Cerebellar Nuclei: Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Purkinje Cells: The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.Cerebellar Cortex: The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Conditioning, Eyelid: Reflex closure of the eyelid occurring as a result of classical conditioning.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Mice, Neurologic Mutants: Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Red Nucleus: A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.GABA Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials: Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.Vestibular Nuclei: The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cerebellar Diseases: Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cerebellar Ataxia: Incoordination of voluntary movements that occur as a manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES. Characteristic features include a tendency for limb movements to overshoot or undershoot a target (dysmetria), a tremor that occurs during attempted movements (intention TREMOR), impaired force and rhythm of diadochokinesis (rapidly alternating movements), and GAIT ATAXIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p90)Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Blinking: Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.Mice, Inbred C57BLTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Mossy Fibers, Hippocampal: Axons of certain cells in the DENTATE GYRUS. They project to the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus and to the proximal dendrites of PYRAMIDAL CELLS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. These mossy fibers should not be confused with mossy fibers that are cerebellar afferents (see NERVE FIBERS).Nerve Tissue ProteinsElectrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.N-Methylaspartate: An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).Olfactory Bulb: Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Pilocarpine: A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Kainic Acid: (2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Raphe Nuclei: Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.GABAergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Bicuculline: An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Neocortex: The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Dopaminergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione: A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Solitary Nucleus: GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Dendritic Spines: Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.Calbindins: Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate: The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)Septal Nuclei: Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
Cerebellar granule cells, in contrast to Purkinje cells, are among the smallest neurons in the brain. They are also easily the ... These fibers form excitatory synapses with the granule cells and the cells of the deep cerebellar nuclei. Within the granular ... ISBN 0-19-515955-1. Herculano-Houzel S (2010). "Coordinated scaling of cortical and cerebellar numbers of neurons". Front. ... Two types of neuron play dominant roles in the cerebellar circuit: Purkinje cells and granule cells. Three types of axons also ...
Cerebellar granule cells account for the majority of neurons in the human brain. These granule cells receive excitatory input ... while cerebellar and cortical granule cells do not. Granule cells (save for those of the olfactory bulb) have a structure ... The granule cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus are small neurons with two or three short dendrites that give rise to a few ... The principal cell type of the dentate gyrus is the granule cell. The dentate granule cell has an elliptical cell body with a ...
... ultimately causing severe cerebellar atrophy. This syndrome, called JCV granule cell layer neuronopathy (JCV GCN), is ... JCV also appears to mediate encephalopathy, due to infection of cortical pyramidal neurons (CPN) and astrocytes. Analysis of ... Additionally, analysis of the sub-cellular localization of JC CPN virions in nuclei, cytoplasm, and axons suggests that the ... For example, JCV has been found to infect the granule cell layer of the cerebellum, while sparing purkinje fibers, ...
... of cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulate transmission of cAMP signals to the nucleus in cortical and cerebellar granule cells ... 2000). "Targeting of PKA to glutamate receptors through a MAGUK-AKAP complex". Neuron. 27 (1): 107-19. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273( ... Cell. Neurosci. 22 (1): 87-97. doi:10.1016/s1044-7431(02)00017-9. PMID 12595241. Human AKAP5 genome location and AKAP5 gene ... 2001). "Membrane-bound protein kinase A inhibits smooth muscle cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo by amplifying cAMP- ...
... including the cerebellar nucleus, a motor cortical cell and Purkinje cells. Purkinje cells send the inhibitive information by ... Granule cells send information from the spinal cord and the motor cortex which in turn translates the information in a process ... The final model of the APPG becomes linear upon the vector summation of the information from the neurons and muscles. This ... specifically midline cerebellar syndromes and hemispheric cerebellar syndromes. Midline cerebellar syndromes can cause ocular ...
... insights from quantitative clonal analyses of cerebellar granule cells". J. Neurosci. 28 (10): 2301-12. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI. ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2014.03.030. PMID 24742457. Choi, Koh, Peters (1988). "Pharmacology of glutamate neurotoxicity in cortical ... 2013). "Encoding and transducing the synaptic or extrasynaptic origin of NMDA receptor signals to the nucleus" (PDF). Cell. 152 ... Granule cell precursors (GCPs) of the cerebellum, after undergoing symmetric cell division in the external granule-cell layer ( ...
PTPrho (PTPRT) is expressed in a very specific subset of neurons in the postnatal cerebellar cortex, the granule cell layer. ... Likewise, expression of wild-type PTPrho decreases the ability of STAT3 to translocate to the nucleus, where it needs to ... "An RNA gene expressed during cortical development evolved rapidly in humans". Nature. 443 (7108): 167-72. doi:10.1038/ ... PTPrho protein mediates homophilic cell-cell adhesion, meaning that when it interacts with a like molecule on an adjacent cell ...
... granule cells → parallel fibers → Purkinje cells → deep nuclei. The other main pathway is from the climbing fibers and these ... In general, neurons receive information either at their dendrites or cell bodies. The axon of a nerve cell is, in general, ... and cerebellar peduncles (Latin, "little foot of the cerebellum").[citation needed] Note that these names describe the ... Neural pathways in the basal ganglia in the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop, are seen as controlling different ...
... and play an essential role in the migration of the cerebellar Purkinje cells and granule cells. Bergmann glia are characterized ... Recently, radial glia that exclusively generate upper-layer cortical neurons have also been discovered. Since upper cortical ... and the phasic migration of their nuclei depending on their location with the cell cycle (termed "interkinetic nuclear ... daughter cell. Intermediate progenitor cells then divide symmetrically in the subventricular zone to generate neurons. Local ...
... in cerebellar granule cells. Omigapil also rescues rat oligodendrocytes from AMPA receptor excitotoxicity and rat embryonic ... Additionally, omigapil can prevent NMDA and kainate receptor excitotoxicity in rat cortical neurons as well as toxicity from ... Once activated by nitric oxide, GAPDH binds to the ubiquitin ligase SIAH1, and is transported to the nucleus where it activates ... While omigapil was able to prevent programmed cell death for high-risk cells and prevent deterioration of concomitant motor ...
... mossy cells, pyramidal and granule neurons, and even oligodendrocyte and astrocyte glial cells. Cells in the ganglionic ... Zellweger Syndrome is characterized by a cortical dysplasia similar to polymicrogyria of cerebral and cerebellar cortex, ... Cells in the LGE migrate to the striatal domain (caudate nucleus and putamen) and parts of the septum and amygdala. MGE cells ... Unlike the cells from the MGE, the cells from the CGE were rarely parvalbumin-containing neurons. It seems that the majority of ...
Calbindin is expressed by cerebellar Purkinje cells and granule cells of hippocampus. The reorganization and migration of ... forebrain cholinergic neurons in Alzheimer's disease and cortical GABAergic neurons in schizophrenia, markers of neuronal cell ... which is highly restricted to neuronal nuclei. By immunohistochemistry, anti-Hu stains the nuclei of neurons. To localize mRNA ... They are tripotent cells which can give rise to neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. An oligodendroglial progenitor cell, ...
Two types of neuron play dominant roles in the cerebellar circuit: Purkinje cells and granule cells. Three types of axons also ... These fibers form excitatory synapses with the granule cells and the cells of the deep cerebellar nuclei. Within the granular ... "Coordinated scaling of cortical and cerebellar numbers of neurons". Frontiers in Neuroanatomy. 4: 12. doi:10.3389/fnana. ... GC: Granule cell. • PF: Parallel fiber. • PC: Purkinje cell. • GgC: Golgi cell. • SC: Stellate cell. • BC: Basket cell ...
... to the cerebellum via the middle cerebellar peduncle, and terminate in both the cerebellar nuclei, and at granule cells (GR) of ... Results from cerebellar cortical inactivation studies are similar to those reported for lesion studies. For example, Krupa ( ... Because PCs are the sole output neuron of the cortex, this model effectively lesions all of cerebellar cortex. Results of ... cells of the cerebellar nuclei receive GABA-ergic inhibitory input from PCs of the cerebellar cortex. Output from the ...
These fibers form excitatory synapses with the granule cells and the cells of the deep cerebellar nuclei. The granule cells ... This layer of cells-found on the exterior of the cerebellum-produces the granule neurons. The granule neurons migrate from this ... with particular reference to the cerebral cortical plate and to the development of the cerebellum". Anat Embryol (Berl). 182 (4 ... This area produces Purkinje cells and deep cerebellar nuclear neurons. These cells are the primary output neurons of the ...
The neurons, neural pathways, and other cells where these molecules, enzymes, and one or both cannabinoid receptor types are ... In the adult brain, the endocannabinoid system facilitates the neurogenesis of hippocampal granule cells. In the subgranular ... Good CH (2007). "Endocannabinoid-dependent regulation of feedforward inhibition in cerebellar Purkinje cells". J. Neurosci. 27 ... and strongly impact the firing of cortical neurons. A series of behavioral experiments demonstrated that NMDAR, an ionotropic ...
The CB1 receptor is expressed by a number of neurons that project from the anterior olfactory nucleus to the ipsilateral main ... on presynaptic receptors to inhibit glutamate release from granule cells or GABA release from the terminals of basket cells. In ... thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei, and other subcortical regions (e.g., the septal region), cerebellar cortex, and brainstem ... in effect exciting the postsynaptic cell. Varying levels of CB1 expression can be detected in the olfactory bulb, cortical ...
"Elimination of Bax expression in mice increases cerebellar Purkinje cell numbers but not the number of granule cells". Journal ... trigeminal nucleus, cerebellum, and spinal cord. However, PCD of neurons due to Bax deletion or Bcl-2 overexpression does not ... Southwell, D.G. (November 2012). "Intrinsically determined cell death of developing cortical interneurons". Nature. 491 (7422 ... Cell death in arthropods occurs first in the nervous system when ectoderm cells differentiate and one daughter cell becomes a ...
Melanin granules inside the neurons of the LC contribute to its blue colour. Thus, it is also known as the nucleus pigmentosus ... The LC-NA system modulates cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, brainstem, and spinal cord circuits. Some of the most important ... The other noradrenergic neurons in the brain occur in loose collections of cells in the brainstem, including the lateral ... The cerebellum and afferents from the raphe nuclei also project to the LC, in particular the pontine raphe nucleus and dorsal ...
... on presynaptic receptors to inhibit glutamate release from granule cells or GABA release from the terminals of basket cells. In ... thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei, and other subcortical regions (e.g., the septal region), cerebellar cortex, and brainstem ... Endocannabinoids released by a depolarized neuron bind to CB1 receptors on pre-synaptic glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, ... Varying levels of CB1 expression can be detected in the olfactory bulb, cortical regions (neocortex, pyriform cortex, ...
In 1969, Joseph Altman discovered and named the rostral migratory stream as the source of adult generated granule cell neurons ... Many microRNAs such as miR-124 and miR-9 have been shown to influence cortical size and layering during development. Early ... "Genesis of neuronal and glial progenitors in the cerebellar cortex of peripuberal and adult rabbits". PLoS ONE. 3 (6): e2366. ... It directly acts on the paraventricular nucleus to decrease CRH release and down regulate norepinephrine functioning in the ...
In addition, a lack of cholesterol contributes to the increased fluidity of the cell membrane, and may cause abnormal granule ... DHCEO is toxic to cortical neuronal and glial cells, and accelerates their differentiation and arborization. Through oxidative ... Given that neurons rely heavily on exoctyosis for the transmission of impulses, cholesterol is a very important part of the ... it then migrates to the nucleus and causes the transcription of the HMG-CoA reductase gene. The translation (creating the ...
In both humans and mice, researchers showed Bmi1 to be highly expressed in proliferating immature cerebellar granule cell ... Radial glial cells (embryonic neural stem cells) that give rise to excitatory neurons in the fetal brain through the process of ... such as red blood cells, that lack nuclei in their fully differentiated state. Most cells are diploid; they have two copies of ... activity regulates neurogenesis and migration during early cortical column formation". Science Advances. 2 (2): e1501733. doi: ...
β-gal activity was also observed in apical dendrites of cortical pyramidal cells, the granule layer of the olfactory and ... PTPkappa promotes neurite outgrowth from embryonic cerebellar neurons, and thus may be involved in axonal extension or guidance ... Tyrosine phosphorylated β-catenin translocates to the cell nucleus and activates TCF-mediated transcription to promote cell ... PTPkappa mediates homophilic cell-cell aggregation via its extracellular domain. PTPkappa only mediates binding between cells ...
"Local postsynaptic voltage-gated sodium channel activation in dendritic spines of olfactory bulb granule cells". Neuron. 85 (3 ... Hippocampal and cortical pyramidal neurons may receive tens of thousands of mostly excitatory inputs from other neurons onto ... Dendritic spines were first described at the end of the 19th century by Santiago Ramón y Cajal on cerebellar neurons. Ramón y ... Tschida, K. A.; Mooney, R. (2012). "Deafening drives cell-type-specific changes to dendritic spines in a sensorimotor nucleus ...
The upper part of the posterior district of the medulla oblongata is occupied by the inferior cerebellar peduncle, a thick rope-like strand situated between the lower part of the fourth ventricle and the roots of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves.. Each cerebellar inferior peduncle connects the spinal cord and medulla oblongata with the cerebellum, and comprises the juxtarestiform body and restiform body.. Important fibers running through the inferior cerebellar peduncle include the dorsal spinocerebellar tract and axons from the inferior olivary nucleus, among others.. ...
Purkinje cells, or Purkinje neurons (/pərˈkɪndʒiː/ pər-KIN-jee), are a class of GABAergic neurons located in the cerebellum. They are named after their discoverer, Czech anatomist Jan Evangelista Purkyně in 1839. These cells are some of the largest neurons in the human brain (Betz cells being the largest), with an intricately elaborate dendritic arbor, characterized by a large number of dendritic spines. Purkinje cells are found within the Purkinje layer in the cerebellum. Purkinje cells are aligned like dominos stacked one in front of the other. Their large dendritic arbors form nearly two-dimensional layers through which parallel fibers from the deeper-layers pass. These parallel fibers make relatively weaker excitatory (glutamatergic) synapses to spines in the Purkinje cell dendrite, whereas climbing fibers originating from the inferior olivary nucleus in the medulla ...
Neurogenesis is the process of birth of neurons wherein neurons are generated from neural stem cells. Contrary to popular belief, neurogenesis continuously occurs in specific regions in the adult brain. Developmental neurogenesis and adult neurogenesis differ markedly. This article is limited in scope to adult neurogenesis. In humans, new neurons are continually born throughout adulthood in two regions of the brain: The subgranular zone (SGZ), part of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The striatum; however the adult-born neurons are a type of interneuron, not a type that projects to other brain areas. In other species of mammals, particularly rodents, adult-born neurons also appear in the olfactory bulb. In humans, however, few if any olfactory bulb neurons are generated after birth. Much more attention has been paid to neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus than in the other areas. Many of ...
where yi is the output of the i th neuron, xj is the jth input neuron signal, wij is the synaptic weight (or strength of connection) between the neurons i and j, and φ is the activation function. While this model has seen success in machine-learning applications, it is a poor model for real (biological) neurons, because it lacks the time-dependence that real neuron spikes exhibit. Biological models of the "integrate-and-fire" type take essentially this form; but they have largely been superseded by kinetic models such as the Hodgkin-Huxley model.[citation needed] In the case of modelling a biological neuron, physical analogues are used in place of abstractions such as "weight" and "transfer function". A neuron is filled and surrounded with water containing ions, which carry electric charge. The neuron is bound by an insulating cell membrane and can maintain a concentration of charged ions on either side that determines a capacitance Cm. The firing of a neuron involves the ...
A cultured neuronal network is a cell culture of neurons that is used as a model to study the central nervous system, especially the brain. Often, cultured neuronal networks are connected to an input/output device such as a multi-electrode array (MEA), thus allowing two-way communication between the researcher and the network. This model has proved to be an invaluable tool to scientists studying the underlying principles behind neuronal learning, memory, plasticity, connectivity, and information processing. Cultured neurons are often connected via computer to a real or simulated robotic component, creating a hybrot or animat, respectively. Researchers can then thoroughly study learning and plasticity in a realistic context, where the neuronal networks are able to interact with their environment and receive at least some artificial sensory feedback. One example of this can be seen in the Multielectrode Array Art (MEART) system developed by the Potter Research Group at the ...
Research has supported a relationship between the morphological and functional properties of neurons. For instance, the accordance between the morphology and the functional classes of cat retinal ganglion cells has been studied to show the relationship between neuron shape and function. Orientation sensitivity and dendritic branching patterns are a few other common characteristics of neurons that researchers have noted as having an effect on neuron function.[5] Ian A. Meinertzhagen et al. have recently established a connection between the genetic factors that underlie a specific neuronal structure and how these two factors then pertain to the neuron's function by examining the optic nerves in Drosophila melanogaster. They assert the structure of the neuron is able to determine its function by dictating synapse formation.[6] The geometry of neurons often depends on the cell type and the history of received stimuli that is processed through ...
... is the physiological process by which a given neuron uses one or more chemicals to regulate diverse populations of neurons. Neuromodulators typically bind to metabotropic, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) to initiate a second messenger signaling cascade that induces a broad, long-lasting signal. This modulation can last for hundreds of milliseconds to several minutes. Some of the effects of neuromodulators include: alter intrinsic firing activity,[1] increase or decrease voltage-dependent currents,[2] alter synaptic efficacy, increase bursting activity[2] and reconfiguration of synaptic connectivity.[3] Major neuromodulators in the central nervous system include: dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, norepinephrine and several neuropeptides. Neuromodulators can be packaged into vesicles and released by neurons, secreted as hormones and delivered through the circulatory system.[4] A neuromodulator can be conceptualized as a neurotransmitter that is not ...
The cerebral cortex is composed of a heterogenous population of cells that give rise to different cell types. The majority of these cells are derived from radial glia migration that form the different cell types of the neocortex and it is a period associated with an increase in neurogenesis. Similarly, the process of neurogenesis regulates lamination to form the different layers of the cortex. During this process there is an increase in the restriction of cell fate that begins with earlier progenitors giving rise to any cell type in the cortex and later progenitors giving rise only to neurons of superficial layers. This differential cell fate creates an inside-out topography in the cortex with younger neurons in superficial layers and older neurons in deeper layers. In addition, laminar neurons are stopped in S or G2 phase in order to give a fine distinction between the different cortical ...
GENESIS works by creating simulation environments for constructing models of neurons or neural systems. "Nerve cells are capable of communicating with each other in such a highly structured manner as to form neuronal networks. To understand neural networks, it is necessary to understand the ways in which one neuron communicates with another through synaptic connections and the process called synaptic transmission".[6] Neurons have a specialized structure for their function, they "are different from most other cells in the body in that they are polarized and have distinct morphological regions, each with specific functions".[6] The two important regions of a neuron are the dendrite and the axon. "Dendrites are the region where one neuron receives connections from other neurons. The cell body or soma contains the nucleus and the other organelles necessary for cellular function. The axon is a key component of nerve ...
The brain develops in an intricately orchestrated sequence of stages.[60] It changes in shape from a simple swelling at the front of the nerve cord in the earliest embryonic stages, to a complex array of areas and connections. Neurons are created in special zones that contain stem cells, and then migrate through the tissue to reach their ultimate locations. Once neurons have positioned themselves, their axons sprout and navigate through the brain, branching and extending as they go, until the tips reach their targets and form synaptic connections. In a number of parts of the nervous system, neurons and synapses are produced in excessive numbers during the early stages, and then the unneeded ones are pruned away.[60]. For vertebrates, the early stages of neural development are similar across all species.[60] As the embryo transforms from a round blob of cells into a wormlike structure, a narrow strip of ectoderm running along ...
Mirror neuron രണ്ടുവശത്തേയ്ക്കും വൈദ്യുതസ്പന്ദനങ്ങൾ അയയ്ക്കുന്ന ഒരു നാഡികോശമാണ് ഒരു ജന്തു ഒരു പ്രവൃത്തി ചെയ്യുകയും ആ പ്രവൃത്തി തന്നെ അതേ ജീവി തന്നെ നിരീക്ഷിക്കുകയും ചെയ്യുമ്പോൾ രണ്ടു പ്രവർത്തനവും കൂടി ഒറ്റ നാഡീകോശം തന്നെ ഒരേ സമയം ചെയ്യുകയാണിവിടെ. പ്രിമേറ്റുകളിൽ ആണിങ്ങനെയുള്ള പ്രവർത്തികൾ ന്യൂറോൺ ചെയ്യുന്നതായി കാണുന്നത്. പക്ഷികളിൽ ഇതുപോലുള്ള ചില ആദിമ ഘട്ടത്തിലുള്ള ദർപ്പണ ...
As previously stated, a neurite growing in vivo is surrounded by thousands of extracellular signals which in turn can be modulated by hundreds of intracellular pathways. It is therefore not surprising that it is not yet understood what determines neurite fate in vivo. It is known that 60% of the time the first neurite that protrudes from the cell body will become the axon.[6] 30% of the time, a neurite not destined to become the axon protrudes from the cell body first. 10% of the time, the neurite that will become the axon protrudes from the cell body simultaneously with one or more other neurites.[6] It has been proposed that a minor neurite could extend outward until it touches an already developed axon of another neuron. At this point, the neurite will begin to differentiate into an axon. This is known as the touch and go model.[6] However, this model does not explain how the first axon developed. Whatever extracellular signals may be involved in inducing axon formation are transduced through ...
நரம்பணுக்கள் அல்லது நியூரோன்கள் (Neurons) என்பவை மின்புலத்தால் தூண்டலைப் பெற்று, தகவல்களை முறைப்படுத்தி, உடலின் பல பகுதிகளுக்கும் மின்சார வேதி சமிக்ஞைகளாகக் கடத்தும் திறன் வாய்ந்த உயிரணுக்கள் ஆகும். வேதி சமிக்ஞைகள், மற்ற செல்களுடன் தொடர்பு கொள்ளும் சிறப்பு இணைப்புகளான நரம்பிணைப்புகளின் (synapse) மூலமாக நிகழ்கிறது. நரம்பணுக்கள் ஒன்றோடொன்று இணைந்து நரம்பு பின்னலமைப்புகளை (neural ...
Grafted cells might provide an effect via delivery of a scarce neurotransmitter, substitution of lost cells if functionally ... The results of cerebellar transplantation research over the past 30 years are reviewed here and potential benefits and ... The second experimental therapeutic approach for hereditary cerebellar ataxias is neurotransplantation. ... been shown to affect the pathogenetic process and thereby to delay the progress of the disease in mouse models of cerebellar ...
Only rare nuclei are recognized in the germinal matrix. Cerebellar external granule cells are more strongly immunoreactive than ... Within the cortical plate, only deep neurons (future layers 4-6) are marked at 19-22 weeks, but by 24 weeks most neurons in the ... Cajal-Retzius cells, Purkinje cells, inferior olivary and dentate nucleus neurons, and sympathetic ganglion cells are examples ... postmigratory internal granule cells until 24 weeks gestation; by term most internal and only a few external granule cells are ...
4 A storage disease was also proposed later because of swollen thalamic and cerebellar cortical neurons.1 Most of these cells ... 4 In the cerebellar hemispheres, only focal rarefaction of the Purkinje cells could be suspected. The dentate nucleus and ... had dense, lipofuscin-like granules within their lysosomes. The activity of 18 lysosomal enzymes was studied and found to be ... The inferior vermis remains thicker throughout the disease, but there is a progressive cerebellar cortical atrophy. Furthermore ...
Originally, the cerebellar network was modeled using a statistical-topological approach that was later extended by considering ... Originally, the cerebellar network was modelled using a statistical-topological approach that was later extended by considering ... We envisage that realistic modelling, combined with closed-loop simulations, will help to capture the essence of cerebellar ... Moreover, we will consider how embodied neurorobotic models including spiking cerebellar networks could help explaining the ...
... necropsy has shown that there is atrophy of all cerebellar cortical layers with extensive Purkinje and granule cell loss, ... PCN, Purkinje cell nuclei; GCN, granule cell nucleus. The arrow in A points to the Golgi apparatus. The magnification is the ... and granule cell layers. In controls, only three degenerating granule cells (0.3%) and one abnormal Purkinje neuron (1.5%) were ... Neurons selected for counting bore the ultrastructural features of granule cells, Purkinje cells, and neurons in the molecular ...
In the present study, microtubule dynamics were examined in GnRH neurons. Failure of the migration of these cells leads to the ... This work shows that cortical actin flow draws the microtubule network forward through calcium-dependent capture in order to ... but reversed direction and moved toward the nucleus when migration stalled. Blocking calcium release through IP3 receptors ... In the present study, microtubule dynamics were examined in GnRH neurons. Failure of the migration of these cells leads to the ...
The three cerebellar cortical layers (Fig. 4) are shown in three types of adult mice: ("WT"; A and B), untransplanted nervous ... granule neurons (GNs) (located in the GL) are NeuN-immunoreactive (red); PNs are not (delineated by white dotted ovals). In a ... cells (white arrowheads) in A and B. DAPI marks all nuclei blue. (D-F) Functional gap junction formation between hNSCs and OC ... 2003) Functional integration of embryonic stem cell-derived neurons in hippocampal slice cultures. J Neurosci 23:7075-7083. ...
Only rare nuclei are recognized in the germinal matrix. Cerebellar external granule cells are more strongly immunoreactive than ... Within the cortical plate, only deep neurons (future layers 4-6) are marked at 19-22 weeks, but by 24 weeks most neurons in the ... Cajal-Retzius cells, Purkinje cells, inferior olivary and dentate nucleus neurons, and sympathetic ganglion cells are examples ... postmigratory internal granule cells until 24 weeks gestation; by term most internal and only a few external granule cells are ...
Individual granule cells within the cerebellum-the region of the brain that coordinates movement and supports the learning of ... Since these BPN neurons will be driven by cortical motor commands that do not directly participate in movement generation, by ... Multiple zonal projections of the basilar pontine nuclei to the cerebellar cortex of the rat * MF Serapide ... E granule cell). Granule cells with more than two ECN inputs were labeled with blue crosses (E+ granule cells). Granule cells ...
Purkinje cells are GABAergic and project to deep cerebellar nuclei, which in turn project to motor, autonomic, and limbic ... c Cerebellar granule cells receiving mossy fiber input generate action potentials that travel along the slow conducting ... Gray filled circles represent neurons projecting to the pontine nuclei, the relay nuclei from where mossy fiber projections to ... and eventually to the neocortex via the cerebellar-thalamo-cortical pathways. ...
Alcohol enhances GABAergic transmission to cerebellar granule cells via an increase in Golgi cell excitability. J. Neurosci. ... neurons from the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) (Roberto et al., 2003a) and cerebellar Purkinjie neurons (Criswell and ... The benzodiazepine flurazepam increased mIPSC duration in both cortical and hippocampal neurons. In cortical neurons, the GABAA ... in cultured cortical or hippocampal neurons. While the lack of effects of acute ethanol on mIPSC frequency in cortical neurons ...
Cerebellar granule cells, in contrast to Purkinje cells, are among the smallest neurons in the brain. They are also easily the ... These fibers form excitatory synapses with the granule cells and the cells of the deep cerebellar nuclei. Within the granular ... ISBN 0-19-515955-1. Herculano-Houzel S (2010). "Coordinated scaling of cortical and cerebellar numbers of neurons". Front. ... Two types of neuron play dominant roles in the cerebellar circuit: Purkinje cells and granule cells. Three types of axons also ...
Cerebellar granule cells account for the majority of neurons in the human brain. These granule cells receive excitatory input ... while cerebellar and cortical granule cells do not. Granule cells (save for those of the olfactory bulb) have a structure ... The granule cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus are small neurons with two or three short dendrites that give rise to a few ... The principal cell type of the dentate gyrus is the granule cell. The dentate granule cell has an elliptical cell body with a ...
... and atrophy of the cerebellar granule cell layer with relative sparing of Purkinje cells.8 ... along with derangement and lack of definition of the cortical layers and heterotopic neurons in cerebrum and cerebellum.39 ... Age-related abnormalities have been observed in the deep cerebellar nuclei and inferior olivary nucleus of the brainstem in ... In contrast, mercury-exposed brains have shown significant and consistent damage to the cerebellar granule cell layer with ...
... ultimately causing severe cerebellar atrophy.[14] This syndrome, called JCV granule cell layer neuronopathy (JCV GCN), is ... JCV also appears to mediate encephalopathy, due to infection of cortical pyramidal neurons (CPN) and astrocytes.[14] Analysis ... Additionally, analysis of the sub-cellular localization of JC CPN virions in nuclei, cytoplasm, and axons suggests that the ... Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. MCPyV Merkel-cell carcinoma. RNA virus. HCV ...
With the exception of granule cells, all cerebellar cortical neurons, including PCs, make inhibitory synaptic connections with ... CFs and MFs also provide collaterals to the cerebellar nuclei en route to the cerebellar cortex (not shown). ... make excitatory synaptic contacts with granule cells (and with Golgi cells (not shown)). Each ascending axon of a granule cell ... Granule cells formed PF synapses on PCs but controlled actiavtion on granule cells mainly failed to elicit excitatory response ...
Ceramides may act through a variety of signalling pathways to modulate cell death. In cortical and HMN1 motor neuron cells, ... effects of C2-ceramide on caspase-9 and caspase-3 and prevented C2-ceramide-evoked cell death in cerebellar granule cells [126 ... not sufficient to block ceramide-induced cell death completely due to the translocation of AIF from mitochondria to the nucleus ... in neurons. Namely, in primary rat cortical neurons treated directly with pathological concentrations of saturated free acid, ...
The deep cerebellar nuclei also showed labeled cells (Fig. 3I). rREST signal-positive cells were found in most nuclei of pons, ... Primary cell cultures of hippocampal and cortical neurons and astrocytes were prepared as described earlier (OMalley et al., ... large cells with weakly stained nuclei) (Table1; Figs. 3,4). In the olfactory system, diffuse labeling was seen in the granule ... red nucleus;H, cerebellar cortex; I, deep cerebellar nuclei; J, pontine nuclei; and K, nucleus trapezoid body. L, Section of ...
... its heavy capacity cerebellar nuclei undertaking, which facilitates both cortical excitability and spinal line monosynaptic ... such as dentate granule cells (Choi et al. Lack of efficacy in this on the dot build, manner, does not as a result happy medium ... Past focusing on a few counting substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons at a selected and litigious questions, we possess shown ... The helper T-cell act as declines monotonous in asymptomatic infants and children who acquire not capable consequential ...
1994) Prolonged responses in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells following activation of the granule cell layer: an intracellular in ... 2002) Taste responses of neurons in the hamster solitary nucleus are modulated by the central nucleus of the amygdala. J ... Comparison of results from cortical and LD neurons suggests amygdala-cortical coupling. A schematic of the time courses (x-axis ... 2003) Role of the central amygdaloid nucleus in shaping the discharge of gustatory neurons in the rat parabrachial nucleus. ...
VLDLR-associated cerebellar hypoplasia, PAFAH1B1-associated lissencephaly, autism, and schizophrenia. According to their ... Pyramidal neurons are in different color and sizes according to their position in cortical layers. Stellate spiny cells of ... where they form a series of streaks intermingled with the neurons of the cerebellar nuclei [104]. Several other mutations of ... Terashima, T.; Inoue, K.; Inoue, Y.; Mikoshiba, K.; Tsukada, Y. Observations on Golgi epithelial cells and granule cells in the ...
Figure 2: Photomicrograph of cerebellar cortex showing molecular, Purkinje and granule cell layers in the patient. Black arrow ... White arrows point to astrocytic nuclei of Bergmann cell-reactive astrogliosis. Hematoxylin and eosin stain. Original ... Figure 1: Images of the brain showing (left) thin and discoloured cortical ribbon (arrows) and small hippocampus in a 73-year- ... The cerebellum and brain stem showed relative preservation of neurons; however, Negri bodies (rabies virus inclusions) were ...
The external cortical layer of neurons is called the molecular layer, a thin layer of Purkinje cells that provide the majority ... severe cerebellar disease is incapacitating. The cerebellum is comprised of a three-layered cortex and a central core of nuclei ... lie below the molecular layer and deep to the Purkinje cells there is a thick layer of small neurons called granule cells. The ... specifically of the Purkinje neurons and the granular cell layer causing cerebellar atrophy that can be detected on magnetic ...
So the Purkinje cell then is in a position to, to chop or to modulate the activity of that deep cerebellar nucleus neuron. And ... And a cortical inhibitory loop that runs through the Purkinje neuron and back down to the deep cerebellar nucleus. So, so ... They also send branches down into the deep cerebellar nuclei, and they release excitatory transmitters. Now, the Granule cells ... synapse on cells in the deep cerebellar nuclei. Now, the synapse between the Purkinje cell and the deep cerebellar nucleus is ...
Cerebellar granule cells (GCs) make up the majority of all neurons in the vertebrate brain, but heterogeneities among GCs and ... Analysis of the cerebellum and brainstem revealed a reduced granule cell layer and a reduction in size of pontine nuclei. ... attributed to a decrease in the size of the cerebral cortical, cerebellar, and pontine regions. ... Cerebellar granule cells (GCs), the smallest neurons in the brain, have on average four short dendrites that receive high- ...
  • In general, there is no therapy which would be effective to completely stop or prevent progression of the degeneration or restore lost cerebellar function in hereditary cerebellar ataxias. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Intervention into the pathogenic process seems to be an optimal strategy since it could theoretically prevent or delay development of degeneration and improve the functionality of remaining cells, if started in time. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several experimental studies targeting pathogenic processes have been done in transgenic mouse models carrying the human pathological allele causing cerebellar degeneration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In some hereditary cerebellar degenerations, a noxious effect of accumulated abnormal protein which is more resistant to proteolytic degradation is expected. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we report that an early and essential step in the functional integration of grafted murine and human NSCs into host neural circuitry, even before (and perhaps establishing a template for) mature electrochemical synaptic communication, is cell-cell coupling via gap junctions that modulate network activity. (pnas.org)
  • In the mammalian olfactory bulb, granule cells can process both synaptic input and output due to the presence of large spines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each ascending axon of a granule cell branches in a T to form the two ends of a parallel fibre (PF), which in turn make excitatory synaptic contacts with PCs and with the molecular layer interneurons (that is, stellate and basket cells) and Golgi cells. (blogspot.com)
  • With the exception of granule cells, all cerebellar cortical neurons, including PCs, make inhibitory synaptic connections with their target neurons. (blogspot.com)
  • CA1 pyramidal neuron synaptic integration (Bloss et al. (yale.edu)
  • In cerebellar granule neurons, phosphorylated and sumoylated MEF2A represses transcription of NUR77 promoting synaptic differentiation. (abcam.com)
  • 8,9 Cardiac vagal neurons, which are located in nucleus ambiguus, are intrinsically silent, and their firing activity is determined by both excitatory synaptic inputs, such as glutamatergic and cholinergic pathways, and inhibitory pathways that include γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated (GABAergic) and glycinergic innervation. (asahq.org)
  • Interestingly, expression of the GABA ε subunit into cardiac vagal neurons alters the GABAergic receptors and confers barbiturate insensitivity to the inhibitory synaptic response. (asahq.org)
  • Now we understand that the activity dependent synaptic circuit development is facilitated by glutamate receptor activation and subsequent calcium influx into postsynaptic neurons. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In single neurons, the high-conductance state is defined by the fact that the total synaptic conductance received by the neuron (averaged over a period of time) is larger than its resting (leak) conductance. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Our data suggest that the increase in Syn expression links to synaptic plasticity changes in the cerebellar IN and provides a histological substrate in the IN relating to TEBC training. (portlandpress.com)
  • Some synaptic vesicles of hippocampal neuron and synaptic-like microvesicles of pinealocytes exocytose the aspartate and glutamate simultaneously , but the release of aspartate and glutamate from hippocampal CA1 synaptosome are regulated by different mechanism [10 , (scirp.org)
  • In central and peripheral nervous system, neuronal NOS (nNOS) produces NO that has been implicated in modulating physiological functions such as synaptic plasticity, learning, memory and neurogenesis as well as some pathological conditions in which overproduction of NO may lead to the generation of highly reactive species, such as peroxynitrite and stable nitrosothiols, which may cause irreversible cell damage in excitotoxicity, ischaemia, Parkinson, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and depression. (intechopen.com)
  • The nNOS constitutes the principal source of NO in distinct populations of neurons and synaptic spines in the brain and the peripheral nervous system while eNOS can occur in some neurons and iNOS may exist in microglia and astrocytes but usually not in neurons [ 6 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Silent synapse refers to a synaptic contact between two neurons where a presynaptic action potential fails to evoke a detectable postsynaptic signal. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Pyramidal neurons consume most signaling-related energy to generate action potentials (APs) and perform synaptic integration. (mysciencework.com)
  • Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the diverse functions of the triple functional domain protein Trio in neuronal development, emphasizing the genetic evidence in neurite outgrowth, axon guidance, dendritic arborization, and synaptic transmission obtained from the worm, fly and mice, as well as cultured primary neurons. (jneurology.com)
  • This review briefly discusses the biochemical and cell biological properties of Trio GEFs before focusing on the genetic evidence of Trio's role in neuronal development and synaptic transmission. (jneurology.com)
  • It is plausible that impaired GABA signaling due to mutations in GABA A receptor genes or GAT-1 can affect the fundamental properties of the progenitor cells such as proliferation and differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the secreted and transmembrane Semaphorins were initially identified as repulsive axon guidance cues [ 4 ], in the past decade they have also been linked to many other cellular processes, including cell migration, proliferation, and polarization. (hindawi.com)
  • Defects in the proliferation and differentiation of these cells can give rise to cortical deficits such as microcephaly (smaller brain) or macrocephaly (larger brain). (edu.au)
  • Growth factors are polypeptides essentially involved in regulating survival, proliferation, maturation, and outgrowth of developing neuronal cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • G-CSF stimulates the proliferation, survival, and maturation of cells committed to the neutrophilic granulocyte (NG) lineage through binding to the specific G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR). (ahajournals.org)
  • Among these, oxygen tension and oxidation state in particular are important biophysical parameters that control neural precursor proliferation, survival and fate determination, so the dynamic control of oxygen availability regulates self renewal and the generation of cell diversity during development and throughout the life of the organism. (unipd.it)
  • It will be very important to understand the signals that control survival, proliferation and fate choice of precursor cells and it will also be necessary to investigate what subtypes of precursors are preferentially selected under normal in vitro condition. (unipd.it)
  • Thus, the main aim of the project is to understand the role of oxygen tension in proliferation and lineage determination of Human CNS (Central Nervous System) and brain tumor derived precursor cells. (unipd.it)
  • CS polysaccharides isolated and purified from developing rat brains promote fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2-mediated proliferation of neural stem cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Ras/Erk signaling is involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and protection of neurons. (wikipathways.org)
  • Not involved in cell migration, adhesion or proliferation of normal hematopoietic progenitors but activated by CXCL11 in malignant hemapoietic cells, leading to phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (MAPK3/MAPK1) and enhanced cell adhesion and migration. (uniprot.org)
  • In addition, under hypobaric hypoxia exposure, Alkbh5-deletion causes abnormal cell proliferation and differentiation in the cerebellum through disturbing the balance of RNA m A methylation in different cell fate determination genes. (deepdyve.com)
  • How grafted neural stem cells (NSCs) and their progeny integrate into recipient brain tissue and functionally interact with host cells is as yet unanswered. (pnas.org)
  • The number of neural stem cells (NSCs), for example, that differentiate into mature well-integrated neurons, and the lengthy time this process requires, are usually insufficient to account for the improvement. (pnas.org)
  • 2018-2020) to study the molecular determinants governing how neural stem cells proliferate sufficiently to generate a brain of the correct size. (edu.au)
  • Oxygen Tension Controls the Expansion and Differentiation of Normal and Tumor-derived Human Neural Stem Cells. (unipd.it)
  • Functions of proteoglycans in the milieu of neural stem cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The GABAergic inhibitory pathway to cardiac vagal neurons has been shown to be an important target of anesthetic action. (asahq.org)
  • Pentobarbital at clinically relevant concentrations prolongs the duration of spontaneous GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) that impinge on cardiac vagal neurons. (asahq.org)
  • Although propofol has been reported to potentiate inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)- and glycine-induced currents and directly activate both GABA and glycine receptors expressed in xenopus oocytes, 11,12 hippocampal pyramidal, 13 and spinal neurons, 14 it is still unknown whether it has similar effects on parasympathetic neurons in the brainstem. (asahq.org)
  • I did my PhD in Dr Stéphane Dieudonné's lab at IBENS (Paris, France) between 2011 and 2014, where I characterized a population of inhibitory neurons in the cerebellar nuclei by combining the use of transgenic mouse lines, immunochemistry, stereotaxic brain injections of anatomical tracers and viruses, electrophysiology and optogenetics. (neurocentre-magendie.fr)
  • This discovery raises the possibility that radial glia and the population of VZ progenitor cells may be one anatomical and functional cell class. (jneurosci.org)
  • Such a hypothesis predicts that throughout neurogenesis almost all mitotically active VZ cells and a substantial percentage of VZ cells overall are radial glia. (jneurosci.org)
  • In addition, intracellular dye filling of electrophysiologically characterized progenitor cells in the VZ demonstrates that these cells have the morphology of radial glia. (jneurosci.org)
  • Ultimately, we hope to define the genes that drive the differentiation of neural progenitor cells into either neurons or glia, work that will provide insights into neurodevelopmental disorders, ageing and cancer. (edu.au)
  • 3 On imaging studies, such as CT or MR imaging, early atrophy of the superior vermis is the predominant finding, followed by progressive atrophy of the cerebellar hemispheres and the spinal cord. (ajnr.org)
  • Cells which line the ventricles, and are located in the region of the obliterated central canal of the spinal cord. (brainscape.com)
  • As these interneurones may mediate centrally initiated movements (including voluntary and locomotor) as well as spinal reflexes, analysing their actions on cerebellar neurons should provide important insights on the integration between spinal and supraspinal neuronal networks. (grantome.com)
  • The results of the study should improve our understanding of how cerebellar neuronal networks utilize feed-back information concerning spinal interneuronal actions on motoneurons as the basis for on-line cerebellar corrections of movements, thus providing important data on the integration between spinal and supraspinal neuronal networks. (grantome.com)
  • A somatic motor neuron that has its cell body in the ventral (anterior) horn of the gray matter of the spinal cord. (tabers.com)
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting primarily cortical and spinal motoneurons, with a fatal outcome resulting from respiratory failure, usually within several years ( Pasinelli and Brown, 2006 ). (rupress.org)
  • Motor neurons in the anterior (ventral) horn of the spinal cord which project to skeletal muscles. (slicksurface.com)
  • A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. (slicksurface.com)
  • PlexinC1 , but not Sema7A , is strongly expressed by distinct populations of migrating neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The prominent expression of plexinC1 in several distinct populations of migrating neurons suggests a novel role for this plexin family member in neuronal migration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A mix of colours (for example, in granule and Golgi cells) indicates that the cell or synapse was thought to sample different types of information. (blogspot.com)
  • The initial anatomical descriptions of the cells of the VZ were published over 100 years ago by several pioneering neuroanatomists, including Kölliker, His, Golgi, Magini, and Ramon y Cajal (for review, see Bentivoglio and Mazzarello, 1999 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • In migrating fibroblasts, the centrosome reorients between the nucleus and the leading edge, which in turn repositions the Golgi and is thought to establish and maintain cell polarity during migration ( Mellor, 2004 ). (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, the different interneuron phenotypes must be produced in precise quantities: for each interneuron of the cerebellar nuclei there are about 35 Golgi cells, and 950 basket and stellate neurons ( Altman and Bayer, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • The course will build upon knowledge acquired through prior studies of cell and molecular biology, general physiology and human anatomy, as we focus primarily on the central nervous system. (coursera.org)
  • Here we report a novel SLC6A1 missense mutation in a patient with epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder and characterized the molecular defects of the mutant GAT-1, from transporter protein trafficking to GABA uptake function in heterologous cells and neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our lab uses a variety of techniques to probe neural stem cell biology, including molecular biology, immunocytochemistry, magnetic resonance imaging and behavioural approaches. (edu.au)
  • Although it will undoubtedly require revisions, this classification is a first step in combining imaging with molecular biology to facilitate understanding of cerebellar development and maldevelopment. (ajnr.org)
  • We sought to understand if a lower oxygen tension (2-5%), compared to environmental 20% oxygen, promotes the expansion of a more premature and actively proliferating subtype of precursor cells, affecting cell multipotency, and which could be the molecular pathways modulated by oxygen tension. (unipd.it)
  • Other key reactions move molecules and molecular complexes within the cell, sometimes changing the shape of the cell. (tabers.com)
  • TDP-43 oligomers have been postulated to be released and subsequently nucleate TDP-43 oligomerization in recipient cells, which might be the molecular correlate of the systematic symptom spreading observed during ALS progression. (rupress.org)
  • In addition to neuronal expression, Sema7A and plexinC1 transcripts were detected in oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to this, he holds a CIB grant from the NHMRC in association with A/Prof Helen Cooper (QBI) to study how abnormal ependymal cell development contributes to hydrocephalus, as well as seed funding from the Australian Skin and Skin Cancer Research Centre to study the malignant invasion of certain types of brain cancer. (edu.au)
  • Besides LIS2 and ADLTE, RELN and/or other genes coding for the proteins of the Reln intracellular cascade have been associated substantially to other conditions such as spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 and 37, VLDLR -associated cerebellar hypoplasia, PAFAH1B1 -associated lissencephaly, autism, and schizophrenia. (mdpi.com)
  • This patient initially presented with cerebellar ataxia at the age of 3 years, which was followed by symptoms of mental retardation, extrapyramidal signs, and epileptic seizure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite their common origin in the cerebellar tubercle, basal pontine neurons are strongly reactive even before midgestation, hence NeuN does not predict embryonic origin. (nih.gov)
  • CHI occurs during a critical developmental period and may render the cerebellum vulnerable to additional deficits if cerebellar growth and neuronal connectivity are not established as expected. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Whereas most of these models are characterized by extensive amyloid plaque pathology, inflammatory changes and often behavioral deficits, modeling of neuron loss was much less successful. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This is supported by a more recent systematic description of the distribution of ALS motor deficits by Ravits and La Spada (2009) suggesting a horizontal disease spread to contiguous anatomical regions by transmission of pathology from cell soma to cell soma. (rupress.org)
  • When we observed that such gap junction formation also seemed to inhibit death of host neurons and suppress such inimical processes as gliosis, we further hypothesized that this mode of direct intercellular communication between exogenous NSCs and host cells might constitute an underappreciated mechanism by which stem cells exert a homeostatic and/or protective effect on endangered host cells. (pnas.org)
  • Mutagenesis of all caspase sites in mutant huntingtin prevents toxicity in cultured cells and caspase inhibitors improve survival of neurons transfected with mutant htt. (ubc.ca)
  • D. Activity in cortical slices (In vitro). (scholarpedia.org)
  • The most depressed state is obtained in vitro, in the absence of any particular manipulation to excite cortical activity (Fig. 1D). (scholarpedia.org)
  • For this, we used serum deprivation cell model, glutamate and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced RGC-5 cell death models, and staurosporine-differentiated neuron-like RGC-5 in vitro. (dovepress.com)
  • The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION. (slicksurface.com)