regulation of cell division and/or migration in the external granular layer is supported by the absence of synaptic contacts in this layer, thus suggesting that SRIF receptors in this layer are not involved in neurotransmission. 1986). A decrease in this particular class of steroid (after adrenalectomy) appears to increase the potential for altering the expression of the propressophysin gene within this nucleus. , 1988) found that adrenalectomyinduced plasticity in VP expression is further enhanced by ablation of a specific afferent ...
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
RegionFitness xdat ydat boundary weight (lines=28008) 1 ,, 14000 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1 1.05 1.1 1.15 1.2 1.25 1.3 1.35 1.4 1.45 1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65 1.7 1.75 1.8 1.85 1.9 1.95 2 2.05 2.1 2.15 2.2 2.25 2.3 2.35 2.4 2.45 2.5 2.55 2.6 2.65 2.7 2.75 2.8 2.85 2.9 2.95 3 3.05 3.1 3.15 3.2 3.25 3.3 3.35 3.4 3.45 3.5 3.55 3.6 3.65 3.7 3.75 3.8 3.85 3.9 3.95 4 4.05 4.1 4.15 4.2 4.25 4.3 4.35 4.4 4.45 4.5 4.55 4.6 4.65 4.7 4.75 4.8 4.85 4.9 4.95 5 5.05 5.1 5.15 5.2 5.25 5.3 5.35 5.4 5.45 5.5 5.55 5.6 5.65 5.7 5.75 5.8 5.85 5.9 5.95 6 6.05 6.1 6.15 6.2 6.25 6.3 6.35 6.4 6.45 6.5 6.55 6.6 6.65 6.7 6.75 6.8 6.85 6.9 6.95 7 7.05 7.1 7.15 7.2 7.25 7.3 7.35 7.4 7.45 7.5 7.55 7.6 7.65 7.7 7.75 7.8 7.85 7.9 7.95 8 8.05 8.1 8.15 8.2 8.25 8.3 8.35 8.4 8.45 8.5 8.55 8.6 8.65 8.7 8.75 8.8 8.85 8.9 8.95 9 9.05 9.1 9.15 9.2 9.25 9.3 9.35 9.4 9.45 9.5 9.55 9.6 9.65 9.7 9.75 9.8 9.85 9.9 9.95 10 10.05 10.1 10.15 10.2 10.25 10.3 10.35 10.4 10.45 10.5 10.55 ...
The neurological mutation weaver is characterized by defects in granule cell migration along Bergmann glial processes and by subsequent death and disposition of granule cells. Immunocytochemical localization of antisera raised against purified glial filament protein (AbGF) and transmission electron microscopy were used to visualize specific associations between granule neurons and astroglia in microcultures of cerebellar cells dissociated from normal (+/+), heterozygous (+/wv), and homozygous (wv/wv) B6CBA-w mouse cerebella. In microcultures of cells dissociated from normal B6CBA-Aw-J-wv (+/+) cerebella, staining with AbGF closely resembled results previously reported for cells taken from C57BL/6J (+/+) tissue. Two forms of stained astroglia were seen, one with a larger perikaryon and shorter processes, among which 12 to 20 unstained cells nestled; and another with a smaller cell soma and longer processes, along which a few unstained cells were seen. The first resembled astrocytes of the ...
Presynaptic terminals occur along unmyelinated axons in specialized compartments called axonal varicosities or synaptic boutons. Since the first descriptions of varicose axons by Cajal and others, the spatial organization of varicosities along axons has attracted the attention of neuroscientists. Quantitative light- and electron-microscopic analyses of varicosity spacing in the cerebellum and elsewhere have recently provided a clearer picture of this organization, and theoretical analyses now incorporate varicosity spacing as an essential parameter in structural models of neural connectivity. Here we review the salient features of varicosity spacing, with emphasis on cerebellar parallel fibers as a model system. Measured globally across the entire≈ 5 mm lengths of parallel fibers, the overall mean spacing of varicosities is 5.2 μm. Measured locally, however, mean spacing follows a proximodistal gradient, increasing with distance from the point of bifurcation from the ascending axon. Measured at the
In the present study, we provide evidence that homophilic CHL1 trans-interactions promote the differentiation of cerebellar granule cells at approximately postnatal day 5 in the early proliferative developmental stages of the mouse cerebellum, while heterophilic trans-interactions of CHL1 with vitronectin, integrins, PAI-2, uPA, and uPAR contribute to postproliferative neurite outgrowth and granule cell migration 1-2 d later.. The number of undifferentiated granule cells was increased only when dissociated cells from cerebella of 4- to 5-d-old wild-type mice were cultured on CHL1-Fc substrate, but not on a neutral control substrate, suggesting that homophilic CHL1 trans-interactions inhibit or delay differentiation of granule cell precursors before radial glia-guided outside-in migration starts. Increased numbers of differentiated granule neurons in 5-d-old CHL1-deficient cerebella versus wild-type cerebella infer that homophilic CHL1 trans-interactions delay the differentiation of granule cell ...
Increasing evidence has linked autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with dysfunction of the brains cerebellum, but the details have been unclear. In a new study, researchers at Boston Childrens Hospital used stem cell technology to create cerebellar cells known as Purkinje cells from patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a genetic syndrome that often includes ASD-like features.
GDF15, also known as MIC-1, is a novel member of the TGFβ superfamily and is known to plays multiple roles in the processes of neural protection, regeneration and axonal elongation [5,7,9,13,28]. However, the receptor for GDF15 and its downstream effector signalling pathways have been poorly characterized. In the present study, for the first time, we show that GDF15 may activate the TGFβR2 and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathways to increase the IK amplitude, as well as the expression of Kv2.1 in CGNs, which may be associated with a developmental function.. The IK is one of the most ubiquitously expressed voltage-gated K+ channels and plays many diverse physiological roles. Kv2.1 is a major component of the IK in the central nervous system [19]. Previous studies using cultured CGNs showed that enhancement of the IK was associated with the apoptosis, migration or maturation of CGNs, depending on their normal development state or abnormal apoptosis stimulation [14,15]. Indeed, the IK amplitude and ...
Bax −/− cerebellar granule cells do not undergo apoptosis in response to K+ deprivation. Cerebellar granule cells from Bax +/+ (a, b, e, and f) and Bax −
Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010 Aug;44(4):362-73. doi: 10.1016/j.mcn.2010.05.001. Epub 2010 May 12. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
J:46505 Baader SL, Sanlioglu S, Berrebi AS, Parker-Thornburg J, Oberdick J, Ectopic overexpression of engrailed-2 in cerebellar Purkinje cells causes restricted cell loss and retarded external germinal layer development at lobule junctions. J Neurosci. 1998 Mar 1;18(5):1763-73 ...
Looking for inferior cerebellar peduncle? Find out information about inferior cerebellar peduncle. A large bundle of nerve fibers running from the medulla oblongata to the cerebellum. Also known as restiform body Explanation of inferior cerebellar peduncle
TY - JOUR. T1 - CONTENTS OF SEVERAL AMINO ACIDS IN THE CEREBELLUM, BRAIN STEM AND CEREBRUM OF THE STAGGERER, WEAVER AND NERVOUS NEUROLOGICALLY MUTANT MICE. AU - McBride, W. J.. AU - Aprison, M. H.. AU - Kusano, K.. PY - 1976/5. Y1 - 1976/5. N2 - The content of glutamate, GABA, aspartate, glycine and alanine was determined in the cerebellum, brain stem and cerebrum of three different mutant mice which have been named staggerer, weaver and nervous on the basis of neurological symptoms. In the staggerer and weaver mutants there is an almost complete absence of granule cells in the cerebellar cortex while in the nervous mutant there is a loss of Purkinje cells (and to a lesser extent a loss of granule cells) in the cerebellar cortex. In the cerebellum of the weaver mutant, the content of glutamate was significantly lower (P,0.025) than control values (8.77±0.76 vs 12.0±1.3 μmol/g tissue wet wt) and the contents of GABA and glycine were significantly greater than normal levels. ...
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The major MRI signs consist of fused cerebellar hemispheres, with absent or hypoplastic vermis, narrow diamond-shaped fourth ventricle and fused dentate nuclei. In a minority of cases, partial RS has been identified by MRI [3], demonstrating the presence of the nodulus and the anterior vermis and absence of part of the posterior vermis with only partial fusion of the hemispheres in the inferior part [3 ...
b/w cerebellomesencephic fissure posterior to REZ of CN V --, over the superior cerebellar peduncle and anterior medullary velum --, looping into the ...
Much attention has focused on the dramatic expansion of the forebrain, particularly the neocortex, as the neural substrate of cognitive evolution. However, though relatively small, the cerebellum contains about four times more neurons than the neocortex. I show that commonly used comparative measures such as neocortex ratio underestimate the contribution of the cerebellum to brain evolution. Once differences in the scaling of connectivity in neocortex and cerebellum are accounted for, a marked and general pattern of correlated evolution of the two structures is apparent. One deviation from this general pattern is a relative expansion of the cerebellum in apes and other extractive foragers. The confluence of these comparative patterns, studies of ape foraging skills and social learning, and recent evidence on the cognitive neuroscience of the cerebellum, suggest an important role for the cerebellum in the evolution of the capacity for planning, execution and understanding of complex behavioural ...
Looking for cerebella? Find out information about cerebella. portion of the brain brain, the supervisory center of the nervous system in all vertebrates. It also serves as the site of emotions, memory, self-awareness,... Explanation of cerebella
Synonyms for granular layer in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for granular layer. 10 words related to cerebellum: arteria cerebelli, cerebellar artery, neural structure, cerebellar hemisphere, dentate nucleus, vermis, vermis cerebelli.... What are synonyms for granular layer?
Antiapoptotic protein which protects cells uniquely from Fas-induced apoptosis. Regulates Fas-mediated apoptosis in neurons by interfering with caspase-8 activation. Plays a role in cerebellar development by affecting cerebellar size, internal granular layer (IGL) thickness, and Purkinje cell (PC) development (By similarity).
Pyramid of cerebellum aka Pyramis cerebelli in the latin terminology and part of anterior and superior views of the cerebellum. Learn more now!
Cerebellum is one of the regions in the brain where neurons are beautifully organized. Here is a picture from the cerebellum of a transgenic mouse expressing ChR2 (ChannelRhodopsin-2) and eYFP (Yellow Fluorescent Protein) in the basket cells of the cerebellum. The Purkinje cell was filled with an alexa dye. The picture above was taken as…
Learning a new dance routine or how to ride a bike is possible because of Cerebellar Granule Cells (GCs) according to Galliano and colleagues in The Netherlands. To find out more about the role of these abundant brain cells, and why we have so many of them, the scientists silenced most of the GCs in a group of mutant mice. They found the rodents could balance and run as well as they ever did, but when it came to learning new activities involving motor function, the mice had a harder time.. "Our findings indicate that a minority of functionally intact GCs is sufficient for the maintenance of basic motor performance, whereas acquisition and stabilization of sophisticated memories require higher numbers of normal GCs controlling PC firing," the authors say in their paper published last month in Cell Reports.. Comprising more than half of all neurons in the central nervous systems of vertebrates, GCs are a particularly populous type of neuron, but why? To get some answers, the research team bred a ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
The tela chorioidea of an unusual, saccular, lateral recess of the fourth ventricle has been incised and a flap turned downward. Features of the lateral recess are displayed. The veins of the inferior aspect of the pons and cerebellum are injected. The inferior cerebellar veins (15) opened separately into the right superior petrosal sinus. The more posterior of these veins is also seen in reel 25, view 6 (14), as it passes across the posterior surface of the medulla. The anterior inferior cerebellar artery (20) formed a loop which passed deep into the internal auditory meatus. The loop has been cut off and the distal continuation of the artery is visible at 16 ...
They then hooked up their chip to a rat whose cerebellum had been disabled (they did this externally, with the chip connected to the brain by electrodes--they did not implant the chip in the rats brain). Before hooking up their synthetic chip, they tried to teach the rat a behavior with its cerebellum switched off by combining an auditory tone with a puff of air to the rats eye that caused it to blink. The rat shouldve quickly learned to blink its eye at the stimulus of the tone alone without the puff of air (think Pavlov), but with its cerebellum disabled it could not ...
This image of a brain specimen was cut in the midsagittal (from the side) plane. This allows excellent visualization of the cerebellar vermis which is that part of the cerebellum located in the midline and just to either side of the midline. There is mild atrophy of the vermis. - Stock Image C022/0808
August 2016 Cerebellum is an immersive micro-touring platform celebrating interdisciplinary, live, interactive and inclusive arts and collaboration. With an innovative and experimental spirit at its core Cerebellum enables artists from across Greater London and the South East to make and show work in two locations without incurring financial loss. Cerebellum was relaunched in 2015 in…
History Aspartyl-(Asparaginyl)-β-Hydroxylase (AAH) is a hydroxylating enzyme that promotes cell motility by enhancing Notch-Jagged-HES-1 signaling. motor function by rotarod testing. Cerebella harvested on P21 were used to measure AAH genes/proteins that mediate AAHs downstream signaling i.e. Notch-1 Jagged-1 and HES-1 and immunoreactivity corresponding to neuronal and glial elements. Results The findings exhibited that: 1) siAAH transfection impaired motor performance and blunted cerebellar foliation and decreased expression of neuronal and glial specific genes; 2) pAAH transfection enhanced motor performance and increased expression of neuronal and glial cytoskeletal proteins; and 3) alterations in AAH expression produced comparable shifts in Notch-1 Jagged-1 and HES-1 protein or gene expression. Conclusions The results support our hypothesis that AAH is an important mediator of cerebellar development and WAY-600 function and link AAH expression to Notch signaling pathways in the developing ...
Video created by Duke University for the course Medical Neuroscience. Next, we will consider two major brain systems that modulate the output of upper motor neuronal circuits: the basal ganglia and the cerebellum. Take note: the output of these ...
The idea is interesting, though. The cerebellar cortex is the cytoarchitecturally the most well mapped out part of the brain, due to a very stereotyped pattern. Simulations of the cerebellum have been worked on for years (I remember making a crude model on a Purkinje cell in my Comp Neuro class back in 2000), and this seems like the next logical step. While ataxia is the most notable symptom of cerebellar damage, there are distinct cognitive deficits as well. Whether these are due to the influence of cerebellum on other parts of the brain, or appears as an epiphenomenon (I cant coordinate my reaching for objects, which makes me depressed and irritable) has yet to be completely worked out ...
Oelrichs B.A., Kelly J.D., Kratzing C.C. and Winzor D.J. (1988) Accumulation of ascorbate in rat cerebellum. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 58 2: 213-217. ...
Extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors (eGABARs) allow ambient GABA to tonically regulate neuronal excitability and are implicated as targets for ethanol and anesthetics. These receptors are thought to be heteropentameric proteins made up of two α subunits-either α4 or α6-two β2 or β3 subunits, and one δ subunit. The GABA analog 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo (5,4-c)pyridin-3(-ol) (THIP) has been proposed as a selective ligand for eGABARs. Behavioral and in vitro studies suggest that eGABARs have nanomolar affinity for THIP; however, all published studies on recombinant versions of eGABARs report micromolar affinities. Here, we examine THIP sensitivity of native eGABARs on cerebellar neurons and on reconstituted GABARs in heterologous systems. Concentration-response data for THIP, obtained from cerebellar granule cells and molecular layer interneurons in wild-type and δ subunit knockout slices, confirm that submicromolar THIP sensitivity requires δ subunits. In recombinant experiments, we find ...
On Fri, 23 Jun 2000 11:00:56 -0700, Marco de Innocentis ,mdeinnocentisNOmdSPAM at hotmail.com.invalid, wrote: ,What happens to a person who suffers a bad stroke in the ,cerebellum? Do they become completely paralised or do they ,just lose their sense of equilibrium? , ,Marco. As far as I am aware, theyre not paralysed (unless the stroke affects the brain stem or motor pathways in the medulla as well) although acutely there may be weakness on the affected side. Classically, they get 1) ataxia (problems with gait and balance), 2) problems with performing quick repetitive rhythmic tasks (ie. dysdiadochokinesia, eg: shuffling cards) and, 3) intentional tremor (tremor which only comes on when they are performing a voluntary task). Of course, there is also a strong possibility of death in cerebellar haemorrhages if the cerebellum herniates downwards from the rising pressure ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The cerebellums contribution to beat interval discrimination. AU - Paquette, S.. AU - Fujii, Shinya. AU - Li, H. C.. AU - Schlaug, G.. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - From expert percussionists to individuals who cannot dance, there are widespread differences in peoples abilities to perceive and synchronize with a musical beat. The aim of our study was to identify candidate brain regions that might be associated with these abilities. For this purpose, we used Voxel-Based-Morphometry to correlate inter-individual differences in performance on the Harvard Beat Assessment Tests (H-BAT) with local inter-individual variations in gray matter volumes across the entire brain space in 60 individuals. Analysis revealed significant co-variations between performances on two perceptual tasks of the Harvard Beat Assessment Tests associated with beat interval change discrimination (faster, slower) and gray matter volume variations in the cerebellum. Participant discrimination thresholds ...
Routes of NMDA- and K(+)-stimulated calcium entry in rat cerebellar granule cells.: The routes of Ca2+ entry in response to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and K+ d
download The Cerebellum: Brain for an Implicit Self studies with common meeting practice aesthetics and the consistent blessing. Medical Care 2011, 49: 149-155. homemade CentralPubMedGoogle ScholarGulley SP, Rasch EK, Chan L: final download The Cerebellum: Brain for an Implicit Self (FT Press Science) 2011 for common s: accuracy, swing, and strong question among s Hot pages with great concept byus provides.
Cerebellum function, location, anatomy, tests, how to find if it is working normally. Information, implications about damage to the cerebellum.
Cerebellum GP LLC trimmed its stake in Tripadvisor Inc (NASDAQ:TRIP) by 80.8% during the fourth quarter, according to its most recent 13F filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The fund owned 18,645 shares of the travel companys stock after selling 78,473 shares during the period. Cerebellum GP LLCs holdings in Tripadvisor were worth […]
L. Quignodon, C. Grijota-Martinez, E. Compe, R. Guyot, N. Allioli, D. Laperriere, R. Walker, P. Meltzer, S. Mader, J. Samarut, and F. Flamant (2007) J Mol Endocrinol, 39(1):17-28.. ...
Its 2027 and you are preparing to run a new fMRI experiment. Since 2023 youve been working on a custom 7 T scanner that was developed to mitigate several issues which plagued the early decades of fMRI. Long gone are the thermal shim and gradient drifts of yesteryear, courtesy of an intelligent water cooling system that maintains all hardware at near constant temperature even when the scanner is run flat out. Your scanner also has a custom gradient set with active shielding over the subjects chest. It means the rise time of the gradients is limited only by peripheral nerve stimulation in the subjects face and scalp, not by the possibility of causing fibrillation in the heart. You can use a slew rate four times faster than on the scanner you had back in 2017, meaning distortions of your 1 mm cubic voxels, acquired over the entire brain (including cerebellum!) are minuscule. Whats more, your images no longer suffer from translations and shearing because of the subjects chest motion. Your ...
Cell bodies located in the cerebellum of the hedgehog. This type of neuron is called a Purkinje cell. These neurons were stained using the Golgi Stain. (Image used with the permission of Biodidac ...
The cerebellum is involved in the coordination of voluntary motor movement, balance, and equilibrium and muscle tone. The cerebellum is comprised of white matter and a thin, outer layer of densely folded gray matter. The folded outer layer of the cerebellum (cerebellar cortex) has smaller and more compact folds than those of the cerebral cortex. The cerebellum contains hundreds of millions of neurons for processing data. It relays information between body muscles and areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in motor control. ...
A: Cerebellar slice cultured on a MED probe (left). The slice was prepared from 10-day old rat and cultured for 10 days on a membrane, then transferred to the MED probe. The diagram (right) shows the microanatomy with respect to the electrode arrangement.. B: Spontaneous activity recorded from 2 different channels. The recording sites and corresponding channels within the slice are indicated in the schematic diagram and image above. Single units can be studied for extended periods of time (up to 2 weeks). The synaptic physiology and pharmacology of cerebellar neurons can be evaluated over several weeks. Cultures on MED64 probes can be viable for several months.. ...
A video of the main points in a cerebellar examination. The video was created as part of the Top Hat Tutorials app, a new doctor and student designed guide to the clinical examinations in ...
A video of the main points in a cerebellar examination. The video was created as part of the Top Hat Tutorials app, a new doctor and student designed guide to the clinical examinations in ...
The authors have a long-established interest in the cerebellum and its functions. The result is a thoughtfully organized and well-referenced book. The material
Trouvez tous les livres de Barlow, John S.; John S. , Barlow - The Cerebellum and Adaptive Control. Sur eurolivre.fr,vous pouvez commander des livres anciens et neufs.COMPARER ET acheter IMMÉDIATEMENT au meilleur prix. 9780521018074
I had a MRI & CINE flow study done back to back the CINE showed okay flow but the Doctor showed me were the Cerebellum  is pushing from its side into the...
Its okay to be starstruck... by how cute this Cerebella keychain is! This showstopper is sure to make a great addition to any ensemble! ...
Brief Answer: Lifestyle changes are needed Detailed Answer: Thanks for asking on HealthcareMagic. I have gone carefully through your query and understand your concerns. The risk factors of TIA are same as stroke and so you are definitely at risk. But that does not essentially mean that you would...
The cerebellar microcircuit has been the work bench for theoretical and computational modeling since the beginning of neuroscientific research. The regular neural architecture of the cerebellum inspired different solutions to the long-standing issue of how its circuitry could control motor learning and coordination. Originally, the cerebellar network was modeled using a statistical-topological approach that was later extended by considering the geometrical organization of local microcircuits. However, with the advancement in anatomical and physiological investigations, new discoveries have revealed an unexpected richness of connections, neuronal dynamics and plasticity, calling for a change in modeling strategies, so as to include the multitude of elementary aspects of the network into an integrated and easily updatable computational framework. Recently, biophysically accurate
That sparked a brief flurry of research activity exploring the cerebellums potential role in the disorder. Unfortunately, the direction never truly panned out for researchers hoping for a big breakthrough in understanding, said the studys corresponding author, SDSU psychologist Ralph-Axel Müller.. "Eventually, interest in the cerebellum waned due to a lack of consistency in the findings," he said.. Hoping that advances in brain imaging technology would reveal new insights, Müller, working with the studys first author Amanda Khan, looked back to the cerebellum for their study. Khan is a former masters student at SDSU and now a doctoral candidate at Suffolk University in Boston.. Over- and underconnected. The researchers directed 56 children and adolescents, half with autism and half without the disorder, to fixate on a focal point while thinking about nothing in particular, using fMRI brain imaging technology to scan the childrens brains as they produced spontaneous brain activity. ...
Note: Neurolex imports many terms and their ids from existing community ontologies, e.g., the Gene Ontology. Neurolex, however, is a dynamic site and any content beyond the identifier should not be presumed to reflect the content or views of the source ontology. Users should consult with the authoritative source for each ontology for current information ...
Selected Publications (from 2010) 2019Heysieattalab S, Lee KH, Liu Y, Wang Y, Foy MR, Bi X, Baudry M (2019) Impaired cerebellar plasticity and eye-blink
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This page was last edited 07:29, 8 April 2020 by [email protected] Based on work by wikidoc anonymous user Bryan Derksen ...
Negah Rahmati, Maria Fernanda Vinueza Veloz, Jie Xu, Sharon Barone, Nahuel Rodolfo Ben Hamida, Martijn Schonewille, Freek E. Hoebeek, Manoocher Soleimani and Chris I. De Zeeuw ...
A 24-year-old woman has unknowingly lived without cerebellum in her brain. How is it even possible to have a normal life with part of ones brain missing?
Researchers exploring a rare childrens disease that causes a gradual loss of certain nerve cells in the cerebellum of the brain have come up with new findings.
Cerebellum: The part of the brain in charge of coordinating movements and participating in many of the activities. Learn more here.
Ernst & Young hires Hill & Knowlton International to provide corporate positioning and media relations counsel...Cerebellum Software selects Ruder
Transcription factors from the nuclear factor one (NFI) family have been shown to play a central role in regulating neural progenitor cell differentiation within the embryonic and post-natal brain. NFIA and NFIB, for instance, promote the differentiation and functional maturation of granule neurons within the cerebellum. Mice lacking Nfix exhibit delays in the development of neuronal and glial lineages within the cerebellum, but the cell-type-specific expression of this transcription factor remains undefined. Here, we examined the expression of NFIX, together with various cell-type-specific markers, within the developing and adult cerebellum using both chromogenic immunohistochemistry and co-immunofluorescence labelling and confocal microscopy. In embryos, NFIX was expressed by progenitor cells within the rhombic lip and ventricular zone. After birth, progenitor cells within the external granule layer, as well as migrating and mature granule neurons, expressed NFIX. Within the adult cerebellum, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interactions between mitochondrial bioenergetics and cytoplasmic calcium in cultured cerebellar granule cells. AU - Nicholls, David. AU - Vesce, Sabino. AU - Kirk, Liana. AU - Chalmers, Susan. PY - 2003/10. Y1 - 2003/10. N2 - The mitochondrion has moved to the center stage in the drama of the life and death of the neuron. The mitochondrial membrane potential controls the ability of the organelle to generate ATP, generate reactive oxygen species and sequester Ca(2+) entering the cell. Each of these processes interact, and their deconvolution is far from trivial. The cultured cerebellar granule cell provides a model in which knowledge gained from studies on isolated mitochondria can be applied to study the role played by the organelles in the maintenance of Ca(2+) homeostasis in the cell under resting, stimulated and pathophysiological conditions. In particular, mitochondria play a complex role in the response of the neuron to excitotoxic stimulation of NMDA and AMPA-kainate ...
Article Ethological studies in Swiss albino mice with special reference to the histology of the cerebellar tissue after an acute as well as a continuous low-dose tritiated water (HTO) exposure. Health and environmental impact of tritium released from...
Our patient with a unilateral infarction restricted to the anterior midline vermis presented with acute non-rotatory dizziness and unsteadiness during gait, and neuro-ophthalmologic evaluation showed impaired smooth pursuit and hypometric saccades in the contralesional direction, and disconjugate ocular torsion. This suggests that anterior vermis contributes to ocular motor control as well as posture and gait.. Multiple areas of the cerebral cortex, brainstem and cerebellum are involved in the generation and coordination of smooth pursuit eye movements. Neuronal signals for smooth pursuit eye movements are initiated in the frontal and parietal eye centers, and then mediated by the pontine nuclei [4]. The pontine nuclei project to the vestibulocerebellum and the cerebellar oculomotor vermis that includes the declive, folium, and tuber (Figure 1F) [4]. The uvula and part of the pyramid are also commonly damaged in patients with deficient gain of the horizontal sinusoidal smooth pursuit eye ...
We have investigated the mechanisms of the increases in BFcrb produced by activation of the CF. The CF provide a strong excitatory synaptic input to the cerebellar Purkinje cells. The CF originate from the contralateral inferior olive, project directly to the cerebellar molecular layer, and make multiple synaptic contacts with Purkinje cell dendrites and molecular layer interneurons.6 Despite the fact that a Purkinje cell receives inputs only from a single CF,6 CF activation produces powerful synaptic responses in Purkinje cell dendrites29 (see reference 30 for a review). CF-induced Purkinje cell discharges are associated with increases in cerebellar glucose utilization.31 We have found that activation of the CF using harmaline elicits profound increases in BFcrb that are independent of changes in arterial pressure and blood gases. The increases in BFcrb are protracted in time and are larger in magnitude than those produced by stimulation of the PF, hypercapnia, or topical application of ...
Vol 9: Restrictive Expression of Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 5 Asic5 in Unipolar Brush Cells of the Vestibulocerebellum.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Unipolar brush cell: | | | |Unipolar brush cell| | | | | ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
Light micrograph of the human cerebellum, the hindbrain, showing (at bottom) a row of large, flask-like Purkinje cells, which are among the largest nerve cells in the body. The long dendrites from the Purkinje cells extend into all three layers of the cerebellar cortex. The cerebellum receives input from areas of the brain responsible for initiating movement, & from the bodys sense receptors. The mechanisms by which its cells integrate motor & sensory information to coordinate fine movement are obscure. Magnification: x500 at 35mm size. - Stock Image P360/0069
In Ptch+/−-driven mouse models for medulloblastoma, all mice show aberrant proliferation of cerebellar granule cell precursors, but only some develop advanced medulloblastoma. Tamayo-Orego and colleagues studied P7 external granule layer, preneoplastic lesions, and advanced medulloblastoma, and found high levels of p16Ink4a (CDKN2A) and p21 (CDKN1A) only in the preneoplastic lesions. A third of advanced medulloblastoma harbored p53 mutations, which they could replicate in other SHH models of medulloblastoma. By laser microdissection over time, Ptch1 loss of heterozygosity was the first event in preneoplastic lesions, followed by p53 mutations. In samples without p53 mutations, 60% harbored p16ink4a inactivation. They confirmed similar inactivation of p16INK4A (CDKN2A) in human SHH medulloblastoma. This study provides developmental insights into evasion of oncogene-induced senescence in advanced medulloblastoma.. Tamayo-Orrego L, Wu CL, Bouchard N, Khedher A, Swikert SM, Remke M, et al. Evasion ...
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 (CXCL3) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as GRO3 oncogene (GRO3), GRO protein gamma (GROg) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2-beta (MIP2b). CXCL3 controls migration and adhesion of monocytes and mediates its effects on its target cell by interacting with a cell surface chemokine receptor called CXCR2. More recently, it has been shown that Cxcl3 regulates cell autonomously the migration of the precursors of cerebellar granule neurons toward the internal layers of cerebellum, during the morphogenesis of cerebellum. Moreover, if the expression of Cxcl3 is reduced in cerebellar granule neuron precursors, this highly enhances the frequency of the medulloblastoma, the tumor of cerebellum. In fact, the reduced expression of Cxcl3 forces the cerebellar granule neuron precursors to remain at the surface of the cerebellum, where they highly proliferate under the stimulus of Sonic hedgehog, becoming target of transforming ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Involvement of nitric oxide/reactive oxygen species signaling via 8-nitro-cGMP formation in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells and rat cerebellar granule neurons. AU - Masuda, Kumiko. AU - Tsutsuki, Hiroyasu. AU - Kasamatsu, Shingo. AU - Ida, Tomoaki. AU - Takata, Tsuyoshi. AU - Sugiura, Kikuya. AU - Nishida, Motohiro. AU - Watanabe, Yasuo. AU - Sawa, Tomohiro. AU - Akaike, Takaaki. AU - Ihara, Hideshi. PY - 2018/1/15. Y1 - 2018/1/15. N2 - To investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO)/reactive oxygen species (ROS) redox signaling in Parkinsons disease-like neurotoxicity, we used 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) treatment (a model of Parkinsons disease). We show that MPP+-induced neurotoxicity was dependent on ROS from neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) in nNOS-expressing PC12 cells (NPC12 cells) and rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Following MPP+ treatment, we found production of 8-nitroguanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-nitro-cGMP), a ...
Kumazawa A., Mita N., Hirasawa M., Adachi T., Suzuki H., Shafeghat N., Kulkarni A. B., Mikoshiba K., Inoue T. and Ohshima T. (2013) Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 is required for normal cerebellar development. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 52, 97-105 ...
The cerebellum, principally a motor organ, is responsible for the coordination of movements, especially skilled voluntary ones, the control of posture and gait, and the regulation of muscular tone. In the last decade it has come to be appreciated that the cerebellum may play a role in the modulation of the emotional state and some aspects of cognition. The mechanisms by which these functions are accomplished have been the subject of intense investigation by anatomists and physiologists. Their studies have yielded a mass of data, testimony to the complexity of the organization of the cerebellum and its afferent and efferent connections. A coherent picture of cerebellar function is now emerging, although it is not yet possible, with a few notable exceptions, to relate each of the symptoms of cerebellar disease to a derangement of a discrete anatomic or functional unit of the cerebellum. ...
Purkinje cells in the mammalian cerebellum are remarkably homogeneous in shape and orientation, yet they exhibit regional differences in gene expression. Purkinje cells that express high levels of zebrin II (aldolase C) and the glutamate transporter EAAT4 cluster in parasagittal zones that receive input from distinct groups of climbing fibers (CFs); however, the physiological properties of CFs that target these molecularly distinct Purkinje cells have not been determined. Here we report that CFs that innervate Purkinje cells in zebrin II-immunoreactive (Z(+)) zones release more glutamate per action potential than CFs in Z(-) zones. CF terminals in Z(+) zones had larger pools of release-ready vesicles, exhibited enhanced multivesicular release, and produced larger synaptic glutamate transients. As a result, CF-mediated EPSCs in Purkinje cells decayed more slowly in Z(+) zones, which triggered longer-duration complex spikes containing a greater number of spikelets. The differences in the duration ...
Cora cerebellum is divided into three layers.The inner layer, granular, made of 5 x 1010 small, tightly connected cells in the form of granules.The middle layer, Purkinje cell layer is composed of a large number of single cells.The outer layer, the molecular made of axons and dendrites of the granule cells of Purkinje cells and several other cell types.Purkinje cell layer forms the border between granular and molecular layers.. granule cells. Very small, densely packed neurons.Cerebellar granule cells make up more than half the neurons throughout the brain.These cells receive information from mossy fibers and project it to the Purkinje cells.. Purkinje cells. They are one of the most prominent types of cells in the mammalian brain.Their dendrites form a big fan of finely branched processes.Notably, this almost two-dimensional dendritic tree.In addition, all oriented parallel to Purkinje cells.This arrangement has important functional considerations.. other cell types. In addition to the main ...
The presence of 25 mm potassium (KCl) or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) in cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) induces a trophic effect, including a specific regulation of the enzymes involved in the glutamate neurotransmitter synthesis. In this study we explored the effect of these conditions on the cytosolic and mitochondrial isoenzymes of aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), and phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG) in CGN. We found that NMDA and KCl increased the AAT total activity by 40% and 70%, respectively This effect was mediated by an augmentation in the protein levels (68% by NMDA, 58% by KCl). NMDA raised the V-max and KCl raised both the maximol velocity (V-max) and Michaelis constant (K-m) of AAT. NMDA increased cytosolic AAT activity by 30% and mitochondrial activity by 70%; KCl increased cytosolic and mitochondrial AAT activity by 60% and 100%, respectively This activation was also related to an increase in the protein levels. The effect of both conditions on the activity and ...
Anticonvulsants can increase a risk of developing neurotoxicity in infants; however, the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated to date. Thyroxine (T4) plays crucial roles in the development of the central nervous system. In this study, we hypothesized that induction of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase1A1 (UGT1A1) - an enzyme involved in the metabolism of T4 - by anticonvulsants would reduce serum T4 levels and cause neurodevelopmental toxicity. An exposure of mice to phenytoin during both prenatal and postnatal period significantly induced UGT1A1 and decreased serum T4 levels on postnatal day 14. In the phenytoin-treated mice, the mRNA levels of synaptophysin and synapsin I in hippocampus were lower than those in the control mice. The thickness of external granule cell layer was greater in PHT treated mice, indicating that induction of UGT1A1 during perinatal period caused neurodevelopmental disorders. The exposure to phenytoin during only the postnatal period also caused these ...
Saccadic eye movements are driven by motor commands that are continuously modified so that errors created by eye muscle fatigue, injury, or-in humans-wearing spectacles can be corrected. It is possible to rapidly adapt saccades in the laboratory by introducing a discrepancy between the intended and actual saccadic target. Neurophysiological and lesion studies in the non-human primate as well as neuroimaging and patient studies in humans have demonstrated that the oculomotor vermis (lobules VI and VII of the posterior cerebellum) is critical for saccadic adaptation. We studied the effect of transiently disrupting the function of posterior cerebellum with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on the ability of healthy human subjects to adapt saccadic eye movements. rTMS significantly impaired the adaptation of the amplitude of saccades, without modulating saccadic amplitude or variability in baseline conditions. Moreover, increasing the intensity of rTMS produced a larger impairment in the
Mutations in the neuron-specific α3 isoform of the Na+/K+-ATPase are found in patients suffering from Rapid onset Dystonia Parkinsonism and Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood, two closely related movement disorders. We show that mice harboring a heterozygous hot spot disease mutation, D801Y (α3+/D801Y), suffer abrupt hypothermia-induced dystonia identified by electromyographic recordings. Single-neuron in vivo recordings in awake α3+/D801Y mice revealed irregular firing of Purkinje cells and their synaptic targets, the deep cerebellar nuclei neurons, which was further exacerbated during dystonia and evolved into abnormal high-frequency burst-like firing. Biophysically, we show that the D-to-Y mutation abolished pump-mediated Na+/K+ exchange, but allowed the pumps to bind Na+ and become phosphorylated. These findings implicate aberrant cerebellar activity in α3 isoform-related dystonia and add to the functional understanding of the scarce and severe mutations in the α3 isoform Na+/K+-ATPase.
Looking for online definition of posterior inferior cerebellar artery syndrome in the Medical Dictionary? posterior inferior cerebellar artery syndrome explanation free. What is posterior inferior cerebellar artery syndrome? Meaning of posterior inferior cerebellar artery syndrome medical term. What does posterior inferior cerebellar artery syndrome mean?
Results In all cases, endovascular treatment was successful, with complete occlusion of the aneurysm with proximal parent artery preservation at the final postprocedural angiogram. Procedure related complications were not observed. One patient with a poor clinical condition at admission died during the initial hospital stay due to extensive subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage. No rebleeding or recanalization was noted during follow-up. Two patients had a residual moderate to severe disability at follow-up. Favorable outcomes, with no or mild disability, were observed in four of the surviving patients. ...
Benedikt syndrome, also called Benedikts syndrome or paramedian midbrain syndrome, is a rare type of posterior circulation stroke of the brain, with a range of neurological symptoms affecting the midbrain, cerebellum and other related structures. It is characterized by the presence of an oculomotor nerve (CN III) palsy and cerebellar ataxia including tremor and involuntary choreoathetotic movements. Neuroanatomical structures affected include CNIII nucleus, Red nucleus, corticospinal tracts, brachium conjunctivum, and the superior cerebellar peduncle decussation. It has a very similar cause, morphology and signs and symptoms to Webers syndrome; the main difference between the two being that Webers is more associated with hemiplegia (i.e. paralysis), and Benedikts with hemiataxia (i.e. disturbed coordination of movements). It is also similar to Claudes syndrome, but is distinguishable in that Benedikts has more predominant tremor and choreoathetotic movements while Claudes is more marked ...
Clinical presentation A middle-aged patient was referred for treatment of a bilobed saccular aneurysm identified on a CT angiogram performed for a subarachnoid hemorrhage which occurred 20 days prior to presentation. A diagnostic angiogram showed a bilobed wide-necked saccular aneurysm at the AICA origin with the AICA arising from the dome of the aneurysm and also supplying the territory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. The therapeutic procedure involved trans-aneurysmal cannulation of the AICA with the microcatheter left in situ. Another microcatheter was maneuvered into the larger dome of the aneurysm. A stent was then deployed in the basilar artery, jailing the previous microcatheter in the aneurysm. Helical Guglielmi detachable coils were deployed in the aneurysm resulting in complete occlusion of the aneurysm with preservation of the AICA.. ...
The main clinical manifestations of the spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) result from the involvement of the cerebellum and its connections. Cerebellar activity has been consistently observed in functional imaging studies of olfaction, but the anatomical pathways responsible for this connection have not yet been elucidated. Previous studies have demonstrated olfactory deficit in SCA2, Friedreichs ataxia and in small groups of ataxia of diverse aetiology. The authors used a validated version of the 16-item smell identification test from Sniffin Sticks (SS-16) was used to evaluate 37 patients with genetically determined autosomal dominant ataxia, and 31 with familial ataxia of unknown genetic basis. This data was also compared with results in 106 Parkinsons disease patients and 218 healthy controls. The SS-16 score was significantly lower in ataxia than in the control group (p,0.001, 95% CI for β=0.55 to 1.90) and significantly higher in ataxia than in Parkinsons disease (p,0.001, 95% CI for ...
Design: multicentric Aims of this study: to describe clinical and genetic basis of Joubert syndrome and cerebello-oculo-renal syndromes.Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by hypotonia, abnormal ocular movements and neonatal breathing dysregulation evolving into developmental delay, ataxia, oculomotor apraxia with variable mental retardation. The neuroradiological hallmark of JS is a complex midbrain-hindbrain malformation consisting of vermis hypoplasia/dysplasia, a deepened interpeduncular fossa, and thickened, elongated and mal-orientated superior cerebellar peduncles (Molar Tooth Sign, MTS). Other organs could be involved in JS (kidneys :nephronophthisis or cystic dysplastic kidneys; eyes : Leber Congenital Amaurosis, retinopathy, colobomas); liver : hepatic fibrosis; others: polydactyly, tongue hamartomas, situs inversus). Several associated central nervous system malformations were described : polymicrogyria, hydrocephalus, corpus callosum anomalies and encephalocele. This pleiotropic ...

Acute Cerebellar Ataxia | Memorial HospitalAcute Cerebellar Ataxia | Memorial Hospital

The cerebellum is the part of the brain that plays an important role in balance and coordination. It does not function properly ... Paraneoplastic syndromes-occurs when the immune system attacks the cerebellum in the area of a cancer ...
more infohttps://memorialhospitaljax.com/hl/?/191914/Cerebellitis&com.dotmarketing.htmlpage.language=1

Cerebellar Stroke | TriStar Southern HillsCerebellar Stroke | TriStar Southern Hills

The cerebellum is located in the lower part of the brain, towards the back. This part of the brain plays a role in body ...
more infohttps://tristarsouthernhills.com/hl/?/644493/Cerebellar-stroke

Acute Cerebellar Ataxia | TriStar Southern HillsAcute Cerebellar Ataxia | TriStar Southern Hills

The cerebellum is the part of the brain that plays an important role in balance and coordination. It does not function properly ... Paraneoplastic syndromes-occurs when the immune system attacks the cerebellum in the area of a cancer ...
more infohttps://tristarsouthernhills.com/hl/?/191914/Acute-cerebellar-ataxia

Course and outcome of acute cerebellar ataxia.Course and outcome of acute cerebellar ataxia.

Nonetheless, inflammatory changes could be identified in the cerebellum in only 1 of 9 children who had MR scans, a finding ... often including the cerebellum { 12). The more favorable outlook experienced by our patients, as compared to those of Weiss and ...
more infohttps://www.docme.ru/doc/1918865/course-and-outcome-of-acute-cerebellar-ataxia

Cerebellar Disorders | MedlinePlusCerebellar Disorders | MedlinePlus

Cerebellar disorders are problems with the cerebellum, an area of the brain that controls coordination and balance. Ataxias is ... When you play the piano or hit a tennis ball you are activating the cerebellum. The cerebellum is the area of the brain that ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/cerebellardisorders.html

Cerebellum - function: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia ImageCerebellum - function: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Image

The cerebellum processes input from other areas of the brain, spinal cord and sensory receptors to provide precise timing for ... The cerebellum processes input from other areas of the brain, spinal cord and sensory receptors to provide precise timing for ... A stroke affecting the cerebellum may cause dizziness, nausea, balance and coordination problems. ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/imagepages/18008.htm

Word! CerebellumWord! Cerebellum

... Cerebellum. Say: sair-uh-beh-lum. Yo-yoing, walking, playing soccer - you couldnt do any of it without this ... The cerebellum controls balance, coordination, and movement. Its way in the back of the brain, down low and near the spinal ...
more infohttp://kidshealth.org/en/kids/word-cerebellum.html?view=ptr&WT.ac=k-ptr

Cerebellum NeuronCerebellum Neuron

Cerebellum. Cell bodies located in the cerebellum of the hedgehog. This type of neuron is called a Purkinje cell. These neurons ...
more infohttp://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/cellcerebell.html

Cerebellum - Children of the AmphioxusCerebellum - Children of the Amphioxus

Cerebellum Cross references: Red Nucleus Red Nucleus Cerebellum Deep Cerebellar Nuclei Posterior Horn of the Spinal Cord ... Cerebellum (Wiki) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerebellum "The cerebellum (Latin for little brain) is a region of the brain ... Drawing of the human brain, showing cerebellum and pons. The cerebellum does not initiate movement, but it contributes to ... we delineate the role of the cerebellum in several nonmotor systems simultaneously and in the same subjects using resting state ...
more infohttps://sites.google.com/site/childrenoftheamphioxus/table-of-contents/cerebellum

Cerebellum Corporation [WorldCat Identities]Cerebellum Corporation [WorldCat Identities]

Most widely held works by Cerebellum Corporation Habla español? : learning Spanish, the basics by Enrique Montes( Visual ). 16 ...
more infohttp://worldcat.org/identities/lccn-no98-89159/

The Cerebellum and MigraineThe Cerebellum and Migraine

... possible that this drug increases the extracelullar concentration of free protons in the brain tissue including the cerebellum. ...
more infohttps://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/559621_7

Cerebellum strokeCerebellum stroke

... James Teo james.teo at chch.ox.ac.uk Mon Jun 26 06:00:19 EST 2000 *Previous message: Cerebellum stroke ... cerebellum? Do they become completely paralised or do they ,just lose their sense of equilibrium? , ,Marco. As far as I am ... there is also a strong possibility of death in cerebellar haemorrhages if the cerebellum herniates downwards from the rising ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/neur-sci/2000-June/043982.html

cerebellum | Neuroanthropologycerebellum | Neuroanthropology

anthropomorphic overshoot breakfast cerebellum conferences cross-cultural psychiatry cultural neuroscience Daniel Kish David ...
more infohttp://blogs.plos.org/neuroanthropology/tag/cerebellum/

Low Cerebellum - Neurology - MedHelpLow Cerebellum - Neurology - MedHelp

... he said he thought it was a nerve but he also told me I had low cerebellum? I didnt ask what this meant but sinc... ... Low Cerebellum is the position of the cerebellum sometimes in individuals when it is near the opening of the brain into the ... Low Cerebellum is the position of the cerebellum sometimes in individuals when it is near the opening of the brain into the ... Low Cerebellum bekkib I have been suffering from headaches and see a neurologist who sent me for an mri scan, he said he ...
more infohttps://www.medhelp.org/posts/Neurology/Low-Cerebellum/show/963920

Cerebellum (The Webtender)Cerebellum (The Webtender)

Cerebellum. Ingredients:. *1 oz Vodka *1/4 oz Grenadine *1/4 oz Baileys irish cream Mixing instructions:. Fill shot glass 3/4 ...
more infohttp://www.webtender.com/db/drink/4907

Cerebellum - WikipediaCerebellum - Wikipedia

Cerebellum-like structuresEdit. Most vertebrate species have a cerebellum and one or more cerebellum-like structures, brain ... The Cerebellum as a Neuronal Machine, p. 311 *^ a b Boyden ES, Katoh A, Raymond JL (2004). "Cerebellum-dependent learning: the ... The cerebellum is located in the posterior cranial fossa. The fourth ventricle, pons and medulla are in front of the cerebellum ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cerebellum.. *Cerebellum Rodolfo Llinas and Mario N. Negrello, Scholarpedia, 10(1):4606 ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerebellar_cortex

The Cerebellum - 2016 Impact Factor 3.234The Cerebellum - 2016 Impact Factor 3.234

... role of cerebellum in motor control and cognitive function, and amid an ageing population, diseases associated with ... ... Official publication of the Society for Research on the Cerebellum devoted to genetics of cerebellar ataxias, ... The Cerebellum will cover all the latest developments in this field to ensure readers are kept fully up to date from one source ... The Cerebellum will be of immense interest to researchers including: neuroscientists in molecular and cellular biology; ...
more infohttp://www.springer.com/biomed/neuroscience/journal/12311?hideChart=1

Cerebellum - Anatomy Pictures and InformationCerebellum - Anatomy Pictures and Information

The cerebellum is a rounded structure located behind the brain stem, to which it is linked by thick nerve tracts. It accounts ...
more infohttps://www.innerbody.com/image_nerv02/nerv40-new.html

Human Cerebellum | MicroscopyUHuman Cerebellum | MicroscopyU

The cerebellum is the portion of the human hindbrain that ensures a movement goes where it is supposed to go, at a proper rate ... Human Cerebellum. Human Cerebellum. About the size of a human fist, the cerebellum is the only branch of the brain between its ... A great mass of myeliniated axons (white matter), internal to the cortex, converge at the cerebellum core, the central ...
more infohttps://www.microscopyu.com/gallery-images/human-cerebellum

Brain Function - Brainstem & CerebellumBrain Function - Brainstem & Cerebellum

Cerebellum in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of professional healthcare and anatomy chart templates that you ... Brainstem & Cerebellum. Brainstem controls breathing, heartbeat, and articulate speech. A stroke affecting the brain stem is ... Brain Function - Brainstem & Cerebellum. Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Brain Function - Brainstem & ... Cerebellum helps provide smooth, coordinated body movement. LifeART Collection Images Copyright © 1989-2001 by Lippincott ...
more infohttps://www.smartdraw.com/cerebrovascular-disease/examples/brain-function-brainstem-andcerebellum/

Cerebellum Function, Anatomy & Definition | Body MapsCerebellum Function, Anatomy & Definition | Body Maps

The cerebellum is located behind the top part of the brain stem (where the spinal cord meets the brain) and is made of two ... The cerebellum is located behind the top part of the brain stem (where the spinal cord meets the brain) and is made of two ... The cerebellum is not unique to humans. Evolutionarily speaking, it is an older portion of the brain. It is present in animals ... The cerebellum receives information from the sensory systems, the spinal cord, and other parts of the brain and then regulates ...
more infohttps://www.healthline.com/human-body-maps/cerebellum

Cerebellum & Ataxias | Directory of Open Access JournalsCerebellum & Ataxias | Directory of Open Access Journals

Information about the open-access journal Cerebellum & Ataxias in DOAJ. DOAJ is an online directory that indexes and provides ...
more infohttps://doaj.org/toc/2053-8871

Cerebellum protruding from side | DailyStrengthCerebellum protruding from side | DailyStrength

CINE flow study done back to back the CINE showed okay flow but the Doctor showed me were the Cerebellum is pushing from its ... I had a MRI & CINE flow study done back to back the CINE showed okay flow but the Doctor showed me were the Cerebellum is ...
more infohttps://www.dailystrength.org/group/arnold-chiari-malformation/discussion/cerebellum-protruding-from-side

naked cerebellum | mgoblognaked cerebellum | mgoblog

MGoBlog obsessively covers University of Michigan football, basketball, hockey, baseball, lacrosse, and volleyball. It also has lots of charts.
more infohttp://mgoblog.com/users/naked-cerebellum?quicktabs_2=0

naked cerebellum | mgoblognaked cerebellum | mgoblog

MGoBlog obsessively covers University of Michigan football, basketball, hockey, baseball, lacrosse, and volleyball. It also has lots of charts.
more infohttp://mgoblog.com/users/naked-cerebellum?page=0%2C0%2C0%2C1%2C0%2C1&quicktabs_1=0
  • Little to no overlap was detected between these cerebellar regions and the sensorimotor cerebellum (lobules V-VI). (google.com)
  • The results suggest that the most phylogenetically recent part of the cerebellum, particularly crus I and II, make contributions to parallel cortico-cerebellar loops involved in executive control, salience detection, and episodic memory/self-reflection. (google.com)
  • Of course, there is also a strong possibility of death in cerebellar haemorrhages if the cerebellum herniates downwards from the rising pressure. (bio.net)
  • This complex neural organization gives rise to a massive signal-processing capability, but almost all of the output from the cerebellar cortex passes through a set of small deep nuclei lying in the white matter interior of the cerebellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is currently intense interest in the genetics of cerebellar ataxias and in the roles of the cerebellum in motor control and cognitive functioning. (springer.com)
  • Cerebellar is the sister word to cerebral and means "relating to or located in the cerebellum. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Dysfunctions or abnormalities within the structure of the cerebellum-or atypical cerebellar functional connectivity with other brain regions-appears to be linked to disorders such as schizophrenia, autism , and Tourette's syndrome . (psychologytoday.com)
  • Mustafa Sahin, a neurologist at Boston's Children Hospital and associate professor of neurology at Harvard Medical School, said that Wang and his co-authors build upon known links between cerebellar damage and autism to suggest that the cerebellum is essential to healthy neural development. (medindia.net)
  • The timing hypotheses of cerebellar function attempt to explain the various tasks for which the cerebellum is engaged or is necessary in terms of the need to gauge the explicit timing between events in the hundreds- of- ms range. (iapsych.com)
  • The cerebrum and cerebellum are separated by the tentorium cerebelli or cerebellar tentorium, according to anatomyEXPERT. (reference.com)
  • The unusual surface appearance of the cerebellum conceals the fact that most of its volume is made up of a very tightly folded layer of gray matter: the cerebellar cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cerebellum processes input from other areas of the brain, spinal cord and sensory receptors to provide precise timing for coordinated, smooth movements of the skeletal muscular system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is possible that this drug increases the extracelullar concentration of free protons in the brain tissue including the cerebellum. (medscape.com)
  • Low Cerebellum' is the position of the cerebellum sometimes in individuals when it is near the opening of the brain into the spinal cord which is lower down. (medhelp.org)
  • Because of its large number of tiny granule cells , the cerebellum contains more neurons than the total from the rest of the brain, but takes up only 10% of the total brain volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cerebellum is a rounded structure located behind the brain stem, to which it is linked by thick nerve tracts. (innerbody.com)
  • Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Brain Function - Brainstem & Cerebellum in minutes with SmartDraw. (smartdraw.com)
  • The cerebellum receives information from the sensory systems, the spinal cord, and other parts of the brain and then regulates motor movements. (healthline.com)
  • The coordinated activity of the multiple parts of the cerebellum enables this region of the brain to control refined, coordinated muscle movements and balance. (fsu.edu)
  • The cerebellum an area located in the lower rear of the brain is known to process external and internal information such as sensory cues that influence the development of other brain regions, the researchers report in the journal Neuron . (medindia.net)
  • Based on a review of existing research, the researchers offer a new theory that an injury to the cerebellum during early life potentially disrupts this process and leads to what they call "developmental diaschisis," which is when a loss of function in one part of the brain leads to problems in another region. (medindia.net)
  • They also reference studies in 2004 and 2005 that found that the cerebellum is the most frequently disrupted brain region in people with autism. (medindia.net)
  • The cerebellum is the center of motor control within the brain, according to Healthline. (reference.com)
  • In autism, something in that process goes wrong and one thing could be that sensory information is not processed correctly in the cerebellum. (medindia.net)
  • Although the cerebellum is generally viewed as primarily a motor structure, it has also been proposed to be a general-purpose interval timer in the range of tens to hundreds of ms. "General purpose" in this sense encompasses both sensory and motor timing . (iapsych.com)
  • For instance, the researchers cite a 2007 paper in the journal Pediatrics that found that individuals who experienced cerebellum damage at birth were 40 times more likely to score highly on autism screening tests. (medindia.net)
  • e delineate the role of the cerebellum in several nonmotor systems simultaneously and in the same subjects using resting state functional connectivity MRI. (google.com)
  • These results suggest that the cerebellum has a fundamental role to play in both sub- and supra-second time perception . (iapsych.com)
  • We hope to get people and scientists thinking differently about the cerebellum or about autism so that the whole field can move forward. (medindia.net)
  • Most data involve demonstrations that the cerebellum is activated during, or is required for, tasks that we view as examples of timing. (iapsych.com)
  • In this view, the cerebellum is not required by the continuous task because timing can be implicit-that is, timing can be produced by maintaining a constant angular velocity. (iapsych.com)
  • After each test there will be information about what is considered normal as well as some signs that could relate to problems with the cerebellum. (instructables.com)
  • I had a MRI & CINE flow study done back to back the CINE showed okay flow but the Doctor showed me were the Cerebellum is pushing from it's side into the fluid opening and open were the tonsils are only protruding 5mm when before it was unto 11mm and CINE showed blockage.has anyone else experienced this? (dailystrength.org)
  • My neurologist just informed me that Osteoporosis and shrinkage of the Cerebellum are very serious side effects for long term users of Dilantin. (medhelp.org)
  • I would like to know if this is linked and if anyone knows what low cerebellum means. (medhelp.org)
  • The Cerebellum will cover all the latest developments in this field to ensure readers are kept fully up to date from one source. (springer.com)