Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Purkinje Cells: The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.Cerebellar Cortex: The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.Cerebellar Diseases: Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cerebellar Nuclei: Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.Mice, Neurologic Mutants: Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.Cerebellar Ataxia: Incoordination of voluntary movements that occur as a manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES. Characteristic features include a tendency for limb movements to overshoot or undershoot a target (dysmetria), a tremor that occurs during attempted movements (intention TREMOR), impaired force and rhythm of diadochokinesis (rapidly alternating movements), and GAIT ATAXIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p90)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cerebellar Neoplasms: Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)Conditioning, Eyelid: Reflex closure of the eyelid occurring as a result of classical conditioning.Nerve Tissue ProteinsBrain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Ataxia: Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Blinking: Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.Medulloblastoma: A malignant neoplasm that may be classified either as a glioma or as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood (see NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR, PRIMITIVE). The tumor occurs most frequently in the first decade of life with the most typical location being the cerebellar vermis. Histologic features include a high degree of cellularity, frequent mitotic figures, and a tendency for the cells to organize into sheets or form rosettes. Medulloblastoma have a high propensity to spread throughout the craniospinal intradural axis. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2060-1)S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Calbindins: Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Spinocerebellar Degenerations: A heterogenous group of degenerative syndromes marked by progressive cerebellar dysfunction either in isolation or combined with other neurologic manifestations. Sporadic and inherited subtypes occur. Inheritance patterns include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Mice, Inbred C57BLSynapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Spinocerebellar Ataxias: A group of dominantly inherited, predominately late-onset, cerebellar ataxias which have been divided into multiple subtypes based on clinical features and genetic mapping. Progressive ataxia is a central feature of these conditions, and in certain subtypes POLYNEUROPATHY; DYSARTHRIA; visual loss; and other disorders may develop. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch65, pp 12-17; J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1998 Jun;57(6):531-43)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Rhombencephalon: The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular: A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.Metencephalon: The anterior portion of the developing hindbrain. It gives rise to the CEREBELLUM and the PONS.Diencephalon: The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Spinocerebellar Tracts: Fibers that arise from cell groups within the spinal cord and pass directly to the cerebellum. They include the anterior, posterior, and rostral spinocerebellar tracts, and the cuneocerebellar tract. (From Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p607)Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Gait Ataxia: Impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal ambulation (WALKING) which may result from impairments of motor function or sensory feedback. This condition may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES (including CEREBELLAR DISEASES and BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES); SPINAL CORD DISEASES; or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Neuroanatomy: Study of the anatomy of the nervous system as a specialty or discipline.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Receptors, Glutamate: Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.

FGF8 induces formation of an ectopic isthmic organizer and isthmocerebellar development via a repressive effect on Otx2 expression. (1/6494)

Beads containing recombinant FGF8 (FGF8-beads) were implanted in the prospective caudal diencephalon or midbrain of chick embryos at stages 9-12. This induced the neuroepithelium rostral and caudal to the FGF8-bead to form two ectopic, mirror-image midbrains. Furthermore, cells in direct contact with the bead formed an outgrowth that protruded laterally from the neural tube. Tissue within such lateral outgrowths developed proximally into isthmic nuclei and distally into a cerebellum-like structure. These morphogenetic effects were apparently due to FGF8-mediated changes in gene expression in the vicinity of the bead, including a repressive effect on Otx2 and an inductive effect on En1, Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression. The ectopic Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression domains formed nearly complete concentric rings around the FGF8-bead, with the Wnt1 ring outermost. These observations suggest that FGF8 induces the formation of a ring-like ectopic signaling center (organizer) in the lateral wall of the brain, similar to the one that normally encircles the neural tube at the isthmic constriction, which is located at the boundary between the prospective midbrain and hindbrain. This ectopic isthmic organizer apparently sends long-range patterning signals both rostrally and caudally, resulting in the development of the two ectopic midbrains. Interestingly, our data suggest that these inductive signals spread readily in a caudal direction, but are inhibited from spreading rostrally across diencephalic neuromere boundaries. These results provide insights into the mechanism by which FGF8 induces an ectopic organizer and suggest that a negative feedback loop between Fgf8 and Otx2 plays a key role in patterning the midbrain and anterior hindbrain.  (+info)

Somatic recording of GABAergic autoreceptor current in cerebellar stellate and basket cells. (2/6494)

Patch-clamp recordings were performed from stellate and basket cells in rat cerebellar slices. Under somatic voltage clamp, short depolarizing pulses were applied to elicit action potentials in the axon. After the action potential, a bicuculline- and Cd2+-sensitive current transient was observed. A similar response was obtained when eliciting axonal firing by extracellular stimulation. With an isotonic internal Cl- solution, the peak amplitude of this current varied linearly with the holding potential, yielding an extrapolated reversal potential of -20 to 0 mV. Unlike synaptic or autaptic GABAergic currents obtained in the same preparation, the current transient had a slow rise-time and a low variability between trials. This current was blocked when 10 mM BAPTA was included in the recording solution. In some experiments, the current transient elicited axonal action potentials. The current transient was reliably observed in animals aged 12-15 d, with a mean amplitude of 82 pA at -70 mV, but was small and rare in the age group 29-49 d. Numerical simulations could account for all properties of the current transient by assuming that an action potential activates a distributed GABAergic conductance in the axon. The actual conductance is probably restricted to release sites, with an estimated mean presynaptic current response of 10 pA per site (-70 mV, age 12-15 d). We conclude that in developing rats, stellate and basket cell axons have a high density of GABAergic autoreceptors and that a sizable fraction of the corresponding current can be measured from the soma.  (+info)

Reproducibility studies with 11C-DTBZ, a monoamine vesicular transporter inhibitor in healthy human subjects. (3/6494)

The reproducibility of (+/-)-alpha-[11C] dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) measures in PET was studied in 10 healthy human subjects, aged 22-76 y. METHODS: The scan-to-scan variation of several measures used in PET data analysis was determined, including the radioactivity ratio (target-to-reference), plasma-input Logan total distribution volume (DV), plasma-input Logan Bmax/Kd and tissue-input Logan Bmax/Kd values. RESULTS: The radioactivity ratios, plasma-input Bmax/Kd and tissue-input Bmax/Kd all have higher reliability than plasma-input total DV values. In addition, measures using the occipital cortex as the reference region have higher reliability than the same measures using the cerebellum as the reference region. CONCLUSION: Our results show that DTBZ is a reliable PET tracer that provides reproducible in vivo measurement of striatal vesicular monoamine transporter density. In the selection of reference regions for DTBZ PET data analysis, caution must be exercised in circumstances when DTBZ binding in the occipital cortex or the cerebellum may be altered.  (+info)

A genetic approach to visualization of multisynaptic neural pathways using plant lectin transgene. (4/6494)

The wiring patterns among various types of neurons via specific synaptic connections are the basis of functional logic employed by the brain for information processing. This study introduces a powerful method of analyzing the neuronal connectivity patterns by delivering a tracer selectively to specific types of neurons while simultaneously transsynaptically labeling their target neurons. We developed a novel genetic approach introducing cDNA for a plant lectin, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), as a transgene under the control of specific promoter elements. Using this method, we demonstrate three examples of visualization of specific transsynaptic neural pathways: the mouse cerebellar efferent pathways, the mouse olfactory pathways, and the Drosophila visual pathways. This strategy should greatly facilitate studies on the anatomical and functional organization of the developing and mature nervous system.  (+info)

Control of neuronal precursor proliferation in the cerebellum by Sonic Hedgehog. (5/6494)

Cerebellar granule cells are the most abundant type of neuron in the brain, but the molecular mechanisms that control their generation are incompletely understood. We show that Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which is made by Purkinje cells, regulates the division of granule cell precursors (GCPs). Treatment of GCPs with Shh prevents differentiation and induces a potent, long-lasting proliferative response. This response can be inhibited by basic fibroblast growth factor or by activation of protein kinase A. Blocking Shh function in vivo dramatically reduces GCP proliferation. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms of normal growth and tumorigenesis in the cerebellum.  (+info)

Comparative effects of methylmercury on parallel-fiber and climbing-fiber responses of rat cerebellar slices. (6/6494)

The environmental neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg) causes profound disruption of cerebellar function. Previous studies have shown that acute exposure to MeHg impairs synaptic transmission in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. However, the effects of MeHg on cerebellar synaptic function have never been examined. In the present study, effects of acute exposure to MeHg on synaptic transmission between parallel fibers or climbing fibers and Purkinje cells were compared in 300- to 350-microm cerebellar slices by using extracellular and intracellular microelectrode-recording techniques. Field potentials of parallel-fiber volleys (PFVs) and the associated postsynaptic responses (PSRs) were recorded in the molecular layer by stimulating the parallel fibers in transverse cerebellar slices. The climbing-fiber responses were also recorded in the molecular layer by stimulating white matter in sagittal cerebellar slices. At 20, 100, and 500 microM, MeHg reduced the amplitude of both PFVs and the associated PSRs to complete block, however, it blocked PSRs more rapidly than PFVs. MeHg also decreased the amplitudes of climbing-fiber responses to complete block. For all responses, an initial increase in amplitude preceded MeHg-induced suppression. Intracellular recordings of excitatory postsynaptic potentials of Purkinje cells were compared before and after MeHg. At 100 microM and 20 microM, MeHg blocked the Na+-dependent, fast somatic spikes and Ca++-dependent, slow dendritic spike bursts. MeHg also hyperpolarized and then depolarized Purkinje cell membranes, suppressed current conduction from parallel fibers or climbing fibers to dendrites of Purkinje cells, and blocked synaptically activated local responses. MeHg switched the pattern of repetitive firing of Purkinje cells generated spontaneously or by depolarizing current injection at Purkinje cell soma from predominantly Na+-dependent, fast somatic spikes to predominantly Ca++-dependent, low amplitude, slow dendritic spike bursts. Thus, acute exposure to MeHg causes a complex pattern of effects on cerebellar synaptic transmission, with apparent actions on both neuronal excitability and chemical synaptic transmission.  (+info)

Long term lithium treatment suppresses p53 and Bax expression but increases Bcl-2 expression. A prominent role in neuroprotection against excitotoxicity. (7/6494)

This study was undertaken to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective actions of lithium against glutamate excitotoxicity with a focus on the role of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic genes. Long term, but not acute, treatment of cultured cerebellar granule cells with LiCl induces a concentration-dependent decrease in mRNA and protein levels of proapoptotic p53 and Bax; conversely, mRNA and protein levels of cytoprotective Bcl-2 are remarkably increased. The ratios of Bcl-2/Bax protein levels increase by approximately 5-fold after lithium treatment for 5-7 days. Exposure of cerebellar granule cells to glutamate induces a rapid increase in p53 and Bax mRNA and protein levels with no apparent effect on Bcl-2 expression. Pretreatment with LiCl for 7 days prevents glutamate-induced increase in p53 and Bax expression and maintains Bcl-2 in an elevated state. Glutamate exposure also triggers the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. Lithium pretreatment blocks glutamate-induced cytochrome c release and cleavage of lamin B1, a nuclear substrate for caspase-3. These results strongly suggest that lithium-induced Bcl-2 up-regulation and p53 and Bax down-regulation play a prominent role in neuroprotection against excitotoxicity. Our results further suggest that lithium, in addition to its use in the treatment of bipolar depressive illness, may have an expanded use in the intervention of neurodegeneration.  (+info)

The type and the localization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulate transmission of cAMP signals to the nucleus in cortical and cerebellar granule cells. (8/6494)

cAMP signals are received and transmitted by multiple isoforms of cAMP-dependent protein kinases, typically determined by their specific regulatory subunits. In the brain the major regulatory isoform RIIbeta and the RII-anchor protein, AKAP150 (rat) or 75 (bovine), are differentially expressed. Cortical neurons express RIIbeta and AKAP75; conversely, granule cerebellar cells express predominantly RIalpha and RIIalpha. Cortical neurons accumulate PKA catalytic subunit and phosphorylated cAMP responsive element binding protein very efficiently into nuclei upon cAMP induction, whereas granule cerebellar cells fail to do so. Down-regulation of RIIbeta synthesis by antisense oligonucleotides inhibited cAMP-induced nuclear signaling in cortical neurons. Expression in cerebellar granule cells of RIIbeta and AKAP75 genes by microinjection of specific expression vectors, markedly stimulated cAMP-induced transcription of the lacZ gene driven by a cAMP-responsive element promoter. These data indicate that the composition of PKA in cortical and granule cells underlies the differential ability of these cells to transmit cAMP signals to the nucleus.  (+info)

  • In humans, the cerebellum plays an important role in motor control, and it may also be involved in some cognitive functions such as attention and language as well as in regulating fear and pleasure responses, but its movement-related functions are the most solidly established. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is currently intense interest in the genetics of cerebellar ataxias and in the roles of the cerebellum in motor control and cognitive functioning. (springer.com)
  • Stoodley CJ, Schmahmann JD (2010) Evidence for topographic organization in the cerebellum of motor control versus cognitive and affective processing. (springer.com)
  • Contrary to the long-held belief that the cerebellum wasn't involved in cognitive processes, it now appears that the cerebellum plays a complex role in executive function, creativity , attention, planning, emotional regulation, reward-seeking behavior, etc. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The latest findings by Parker and colleagues provide fresh insights into how the cerebellum influences neural networks in the frontal lobes and the role of the cerebellum in cognitive processing. (psychologytoday.com)
  • 31. On the role of the cerebellum and basal ganglia in cognitive signal processing. (elsevier.com)
  • The cerebellum is reciprocally connected to each of 14 neocortical regions important to human cognitive evolution. (pnas.org)
  • If the volume of the posterior cranial fossa can be determined relative to overall endocranial volume, and if there are significant differences in cerebellar proportions relative to the rest of the brain that correlate with morphological and behavioral aspects of the paleontological record, then certain inferences may be drawn about the relative contribution of the cerebellum and the rest of the brain (primarily the cerebral hemispheres) to overall cognitive function. (pnas.org)
  • Recent neuroanatomical studies and radiographic observations have demonstrated that the cerebellum plays a role in many cognitive functions. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, the cerebellum has reciprocal connections, through the thalamus, with each of the major neocortical regions listed by Holloway ( 3 ) as having changed in the course of human cognitive evolution ( Table 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • One idea is that abnormalities in the cerebellum in autism affect coordination in both the motor domain and cognitive domain, producing uncoordinated movements and thoughts. (autismspeaks.org)
  • There is consistent evidence that having an alcohol use disorder is associated with abnormalities in the cerebellum, a structure attached to the bottom of the brain that is involved in coordinating posture and balance but also in supporting some cognitive functions. (news-medical.net)
  • A report published in the journal Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research examines neuroimaging (MRI) data from 92 people in order to further investigate the impact of smoking and alcohol status on the volume of the cerebellum and related cognitive function. (news-medical.net)
  • Using transgenic mice that had a mutation impairing exclusively LTD of the cerebellar neurons, the neuroscientists were able to show that the cerebellum participates also in the formation of the hippocampal cognitive map. (innovations-report.com)
  • Specifically, a recent neuroimaging study highlighted functional subregions in the cerebellum as playing a role in both motor and cognitive tasks. (medindia.net)
  • One of the strongest pieces of evidence for the cerebellum's broader repertoire emerged around two decades ago, when Jeremy Schmahmann , a neurologist at Massachusetts General Hospital, described cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome after discovering behavioral changes such as impairments in abstract reasoning and regulating emotion in individuals whose cerebella had been damaged. (scientificamerican.com)
  • There has been human neuroimaging work showing the cerebellum is involved in cognitive processing and emotional control-and investigations in animals have revealed, among other things, that the structure is important for the normal development of social and cognitive capacities. (scientificamerican.com)
  • This work helps lay out the circuitry connecting the cerebellum to social and reward processing," says Julie Fiez , a cognitive neuroscientist at the University of Pittsburgh who was not involved in this study. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Located in the back of the head near the base of the skull, the cerebellum is responsible for a lot of fundamental stuff-such as integrating sensory information and motor control-but nothing cognitive. (lww.com)
  • Simulations suggest plasticity at cerebellar relays may be an important element of tremendous storage capacity reliable in the learning of coordination of actions, sensorimotor or cognitive, in which the cerebellum participates. (amrita.edu)
  • Some researchers have found evidence that the cerebellum may be involved (at least partially) with cognitive thought, production of language, and even the display of emotions. (coursehero.com)
  • The number of neurons in the cerebellum is related to the number of neurons in the neocortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are about 3.6 times as many neurons in the cerebellum as in the neocortex, a ratio that is conserved across many different mammalian species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research at the University of Calgary's Hotchkiss Brain Institute (HBI) has demonstrated the novel expression of an ion channel in Purkinje cells - specialized neurons in the cerebellum, the area of the brain responsible for movement. (redorbit.com)
  • This research fills a substantial gap in understanding how neurons in the cerebellum process information. (redorbit.com)
  • We knew very little about how these neurons in the cerebellum were firing when the brain is engaged in behavior," he said. (simonsfoundation.org)
  • The finding adds to the growing evidence that the cerebellum "isn't only involved in sensory-motor function, it's involved in everything we do," says Dr. Jeremy Schmahmann , a neurology professor at Harvard and director of the ataxia unit at Massachusetts General Hospital. (npr.org)
  • However, as yet, few studies provided unequivocal evidence that the cerebellum is involved in the action perception coupling (APC), specifically in the integration of motor and multisensory information for perception. (jneurosci.org)
  • 10. Synaptic transmission and long-term depression in Purkinje cells in an in vitro block preparation of the cerebellum isolated from neonatal rats A. Arata, and M. Ito . (elsevier.com)
  • 16. Reciprocal trophic interactions between climbing fibres and purkinje cells in the rat cerebellum. (elsevier.com)
  • 22. Characterization of purkinje cells in the goldfish cerebellum during eye movement and adaptive modification of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. (elsevier.com)
  • The model that has influenced much of the work in the field for the past 30 years suggests that motor learning is mediated by a single plasticity mechanism in the cerebellum: long-term depression (LTD) of parallel fiber synapses onto Purkinje cells. (nih.gov)
  • What layer of the cerebellum has the dendrites of the purkinje cells? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • In the cerebellum, sensory input activates neurons called Purkinje cells that have to filter the information and respond only to relevant inputs to produce an appropriate movement response. (redorbit.com)
  • By taking the TV repair class, Khodakhah wanted to learn to build an electronic circuit to enhance his camera images in order to better visualize the Purkinje cells within slices of the cerebellum and to study the InsP3/calcium ion signaling pathway. (the-scientist.com)
  • This lack of inhibition correlates well with the absence of stellate and basket cells in the molecular layer of this cerebellum and strongly supports the idea that these interneurones are the agents responsible for the prolonged inhibition seen in the Purkinje cells of other species. (sciencemag.org)
  • The Shank2 protein is abundantly found in the cerebellum, particularly in the Purkinje Cells (PCs), but that does not necessarily mean that the motor problems observed in these autism models come from the cerebellum. (noldus.com)
  • However, although the lamprey possesses a region comparable to the cerebellum and display expression of LjFgf8/17 at the MHB (midbrain hindbrain boundary), it does not have Purkinje cells and cerebellar nuclei, as well as components of the rhombic lip-derived cerebellar and pre-cerebellar systems. (bioontology.org)
  • Purkinje cells form the junction between the granular and molecular layers of the grey matter of the cerebellum. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The cerebellum is located behind the top part of the brain stem (where the spinal cord meets the brain) and is made of two hemispheres (halves). (healthline.com)
  • The cerebellum is relatively large in humans and is divided into two lateral hemispheres, similar to the cerebrum. (fsu.edu)
  • Early 20th-century anatomical illustration of the human brain (from below) showing the left and right hemispheres of both the cerebellum and cerebrum. (psychologytoday.com)
  • These are the lateral hemispheres, or the hemispheres of the cerebellum, one hemisphere, two hemispheres, and here's the vermis. (coursera.org)
  • well, really, all you see when you look at the cerebellum are the two hemispheres, because they are, they have expanded to cover up the vermis, which is, is right inside of there, underneath there. (coursera.org)
  • In the australopithecines and early members of the genus Homo , the cerebral hemispheres were large in proportion to the cerebellum, compared with other hominoids. (pnas.org)
  • This trend continued in Middle and Late Pleistocene humans, including Neandertals and Cro-Magnon 1, who have the largest cerebral hemispheres relative to cerebellum volume of any primates, including earlier and Holocene humans. (pnas.org)
  • the cerebellum is larger with respect to the rest of the brain (and, conversely, the cerebral hemispheres are smaller with respect to the cerebellum) than in Late Pleistocene humans. (pnas.org)
  • The cerebellum and cerebral hemispheres appear to have evolved reciprocally. (pnas.org)
  • Applying lesion symptom mapping, we identified distinct areas in the dentate nucleus and the lateral cerebellum of both hemispheres that are causally involved in APC. (jneurosci.org)
  • The cerebellum is located behind and beneath the two halves (or hemispheres) of the cerebrum. (coursehero.com)
  • At the level of gross anatomy, the cerebellum consists of a tightly folded layer of cortex, with white matter underneath and a fluid-filled ventricle at the base. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, we felt that as the discrete anatomy of the cerebellum is quite well known, only certain aspects of the structure should be discussed here. (indigo.ca)
  • Dysfunctions or abnormalities within the structure of the cerebellum-or atypical cerebellar functional connectivity with other brain regions-appears to be linked to disorders such as schizophrenia, autism , and Tourette's syndrome . (psychologytoday.com)
  • For the first time, new research from the University of Missouri provides evidence that there may be a correlation between cerebro-cerebellar functional connectivity and the balance of excitation-to-inhibition neurotransmitters in the cerebellum of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). (psychologytoday.com)
  • In autism, something in that process goes wrong and one thing could be that sensory information is not processed correctly in the cerebellum. (medindia.net)
  • Mustafa Sahin, a neurologist at Boston's Children Hospital and associate professor of neurology at Harvard Medical School, said that Wang and his co-authors build upon known links between cerebellar damage and autism to suggest that the cerebellum is essential to healthy neural development. (medindia.net)
  • For instance, the researchers cite a 2007 paper in the journal Pediatrics that found that individuals who experienced cerebellum damage at birth were 40 times more likely to score highly on autism screening tests. (medindia.net)
  • They also reference studies in 2004 and 2005 that found that the cerebellum is the most frequently disrupted brain region in people with autism. (medindia.net)
  • We hope to get people and scientists thinking differently about the cerebellum or about autism so that the whole field can move forward. (medindia.net)
  • New York, NY (July 11, 2018)--Structural differences in the cerebellum may be linked to some aspects of autism spectrum disorder, according to a neuroimaging study from Columbia University Irving Medical Center (CUIMC). (eurekalert.org)
  • Most brain imaging studies in autism focus on the cerebrum, which is larger than the cerebellum despite having fewer neurons. (eurekalert.org)
  • To examine this structurally complex brain region, the researchers applied high-resolution 3D fractal analysis to MRI data to estimate fractal dimension--a measure of structural complexity--of the outer layer of the cerebellum in 20 boys with autism ages 6 to 12 years and 18 age-matched controls with similar verbal skills and cerebellar volume. (eurekalert.org)
  • In previous studies, atypical features in the cerebellum were associated with autism, but the findings were inconsistent. (eurekalert.org)
  • What this means for people with autism: It has been suspected that the cerebellum is involved in autism, but the cerebellum-related dysfunctions have yet to be uncovered. (autismspeaks.org)
  • This result supports prior studies pointing to involvement of the cerebellum in autism," says Dr. Grange. (medindia.net)
  • On top of that, studies suggest that the cerebellum may play a key role in autism, schizophrenia and other brain disorders. (wfneurology.org)
  • To pinpoint the role of cerebellar Shank2 in autism, both groups compared behavioral and motor abnormalities between global and cerebellum-specific Shank2 knockout mice. (noldus.com)
  • The coordinated activity of the multiple parts of the cerebellum enables this region of the brain to control refined, coordinated muscle movements and balance. (fsu.edu)
  • According to the prevailing theory, these firing patterns then convey that information to other parts of the cerebellum, which process the information and send it either to other parts of the brain for more processing or to the motor neurons that tell the body how to act - for example, to ignore one's own fingers or to swat at a friend's tickling fingers. (simonsfoundation.org)
  • All of the input received by the various lobes is integrated in the cortex of the cerebellum. (fsu.edu)
  • I. Cytogenesis and histogenesis of the deep nuclei and the cortex of the cerebellum. (biologists.org)
  • The involvement of the cerebellum in these functions may be related to its connection to several functionally heterogeneous cortical and subcortical regions through a cerebellar-subcortical-cortical loop. (springer.com)
  • This allowed the team to quantify the various connections between the cerebellum and other brain areas. (npr.org)
  • Earlier investigations in his lab had hinted there might be unexpected connections between the cerebellum and other parts of the brain. (scientificamerican.com)
  • 10. Physiology of transmission at a giant glutamatergic synapse in cerebellum. (elsevier.com)
  • One advantage of such a theory is that the synaptic organization and physiology of the cerebellum are known. (iapsych.com)
  • Investigations of the cerebellum have really exploded over the last few years, says Catherine Stoodley, a neuroscientist at American University and a coauthor of a 2019 paper in the Annual Review of Neuroscience on the cerebellum's role in cognition. (wfneurology.org)
  • The finding, published March 20 in the journal Nature Neuroscience , may signal a major shift in our understanding of how the cerebellum encodes information. (simonsfoundation.org)
  • The cerebellum is a rounded structure located behind the brain stem, to which it is linked by thick nerve tracts. (innerbody.com)
  • The bicep, like other muscles, is primarily controlled by the cerebrum, a section of the brain located just above the brain stem and the cerebellum. (reference.com)
  • First, relay centers in the brain stem alert the cerebellum that they are about to start voluntary muscle contractions . (coursehero.com)
  • The cerebellum receives information from the sensory systems, the spinal cord, and other parts of the brain and then regulates motor movements. (healthline.com)
  • People with damage to their cerebellum are known to become uncoordinated, with an unsteady gait, slurred speech and difficulty with fine motor tasks such as eating. (xinhuanet.com)
  • Just as a person staggers drunkenly because his or her compromised cerebellum is unable to perform the customary quality checks on motor function, alcohol-fueled bad decisions might also reflect a breakdown of quality control over executive functions. (xinhuanet.com)
  • 23. Role of the y-group of the vestibular nuclei and flocculus of the cerebellum in motor learning of the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex. (elsevier.com)
  • 28. Is the cerebellum sensory for motors sake, or motor for sensorys sake: the view from the whiskers of a rat? (elsevier.com)
  • The formation and dissolution of internal models of the human body occur in the cerebellum, and their logical organization is essential for normal motor learning. (pnas.org)
  • Remarkably, the behavioral analyses and computational modeling converged to support the existence of a tandem model and reveal its unique features in cerebellum-based motor learning. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that a computational architecture employing a tandem configuration of forward and inverse internal models enables efficient motor learning in the cerebellum. (pnas.org)
  • The cerebellum is an evolutionarily conserved structure critical for motor learning in vertebrates. (nih.gov)
  • The cerebellum is the center of motor control within the brain, according to Healthline. (reference.com)
  • The cerebellum plays a key role in the development of motor skills, such as using scissors. (wisegeek.com)
  • The cerebellum functions in motor control by coordinating movements including those involving precise and accurate movements. (instructables.com)
  • Although the cerebellum is generally viewed as primarily a motor structure, it has also been proposed to be a general-purpose interval timer in the range of tens to hundreds of ms. "General purpose" in this sense encompasses both sensory and motor timing . (iapsych.com)
  • Much is known about the relationships between the cerebellum and forms of motor learning such as eyelid conditioning and adaptation of the vestibulo- ocular reflex (Raymond et al. (iapsych.com)
  • The cerebellum plays a role in somatic motor function, the control of muscle tone, and balance[ZFA]. (bioontology.org)
  • In a recent study, he and his colleagues discovered that damage to the cerebellum diminishes our ability to predict consequences of an action and issue specific motor commands to the body - what researchers call "feedforward control. (wisc.edu)
  • Moreover, areas originally suggested to be predominantly motor-related, as the cerebellum, are also involved in action observation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Lesions of the right ventral dentate, the ipsilateral motor representations (lobules V/VI), and most interestingly the contralateral posterior cerebellum (lobule VII) impede the benefits of motor execution on perception. (jneurosci.org)
  • We conclude that the cerebellum establishes time-dependent multisensory representations on different levels, relevant for motor control as well as supporting action perception. (jneurosci.org)
  • In previous work we have used a simulation containing 12000 granule cells to develop new predictions and to account for various aspects of eyelid conditioning, a form of motor learning mediated by the cerebellum. (utexas.edu)
  • The cerebellum, located in the lower back of the skull, plays a key role in regulating voluntary movement like balance, motor learning and speech. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Recent evidence shows the cerebellum involved in higher-order brain functions, including visual response, emotion and motor planning. (medicalxpress.com)
  • As stimuli enter the cerebellum from the cerebrum, they are reorganized so that a proper motor response can be performed. (coursehero.com)
  • Finally, the cerebellum sends the signal to the motor cortex of the cerebrum. (coursehero.com)
  • This connection becomes clearer when you understand that the cerebellum is massively connected not only to motor areas of the brain, but also to areas involved in attention, language, planning and even emotion. (integratedlistening.com)
  • 6. Cholinergic innervation and receptors in the cerebellum. (elsevier.com)
  • In the cerebellum, NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors play an important role in neuronal differentiation and excitatory synaptic transmission. (nih.gov)
  • The present study investigated the effect of curcumin in the functional regulation of muscarinic and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, insulin receptors, acetylcholine esterase and Glut3 in the cerebellum of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Our results showed an increased gene expression of acetylcholine esterase, Glut3, muscarinic M1, M3, alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine and insulin receptors in the cerebellum of diabetic rats in comparison to control. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Curcumin and insulin inhibited diabetes-induced elevation in the gene expression of acetylcholine esterase, Glut3, insulin and cholinergic receptors in the cerebellum of diabetic rats. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The ependymal glial cells (EGCs) from the periventricular zone of the cerebellum were studied to determine their distribution and the functional properties of their γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A) ) receptors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Concurrently, receptors throughout the body also send messages to the cerebellum regarding the current positions and contraction levels of muscles and tendons. (coursehero.com)
  • Cerebellum-dependent learning: the role of multiple plasticity mechanisms. (nih.gov)
  • However, recent studies of simple behaviors such as the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) indicate that multiple plasticity mechanisms contribute to cerebellum-dependent learning. (nih.gov)
  • Understanding timing, plasticity and functional roles of cerebellum involve large-scale and microcircuit reconstructions validating molecular mechanisms in population activity. (amrita.edu)
  • Damage to the cerebellum, while not causing paralysis or intellectual impairment, might lead to a lack of balance, slower movements, and tremors (shaking). (healthline.com)
  • Damage to the cerebellum disrupts performance on a range of tasks that require precise timing including the production of skilled movements, eyeblink conditioning, and perceptual tasks such as duration discrimination. (nih.gov)
  • Damage to the cerebellum may lead to a loss of mobility in some people. (wisegeek.com)
  • Damage in the cerebellum manifests itself as problems with fine movement, equilibrium and posture. (instructables.com)
  • Parrell, who conducted the bulk of the study during his time as a postdoc at the University of California, Berkley, tested both the predictive (feedforward) and reactive (feedback) systems in individuals with and without damage to the cerebellum. (wisc.edu)
  • Three neuropsychological experiments on a group of 16 cerebellar patients and 16 age-and education-matched controls investigated the effects of damage to the cerebellum on English grammatical morphology across production, comprehension, and grammaticality judgment tasks. (mit.edu)
  • The results suggest that damage to the cerebellum can result in subtle impairments in the use of grammatical morphology, and are discussed in light of hypothesized roles for the cerebellum in language. (mit.edu)
  • Our findings pointed out the risk of increased cerebellum damage due to long-term of morphine use. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The pathways through the thalamus that connect the BG and cerebellum directly to each other and with extensive regions of the cortex provide a structural basis for their combined influence on limbic function. (medscape.com)
  • Thus, the direct nBOR-cerebellar and indirect nBOR-olivocerebellar pathways to the cerebellum can be distinguished based on the differential expression of CR and PV. (cambridge.org)
  • Non-invasive stimulation of the cerebellum at a delta frequency normalizes brain activity in the frontal cortex of lab rats with schizophrenia -like thinking disorders, according to a first-of-its-kind new study from the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine. (psychologytoday.com)
  • In this experiment, the researchers also used optogenetics to stimulate the rats' cerebellum at the precise delta-wave frequency of 2 Hertz, which restored normal delta wave activity in the rats' frontal cortex and normalized the rats' performance on a timing test. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Neuroprotective role of curcumin in the cerebellum of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • All studies were done in the cerebellum of male Wistar rats. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • fMRI studies on the rats show a clear increase in activity in the prefrontal cortex , highlighting the interconnectedness of the cerebellum to higher order brain regions. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Histopathological and biochemical changes of morphine sulphate administration on the cerebellum of albino rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this study the long-term effects of morphine sulphate treatment (MST) on histopathological and biochemical changes in the cerebellum was assessed in albino rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CHICAGO, Nov. 3 (Xinhua) -- U.S. researchers suggested that the cerebellum has a hand in every aspect of higher brain functions, not just movement, but attention, thinking, planning and decision-making. (xinhuanet.com)
  • The cerebellum is located under the distal portion of the cerebrum and has the primary function of coordinating muscle movement and maintaining posture and balance. (reference.com)
  • The cerebellum doesn't directly carry out tasks like thinking, just as it doesn't directly control movement, Marek says. (npr.org)
  • Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we contrasted these two conditions and found that lobule V of the cerebellum ipsilateral to the arm movement was consistently more activated during state-dependent control. (jneurosci.org)
  • Whether something similar happened in Purkinje neurons wasn't clear, but if it did, the process might reveal something about how the cerebellum coordinates movement, Khodakhah thought. (the-scientist.com)
  • We know that when the cerebellum is damaged, it causes movement disorders in both speech and non-speech actions," says UW-Madison Waisman Center investigator Ben Parrell . (wisc.edu)
  • Cerebellum has been long known for its role in movement and articulation. (amrita.edu)
  • Cerebellum has been known to show homogeneity in circuit organization and hence the "modules" or various circuits in the cerebellum are attributed to the diversity of functions such as timing, pattern recognition, movement planning and dysfunctions such as ataxia related to the cerebellum. (amrita.edu)
  • e delineate the role of the cerebellum in several nonmotor systems simultaneously and in the same subjects using resting state functional connectivity MRI. (google.com)
  • An international journal devoted to the science of the cerebellum and its role in ataxia and other medical disorders. (springer.com)
  • This review will discuss the basic structure and function of the BG and cerebellum and propose an updated view of their functional role in human affective processing. (medscape.com)
  • Here, multiple approaches including behavioral tests and electrophysiology are adopted to explore the role of Dp71 in the cerebellum. (biologists.org)
  • Schmahmann, who wasn't involved in the new study, has been arguing for decades that the cerebellum plays a key role in many aspects of human behavior, as well as mental disorders such as schizophrenia. (npr.org)
  • Curcumin has a significant role in a therapeutic application for the prevention or progression of diabetic complications in the cerebellum. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Thus, curcumin has a significant role in a therapeutic application for the prevention or progression of diabetic complications in the cerebellum. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Researchers have long thought that a specific part of our brain - the cerebellum - plays a key role in the muscle control we need to speak. (wisc.edu)
  • Parrell's research shows that the cerebellum plays a vital role in our predictive systems, which in turn greatly affects how we speak and communicate. (wisc.edu)
  • Still, the cerebellum communicates with parts of the brain that are responsible for cognition and plays an important role in the processing of language and music. (lww.com)
  • Furthermore, the role of the cerebellum in the manifestation of intelligence is now under consideration. (oreilly.com)
  • Learn more about the role of the cerebellum in iLs programs . (integratedlistening.com)
  • Because of its large number of tiny granule cells, the cerebellum contains more neurons than the total from the rest of the brain, but takes up only 10% of the total brain volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • We think that the cerebellum is acting as the brain's ultimate quality control unit," says Scott Marek , a postdoctoral research scholar and the study's first author. (npr.org)
  • Princeton University researchers offer a new theory that an early-life injury to the cerebellum disrupts the brain's processing of external and internal information and leads to 'developmental diaschisis,' wherein a loss of function in one brain region leads to problems in another. (innovations-report.com)
  • New research, published this week in Science , demonstrates that a pathway directly tying the cerebellum to the ventral tegmental area (VTA)-one of the brain's key pleasure centers-can control these two processes. (scientificamerican.com)
  • 15. Mossy-fibre sensory input to the cerebellum. (elsevier.com)
  • The cerebellum is able to evaluate sensory input to best determine the amount of force needed to move the muscles and calculate the amount of muscle contraction to keep the muscles from overextending themselves. (coursehero.com)
  • Dr. Denisova also notes, "one interpretation of the findings is that increased structural complexity of the cerebellum may enhance implicit learning in atypically developing boys. (eurekalert.org)
  • The findings about the cerebellum challenge years of dogma. (npr.org)
  • Although many of these findings suggested the cerebellum played an important part both in reward-related and social behavior, a clear neural mechanism to explain this link was lacking. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The cerebellum an area located in the lower rear of the brain is known to process external and internal information such as sensory cues that influence the development of other brain regions, the researchers report in the journal Neuron . (medindia.net)
  • 13. The cerebellum in the cerebro-cerebellar network for the control of eye and hand movements - a fMRI study M.F. Nitschke, T. Arp, G. Stavrou, C. Erdmann and W. Heide . (elsevier.com)
  • 25. The control of forelimb movements by intermediate cerebellum. (elsevier.com)
  • The vast majority of the cerebellum of the sheep is vermis, and that is because the vermis is going to deal with things on the midline, so the trunk, the axis, the posture and gait and eye movements and speech. (coursera.org)
  • Based on these observations, he concluded the cerebellum was responsible for coordinating movements. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The timing hypotheses of cerebellar function attempt to explain the various tasks for which the cerebellum is engaged or is necessary in terms of the need to gauge the explicit timing between events in the hundreds- of- ms range. (iapsych.com)
  • Most data involve demonstrations that the cerebellum is activated during, or is required for, tasks that we view as examples of timing. (iapsych.com)
  • cerebellum is required for tasks where timing is explicitly represented, as in the discontinuous task. (iapsych.com)
  • These results suggest that this parallel GPU technology can be used to build very large-scale simulations whose connectivity ratios match those of the real cerebellum and that these simulations can be used guide future studies on cerebellar mediated tasks and on machine learning problems. (utexas.edu)
  • 7. Long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission at the mossy fiber - granule cell relay of cerebellum E. D'Angelo, P. Rossi, D. Gall, F. Pestori, T. Nieus, A. Maffei and E. Sola . (elsevier.com)
  • Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Brain Function - Brainstem & Cerebellum in minutes with SmartDraw. (smartdraw.com)
  • The executive function networks are way overrepresented in the cerebellum," said postdoctoral researcher and first author Scott Marek. (xinhuanet.com)
  • Based on a review of existing research, the researchers offer a new theory that an injury to the cerebellum during early life potentially disrupts this process and leads to what they call "developmental diaschisis," which is when a loss of function in one part of the brain leads to problems in another region. (medindia.net)
  • What is the function of the cerebellum? (reference.com)
  • That's partly a function of the unique, irregular shape of the cerebellum, which is difficult to analyze with conventional imaging techniques. (eurekalert.org)
  • These chapters represent important aspects of the morphology, development, and function of the cerebellum and related structures. (indigo.ca)
  • The following test exams the balance function of the cerebellum. (instructables.com)
  • Tumors in the cerebellum can disrupt function. (instructables.com)
  • This work highlights for the first time an unsuspected function of the cerebellum in shaping the representation of our body in space. (innovations-report.com)
  • Prenatal ethanol exposure interferes with the synaptogenesis phase of brain development, especially within the cerebellum and leads to various impairments in brain function [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • During the five subsequent decades, research on the cerebellum has been devoted largely to addressing questions about how its neuronal circuits are constructed and function, and what specific roles they play. (oreilly.com)
  • Taken together, these results suggest that different mechanisms are involved in KYNA production in the rat cerebellum, and that, specifically, DAAO and ROS can function as alternative routes for KYNA production. (frontiersin.org)
  • Low Cerebellum' is the position of the cerebellum sometimes in individuals when it is near the opening of the brain into the spinal cord which is lower down. (medhelp.org)
  • The cerebellum gets information from the sensory systems, the spinal cord, and different parts of the brain and then controls engine developments. (proprofs.com)
  • Having access to more than 10 hours of scans on each of 10 people though the Midnight Scan Club dataset, and using the cortex's networks as a template, the researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis could identify the networks in the cerebellum. (xinhuanet.com)
  • The researchers measured the timing of brain activity and found that the cerebellum was consistently the last step in neurologic circuits. (xinhuanet.com)
  • The researchers also performed individualized network analyses on the 10 people in the data set, and found that while brain functions are arranged in roughly the same pattern in everyone's cerebellum, there is enough individual variation to distinguish brain scans performed on any two participants. (xinhuanet.com)
  • Using novel cerebellar measurement software, the researchers showed that both alcohol dependence and chronic cigarette smoking were associated with reduced cerebellum volume, with some regions in the cerebellum more vulnerable to alcohol use and less affected by smoking. (news-medical.net)
  • The cerebellum, an apple-sized region near the base of the skull, senses that your own fingers are the ones trying to tickle, and it cancels your usual response. (simonsfoundation.org)
  • The cerebellum occupies the posterior cranial fossa (PCF), which is well delineated by the petrous crests, sella turcica, and lateral sulci. (pnas.org)
  • Both hagfishes and lampreys do possess a thin band of cells located medial to the lateral line centers of the medulla (Ronan and Northcutt, 1998), which has been interpreted as a primitive cerebellum (Larsell, 1967), but more recent experimental studies (Kishida et al. (bioontology.org)