Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.
The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.
Reflex closure of the eyelid occurring as a result of classical conditioning.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
Incoordination of voluntary movements that occur as a manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES. Characteristic features include a tendency for limb movements to overshoot or undershoot a target (dysmetria), a tremor that occurs during attempted movements (intention TREMOR), impaired force and rhythm of diadochokinesis (rapidly alternating movements), and GAIT ATAXIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p90)
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).
Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.
Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
An acute neurological disorder characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and disturbances of mental activity or consciousness. Eye movement abnormalities include nystagmus, external rectus palsies, and reduced conjugate gaze. THIAMINE DEFICIENCY and chronic ALCOHOLISM are associated conditions. Pathologic features include periventricular petechial hemorrhages and neuropil breakdown in the diencephalon and brainstem. Chronic thiamine deficiency may lead to KORSAKOFF SYNDROME. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1139-42; Davis & Robertson, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp452-3)
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of THIAMINE in the diet, characterized by anorexia, irritability, and weight loss. Later, patients experience weakness, peripheral neuropathy, headache, and tachycardia. In addition to being caused by a poor diet, thiamine deficiency in the United States most commonly occurs as a result of alcoholism, since ethanol interferes with thiamine absorption. In countries relying on polished rice as a dietary staple, BERIBERI prevalence is very high. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1171)
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
A dangerous life-threatening hypermetabolic condition characterized by high FEVER and dysfunction of the cardiovascular, the nervous, and the gastrointestinal systems.
Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.
An acquired cognitive disorder characterized by inattentiveness and the inability to form short term memories. This disorder is frequently associated with chronic ALCOHOLISM; but it may also result from dietary deficiencies; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NEOPLASMS; CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; ENCEPHALITIS; EPILEPSY; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)
A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the TRANSVERSE COLON. It passes cephalad from the cecum to the caudal surface of the right lobe of the LIVER where it bends sharply to the left, forming the right colic flexure.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between ASCENDING COLON and DESCENDING COLON. It passes from the RIGHT COLIC FLEXURE across the ABDOMEN, then turns sharply at the left colonic flexure into the descending colon.
Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.
Tumors or cancer of the CECUM.
A segment of the COLON between the RECTUM and the descending colon.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).

Cerebellar afferents from neurons in the extraocular motor nuclei: a fluorescent retrograde double-labeling study in the sheep. (1/323)

The fluorescent retrograde double labeling technique has been used to identify within the extraocular motor nuclei of the sheep the neurons projecting to the cerebellum and to provide evidence whether they are motor neurons sending collaterals to the cerebellum or a separate population of neurons. The study was performed on eight sheep. The fluorescent tracers used were Fast Blue and the diamidino yellow dihydrochloride. In one and the same animal a fluorescent tracer was injected into the extraocular muscles (EOMs) and the other into bilateral points of the vermal folia II-V and paramedian lobule, or into the vermal folia VI, VIIA and VIIB, or into the underlying fastigial nuclei. Within the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nuclei, almost all of the motor neurons were labeled by the tracer injected into the EOMs and only a few cells were fluorescent for the tracer infiltrated into the cerebellum. These latter labelings were present bilaterally, and their number and distribution did not show apparent differences after injecting the paramedian lobule and the vermal folia or the fastigial nucleus. Along the rostrocaudal extent of the oculomotor and trochlear nuclei, the neurons projecting to the cerebellum were intermingled with the motor neurons located in the nuclear area facing the medial longitudinal fasciculus. In the abducens nucleus they were restricted to the caudal pole of the nucleus, which is located ventrolaterally to the genu of the facial nerve. Double-labeled neurons were never found. The absence of double-labeled cells, in spite of the efficiency of the tracer infiltration into the EOMs and into the cerebellum, demonstrates that the cerebellar projections from the extraocular motor nuclei are not collaterals of the motor neurons, but axons of a separate population of neurons.  (+info)

Role of the Botzinger complex in fastigial nucleus-mediated respiratory responses. (2/323)

We have reported that the phrenic neurogram (PN) is modulated by stimulation of the fastigial nucleus (FN) of the cerebellum. The present study was undertaken to search for brainstem site(s) involved in the FN efferent pathway to modulate phrenic nerve activities. Experiments were performed on 35 anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated cats, using the PN as the index of the respiratory motor output. Results showed that bilateral electrolytic lesions of the red nucleus (RN), the paramedian reticular nucleus (PRN), or the pontine respiratory group (PRG) had little effect on the ability of FN stimulation to modulate the respiratory output. However, the modulation was abolished by bilateral electrolytic lesions of the Botzinger complex (BotC). Further studies showed that bilateral chemical inactivation of BotC neurons produced by topical microinjection of kainic acid or cobalt chloride failed to abolish the modulation. We concluded that fibers of passage, not synapses or cell bodies in the BotC, were involved in the modulatory effect of FN stimulation on the PN. The RN, PRN, and PRG appear not to be important in the neural circuitry responsible for the FN modulation of the phrenic activity.  (+info)

Perineuronal nets of proteoglycans in the adult mouse brain, with special reference to their reactions to Gomori's ammoniacal silver and Ehrlich's methylene blue. (3/323)

As our previous studies have indicated, many subsets of neurons in the vertebrate brain possess a sulfated proteoglycan surface coat which reacts to cationic iron colloid and aldehyde fuchsin. The present study demonstrated that this surface coat is supravitally stained with Ehrlich's methylene blue, and doubly with this blue and aldehyde fuchsin, a finding suggesting its being identical to Cajal's superficial reticulum (red superficial) and to Golgi's reticular coating (revetement reticulare). The perineuronal surface coat was further stained with Gomori's ammoniacal silver, and doubly with this silver and cationic iron colloid. These neurons with such a proteoglycan surface coat usually expressed cell surface glycoproteins which were labeled with lectin Wisteria floribunda agglutinin. Hyaluronidase digestion did not interfere with this lectin labeling of the glycoproteins, methylene blue and Gomori's ammoniacal silver staining of the surface coat, while it erased the cationic iron colloid and aldehyde fuchsin staining of the surface coat. These findings suggest that the perineuronal proteoglycan surface coat is associated with some additional molecules which are resistant to hyaluronidase digestion and stainable with methylene blue and Gomori's ammoniacal silver. The possibility is suggested that these molecules might represent "ligand proteoglycans" connecting the perineuronal proteoglycans and cell surface glycoproteins.  (+info)

Intrinsic neurons of fastigial nucleus mediate neurogenic neuroprotection against excitotoxic and ischemic neuronal injury in rat. (4/323)

Electrical stimulation of the cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) elevates regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and arterial pressure (AP) and provides long-lasting protection against focal and global ischemic infarctions. We investigated which neuronal element in FN, perikarya or axons, mediates this central neurogenic neuroprotection and whether it also protects against excitotoxicity. In anesthetized rats, the FN was stimulated for 1 hr, and ibotenic acid (IBO) was microinjected unilaterally into the striatum. In unstimulated controls, the excitotoxic lesions averaged approximately 40 mm3. Stimulation of FN, but not dentate nucleus (DN), significantly reduced lesion volumes up to 80% when IBO was injected 15 min, 72 hr, or 10 d, but not 30 d, thereafter. In other rats, intrinsic neurons of FN or DN were destroyed by pretreatment with IBO. Five days later, the FN was stimulated, and 72 hr later, IBO was microinjected into the striatum. Lesions of FN, but not DN, abolished neuroprotection but not the elevations of rCBF and AP elicited from FN stimulation. Excitotoxic lesions of FN, but not DN, also abolished the 37% reduction in focal ischemic infarctions produced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Excitation of intrinsic FN neurons provides long-lasting, substantial, and reversible protection of central neurons from excitotoxicity, as well as focal ischemia, whereas axons in the nucleus, probably collaterals of ramified brainstem neurons, mediate the elevations in rCBF, which do not contribute to neuroprotection. Long-lived protection against a range of injuries is an unrecognized function of FN neurons transmitted over pathways distinct from those regulating rCBF.  (+info)

Fastigial nucleus activity during different frequencies and orientations of vertical vestibular stimulation in the monkey. (5/323)

Neurons in the rostral part of the fastigial nucleus (FN) respond to vestibular stimulation but are not related to eye movements. To understand the precise role of these vestibular-only neurons in the central processing of vestibular signals, unit activity in the FN of alert monkeys (Macaca mulatta) was recorded. To induce vestibular stimulation, the monkey was rotated sinusoidally around an earth-fixed horizontal axis at stimulus frequencies between 0.06 (+/-15 degrees) and 1.4 Hz (+/-7.5 degrees). During stimulation head orientation was changed continuously, allowing for roll, pitch, and intermediate planes of orientation. At a frequency of 0.6 Hz, 59% of the neurons had an optimal response orientation (ORO) and a null response (i.e., no modulation) 90 degrees apart. The phase of neuronal response was constant except for a steep shift of 180 degrees around the null response. This group I response is compatible with a semicircular canal input, canal convergence, or a single otolith input. Several other features indicated more complex responses, including spatiotemporal convergence (STC). 1) For 35% of the responses at 0.6 Hz, phase changes were gradual with different orientations. Fifteen percent of these had a null response (group II), and 20% showed only a minimal response but no null response (group III). The remaining responses (6%), classified as group IV, were characterized by a constant sensitivity at different orientations in most instances. 2) For the vast majority of neurons, the stimulus frequency determined the response group, i.e., an individual neuron could show a group I response at one frequency and a group II (III or IV) response at another frequency. 3) ORO changed with frequency by >45 degrees for 44% of the neurons. 4) Although phase changes at different frequencies were close to head velocity (+/-45 degrees ) or head position (+/-45 degrees ) for most neurons, they exceeded 90 degrees for 29% of the neurons between 0.1 and 1.0 Hz. In most cases, this was a phase advance. The change in sensitivity with change in frequency showed a similar pattern for all neurons; the average sensitivity increased from 1.24 imp. s-1. deg-1 at 0.1 Hz to 2.97 imp. s-1. deg-1 at 1.0 Hz. These data demonstrate that only an analysis based on measurements at different frequencies and orientations reveals a number of complex features. They moreover suggest that for the vast majority of neurons several sources of canal and otolith information interact at this central stage of vestibular information processing.  (+info)

Simulations of cerebellar motor learning: computational analysis of plasticity at the mossy fiber to deep nucleus synapse. (6/323)

We question the widely accepted assumption that a molecular mechanism for long-term expression of synaptic plasticity is sufficient to explain the persistence of memories. Instead, we show that learning and memory require that these cellular mechanisms be correctly integrated within the architecture of the neural circuit. To illustrate this general conclusion, our studies are based on the well characterized synaptic organization of the cerebellum and its relationship to a simple form of motor learning. Using computer simulations of cerebellar-mediated eyelid conditioning, we examine the ability of three forms of plasticity at mossy fiber synapses in the cerebellar nucleus to contribute to learning and memory storage. Results suggest that when the simulation is exposed to reasonable patterns of "background" cerebellar activity, only one of these three rules allows for the retention of memories. When plasticity at the mossy fiber synapse is controlled by nucleus or climbing fiber activity, the circuit is unable to retain memories because of interactions within the network that produce spontaneous drift of synaptic strength. In contrast, a plasticity rule controlled by the activity of the Purkinje cell allows for a memory trace that is resistant to ongoing activity in the circuit. These results suggest specific constraints for theories of cerebellar motor learning and have general implications regarding the mechanisms that may contribute to the persistence of memories.  (+info)

Lateral cerebellar hemispheres actively support sensory acquisition and discrimination rather than motor control. (7/323)

This study examined a new hypothesis proposing that the lateral cerebellum is not activated by motor control per se, as widely assumed, but is engaged during the acquisition and discrimination of tactile sensory information. This proposal derives from neurobiological studies of these regions of the rat cerebellum. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lateral cerebellar output nucleus (dentate) of humans during passive and active sensory tasks confirmed four a priori implications of this hypothesis. Dentate nuclei responded to cutaneous stimuli, even when there were no accompanying overt finger movements. Finger movements not associated with tactile sensory discrimination produced no dentate activation. Sensory discrimination with the fingers induced an increase in dentate activation, with or without finger movements. Finally, dentate activity was greatest when there was the most opportunity to modulate the acquisition of the sensory tactile data: when the discrimination involved the active repositioning of tactile sensory surface of the fingers. Furthermore, activity in cerebellar cortex was strongly correlated with observed dentate activity. This distinct four-way pattern of effects strongly challenges other cerebellar theories. However, contrary to appearances, neither our hypothesis nor findings conflict with behavioral effects of cerebellar damage, neurophysiological data on animals performing motor tasks, or cerebellar contribution to nonmotor, perceptual, and cognitive tasks.  (+info)

Single-unit evidence for eye-blink conditioning in cerebellar cortex is altered, but not eliminated, by interpositus nucleus lesions. (8/323)

Many theories of motor learning explain learning-related changes in motor behavior in terms of plasticity in the cerebellar cortex. Empirical evidence, however, does not always appear to be consistent with such formulations. It is the anterior cerebellar interpositus nucleus (aINP) that seems to be essential for acquisition and retention of conditioned eye-blink responses under most circumstances and it has been therefore suggested that the aINP is the critical site of learning-related plasticity during eye-blink conditioning. Supporting this conclusion are studies demonstrating that multiple-unit conditioning-related neural activity patterns observed in many brain regions disappear after aINP lesion. The possibility that the cerebellar cortex may be involved in forming these patterns has not been assessed adequately, however. In the current study, trained rabbits received kainic acid lesions of the INP. After recovery, the animals underwent additional sessions of conditioning during which single-unit activity was recorded from the cerebellar cortex. Our results suggest that the aINP is not the sole site of plasticity during eye-blink conditioning, as a subset of the neurons recorded from lesioned animals demonstrated conditioning-related firing patterns. The lesions did change the character of these firing patterns from those observed in saline controls, however, in ways that can be generally described as a loss of organization. The normal tendency for the population of cortical cells to change firing rate together, for instance, was significantly less noticeable in lesioned animals. These results suggest that the aINP may be involved in the production of important features of conditioned responding, such as system timing function, therefore suggesting the need for more models that incorporate aINP and brain stem feedback as integral to the production of organized neural and behavioral responses.  (+info)

Some common types of cerebellar diseases include:

1. Cerebellar atrophy: This is a condition where the cerebellum shrinks or degenerates, leading to symptoms such as tremors, muscle weakness, and difficulty with movement.
2. Cerebellar degeneration: This is a condition where the cerebellum deteriorates over time, leading to symptoms such as loss of coordination, balance problems, and difficulties with speech and language.
3. Cerebellar tumors: These are abnormal growths that develop in the cerebellum, which can cause a variety of symptoms depending on their size and location.
4. Cerebellar stroke: This is a condition where blood flow to the cerebellum is interrupted, leading to damage to the brain tissue and symptoms such as weakness or paralysis of certain muscle groups.
5. Cerebellar vasculature disorders: These are conditions that affect the blood vessels in the cerebellum, leading to symptoms such as transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or strokes.
6. Inflammatory diseases: These are conditions that cause inflammation in the cerebellum, leading to symptoms such as tremors, ataxia, and weakness.
7. Infections: Bacterial, viral, or fungal infections can affect the cerebellum and cause a range of symptoms.
8. Trauma: Head injuries or other forms of trauma can damage the cerebellum and lead to symptoms such as loss of coordination, balance problems, and memory loss.
9. Genetic disorders: Certain genetic mutations can affect the development and function of the cerebellum, leading to a range of symptoms.
10. Degenerative diseases: Conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease can cause degeneration of the cerebellum and lead to symptoms such as tremors, ataxia, and weakness.

It's important to note that this is not an exhaustive list, and there may be other causes of cerebellar symptoms not included here. A healthcare professional can help determine the underlying cause of your symptoms based on a thorough medical history and examination.


* Genetic mutations or deletions
* Infections such as meningitis or encephalitis
* Stroke or bleeding in the brain
* Traumatic head injury
* Multiple sclerosis or other demyelinating diseases
* Brain tumors
* Cerebellar degeneration due to aging


* Coordination difficulties, such as stumbling or poor balance
* Tremors or shaky movements
* Slurred speech and difficulty with fine motor skills
* Nystagmus (involuntary eye movements)
* Difficulty with gait and walking
* Fatigue, weakness, and muscle wasting


* Physical examination and medical history
* Neurological examination to test coordination, balance, and reflexes
* Imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans to rule out other conditions
* Genetic testing to identify inherited forms of cerebellar ataxia
* Electromyography (EMG) to test muscle activity and nerve function


* Physical therapy to improve balance, coordination, and gait
* Occupational therapy to help with daily activities and fine motor skills
* Speech therapy to address slurred speech and communication difficulties
* Medications to manage symptoms such as tremors or spasticity
* Assistive devices such as canes or walkers to improve mobility


* The prognosis for cerebellar ataxia varies depending on the underlying cause. In some cases, the condition may be slowly progressive and lead to significant disability over time. In other cases, the condition may remain stable or even improve with treatment.

Living with cerebellar ataxia can be challenging, but there are many resources available to help individuals with the condition manage their symptoms and maintain their quality of life. These resources may include:

* Physical therapy to improve balance and coordination
* Occupational therapy to assist with daily activities
* Speech therapy to address communication difficulties
* Assistive devices such as canes or walkers to improve mobility
* Medications to manage symptoms such as tremors or spasticity
* Support groups for individuals with cerebellar ataxia and their families

Overall, the key to managing cerebellar ataxia is early diagnosis and aggressive treatment. With proper management, individuals with this condition can lead active and fulfilling lives despite the challenges they face.

The symptoms of WE can vary depending on the severity of the deficiency, but common manifestations include:

1. Confusion and disorientation
2. Memory loss and difficulty learning new information
3. Difficulty with coordination and balance
4. Loss of muscle tone and weakness in the arms and legs
5. Disturbances in vision, hearing, and taste
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Abnormalities in heart rate and blood pressure
8. Increased risk of seizures and coma

If left untreated, WE can lead to more severe complications such as Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS), a condition that involves the loss of brain tissue and memory loss. Treatment for WE typically involves thiamine supplements and addressing any underlying causes of the deficiency. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat complications.

1. Fatigue and weakness: Thiamine is necessary for the production of ATP, the primary source of energy for the body's cells. Without enough thiamine, cells may not be able to produce enough ATP, leading to fatigue, weakness, and a lack of endurance.
2. Numbness and tingling: Thiamine is important for the health of the peripheral nerves, which can cause numbness, tingling, and pain in the hands and feet if there is a deficiency.
3. Memory loss and confusion: Thiamine is necessary for the proper functioning of the brain and can lead to memory loss, confusion, and difficulty concentrating if there is a deficiency.
4. Mood changes: Thiamine plays a role in the production of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine, which are important for mood regulation. A thiamine deficiency can lead to mood changes, such as depression, anxiety, and irritability.
5. Digestive problems: Thiamine is necessary for the proper functioning of the digestive system, and a deficiency can lead to nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
6. Heart problems: Thiamine is important for the health of the heart, and a deficiency can lead to heart failure, arrhythmias, and other cardiovascular problems.
7. Weight loss: Thiamine is necessary for the proper metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, and a deficiency can lead to weight loss and muscle wasting.
8. Beriberi: A severe thiamine deficiency can lead to beriberi, a condition characterized by weakness, fatigue, and a range of other health problems.

Thiamine deficiency can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Poor diet: A diet that is low in thiamine-rich foods, such as whole grains, lean meats, and fish, can lead to a deficiency.
2. Alcoholism: Alcohol can interfere with the absorption of thiamine in the gut, leading to a deficiency.
3. Gastrointestinal disorders: Certain conditions, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, can lead to malabsorption of thiamine and other nutrients.
4. Medications: Some medications, such as furosemide and other diuretics, can interfere with the absorption of thiamine.
5. Genetic disorders: Certain genetic disorders, such as maple syrup urine disease, can lead to a thiamine deficiency.

If you suspect that you or someone you know may have a thiamine deficiency, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment. Treatment typically involves supplementation with thiamine, along with addressing any underlying causes of the deficiency. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

The exact cause of thyroid crisis is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to an autoimmune response that triggers the release of excessive amounts of thyroid hormones into the bloodstream. This can lead to a rapid increase in heart rate, cardiac arrhythmias, and other serious complications.

There are two main types of thyroid crisis:

1. Graves' disease-related thyroid crisis: This type is more common and typically affects people with Graves' disease, an autoimmune disorder that causes the thyroid gland to produce too much thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).
2. Toxic multinodular goiter-related thyroid crisis: This type is less common and occurs when multiple nodules in the thyroid gland produce excessive amounts of thyroid hormones.

The symptoms of thyroid crisis can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but they may include:

* Fever
* Vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea
* Heart palpitations
* Rapid heart rate
* Cardiac arrhythmias
* Shortness of breath
* Seizures
* Coma

If you suspect that you or someone else is experiencing thyroid crisis, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment typically involves hospitalization and may include the following:

1. Thyroid hormone-blocking medications: These drugs can help reduce the levels of thyroid hormones in the bloodstream and alleviate symptoms.
2. Antibiotics: If there are signs of infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to prevent or treat the infection.
3. Corticosteroids: These medications can help reduce inflammation in the thyroid gland and other parts of the body.
4. Cardiac support: In severe cases, cardiac support such as a pacemaker or defibrillator may be necessary to regulate the heart rhythm.
5. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be required to remove part or all of the thyroid gland.

Preventing Thyroid Crisis

While there is no guaranteed way to prevent thyroid crisis, there are several measures you can take to reduce your risk:

1. Monitor your thyroid function: Regular blood tests can help identify any changes in thyroid hormone levels and allow for early treatment.
2. Manage underlying medical conditions: Conditions such as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and thyroid nodules can increase the risk of thyroid crisis. Proper management of these conditions can help reduce the risk.
3. Avoid stimulating the thyroid gland: Avoiding activities that stimulate the thyroid gland, such as strenuous exercise or excessive iodine intake, can help reduce the risk of thyroid crisis.
4. Seek prompt medical attention: If you experience any symptoms of thyroid crisis, seek prompt medical attention. Early treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
5. Be aware of your medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and amiodarone, can increase the risk of thyroid crisis. Be aware of the potential risks and discuss any concerns with your healthcare provider.

Living with Thyroid Crisis

Living with thyroid crisis can be challenging, but there are several resources and support options available to help you manage the condition:

1. Healthcare team: Your healthcare provider is your primary source of information and support. They can provide guidance on managing the condition and address any questions or concerns you may have.
2. Online resources: There are several online resources and support groups available for people with thyroid crisis, such as the American Thyroid Association and the Thyroid Foundation of America. These organizations provide information, resources, and support for people with thyroid conditions.
3. Support groups: Joining a support group can provide a sense of community and help you connect with others who are going through similar experiences.
4. Self-care: Engaging in self-care activities such as exercise, meditation, and relaxation techniques can help manage stress and improve overall well-being.
5. Advocating for yourself: Learning to advocate for yourself and your health is essential when living with thyroid crisis. Be proactive and assertive when communicating with your healthcare provider and loved ones about your needs and concerns.


Thyroid crisis, also known as thyroid storm or thyrotoxic crisis, is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt medical attention. It occurs when the thyroid gland becomes overactive and releases excessive amounts of thyroid hormones into the bloodstream. This can lead to symptoms such as fever, rapid heart rate, and muscle weakness.

If you suspect you or someone you know is experiencing a thyroid crisis, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. Early treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes. Living with thyroid crisis can be challenging, but there are several resources and support options available to help manage the condition. By being proactive and advocating for yourself, you can improve your quality of life and manage this condition effectively.

There are several types of ophthalmoplegia, including:

1. External ophthalmoplegia: This type affects the muscles that control lateral and vertical movements of the eyes.
2. Internal ophthalmoplegia: This type affects the muscles that control rotational movements of the eyes.
3. Superior oblique paresis: This type affects the superior oblique muscle, which controls downward and outward movements of the eye.
4. Inferior oblique paresis: This type affects the inferior oblique muscle, which controls upward and outward movements of the eye.

Symptoms of ophthalmoplegia may include difficulty moving the eyes, double vision, droopy eyelids, and blurred vision. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause of the condition and may include physical therapy, prism lenses, or surgery.

The key symptoms of Korsakoff syndrome are:

* Memory loss: Sufferers experience difficulty in forming new memories, which can result in short-term memory loss. They may not remember recent events or conversations, and may have trouble recalling information they learned recently.
* Confabulation: Individuals with Korsakoff syndrome may fill in memory gaps with fabricated information, leading to confabulation (false memories). This can result in inaccurate or distorted recollections of past events.
* Dissociation: The condition can lead to dissociative symptoms such as depersonalization (feeling detached from oneself) and derealization (feeling detached from the world around them).

Korsakoff syndrome is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention, particularly if it is caused by severe alcoholism or malnutrition. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the disorder, such as stopping alcohol consumption and correcting any nutritional deficiencies. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to manage symptoms like anxiety or depression.

The condition is often seen in people who have a history of chronic alcoholism, although it can also occur in individuals with other conditions that affect the brain and central nervous system. Korsakoff syndrome can significantly impact an individual's ability to function in daily life, particularly if left untreated.

This condition is most commonly seen in people with advanced liver disease, such as cirrhosis or liver cancer. It can also be caused by other conditions that affect the liver, such as hepatitis or portal hypertension.

Symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy can include confusion, disorientation, slurred speech, memory loss, and difficulty with coordination and balance. In severe cases, it can lead to coma or even death.

Diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as blood tests and imaging studies. Treatment options include medications to reduce the production of ammonia in the gut, antibiotics to treat any underlying infections, and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) to improve liver function. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.

Overall, hepatic encephalopathy is a serious condition that can have significant impact on quality of life and survival in people with advanced liver disease. Early detection and prompt treatment are essential to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

There are several types of intestinal obstruction, including:

1. Mechanical bowel obstruction: This type of obstruction is caused by a physical blockage in the intestine, such as adhesions or hernias.
2. Non-mechanical bowel obstruction: This type of obstruction is caused by a decrease in the diameter of the intestine, such as from inflammation or scarring.
3. Paralytic ileus: This type of obstruction is caused by a delay in the movement of food through the intestine, usually due to nerve damage or medication side effects.
4. Intestinal ischemia: This type of obstruction is caused by a decrease in blood flow to the intestine, which can lead to tissue damage and death.

Intestinal obstructions can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including:

1. Abdominal X-rays: These can help identify any physical blockages in the intestine.
2. CT scans: These can provide more detailed images of the intestine and help identify any blockages or other issues.
3. Endoscopy: This involves inserting a flexible tube with a camera into the mouth and down into the intestine to visualize the inside of the intestine.
4. Biopsy: This involves removing a small sample of tissue from the intestine for examination under a microscope.

Treatment for intestinal obstructions depends on the underlying cause and severity of the blockage. Some common treatments include:

1. Fluid and electrolyte replacement: This can help restore hydration and electrolyte balance in the body.
2. Nasojejunal tube placement: A small tube may be inserted through the nose and into the jejunum to allow fluids and medications to pass through the blockage.
3. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the blockage or repair any damage to the intestine.
4. Medication: Depending on the underlying cause of the obstruction, medications such as antibiotics or anti-inflammatory drugs may be prescribed to help resolve the issue.

Preventing intestinal obstructions is often challenging, but some strategies can help reduce the risk. These include:

1. Avoiding foods that can cause blockages, such as nuts or seeds.
2. Eating a balanced diet and avoiding constipation.
3. Drinking plenty of fluids to stay hydrated.
4. Managing underlying medical conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease or diabetes.
5. Avoiding medications that can cause constipation or other digestive problems.

Cecal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the cecum, which is a part of the large intestine. The cecum is a pouch-like structure located at the junction of the small and large intestines. Cecal neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Types of Cecal Neoplasms

There are several types of cecal neoplasms, including:

1. Adenoma: A benign tumor that arises from the glandular cells lining the cecum.
2. Villous adenoma: A type of adenoma that is characterized by the growth of villi, which are finger-like projections of epithelial tissue.
3. Tubulovillous adenoma: A type of adenoma that is characterized by the growth of tubular and villous structures.
4. Mucinous cystic neoplasm: A benign tumor that arises from the mucin-secreting cells lining the cecum.
5. Intraepithelial neoplasms: Precancerous changes that occur in the epithelial cells lining the cecum.
6. Carcinoma: A malignant tumor that arises from the epithelial cells lining the cecum.
7. Squamous cell carcinoma: A type of carcinoma that is characterized by the growth of squamous cells.
8. Adenocarcinoma: A type of carcinoma that is characterized by the growth of glandular cells.

Causes and Risk Factors

The exact causes of cecal neoplasms are not known, but several risk factors have been identified, including:

1. Age: The risk of developing cecal neoplasms increases with age.
2. Family history: Having a family history of colon cancer or other gastrointestinal cancers increases the risk of developing cecal neoplasms.
3. Inflammatory bowel disease: People with inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are at higher risk of developing cecal neoplasms.
4. Genetic mutations: Some genetic mutations, such as those associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and Lynch syndrome, increase the risk of developing cecal neoplasms.
5. Diet and lifestyle factors: A diet high in processed meat and low in fiber may increase the risk of developing cecal neoplasms.


Cecal neoplasms may not cause any symptoms in the early stages, but as they grow, they can cause a variety of symptoms, including:

1. Abdominal pain or discomfort
2. Changes in bowel movements (such as diarrhea or constipation)
3. Blood in the stool
4. Weakness and fatigue
5. Loss of appetite
6. Unexplained weight loss


The diagnosis of cecal neoplasms is based on a combination of clinical findings, imaging studies, and pathological examination of tissue samples. The following tests may be used to diagnose cecal neoplasms:

1. Endoscopy: A flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted through the mouth or rectum to visualize the inside of the cecum and collect tissue samples.
2. Imaging studies: Computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or positron emission tomography (PET) scans may be used to identify any abnormalities in the cecum and surrounding tissues.
3. Biopsy: A sample of tissue is taken from the cecum during endoscopy or surgery and examined under a microscope for cancer cells.
4. Blood tests: Blood tests may be used to check for certain substances in the blood that are associated with cancer, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).


The treatment of cecal neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the cancer. The following options may be considered:

1. Surgery: Surgical removal of the cancerous tissue may be recommended for early-stage cancers.
2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used in combination with surgery or as a standalone treatment for more advanced cancers.
3. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used in combination with chemotherapy or surgery to treat cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.
4. Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy may be used to treat specific genetic mutations that are driving the growth of the cancer.


The prognosis for cecal neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis. In general, early-stage cancers have a better prognosis than more advanced cancers. Factors that may affect prognosis include:

1. Type of cancer: The type of cancer present in the cecum can impact prognosis. For example, adenocarcinoma has a better prognosis than squamous cell carcinoma.
2. Stage of cancer: Cancers that have spread to other parts of the body (metastasized) have a poorer prognosis than those that are localized to the cecum.
3. Age and overall health: Older patients or those with underlying health conditions may have a poorer prognosis than younger, healthier individuals.
4. Treatment options: The effectiveness of treatment can also impact prognosis. Patients who receive early and appropriate treatment may have a better prognosis than those who do not receive timely treatment.

Survival rate

The survival rate for cecal neoplasms is generally lower than for other types of gastrointestinal cancers. According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rate for cecal cancer is approximately 20%. This means that of patients diagnosed with cecal cancer, about 20% are still alive 5 years after their initial diagnosis. However, it's important to note that this is a general estimate and individual prognosis can vary based on a variety of factors.

Lifestyle changes

There are several lifestyle changes that may help reduce the risk of developing cecal neoplasms or improve outcomes for those who have been diagnosed:

1. Maintain a healthy diet and weight: Eating a balanced diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can help reduce the risk of developing cecal cancer. Additionally, maintaining a healthy weight can help reduce the risk of developing many types of cancer.
2. Exercise regularly: Regular physical activity has been shown to reduce the risk of developing many types of cancer, including cecal cancer.
3. Avoid tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption: Tobacco use and excessive alcohol consumption have both been linked to an increased risk of developing cecal cancer. Quitting smoking and limiting alcohol intake can help reduce the risk of developing this disease.
4. Manage chronic conditions: Chronic conditions such as diabetes, obesity, and inflammatory bowel disease can increase the risk of developing cecal cancer. Managing these conditions through lifestyle changes and medication can help reduce the risk of developing this disease.
5. Get regular screenings: Regular screenings for colon cancer, such as colonoscopies, can help detect cecal cancer at an early stage when it is more treatable.
6. Consider aspirin therapy: Some studies have suggested that taking a low-dose aspirin every day may help reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer, including cecal cancer. However, aspirin therapy is not right for everyone, and individuals should talk to their doctor before starting any new medication.
7. Don't delay symptoms: If you experience any symptoms that may be related to cecal cancer, such as abdominal pain or changes in bowel movements, don't delay seeking medical attention. These symptoms can also be caused by other conditions, but it is important to get them checked out by a healthcare professional.

It is important to note that these recommendations are not a guarantee against developing cecal cancer, and individuals should talk to their doctor about their specific risk factors and any additional steps they can take to reduce their risk of developing this disease.

1. Ulcerative colitis: This is a chronic condition that causes inflammation and ulcers in the colon. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding.
2. Crohn's disease: This is a chronic condition that affects the digestive tract, including the colon. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss.
3. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): This is a common condition characterized by recurring abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements.
4. Diverticulitis: This is a condition where small pouches form in the colon and become inflamed. Symptoms can include fever, abdominal pain, and changes in bowel movements.
5. Colon cancer: This is a type of cancer that affects the colon. Symptoms can include blood in the stool, changes in bowel movements, and abdominal pain.
6. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): This is a group of chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the digestive tract, including the colon. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss.
7. Rectal cancer: This is a type of cancer that affects the rectum, which is the final portion of the colon. Symptoms can include blood in the stool, changes in bowel movements, and abdominal pain.
8. Anal fissures: These are small tears in the skin around the anus that can cause pain and bleeding.
9. Rectal prolapse: This is a condition where the rectum protrudes through the anus. Symptoms can include rectal bleeding, pain during bowel movements, and a feeling of fullness or pressure in the rectal area.
10. Hemorrhoids: These are swollen veins in the rectum or anus that can cause pain, itching, and bleeding.

It's important to note that some of these conditions can be caused by other factors as well, so if you're experiencing any of these symptoms, it's important to see a doctor for an accurate diagnosis and treatment.

They are fastigial nuclei, globose nuclei, emboliform nuclei, dentate nuclei. These nuclei receive inhibitory (GABAergic) ... The cerebellum has four deep cerebellar nuclei embedded in the white matter in its center. 4 pairs of nuclei are embedded deep ... the term interposed nucleus is often used to refer collectively to these two nuclei. In general, each pair of deep nuclei is ... The vestibular nuclei in the brainstem are analogous structures to the deep nuclei, since they receive both mossy fiber and ...
"Pontine Nuclei and Middle Cerebellar Penduncle". Archived from the original on 30 March 2013. Retrieved 28 April 2013. ... "Projections of individual purkinje cells of identified zones in the flocculus to the vestibular and cerebellar nuclei in the ... Ito, M (1982). "Cerebellar Control of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex--Around the Flocculus Hypothesis". Annual Review of ... The first and third zones of the flocculus project to the superior vestibular nucleus, the second and fourth zone projects to ...
All of them emerge from cerebellar nuclei; the cerebellorubral fibers from the globose and emboliform nuclei, the ... There are six cerebellar peduncles in total, three on each side: Superior cerebellar peduncle is a paired structure of white ... and the fastigioreticular fibers from the fastigial nucleus. They emerge together from the various nuclei to ascend in the roof ... Inferior cerebellar peduncle is a thick rope-like strand that occupies the upper part of the posterior district of the medulla ...
"Pontine Nuclei and Middle Cerebellar Peduncle" Medical Neurosciences 731. UW-Madison Medical School. "Medical Neurosciences". ... This indicates that cerebellar function is intact and that the presented symptoms of Bruns apraxia are due to damage located ... Unlike ataxias of cerebellar origin, Bruns apraxia exhibits many frontal lobe ataxia characteristics, with some or all present ... Walking stride in cerebellar ataxia varies dramatically, accompanied by erratic foot placement and sudden, uncontrolled ...
Situated within the arbor vitae are the deep cerebellar nuclei; the dentate, globose, emboliform and the fastigial nuclei. ... Arbor vitae and cerebellar peduncles. Saladin, Keneth (2012). Anatomy and Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function. New York ... In some ways it more resembles a fern and is present in both cerebellar hemispheres. It brings sensory and motor information to ... The arbor vitae /ˌɑːrbɔːr ˈvaɪtiː/ (Latin for "tree of life") is the cerebellar white matter, so called for its branched, tree- ...
These projections originate from various cerebellar nuclei and are glutamatergic. Given the cerebellar contributions to motor ... parafascicular nucleus and central lateral nucleus) and higher-order nuclei such as the lateral posterior nucleus. The zona ... Brainstem Zona incerta receives input from many parts of the brainstem nuclei including the periaqueductal gray, raphe nuclei, ... It is regulated by inputs from brainstem cholinergic nuclei such as the Laterodorsal tegmental nucleus and pedunculopontine ...
The globose nucleus is one of the deep cerebellar nuclei. It is located medial to the emboliform nucleus and lateral to the ... The globose nucleus and emboliform nucleus are occasionally referred to collectively as the interposed nucleus. This article ... This nucleus contains primarily large and small multipolar neurons. ... Globose Nucleus via the Neuroscience Information Framework Portal: Anatomy (Articles with short description, Short description ...
The fibers arise from the deep cerebellar nuclei. The middle cerebellar peduncle is connected to the pons and receives all of ... A climbing fiber gives off collaterals to the deep cerebellar nuclei before entering the cerebellar cortex, where it splits ... These are the superior cerebellar peduncle, the middle cerebellar peduncle and the inferior cerebellar peduncle, named by their ... one of the deep cerebellar nuclei) or to a few specific points in the cerebellar cortex would abolish learning of a ...
Chan-Palay, Victoria (1977). Cerebellar dentate nucleus: organization, cytology and transmitters. Springer-Verlag. OCLC 2542632 ... Palay, Sanford L.; Chan-Palay, Victoria (1974). Cerebellar cortex: cytology and organization. Springer. ISBN 9783642655814. ...
The interposed nucleus is part of the deep cerebellar complex and is composed of the globose nucleus and the emboliform nucleus ... The cerebellar interpositus nucleus is also required in delayed Pavlovian conditioning. Clark, Robert E.; Zhang, Andrew A.; ... which originate in the accessory cuneate nucleus and the posterior thoracic nucleus, respectively. The interposed nucleus is ... The interposed nucleus is smaller than the dentate but larger than the fastigial nucleus. Functionally, it modulates muscle ...
Ouardouz M, Sastry BR (2000). "Mechanisms underlying LTP of inhibitory synaptic transmission in the deep cerebellar nuclei". ... and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Studies have demonstrated that VTA and NAc synapses are capable of undergoing LTP and that this ... induction of LTP in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala by stimulation of the medial geniculate body". The Journal of ... that initiates gene expression in the cell nucleus. At the same synapse (but not the unstimulated synapse), local protein ...
Similar abnormalities have been identified in the brainstem and cerebellar dentate nucleus. Signal intensity on a T2 image may ...
The cerebellar cortex projects to the deep cerebellar nuclei (the corticonuclear microcomplex). The deep nuclei then project to ... The deep nuclei of the cerebellum also have specific functions. The interpositus nucleus is involved with motor function, the ... Causes of CCAS include cerebellar agenesis, dysplasia and hypoplasia, cerebellar stroke, tumor, cerebellitis, trauma, and ... and the fastigial nucleus with limbic functions. It has been shown that phylogenetically the dentate nuclei developed with the ...
In deep cerebellar nuclei, calcium currents are not uniformly distributed along a dendrite. The relative strength of LVA ... Spatial distribution of low- and high-voltage-activated calcium currents in neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei. Journal of ... For example, backward propagation of action potentials is very limited in cerebellar Purkinje cells but is quite prevalent in ... Electrophysiological properties of in vitro purkinje cell dendrites in mammalian cerebellar slices. Journal of Physiology 305: ...
... is a nucleus present within the inferior cerebellar peduncle of human brains. It was discovered by George ... The name endorestiform is derived from the fact that the nucleus is present within (endo) the inferior cerebellar peduncle (a.k ... Given that the endorestiform nucleus is located in the inferior cerebellar peduncle, it is thought that it might be involved in ... George Paxinos talking about his discovery v t e (All stub articles, Neuroanatomy stubs, Brainstem nuclei). ...
Purkinje neurons may utilise these bursting forms in information coding to the deep cerebellar nuclei. Action potential Central ... Cerebellar Purkinje neurons have been proposed to have two distinct bursting modes: dendritically driven, by dendritic Ca2+ ... "The Sodium-Potassium Pump Controls the Intrinsic Firing of the Cerebellar Purkinje Neuron". PLOS ONE. 7 (12): e51169. Bibcode: ...
"Purkinje cell BKchannel ablation induces abnormal rhythm in deep cerebellar nuclei and prevents Ltd". Scientific Reports. 8 (1 ... In 1986, he has discovered, together with E. Godaux, the localization of the oculomotor neural integrator (NI) in the nucleus ... "Cerebellar contribution to visuo-attentional alpha rhythm: insights from weightlessness". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal ... "Differential effect of injections of kainic acid into the prepositus and the vestibular nuclei of the cat". The Journal of ...
... vestibular nuclei, cerebellar vermis, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Inflammation associated with nerve cell destruction often ...
"Modulatory effects of serotonin on GABAergic synaptic transmission and membrane properties in the deep cerebellar nuclei". ... "5-HT1B receptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition of GABA release in the suprachiasmatic nucleus". Journal of Neurophysiology. 93 ...
In particular, GABA concentrations decreased in the deep cerebellar nuclei, target of Purkinje axons, but not in cerebellar ... Dopamine transporter binding increased in deep cerebellar nuclei but decreased in the cerebellar molecular layer of Agtpbp1-pcd ... Non-NMDA receptor binding decreased in molecular and granule cell layers of the cerebellar cortex but not the deep nuclei of ... In line with the Purkinje cell loss, the number of GABAergic terminal boutons declined in deep cerebellar nuclei of Agtpbp1-pcd ...
Revealing the cerebellar nuclei and their white matter connections". Anatomical Sciences Education. 7 (1): 47-55. doi:10.1002/ ...
... to the cerebellum via the middle cerebellar peduncle, and terminate in both the cerebellar nuclei, and at granule cells (GR) of ... Output from the interpositus nucleus includes projections to the red nucleus, and the red nucleus sends projections to the ... Climbing fibers ultimately project to both the deep cerebellar nuclei and Purkinje cells (PCs) in the cerebellar cortex. The ... cells of the cerebellar nuclei receive GABA-ergic inhibitory input from PCs of the cerebellar cortex. ...
"Neurochemical and morphological consequences of axon terminal degeneration in cerebellar deep nuclei of mice with inherited ...
"Broad therapeutic benefit after RNAi expression vector delivery to deep cerebellar nuclei: implications for spinocerebellar ... Holmes G (1908). "An Attempt to Classify Cerebellar Disease, with a Note on Marie's Hereditary Cerebellar Ataxia". Brain. 30 (4 ... "Progressive impairment of cerebellar mGluR signalling and its therapeutic potential for cerebellar ataxia in spinocerebellar ... This cerebellar dysfunction is progressive and permanent. First onset of symptoms is normally between 30 and 40 years of age, ...
"Role of GABAB receptors in GABA and baclofen-induced inhibition of adult rat cerebellar interpositus nucleus neurons in vitro ...
Neuroanatomical structures affected include the oculomotor nucleus, red nucleus, corticospinal tracts and superior cerebellar ... Cerebellar ataxia: involuntary movements. Deep brain stimulation may provide relief from some symptoms of Benedikt syndrome, ... It is characterized by the presence of an oculomotor nerve (CN III) palsy and cerebellar ataxia including tremor and ...
From Rhombic Lip to Cortico-Ponto-Cerebellar Circuitry". Frontiers in Neural Circuits. 11: 33. doi:10.3389/fncir.2017.00033. ... The pontine nuclei (or griseum pontis) are the nuclei of the pons involved in motor activity. The pontine nuclei are located in ... Extension of these nuclei in the medulla oblongata are named arcuate nucleus (medulla) which has the same function. They ... Corticopontine fibres carry information from the primary motor cortex to the ipsilateral pontine nucleus in the ventral pons, ...
... particularly in the pontine nuclei and the cerebellar dentate nuclei. Nuclei of cranial nerves, arcuate nuclei, and posterior ... The event of chromatolysis is also characterized by a prominent migration of the nucleus towards the periphery of the cell and ... The loss of staining begins near the nucleus and spreads toward the axon hillock. The basophilic rim is formed as chromatolysis ... In neurons receiving axonal transection, central chromatolysis is observed in the area between the nucleus and the axon hillock ...
... and feedback from deep cerebellar nuclei. Axons enter the cerebellum via the middle and inferior cerebellar peduncles, where ... some branch to make contact with deep cerebellar nuclei. They ascend into the white matter of the cerebellum, where each axon ... Climbing fiber Mossy fiber (hippocampus), which shares little similarity with its cerebellar namesake. Dale Purves; et al. ( ... ISBN 978-0-19-511824-7. (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Cerebellar connections) ...
Producing granule cells and five brainstem nuclei, the rhombic lip plays an important role in developing a complex cerebellar ... The other four nuclei (the external cuneate nucleus, the lateral reticular nucleus, the pontine nucleus, and the thalamic ... and deep cerebellar nuclei. Located between the fourth ventricle and the roofplate, the rhombic lip extends from r1-r8 and can ... One brainstem nucleus, the inferior olivary nucleus, projects climbing fibers to innervate Purkinje cells. ...
One group revealed robust α-synuclein pathology in the pontine nuclei and medullary inferior olivary nucleus upon histological ... Both MRI and CT scanning may show a decrease in the size of the cerebellum and pons in those with cerebellar features (MSA-C). ... Those with predominantly cerebellar features and those who display autonomic dysfunction later have a better prognosis. The ... Other common signs at onset include problems with balance (cerebellar ataxia) found in 22% at first presentation, followed by ...
They are poorly understood, but like Q-type calcium channels, they appear to be present in cerebellar granule cells. They have ... They are strongly expressed in cortex, hippocampus, striatum, amygdala and interpeduncular nucleus. ...
The posterior lobe receives input mainly from the brainstem (i.e., reticular formation and inferior olivary nucleus) and ... ISBN 978-0-7817-8383-5. Schienle A, Scharmüller W (August 2013). "Cerebellar activity and connectivity during the experience of ... Dissection video (1 min 20 s). Demonstrating the three cerebellar lobes. (Patestas & Gartner 2016, p. 87) "The Cerebellum". ...
... these axons synapse on cerebellar deep nuclei. This tract is known as the cuneocerebellar tract. Motor information travels from ... From here, the information is brought to deep nuclei of the cerebellum including the fastigial and interposed nuclei. From the ... either the nucleus gracilis or the nucleus cuneatus, depending on the pathway it took. At this point, the secondary axon leaves ... The midbrain nuclei include four motor tracts that send upper motor neuronal axons down the spinal cord to lower motor neurons ...
These hypothalamic nuclei send output signals to motor areas that can generate actions to rectify deficiencies. Some of the ... Some parts, such as the cerebral cortex and the cerebellar cortex, consist of layers that are folded or convoluted to fit ... This primary sensory nucleus sends information to higher-order sensory areas that are dedicated to the same modality. ... Except for the muscles that control the eye, which are driven by nuclei in the midbrain, all the voluntary muscles in the body ...
... but rather by the vertebral and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries. The trigeminal nucleus is also spared, since most of it ... The condition usually consists of: Sensation to the face is preserved, due to the sparing of the trigeminal nucleus. The ... instead supplied by the posterior inferior cerebellar arteries and the vertebral arteries). The anterior spinal artery arises ...
It receives its blood supply from the Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery, which is compromised in the lateral medullary ... The medial vestibular nucleus (Schwalbe nucleus) is one of the vestibular nuclei. It is located in the medulla oblongata. ... DESCENDING MLF..Bilaterally for head/neck/eye movements It is one of the nuclei that corresponds to CN VIII, corresponding to ... Lateral vestibulo-spinal tract (lateral vestibular nucleus "Deiters")- via ventrolateral medulla and spinal cord to ventral ...
Fañanas cells (also known as Feathered cells of Fañanas) are glial cells of the cerebellar cortex. They are located in the ... With the Nissl-method, Fañanas cells can be identified by their slightly bigger, roundish and ovally shaped nuclei, scattered ... The role of the Fañanas cell in the connectivity and structure of the cerebellar cortex is still unknown. One study found ... Petersen, Karl Uwe (Dec 1969). On the fine structure of glia cells in the cerebellar cortex of mammals. Springer-Verlag. pp. ...
These signals then modulate the activity of the cerebellar cortex and nuclei, which in turn regulate descending tract neurons ... Activity of Neurons of Lateral Reticular Nucleus". Brain Research. 151 (3): 479-491. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(78)91081-8. PMID ...
... localization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulate transmission of cAMP signals to the nucleus in cortical and cerebellar ...
Alcohol inhibits sodium-potassium pumps in the cerebellum and this is likely how it corrupts cerebellar computation and body co ... Stimulated areas include the cortex, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens, which are all responsible for both thinking and ... Mitoma H, Manto M, Shaikh AG (August 2021). "Mechanisms of Ethanol-Induced Cerebellar Ataxia: Underpinnings of Neuronal Death ...
The most common site for cerebellar lesions that lead to intention tremors has been reported to be the superior cerebellar ... In the case of an intention tremor, the thalamic nuclei is the region targeted for treatment. This form of treatment causes ... Deep brain stimulation and surgical lesioning of the thalamic nuclei has been found to be an effective long-term treatment with ... Depending on the location of cerebellar damage, these tremors can be either unilateral or bilateral. A variety of causes have ...
For example, in the solitary nucleus, the A-type potassium current is Kv4-mediated. Therefore, presence of AmmTX3 in the ... While AmmTX3 nearly completely blocks the transient component of the A-type potassium current in cerebellar granular neurons at ... solitary nucleus cells blocks the A-type potassium current almost completely. Similar effects have been found in the ... underlie A-currents with highly variable inactivation time courses but homogeneous other gating properties in the nucleus ...
LIS1 is integral in regulating the motor protein dynein which plays an important role in the movement of neuronal nuclei along ... "Autosomal recessive lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia is associated with human RELN mutations". Nature Genetics. 26 (1 ...
Understanding the operation of neural learning could provide valuable insights for the treatment of cerebellar-related ... known as the EOD command nucleus. This efference copy diverges, transmitted through two separate pathways, before the signals ...
In the midbrain, β-gal was observed in the subthalamic nucleus, the superior and inferior colliculi and in the red nucleus. β- ... The extension of cerebellar neurites on purified PTPkappa fusion proteins was demonstrated to require Grb2 and MEK1 activity. ... PTPkappa promotes neurite outgrowth from embryonic cerebellar neurons, and thus may be involved in axonal extension or guidance ... Tyrosine phosphorylated β-catenin translocates to the cell nucleus and activates TCF-mediated transcription to promote cell ...
Pallidal axons have their own territory in the ventral lateral nucleus (VL); separated from the cerebellar and nigral ... They turn round the medial border of the subthalamic nucleus, enter the H2 field above the subthalamic nucleus, then cross the ... An associative input goes to the caudate nucleus and possibly to the nucleus accumbens. There are two different components of ... It also gives output to other areas including the pedunculopontine nucleus and to the area behind the red nucleus. The ...
Cerebellar atrophy Brain FDG PET-CT tends to be markedly abnormal, and is increasingly used in the investigation of dementias. ... MRI of the brain - often shows high signal intensity in the caudate nucleus and putamen bilaterally on T2-weighted images. In ... in all six cortical layers in the cerebral cortex or with diffuse involvement of the cerebellar molecular layer. These vacuoles ...
Bergmann glia have multiple radial processes that extend across the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex and terminate at ... and the phasic migration of their nuclei depending on their location with the cell cycle (termed "interkinetic nuclear ... first widely accepted function of radial glia is their role as scaffolds for neuronal migration in the cerebral and cerebellar ...
The nuclei then move to upper regions near the basal side where they proceed through S-phase. This nuclear movement is repeated ... In cerebellar granule cells and cortical neurons, E2F1 can trigger neuronal apoptosis through activation of Bax/caspase-3 and ... Cell nuclei occupy different positions along the apical-basal axis of the tissue. S phase occurs close to the basal side ... they need to move their nucleus to the apical side in order to assemble the mitotic spindle used in mitosis. It has been ...
... location of the nucleus of the oculomotor nerve and the Edinger-Westphal nucleus Anisocoria Cranial nerve Oculomotor nucleus ... It passes between the superior cerebellar (below) and posterior cerebral arteries (above), and then pierces the dura mater ... The third nerve nucleus is located ventral to the cerebral aqueduct, on the pre-aqueductal grey matter. The fibers from the two ... From the red nucleus fibers then pass via the substantia nigra[citation needed] to emerge from the substance of the brainstem ...
When one of the vestibular nerves is damaged, disparity in the firing rates of neurons in the vestibular nuclei causes ... January 2020). "SK2 channels in cerebellar Purkinje cells contribute to excitability modulation in motor-learning-specific ... This is likely due to modifications of intrinsic excitability in the neurons of the vestibular nucleus. Nonsynaptic plasticity ... Darlington CL, Dutia MB, Smith PF (June 2002). "The contribution of the intrinsic excitability of vestibular nucleus neurons to ...
It was found to be an antagonist at the putative new cannabinoid receptor, GPR55, a GPCR expressed in the caudate nucleus and ... receptor-dependent G-protein activation in rat cerebellar membranes". British Journal of Pharmacology. 134 (3): 664-672. doi: ...
Sechi GP, Zuddas M, Piredda M, Agnetti V, Sau G, Piras ML, Tanca S, Rosati G (1989). "Treatment of cerebellar tremors with ... is responsible for communication between the two eyes by connecting the abducens nucleus of one side to the oculomotor nucleus ... Hallett M, Lindsey JW, Adelstein BD, Riley PO (1985). "Controlled trial of isoniazid therapy for severe postural cerebellar ... "Pharmacologic trials in the treatment of cerebellar tremor". Arch. Neurol. 41 (3): 280-1. doi:10.1001/archneur. ...
... centromedian nucleus centrum semi centrum semiovale cephalic cephalic vein cerebellar peduncle cerebellar projection cerebellar ... notochord nuchal ligament nucleus nucleus accumbens nucleus ambiguus nucleus fastigius nucleus of Luys nucleus pulposus nucleus ... soleus solitary nucleus solitary tract somatic somatic motor nuclei somite spasm spasticity specific sensory nucleus of ... lateral cuneate nucleus lateral dorsal nucleus of thalamus lateral fissure lateral funiculus lateral geniculate body or nucleus ...
Lateral group of the thalamic nuclei. Medial group of the thalamic nuclei. 5-HT7 receptor Krista and Tatiana Hogan - conjoined ... Orioli, PJ; Strick, PL (1989). "Cerebellar connections with the motor cortex and the arcuate premotor area: An analysis ... and includes the lateral nuclei, the pulvinar and the medial and lateral geniculate nuclei. There are areas of white matter in ... Thalamic nuclei have strong reciprocal connections with the cerebral cortex, forming thalamo-cortico-thalamic circuits that are ...
Cerebellar granule cells receive excitatory input from 3 or 4 mossy fibers originating from pontine nuclei. Mossy fibers make ... These granule cells receive excitatory input from mossy fibers originating from pontine nuclei. Cerebellar granule cells ... the superficial layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the olfactory bulb, and the cerebral cortex. Cerebellar granule cells ... In the cerebellar cortex there are a variety of inhibitory neurons (interneurons). The only excitatory neurons present in the ...
Similar spheroids with cell loss and gliosis were also observed in other thalamic nuclei and, rarely, in the pallida. Diagnosis ... Onset : Early childhood Progression: Chronic progressive Clinical: Cerebellar ataxia plus syndrome / Optic Atrophy Plus ... revealed central atrophy of the optic nerves and total disarray of the normal laminar pattern of the lateral geniculate nucleus ...
We examined the cerebellar dentate nucleus (CDN) in 16 patients with hereditary dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA), ... We examined the cerebellar dentate nucleus (CDN) in 16 patients with hereditary dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA), ... ubiquitinated filamentous inclusions in the cerebellar dentate nucleus neurons Y Hayashi 1 , A Kakita, M Yamada, S Egawa, S ... Ubiquitinated filamentous inclusions in cerebellar dentate nucleus neurons in dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy contain ...
3 . Steuber V, Jaeger D (2013) Modeling the generation of output by the cerebellar nuclei. Neural Netw 47:112-9 [PubMed] 4 . ... Robust transmission in the inhibitory Purkinje Cell to Cerebellar Nuclei pathway (Abbasi et al 2017). ... Passive models of neurons in the deep cerebellar nuclei: the effect of reconstruction errors Neurocomputing 58-60:563-568 5 . ... STD-dependent and independent encoding of input irregularity as spike rate in a computational model of a cerebellar nucleus ...
... indicating that the histaminergic afferent inputs of cerebellar nuclei may be involved in the cerebellar function of motor ... Histamine improves rat rota-rod and balance beam performances through H(2) receptors in the cerebellar interpositus nucleus.. ... The results showed that microinjection of histamine into the cerebellar interpositus nucleus remarkably increased the time that ... receptors in the cerebellar interpositus nucleus and suggest that the hypothalamocerebellar histaminergic projections may play ...
... but whether there are also evolutionary changes in their telencephalon-cerebellar relay nuclei is unknown. Like mammals, birds ... This suggests that the telencephalon-SpM-cerebellar pathway of birds may play an analogous role to cortico-ponto-cerebellar ... the medial spiriform nucleus (SpM). We found that SpM, but not the pontine nuclei, is greatly enlarged in parrots and its ... We conclude that SpM is key to understanding the role of telencephalon-cerebellar pathways in the evolution of complex ...
... , Lu X, ... Role of monkey cerebellar nuclei in skill for sequential movement. Author(s): Lu X, Hikosaka O, Miyachi S ... Cerebellar posterior interpositus nucleus as an enhancer of classically conditioned eyelid responses in alert cats. Author(s): ... Effect of kainic acid lesions of the cerebellar interpositus nucleus on eyelid conditioning in the rabbit. Author(s): Lavond DG ...
Loss of deep cerebellar nuclei neurons in the 3xTg-AD mice and protection by an anti-amyloid β antibody fragment BIBLIOGRAPHIC ... lesser in the interpositus and negligible in the dentate nucleus. A sole and low intraperitoneal dose of scFv-h3D6 protected ... in the DCN was regionally variable and followed a mediolateral axis of involvement that was greatest in the fastigial nucleus, ...
Deep cerebellar nuclei neurons are spared in many cerebellar diseases or their function is altered only secondarily to the ... Hence, cerebellar nuclei are a natural place for compensatory mechanisms for diseases affecting the cerebellar cortex. We ... determining cerebellar nuclei neurons output and its plastic changes and how these might be affected by cerebellar disease, or ... Our research is focused on the neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN). The axons of these cells provide the output ...
Contribution of cerebral edema to the neuronal salvage elicited by stimulation of cerebellar fastigial nucleus after occlusion ... Contribution of cerebral edema to the neuronal salvage elicited by stimulation of cerebellar fastigial nucleus after occlusion ...
The control system is composed of the adaptive cerebellar module and a classic control method; their combination allows a fast ... The control system is composed of the adaptive cerebellar module and a classic control method; their combination allows a fast ... We built the canonical cerebellar microcircuit by combining machine learning and computational neuroscience techniques. ... We built the canonical cerebellar microcircuit by combining machine learning and computational neuroscience techniques. ...
2011) Purkinje neuron synchrony elicits time-locked spiking in the cerebellar nuclei. Nature 481:502-505. doi:10.1038/ ... 2006) Memory trace of motor learning shifts transsynaptically from cerebellar cortex to nuclei for consolidation. Neuroscience ... Cerebellar motor learning has been thought to be implanted by synaptic plasticity in the multiple sites of the cerebellar ... Intrinsic plasticity of cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) has recently been demonstrated in cerebellar local circuits; however, ...
Cerebellar nuclei. nTPM: 13.8 1871. Male, age 74, unknown. 15.5. 1879. Male, age 55, unknown. 15.4. ... Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere. Average nTPM: 21.2 Samples: 215. Max nTPM: 54.3. Min nTPM: 7.2. Std nTPM: 6.4. Median nTPM: 20.0 ...
... bed nucleus of the anterior commissure; CBN, cerebellar nuclei; CBX, cerebellar cortex; CEAc, central amygdalar nucleus, ... pontine reticular nucleus; PRNc, pontine reticular nucleus, caudal part; RM, nucleus raphe magnus; RN, red nucleus; RSPd, ... cerebral nuclei; CTX, cerebral cortex; DN, dentate nucleus; FN, fastigial nucleus; GPi, globus pallidus, internal segment; GU, ... mediodorsal nucleus, central part; MDRN, medullary reticular nucleus; NPC, nucleus of the posterior commissure; ORBvl, l, ...
Cerebellar Cortex A8.186.211.865.428.200.212. Cerebellar Nuclei A8.186.211.865.428.200.337. Cerebellopontine Angle A8.186. ... Vestibular Nuclei A8.186.211.865.428.600.800. Vestibular Nucleus, Lateral A8.186.211.865.428.600.800.800. Visual Cortex A8.186. ... Suprachiasmatic Nucleus A8.186.211.730.385.357.342.625 A8.186.211.730.317.357.342.625. Supraoptic Nucleus A8.186.211.730. ... Red Nucleus A8.186.211.653.822.642. Reperfusion Injury C14.907.553.700 C14.907.725. Resins, Plant D5.750.78.740 D5.750.78.840. ...
I. Lesions of the cerebellar nuclei.. Yeo CH; Hardiman MJ; Glickstein M. Exp Brain Res; 1985; 60(1):87-98. PubMed ID: 4043285. ... Effect of kainic acid lesions of the cerebellar interpositus nucleus on eyelid conditioning in the rabbit.. Lavond DG; Hembree ... Effects of lesions of cerebellar nuclei on conditioned behavioral and hippocampal neuronal responses.. Clark GA; McCormick DA; ... Reversible lesions of the cerebellar interpositus nucleus during acquisition and retention of a classically conditioned ...
... appearance of the cerebral and superior cerebellar pe … ... Cerebellum Lecture: the Cerebellar Nuclei-Core of the ... nondecussation of superior cerebellar peduncles, enlarged arcuate nuclei, hypoplastic reticular formation, hypoplastic medial ... Cerebellar and brainstem development: an overview in relation to Joubert syndrome. Yachnis AT, Rorke LB. Yachnis AT, et al. J ... Characteristic findings in all JS genotypes included vermian hypoplasia, fragmented dentate and spinal trigeminal nuclei, ...
Dense calcifications in the cerebellar dentate nucleus Dry hair Enamel hypoplasia Feeding difficulties in infancy Fine hair ... Dense Calcifications in The Cerebellar Dentate Nucleus. Dental Malocclusion. Synonym: Bad Bite ... Cerebellar atrophy Cerebral dysmyelination Growth delay Mental deterioration Pigmentary retinopathy Postnatal growth ...
Controlling absence seizures from the cerebellar nuclei via activation of the Gq signaling pathway. Schwitalla JC, Pakusch J, ... Posterior subthalamic nucleus (PSTh) mediates innate fear-associated hypothermia in mice. Liu C, Lee CY, Asher G, Cao L, ... Homologous organization of cerebellar pathways to sensory, motor, and associative forebrain. Pisano TJ, Dhanerawala ZM, Kislin ... Lateral habenula glutamatergic neurons projecting to the dorsal raphe nucleus promote aggressive arousal in mice. Takahashi A, ...
... which sends converging input to the cerebellar cortex and the deep cerebellar nuclei. The air puff is processed through the ... in the lower brain stem and this structure sends information to areas in the cerebellar cortex and the deep cerebellar nuclei. ... Humans with cerebellar lesions cannot learn the response. Because individuals with autism have cerebellar deficits, including ... suggesting that the cerebellar cortex, rather than deep nuclei in the cerebellum, is preferentially targeted in this condition ...
Cerebellar interposed nucleus lesions suppress lymphocyte function in rats. Brain Res Bull 2006; 71: 10-17. ... nucleus tractus solitarii, nucleus parabrachialis) a hypotalamu (nucleus paraventricularis) [14]. Je známe, že tieto štruktúry ... Okrem toho došlo k aktivácii ventrolaterálnej predĺženej miechy, nuclei raphe, nucleus parabrachialis, hypotalamu, amygdaly, ... nucleus parabrachialis, nucleus tractus solitarii a A1/C1 katecholaminergické bunkové skupiny [20,21]. Keďže ide o oblasti, ...
Central Nuclei Deep Cerebellar Nuclei Dentate Cerebellar Nucleus Dentate Nucleus Fastigial Cerebellar Nucleus Fastigial Nucleus ... Lateral Cerebellar Nucleus Medial Cerebellar Nucleus Nucleus Dentatus Nucleus Emboliformis Nucleus Fastigii Nucleus Globosus ... nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.. Terms. Cerebellar Nuclei Preferred Term Term UI T007381. Date01/ ... nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.. Entry Term(s). Amiculum of the Dentate Nucleus Anterior Interposed Nucleus Anterior ...
... that the activities of a subset of neurons in a structure deep in the cerebellum called the anterior deep cerebellar nuclei ( ... References: Reverse-translational identification of a cerebellar satiation network. Low AYT, Goldstein N, Gaunt JR, Huang KP, ...
OBJECTIVES: We explored effect of glutamatergic neurons in the fastigial nucleus (FN), one of three cerebellar nuclei, on ... Journal Article 2012; 33(4): 393-400 PubMed PMID: 22936265 Keywords: Animals, Cattle, Cerebellar Nuclei:cytology, Female, ... The hypothalamus mediates the effect of cerebellar fastigial nuclear glutamatergic neurons on humoral immunity.. Cao B, Han X, ... Cao B, Han X, Huang Y, Qiu Y, Peng Y. The hypothalamus mediates the effect of cerebellar fastigial nuclear glutamatergic ...
Altered functional connectivity of dentate nucleus in parkinsonian and cerebellar variants of multiple system atrophy.. Yang H ... 4. Cerebellar resting-state functional connectivity in Parkinsons disease and multiple system atrophy: Characterization of ... 6. Differences in the intra-cerebellar connections and graph theoretical measures between Parkinsons disease and multiple ... 2. Similarities and differences in cerebellar grey matter volume and disrupted functional connectivity in idiopathic ...
In the deep cerebellar nuclei, the temporal increases in PBR paralleled demyelination and microglia and astrocyte activation. ...
Cerebellar Vermis A08. Purkinje Cells A08. Cerebellar Nuclei A08.186. ... Cochlear Nucleus A08. Kolliker-Fuse Nucleus A08. Middle Cerebellar ... Olivary Nucleus A08. Raphe Nuclei A08. Nucleus Raphe Obscurus A08.186 ... Interpeduncular Nucleus A08. Midbrain Raphe Nuclei A08. Red Nucleus ...
Cerebellar granule cells possess four or five dendrites, each ending in a dendritic claw, a relatively large nucleus, and long ... Incoming mossy fibers deliver sensory signals from pre-cerebellar nuclei and the spinal cord to granule cells (g), the most ... The lenticular nucleus (E) is a lens-shaped bundle of neurons that, along with the caudate nucleus (R) and the internal capsule ... Purkinje cells transmit inhibitory signals to the deep nuclei, outside the cerebellar cortex, which will relay information to ...
An unfolded map of the cerebellar dentate nucleus and its projections to the cerebral cortex. J Neurophysiol 2003;89:634-639. ... Cerebellar loops with motor cortex and prefrontal cortex of a nonhuman primate. J Neurosci 2003;23:8432-8444. ... Dopamine-glutamate reciprocal modulation of release and motor responses in the rat caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens of ... Cerebellar projections to the prefrontal cortex of the primate. J Neurosci 2001;21:700-712. ...
  • Motor and non-motor territories of the human dentate nucleus: Mapping the topographical connectivity of the cerebellar cortex with in-vivo sub-millimeter diffusion imaging. (
  • Ultrastructural lesions in the caudate nucleus and cerebellar cortex. (
  • The cerebellar cortex is a principal receiver of M1 projections via pons, but the emergent dynamics in these regions with motor skill learning is incompletely understood. (
  • Pathologically the cerebellar cortex and subcortical nuclei demonstrate diffuse degenerative changes. (
  • Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy Cerebellar atrophy(95%) T2 hypointensity in Gp,SN(50%) Spares cortex Neuroferitinopathy T2 hypointensity in GP, SN Then dendate /caudate nuclei,thalami Affects cortex Aceruloplasminemia. (
  • It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. (
  • Here, we examined the effects of WF on the frontal cortex (FCT, including pre-frontal cortex), parietal cortex (PCT, including motor cortex), and thalamus (THL, including subthalamic nucleus) of rats to determine if it instigates neurochemical and synaptic changes that are predictive of sensorimotor and cognitive impairment. (
  • Furthermore, the observed defects in the intrinsic plasticity of PCs led to the formation of aberrant neural plasticity in the vestibular nucleus neurons. (
  • As a PhD student in Johns Hopkins with David Linden, I studied plasticity of inhibitory inputs and of intrinsic excitability of deep-cerebellar nuclear neurons. (
  • Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii. (
  • Discharge of identified deep cerebellar nuclei neurons related to eye blinks in the alert cat. (
  • To explore the pathogenesis of migraine chronification, we measured gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate/glutamine (Glx) levels in the dentate nucleus (DN) and PAG of patients with episodic and chronic migraine and healthy subjects. (
  • MRI brain revealed symmetric hyperintense lesions in the dentate nucleus and pons on T2-weighted imaging and FLAIR, which have a well-established association with metronidazole-induced central nervous system (CNS) toxicity. (
  • Both teams aimed at the same target, the ventralis intermedius nucleus of the thalamus (VIM), but team A found a clear improvement of choreic peak dose dyskinesias, whereas team B did not consistently. (
  • Essential tremor can be suppressed with chronic, bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventralis intermedius nucleus (Vim), the cerebellar receiving area of the motor thalamus. (
  • In the case of primates, increasing evidence suggests that the cerebellum and cortico-cerebellar pathways play an essential role in complex cognitive abilities like the ones mentioned above 10 , 11 . (
  • Here, we report on low-frequency oscillatory (LFO) activity that emerges in cortico-cerebellar networks with learning the reach-to-grasp motor skill. (
  • This work furthers our understanding on emergent dynamics in the cortico-cerebellar loop that underlie learning and execution of precise skilled movement. (
  • Recent interest in modulating cortico-cerebellar networks for motor recovery postinjury/stroke make this work an important precursor to assessing whether similar low-frequency activity in cortico-cerebellar networks can serve as a biomarker of motor recovery and help to optimize the modulation of these networks. (
  • but similar oscillatory dynamics have not been studied in cortico-cerebellar networks. (
  • In mammals, the evolution of complex cognitive abilities is associated with increases in the size of the telencephalon and cerebellum as well as the pontine nuclei, which connect these two regions. (
  • Like mammals, birds have two brainstem pontine nuclei that project to the cerebellum and receive projections from the telencephalon. (
  • Unlike mammals, birds also have a pretectal nucleus that connects the telencephalon with the cerebellum: the medial spiriform nucleus (SpM). (
  • Dopamine-glutamate reciprocal modulation of release and motor responses in the rat caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens of intact animals. (
  • Although plasticity of excitability, intrinsic plasticity, of the cerebellar Purkinje cell has been reported in both directions (potentiation and depression), the physiological role of intrinsic plasticity still remains ambiguous. (
  • Our results suggest that intrinsic plasticity of cerebellar Purkinje cell has a significant role in motor memory consolidation. (
  • Cuatro acúmulos de neuronas, de localización profunda, en la SUSTANCIA BLANCA del CEREBELO, que reciben los nombres de núcleo dentado, núcleo emboliforme, núcleo globoso y núcleo medial o fastigio. (
  • Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a widely accepted method for the treatment of Parkinson's disease symptoms and concerns three major targets-namely, the nucleus ventralis intermedius (VIM), the internal part of the globus pallidus (GPi), and the subthalamic nucleus (STN). (
  • these cells are particularly affected by expansion of the gene, leading to cerebellar atrophy. (
  • MRI brain: Bilateral symmetric areas of gradient blooming noted in susceptibility weighted images in lentiform nucleus( globus pallidus) It is noted in T2 and FLAIR sequences as well. (
  • This suggests that the telencephalon-SpM-cerebellar pathway of birds may play an analogous role to cortico-ponto-cerebellar pathways of mammals in controlling fine motor skills and complex cognitive processes. (
  • The brain was the most heavily affected, with granulomas concentrated in the periventricular white matter, around the dentate nuclei, and along the cerebral and cerebellar cortices. (
  • Affects cerebral,cerebellar cortices. (
  • We chronically recorded the motor and the cerebellar cortices in rats, which revealed the emergence of coordinated movement-related activity in the local-field potentials as the reaching skill consolidated. (
  • Elsawy H, Alzahrani AM, Alfwuaires M, Sedky A, El-Trass EE, Mahmoud O, Abdel-Moneim AM, Khalil M. Analysis of silymarin-modulating effects against acrylamide-induced cerebellar damage in male rats: Biochemical and pathological markers. (
  • Our results suggest that synergistic modulation of intrinsic and synaptic plasticity in PCs is required for the changes in downstream plasticity in the vestibular nucleus, and thereby contributing to the long-term storage of motor memory. (
  • In this study, we suggest that both synaptic and intrinsic plasticity are required for successful memory consolidation in cerebellar eye movement learning. (
  • Here, we provide insight into the circuit mechanism through which intrinsic plasticity of cerebellar PCs may be required for long-term memory storage. (
  • 2 . Steuber V, Schultheiss NW, Silver RA, De Schutter E, Jaeger D (2011) Determinants of synaptic integration and heterogeneity in rebound firing explored with data-driven models of deep cerebellar nucleus cells. (
  • Pathological findings of anti-Yo cerebellar degeneration with Holmes tremor. (
  • Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Spatiotemporal changes in along-tract profilometry of cerebellar peduncles in cerebellar mutism syndrome. (
  • In VOR circuits, cerebellar PCs integrate the information and then project their output signal to the VN. (
  • Together, our findings support the notion that a complex interplay of overlapping neural circuits, primarily involving nigrostriatal, cortical, thalamic, and cerebellar tracts are critical for eliciting key motor and non-motor symptoms in PD, and perhaps manganism, as well as welding -mediated PD-like manifestation. (
  • Cerebellar Transcriptomic Analysis in a Chronic plus Binge Mouse Model of Alcohol Use Disorder Demonstrates Ethanol-Induced Neuroinflammation and Altered Glial Gene Expression. (
  • Divergent and overlapping hippocampal and cerebellar transcriptome responses following developmental ethanol exposure during the secondary neurogenic period. (
  • Auditory hallucinations across the psychosis spectrum: Evidence of dysconnectivity involving cerebellar and temporal lobe regions. (
  • We found that SpM, but not the pontine nuclei, is greatly enlarged in parrots and its relative size significantly correlated with the relative size of the telencephalon across all birds. (
  • 3 . Steuber V, Jaeger D (2013) Modeling the generation of output by the cerebellar nuclei. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration" by people in this website by year, and whether "Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • We conclude that SpM is key to understanding the role of telencephalon-cerebellar pathways in the evolution of complex cognitive abilities in birds. (