Cerebellar Cortex: The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.Purkinje Cells: The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Cerebellar Nuclei: Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.Conditioning, Eyelid: Reflex closure of the eyelid occurring as a result of classical conditioning.Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Harmaline: A beta-carboline alkaloid isolated from seeds of PEGANUM.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Cerebellar Diseases: Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Blinking: Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Eyelids: Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Picrotoxin: A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.Neutral Red: A vital dye used as an indicator and biological stain. Various adverse effects have been observed in biological systems.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Entorhinal Cortex: Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.PyridazinesEvoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Sulfadimethoxine: A sulfanilamide that is used as an anti-infective agent.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Mice, Neurologic Mutants: Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.Calbindin 2: A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Radial Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Calbindins: Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.Decerebrate State: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Infusions, Intraventricular: The delivery of a drug into a fluid-filled cavity of the brain.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Neurofibrils: The delicate interlacing threads, formed by aggregations of neurofilaments and neurotubules, coursing through the CYTOPLASM of the body of a NEURON and extending from one DENDRITE into another or into the AXON.Nerve Tissue ProteinsPons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular: A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Cerebellar Ataxia: Incoordination of voluntary movements that occur as a manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES. Characteristic features include a tendency for limb movements to overshoot or undershoot a target (dysmetria), a tremor that occurs during attempted movements (intention TREMOR), impaired force and rhythm of diadochokinesis (rapidly alternating movements), and GAIT ATAXIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p90)Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Cortical Spreading Depression: The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Dystonia: An attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p77)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione: A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Ataxia: Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.QuinoxalinesS100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Phosphinic Acids: Inorganic or organic derivatives of phosphinic acid, H2PO(OH). They include phosphinates and phosphinic acid esters.GABA Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Long-Term Synaptic Depression: A persistent activity-dependent decrease in synaptic efficacy between NEURONS. It typically occurs following repeated low-frequency afferent stimulation, but it can be induced by other methods. Long-term depression appears to play a role in MEMORY.Mice, Inbred C57BLGlutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Quantitative morphological studies of developing human cerebellar cortex in various disease states. (1/592)

A quantitative morphological assessment was carried out of the cellularity and staining properties of the cells of the layers of the human cerebellar cortex, both in the normal child and in 41 children suffering from a series of disorders including mental retardation. A computerized image analyser and highly standardized procedures were used. All of the cases of mental retardation and some cases with congenital cardiac anomalies showed abnormal cell concentrations and staining properties. 3 cases of 'cot death' also showed abnormal results. These findings are presented as a new measurable aspect of brain disease, and as a indication for further study.  (+info)

Novel form of spreading acidification and depression in the cerebellar cortex demonstrated by neutral red optical imaging. (2/592)

A novel form of spreading acidification and depression in the rat cerebellar cortex was imaged in vivo using the pH-sensitive dye, Neutral red. Surface stimulation evoked an initial beam of increased fluorescence (i.e., decreased pH) that spread rostrally and caudally across the folium and into neighboring folia. A transient but marked suppression in the excitability of the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell circuitry accompanied the spread. Characteristics differentiating this phenomenon from the spreading depression of Leao include: high speed of propagation on the surface (average of 450 microm/s), stable extracellular DC potential, no change in blood vessel diameter, and repeatability at short intervals. This propagating acidification constitutes a previously unknown class of neuronal processing in the cerebellar cortex.  (+info)

Gating of transmission in climbing fibre paths to cerebellar cortical C1 and C3 zones in the rostral paramedian lobule during locomotion in the cat. (3/592)

1. Climbing fibre field potentials evoked by low intensity (non-noxious) electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral superficial radial nerve have been recorded in the rostral paramedian lobule (PML) in awake cats. Chronically implanted microwires were used to monitor the responses at eight different C1 and C3 zone sites during quiet rest and during steady walking on a moving belt. The latency and other characteristics of the responses identified them as mediated mainly via the dorsal funiculus-spino-olivocerebellar path (DF-SOCP). 2. At each site, mean size of response (measured as the area under the field, in mV ms) varied systematically during the step cycle without parallel fluctuations in size of the peripheral nerve volley. Largest responses occurred overwhelmingly during the stance phase of the step cycle in the ipsilateral forelimb while smallest responses occurred most frequently during swing. 3. Simultaneous recording from pairs of C1 zone sites located in the anterior lobe (lobule V) and C1 or C3 zone sites in rostral PML revealed markedly different patterns of step-related modulation. 4. The findings shed light on the extent to which the SOCPs projecting to different parts of a given zone can be regarded as functionally uniform and have implications as to their reliability as channels for conveying peripheral signals to the cerebellum during locomotion.  (+info)

Electrotonic coupling interacts with intrinsic properties to generate synchronized activity in cerebellar networks of inhibitory interneurons. (4/592)

Exploring the organization and function of local inhibitory networks is an essential step on the way to understand the principles of brain operation. We show here that molecular layer inhibitory interneurons of the guinea pig cerebellar cortex are organized as local networks, generating synchronous activity. Simultaneous recording from two adjacent interneurons revealed a direct current flow between synchronized pairs of neurons. Blocking inhibitory or excitatory synaptic transmission did not alter the synchronization. The electrotonic coupling coefficient (average 0.1) depended mainly on the input resistance of the postsynaptic cell, indicating a homogenous coupling resistance between different pairs. A presynaptic action potential generated a short, attenuated spikelet in the postsynaptic cell. The passive current flow was amplified by voltage-dependent intrinsic currents to create a reciprocal interplay between the presynaptic and postsynaptic cells. This interplay results in a time window for synchronization that is wider than expected from the duration of the spikelet. Intracellular staining with biocytin revealed high incidence of dye coupling. Furthermore, the interneurons located superficially in the molecular layer tend to form larger networks compared with the inner interneurons. We propose that weakly coupled inhibitory networks can generate loosely synchronous activity, which results from the interaction of electrical coupling and intrinsic currents.  (+info)

Dopamine reuptake inhibition in the rostral agranular insular cortex produces antinociception. (5/592)

We provide evidence for an antinociceptive effect of dopamine in the rat cerebral cortex that is mediated through descending nociceptive inhibition of spinal neurons. Injection of the dopamine reuptake inhibitor GBR-12935 in the rostral agranular insular cortex (RAIC), a cortical area that receives a dense dopaminergic projection and is involved in descending antinociception (Burkey et al.,1996), resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of formalin-induced nociceptive behavior, without any alteration of motor function. Injection of the dopamine reuptake inhibitor in the surrounding cortical areas had no effect on nociceptive behaviors. GBR-12935 also produced a reduction in noxious stimulus-induced c-fos expression in nociceptive areas of the spinal dorsal horn, suggesting that dopamine in the RAIC acts in part through descending antinociception. Electrophysiological recording from single wide dynamic range-type spinal dorsal horn neurons confirmed the descending nociceptive inhibitory effect. GBR-12935 in the RAIC significantly reduced neuronal responses evoked by noxious thermal stimulation of the skin, an effect that was reversed by local administration of the selective D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390. Finally, administration of SCH-23390 alone in the RAIC decreased paw withdrawal latencies from noxious heat, suggesting that dopamine acts tonically in the cortex to inhibit nociception.  (+info)

Selective disruption of "late onset" sagittal banding patterns by ectopic expression of engrailed-2 in cerebellar Purkinje cells. (6/592)

To explore the role of Engrailed proteins in development of the cerebellum, Engrailed-2 (En-2) was ectopically expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells from the late embryonic stage into adulthood. The fundamental organization of Purkinje cell sagittal zones as revealed by the "early onset" markers L7-beta-gal and cadherin-8 was found to be virtually identical to that in wild type. In contrast, "late onset" sagittal banding patterns revealed by Purkinje cell markers zebrin I, zebrin II, and 9-O-acetyl GD3 Ganglioside (P-Path), and the granule cell marker NADPH-diaphorase, were disrupted. In general, although some evidence of banding was still detectable, boundaries defined by the latter markers were poorly defined, and the patterns overall took on a diffuse appearance. In parallel with the changes in late onset markers, anterograde tracing of spinocerebellar axons revealed a general diffusion of the mossy fiber projection pattern in lobule VIII and the anterior lobe. These observations suggest that at least two separate mediolateral boundary systems exist in the cerebellum, and these are differentially affected by ectopic En-2 expression. Alternatively, one boundary system exists that remains primarily intact in the mutant, but recognition of this system by a set of late developmental events is perturbed.  (+info)

Neurotrophic activity of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide on rat cerebellar cortex during development. (7/592)

High concentrations of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptors are present in the external granule cell layer of the rat cerebellum during postnatal development. In vitro studies have shown that PACAP promotes cell survival and neurite outgrowth on immature cerebellar granule cells in primary culture. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of PACAP on the development of the cerebellar cortex of 8-day-old rats. Incubation of cultured granule cells for 12 or 18 h with PACAP provoked a significant increase in the rate of incorporation of [(3)H]thymidine in cultured granule cells, suggesting that PACAP could stimulate the proliferation of granule cells. After 96 h of treatment, in vivo administration of PACAP provoked a transient increase in the number of granule cells in the molecular layer and in the internal granule cell layer. In contrast, PACAP did not affect the number of Purkinje cells. The augmentation of the number of granule cells evoked by PACAP was significantly inhibited by the PACAP receptor antagonist PACAP(6-38). Administration of PACAP also caused a significant increase in the volume of the cerebellar cortex. The present study provides evidence that PACAP can act in vivo as a trophic factor during rat brain development. Our data indicate that PACAP increases proliferation and/or inhibits programmed cell death of granule cells, as well as stimulating neuronal migration from the external granule cell layer toward the internal granule cell layer.  (+info)

Simulations of cerebellar motor learning: computational analysis of plasticity at the mossy fiber to deep nucleus synapse. (8/592)

We question the widely accepted assumption that a molecular mechanism for long-term expression of synaptic plasticity is sufficient to explain the persistence of memories. Instead, we show that learning and memory require that these cellular mechanisms be correctly integrated within the architecture of the neural circuit. To illustrate this general conclusion, our studies are based on the well characterized synaptic organization of the cerebellum and its relationship to a simple form of motor learning. Using computer simulations of cerebellar-mediated eyelid conditioning, we examine the ability of three forms of plasticity at mossy fiber synapses in the cerebellar nucleus to contribute to learning and memory storage. Results suggest that when the simulation is exposed to reasonable patterns of "background" cerebellar activity, only one of these three rules allows for the retention of memories. When plasticity at the mossy fiber synapse is controlled by nucleus or climbing fiber activity, the circuit is unable to retain memories because of interactions within the network that produce spontaneous drift of synaptic strength. In contrast, a plasticity rule controlled by the activity of the Purkinje cell allows for a memory trace that is resistant to ongoing activity in the circuit. These results suggest specific constraints for theories of cerebellar motor learning and have general implications regarding the mechanisms that may contribute to the persistence of memories.  (+info)

Roles of Molecular Layer Interneurons in Sensory Information Processing in Mouse Cerebellar Cortex Crus II In Vivo. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Unipolar brush cell: | | | |Unipolar brush cell| | | | | ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
The cerebellar cortex comprises a few cell types and two main afferent systems arranged in a stereotyped synaptic pattern that is repeated monotonously throughout. The regularity of the laminated...
GoCs in acute slices of cerebellar cortex from P25 rats (see Materials and Methods) were initially identified on the basis of their location within the GrC layer and their large somata (,15 μm). In LCA recordings, using pipettes containing extracellular solution, most of these putative GoCs (83%) exhibited spontaneous rhythmic firing (9 ± 5 Hz; n = 38), consistent with previous studies (Mitchell and Silver, 2000; Forti et al., 2006). For whole-cell recordings, we included a fluorescent tracer dye in the intracellular solution and visualized the cell morphology with fluorescence microscopy. Only those cells with basal dendrites in the GrC layer and ascending dendrites in the molecular layer were confirmed as GoCs (Eccles et al., 1967; Dieudonne, 1998) and included in our dataset (64 of 68). The extent of the ascending and basolateral arborization was ∼200 and 100 μm, respectively, in agreement with previous morphological description of GoCs (Eccles et al., 1967; Palay and Chan-Palay, 1974; ...
Gpnmb-IR in rat cerebellum. (A-C) Immunoperoxidase staining of rat cerebellar cortex. (A, B) Low magnification images. Sections obtained from adult rats were
Sagittal section through a rat cerebellar cortex triple-labeled to illustrate granule cell nuclei (blue), Purkinje cells (green), and astroglia (faint patches of red).
A high-affinity specific binding site is reported for [3H]AVM B1a with K Dvalues of 1.4 nM as a rough estimate for dog brain (Pong and Wang, 1980) and 2.5 nM for rat cerebellar cortex (Drexler and Sieghart, 1984a) and for its dihydro analog [3H]ivermectin with aK D value of 22 nM for rat cerebral cortex (Schaeffer and Haines, 1989). In our preliminary study, we found that the specific binding sites for AVM B1a are widely distributed in rat whole brain but particularly enriched in the cerebellum, which is consistent with the findings of Pong and Wang (1980). We then evaluated the binding properties of [3H]AVM B1a in primary cultures of cerebellar neurons and directly investigated the effects of AVM B1a on the GABA-gated chloride channel with [3H]EBOB binding and36Cl− influx as indicators. The use of intact neuron cultures made it possible to perform radioligand binding and functional assays of 36Cl−influx in comparable and physiological conditions.. Specific binding of [3H]AVM B1a in intact ...
The granular layer, which mainly consists of granule and Golgi cells, is the first stage of the cerebellar cortex and processes spatiotemporal information transmitted by mossy fiber inputs with a wide variety of firing patterns. To study its dynamics at multiple time scales in response to inputs approximating real spatiotemporal patterns, we constructed a large-scale 3D network model of the granular layer ...
of the dendritic network in the treated group was lesser than that seen in the control ones. Figure 3. Sagittal sections in the cerebellar cortex of rat newborns showing the Purkinje cells at ...
Fig. 3.01. A small blood vessel as it looks in brain tissue fixed by immersion (unperfused). Erythrocyte fills the lumen. The basal lamina is marked by arrow. Scale = 1 µm. (Rat, cerebellar cortex.) Download the high resolution image ...
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It has been known for a long time that GABAergic Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex, as well as their target neurons in the cerebellar nuclei, are spontaneously active. The cerebellar output will, therefore, depend on how input is integrated into this spontaneous activity. It has been shown that input from climbing fibers originating in the inferior olive controls the spontaneous activity in Purkinje cells. While blocking climbing fiber input to the Purkinje cells causes a dramatic increase in the firing rate, increased climbing fiber activity results in reduced Purkinje cell activity. However, the exact calibration of this regulation has not been examined systematically. Here we examine the relation between climbing fiber stimulation frequency and Purkinje cell activity in unanesthetized decerebrated ferrets. The results revealed a gradual suppression of Purkinje cell activity, starting at climbing fiber stimulation frequencies as low as 0.5 Hz. At 4 Hz, Purkinje cells were completely ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CONTENTS OF SEVERAL AMINO ACIDS IN THE CEREBELLUM, BRAIN STEM AND CEREBRUM OF THE STAGGERER, WEAVER AND NERVOUS NEUROLOGICALLY MUTANT MICE. AU - McBride, W. J.. AU - Aprison, M. H.. AU - Kusano, K.. PY - 1976/5. Y1 - 1976/5. N2 - The content of glutamate, GABA, aspartate, glycine and alanine was determined in the cerebellum, brain stem and cerebrum of three different mutant mice which have been named staggerer, weaver and nervous on the basis of neurological symptoms. In the staggerer and weaver mutants there is an almost complete absence of granule cells in the cerebellar cortex while in the nervous mutant there is a loss of Purkinje cells (and to a lesser extent a loss of granule cells) in the cerebellar cortex. In the cerebellum of the weaver mutant, the content of glutamate was significantly lower (P,0.025) than control values (8.77±0.76 vs 12.0±1.3 μmol/g tissue wet wt) and the contents of GABA and glycine were significantly greater than normal levels. ...
Preparation of polyclonal antibody against aldolase C. A peptide (CGAATEEFIKRAEMNGLAAQGKYE) that consisted of the amino acid sequence 322-344 of rat aldolase C (Mukai et al., 1991), plus a cysteine residue at the N terminus to facilitate conjugation to the carrier protein KLH, was synthesized and purified. This peptide was used for immunization, an ELISA test, affinity purification of antisera, and a blocking test in immunohistochemistry. Two rabbits (69075 and 69076) were immunized by five subcutaneous injections of 0.2 mg of the peptide conjugated with KLH at 2, 3, 2, and 2 week intervals. The rabbits were exsanguinated 2 weeks after the final boost. Crude antisera of both rabbits were affinity purified against the immobilized immunizing peptide. Some purified antibody of 69076 was conjugated with biotin. The above procedures were performed by Sawady Technologies (Itabashi, Tokyo, Japan).. Western blot analysis. To test the specificity of the affinity-purified antibody, the whole cerebellum ...
Reciprocal activity between populations of neurons has been widely observed in the brain and is essential for neuronal computation. The different mechanisms by which reciprocal neuronal activity is generated remain to be established. A common motif in neuronal circuits is the presence of afferents that provide excitation to one set of principal neurons and, via interneurons, inhibition to a second set of principal neurons. This circuitry can be the substrate for generation of reciprocal signals. Here we demonstrate that this equivalent circuit in the cerebellar cortex enables the reciprocal firing rates of Purkinje cells to be efficiently generated from a common set of mossy fiber inputs. The activity of a mossy fiber is relayed to Purkinje cells positioned immediately above it by excitatory granule cells. The firing rates of these Purkinje cells increase as a linear function of mossy fiber, and thus granule cell, activity. In addition to exciting Purkinje cells positioned immediately above it, ...
... Definition Purkinje cell is a large, densely branching neuron in the cerebellar cortex of the brain. These cells were first discovered in 1837 by Czech physiologist Jan Evangelista Purkinje. They are characterized by cell bodies that are flasklike in shape, by numerous branching dendrites, and by a
Calcium signaling plays a central role in normal CNS functioning and dysfunction. As cerebellar Purkinje cells express the major regulatory elements of calcium control and represent the sole integrative output of the cerebellar cortex, changes in neu
The cerebellum is involved in the coordination of voluntary motor movement, balance, and equilibrium and muscle tone. The cerebellum is comprised of white matter and a thin, outer layer of densely folded gray matter. The folded outer layer of the cerebellum (cerebellar cortex) has smaller and more compact folds than those of the cerebral cortex. The cerebellum contains hundreds of millions of neurons for processing data. It relays information between body muscles and areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in motor control. ...
Cerebellar Cortex, Rats, Olive, Cerebellum, Purkinje Cells, Cells, Injection, Neurons, Chronic Pain, Hindlimb, Pain, Role, Movements, Cell, Feedback, Latex, Latex Beads, Microinjections, Urethane, Adult
The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of isoenzymes involved in the detoxication of a variety of electrophilic xenobiotics. The present investigation demonstrates that GST activity and the concentration of cytosolic GSTs in cerebellar cortex of Gunn rats were increased in hyperbilirubinaemic animals compared with non-jaundiced controls. Age-dependent and region-specific increases in GST isoenzymes were seen in three regions of the cerebellar cortex of jaundiced Gunn rats, whereas GST concentrations were not altered in the brainstem, thalamus/hypothalamus, cortex or liver. Cytosolic GST activity was increased 1.3-fold in the flocculus and lateral hemispheres of 20-day-old and 1.7-fold in the flocculus, lateral hemispheres and vermis of 60-day-old jaundiced (jj; homozygous) Gunn rats compared with non-jaundiced (Jj; heterozygous) Gunn rats. H.p.l.c. was used to determine the GST subunit protein concentrations in cytosolic fractions isolated from liver and brain regions of jaundiced ...
Vol 9: Restrictive Expression of Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 5 Asic5 in Unipolar Brush Cells of the Vestibulocerebellum.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Light micrograph of the human cerebellum, the hindbrain, showing (at bottom) a row of large, flask-like Purkinje cells, which are among the largest nerve cells in the body. The long dendrites from the Purkinje cells extend into all three layers of the cerebellar cortex. The cerebellum receives input from areas of the brain responsible for initiating movement, & from the bodys sense receptors. The mechanisms by which its cells integrate motor & sensory information to coordinate fine movement are obscure. Magnification: x500 at 35mm size. - Stock Image P360/0069
Hackett, J.T.; Hou, S.M.; Cochran, S.L., 1979: Glutamate and synaptic depolarization of Purkinje cells evoked by parallel fibers and by climbing fibers
A subpopulation of neurones in the cerebellar nuclei projects to the inferior olive, the source of the climbing fibre input to the cerebellum. This nucleo-olivary projection follows the zonal and, pro
In order to produce an organ with a specific shape, the correct number of cells of different lineages must be produced and precisely spatially arranged during development. Moreover, the proper spatial organization of cells in an organ is necessary for its function. In the brain, the cortex of the mammalian cerebellum (Cb) (Fig. 1A,B) and the neocortex (dorsal forebrain) of gyrencephalic mammals have a folded morphology that accommodates a large number of functionally diverse neural circuits. Each cerebellar fold receives a distinct combination of afferent inputs and therefore can be thought of as a functional unit (Larsell, 1952; Sillitoe and Joyner, 2007). Recent studies indicate that cells with one radial process projecting to the pial surface play a key role in producing folds. In the neocortex of gyrencephalic mammals, basal radial glial cells seem to be responsible for the formation of the folds, or gyri and sulci (Nonaka-Kinoshita et al., 2013; Stahl et al., 2013). In the cerebellar cortex ...
The idea is interesting, though. The cerebellar cortex is the cytoarchitecturally the most well mapped out part of the brain, due to a very stereotyped pattern. Simulations of the cerebellum have been worked on for years (I remember making a crude model on a Purkinje cell in my Comp Neuro class back in 2000), and this seems like the next logical step. While ataxia is the most notable symptom of cerebellar damage, there are distinct cognitive deficits as well. Whether these are due to the influence of cerebellum on other parts of the brain, or appears as an epiphenomenon (I cant coordinate my reaching for objects, which makes me depressed and irritable) has yet to be completely worked out ...
Synonyms for granular layer in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for granular layer. 10 words related to cerebellum: arteria cerebelli, cerebellar artery, neural structure, cerebellar hemisphere, dentate nucleus, vermis, vermis cerebelli.... What are synonyms for granular layer?
TITLE Persistent sodium current (NaP) of deep cerebellar nucleus (DCN) neuron COMMENT Translated from GENESIS by Johannes Luthman and Volker Steuber. ENDCOMMENT NEURON { SUFFIX NaP USEION na READ ena WRITE ina RANGE gbar, ina, m, h GLOBAL qdeltat } UNITS { (mA) = (milliamp) (mV) = (millivolt) } PARAMETER { qdeltat = 1 gbar = 1e-5 (siemens/cm2) } ASSIGNED { v (mV) ena (mV) ina (mA/cm2) minf hinf taum (ms) tauh (ms) } STATE { m h } INITIAL { rate(v) taum = 50 / qdeltat m = minf h = hinf } BREAKPOINT { SOLVE states METHOD cnexp ina = gbar * m*m*m * h * (v - ena) } DERIVATIVE states { rate(v) m =(minf - m)/taum h =(hinf - h)/tauh } PROCEDURE rate(v(mV)) { TABLE minf, hinf, tauh FROM -150 TO 100 WITH 300 minf = 1 / (1 + exp((v + 70) / -4.1)) hinf = 1 / (1 + exp((v + 80) / 4)) tauh = (1750 / (1 + exp((v + 65) / -8))) + 250 tauh = tauh / qdeltat ...
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We have investigated the mechanisms of the increases in BFcrb produced by activation of the CF. The CF provide a strong excitatory synaptic input to the cerebellar Purkinje cells. The CF originate from the contralateral inferior olive, project directly to the cerebellar molecular layer, and make multiple synaptic contacts with Purkinje cell dendrites and molecular layer interneurons.6 Despite the fact that a Purkinje cell receives inputs only from a single CF,6 CF activation produces powerful synaptic responses in Purkinje cell dendrites29 (see reference 30 for a review). CF-induced Purkinje cell discharges are associated with increases in cerebellar glucose utilization.31 We have found that activation of the CF using harmaline elicits profound increases in BFcrb that are independent of changes in arterial pressure and blood gases. The increases in BFcrb are protracted in time and are larger in magnitude than those produced by stimulation of the PF, hypercapnia, or topical application of ...
Genetic polymorphisms in Solute carrier family 1 (glial high affinity glutamate transporter), member 2 (SLC1A2) have been linked with essential tremor. SLC1A2 encodes excitatory amino acid transporter type 2 (EAAT2), which clears glutamate from the synaptic cleft. One postulated mechanism for essential tremor is the over-excitation of glutamatergic olivo-cerebellar climbing fibers, leading to excitotoxic death of Purkinje cells. Other glutamatergic excitatory signals are transmitted to Purkinje cells via parallel fibers of cerebellar granule neurons. Therefore, the expression level of glutamate transporters could be important in essential tremor pathogenesis. Using Western blotting, we compared the expression levels of the two main glutamate transporters in the cerebellar cortex, EAAT1 and EAAT2, in postmortem tissue from 16 essential tremor cases and 13 age-matched controls. We also studied the localization of EAAT1 and EAAT2 using immunohistochemistry in 10 essential tremor cases and 12 controls.
The data presented here support the hypothesis that highly erratic activity of Purkinje cells during caffeine-induced attacks is the cause of motor abnormalities in tottering mice. This is in agreement with earlier studies that have shown that Purkinje cells are sufficient, and required, for the initiation of attacks in this mouse model (Campbell et al., 1999; Mark et al., 2011; Raike et al., 2013a), and extend them by revealing a tight correlation between the extent to which the activity of Purkinje cells is erratic with the severity of the motor abnormalities. Because a significant amount of sensory information converges on the cerebellum, one might consider the alternative hypothesis that the erratic activity of Purkinje cells in the tottering mice during the attacks simply reflects the abnormal sensory input caused by the signs. Three sets of observations make this unlikely and support the working hypothesis that the erratic activity of Purkinje cells causes the abnormal motor signs. The ...
Prolidase gene (PEPD) encodes prolidase enzyme, which is responsible for hydrolysis of dipeptides containing proline or hydroxyproline at their C-terminal end. Mutations in PEPD gene cause, in human, prolidase deficiency (PD), a rare autosomal recessive disorder. PD patients show reduced or absent prolidase activity and a broad spectrum of phenotypic traits including various degrees of mental retardation. This is the first report correlating PD and brain damages using as a model system prolidase deficient mice, the so called dark-like (dal) mutant mice. We focused our attention on dal postnatal brain development, revealing a panel of different morphological defects in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, such as undulations of the cerebral cortex, cell rarefaction, defects in cerebellar cortex lobulation, and blood vessels overgrowth. These anomalies might be ascribed to altered angiogenic process and loss of pial basement membrane integrity. Further studies will be directed to find a ...
Symptoms of Lhermitte-Duclos disease including 4 medical symptoms and signs of Lhermitte-Duclos disease, alternative diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and correct diagnosis for Lhermitte-Duclos disease signs or Lhermitte-Duclos disease symptoms.
Purkinje cells in the mammalian cerebellum are remarkably homogeneous in shape and orientation, yet they exhibit regional differences in gene expression. Purkinje cells that express high levels of zebrin II (aldolase C) and the glutamate transporter EAAT4 cluster in parasagittal zones that receive input from distinct groups of climbing fibers (CFs); however, the physiological properties of CFs that target these molecularly distinct Purkinje cells have not been determined. Here we report that CFs that innervate Purkinje cells in zebrin II-immunoreactive (Z(+)) zones release more glutamate per action potential than CFs in Z(-) zones. CF terminals in Z(+) zones had larger pools of release-ready vesicles, exhibited enhanced multivesicular release, and produced larger synaptic glutamate transients. As a result, CF-mediated EPSCs in Purkinje cells decayed more slowly in Z(+) zones, which triggered longer-duration complex spikes containing a greater number of spikelets. The differences in the duration ...
The present study examined the spatial organization of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunopositive Purkinje cells in the cerebellum of rolling mouse Nagoya with reference to the distribution pattern of the cerebellar compartmentation antigen, heat shock protein 25 (HSP25). Whole-mount immunostaining revealed a striking pattern of parasagittal stripes of TH staining in the rolling mouse cerebellum but not in the control cerebellum. Although the TH stripes resembled the zebrin II stripes in the rolling cerebellum, these two distributions did not completely overlap. The TH stripes were present in the lobules VI and VII (central zone), the lobule X (nodular zone), and the paraflocculus, where zebrin II immunostaining was uniformly expressed. Double immunostaining revealed that TH stripes were aligned in an alternative fashion with HSP25 stripes within the caudal half of lobule VIb, lobules IXb and X, and paraflocculus. Some, but not all, TH stripes shared boundaries with HSP25 stripes. These results revealed
When cerebellar Purkinje cells are depolarized with a constant current pulse injected at the soma, complex spike discharge patterns are observed (Llinas and Sugimori 1980b). A computer model has been constructed to analyze how the Purkinje cell ionic conductance identified to date interact to produce the observed firing behavior. The kinetics of voltage-dependent conductance used in the model were significantly simpler than Hodgkin-Huxley kinetics, which have many parameters that must be experimentally determined. Our simplified scheme was able to reproduce the complex nonlinear responses found in real Purkinje cells. A similar approach could be used to study the wide variety of neurons found in different brain regions.. ...
Brain samples for this dataset were provided by the Medical Research Council Sudden Death Brain and Tissue Bank (Edinburgh, UK). All four individuals sampled were of European descent, neurologically normal during life and confirmed to be neuropathologically normal by a consultant neuropathologist using histology performed on sections prepared from paraffin-embedded tissue blocks. Twelve regions of the central nervous system were sampled from each individual. The regions studied were: cerebellar cortex, frontal cortex, temporal cortex, occipital cortex, hippocampus, the inferior olivary nucleus (sub-dissected from the medulla), putamen, substantia nigra, thalamus, hypothalamus, intralobular white matter and cervical spinal cord ...
Cora cerebellum is divided into three layers.The inner layer, granular, made of 5 x 1010 small, tightly connected cells in the form of granules.The middle layer, Purkinje cell layer is composed of a large number of single cells.The outer layer, the molecular made of axons and dendrites of the granule cells of Purkinje cells and several other cell types.Purkinje cell layer forms the border between granular and molecular layers.. granule cells. Very small, densely packed neurons.Cerebellar granule cells make up more than half the neurons throughout the brain.These cells receive information from mossy fibers and project it to the Purkinje cells.. Purkinje cells. They are one of the most prominent types of cells in the mammalian brain.Their dendrites form a big fan of finely branched processes.Notably, this almost two-dimensional dendritic tree.In addition, all oriented parallel to Purkinje cells.This arrangement has important functional considerations.. other cell types. In addition to the main ...
Veterinary Neurology and Neurosurgery is greatly indebted and grateful to Drs. Pesavento and Higgins for providing this pathology report. Gross Pathology. Three pieces of tissue are submitted for examination. The first is an entire brain and the second is an irregular piece of bone that is 2.0 x 4.0 x 0.2 x 0.5 cm (petrous temporal bone). The third piece is an irregularly shaped piece of firm tissue, approximately 3.0 x 2.0 x 1.5-0.5 cm This tissue is white and firm, roughly triangular in shape and expanded by a tan to white, smooth, nodular mass. On section, the nodular mass is hard, light tan with diffuse hard white foci. Multiple sections of this mass are placed in cassettes A and B. Multiple sections from rostral to the caudal cerebrum are placed into cassettes C-G. All sections are taken from the right side of the brain. The right cerebellum extending from the falx (rostral) to mid cerebellum. When sectioned, there is a hard mass encompassed by cerebellar cortex that is similar to the mass ...
The relatively few well-defined cell types within the cerebellum and the stereotypical foliation pattern make the cerebellum particularly amenable to the study of morphogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). The mammalian cerebellum consists of a central vermis and two lateral hemispheres, each with its own sets of fissures. The complexity of the foliation pattern varies between species of mammals, depending on the proprioceptive input to the cerebellum. For example, the cerebellar vermis of many inbred mouse strains consists of eight major lobules with few sublobules, whereas the rat vermis consists of ten lobules and contains more sublobules. Furthermore, some inbred strains of mice have one or two additional partial lobules corresponding to additional lobules in rat. Although the basic ten lobules present in the rat are conserved in human, each human cerebellar lobule is extensively subdivided into many sublobules. The conservation of morphology within and across species suggests that ...
Specialized membrane junctions between neurons in the vertebrate cerebellar cortex.: Gap junctions, the morphological correlate for low-resistance junctions,
PhD Project - PhD Position in Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Synaptopathies/cerebellar motor dysfunction at University of Bonn, listed on FindAPhD.com
Bax −/− cerebellar granule cells do not undergo apoptosis in response to K+ deprivation. Cerebellar granule cells from Bax +/+ (a, b, e, and f) and Bax −
Ages: 12-17) Take your climbing skills to the next level and beyond. Be prepared for "all out" climbing on this 8 day course. We will sample all of the types of climbing: sport, bouldering, trad, even multi-pitch if the group is up for it. Hand cracks, finger cracks, roofs, slabs, off widths, chimneys, and more. This camp is designed to give the beginning and intermediate climber as much knowledge as possible about climbing and all that it entails.. The camp offers students the opportunity to further develop and expand climbing skills in an extended climbing session. It is the perfect way to transition from indoor climbing to real rock. It is all about climbing and moving on rock every single day. Time is also given to working with protection, establishing belay stances and anchors and general rock climbing safety.. Youll learn the KMAC approach that identifies each aspect of a climbing situation. This involves planning, critical thinking, and analysis of each system before proceeding.. Dont ...
J:46505 Baader SL, Sanlioglu S, Berrebi AS, Parker-Thornburg J, Oberdick J, Ectopic overexpression of engrailed-2 in cerebellar Purkinje cells causes restricted cell loss and retarded external germinal layer development at lobule junctions. J Neurosci. 1998 Mar 1;18(5):1763-73 ...
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Purkinje cells, or Purkinje neurons (/pərˈkɪndʒiː/ pər-KIN-jee), are a class of GABAergic neurons located in the cerebellum. They are named after their discoverer, Czech anatomist Jan Evangelista Purkyně in 1839. These cells are some of the largest neurons in the human brain (Betz cells being the largest), with an intricately elaborate dendritic arbor, characterized by a large number of dendritic spines. Purkinje cells are found within the Purkinje layer in the cerebellum. Purkinje cells are aligned like dominos stacked one in front of the other. Their large dendritic arbors form nearly two-dimensional layers through which parallel fibers from the deeper-layers pass. These parallel fibers make relatively weaker excitatory (glutamatergic) synapses to spines in the Purkinje cell dendrite, whereas climbing fibers originating from the inferior olivary nucleus in the medulla provide very powerful excitatory input to the proximal dendrites and cell soma. Parallel fibers pass orthogonally ...
In Lhermitte-Duclos disease, the cerebellar cortex loses its normal architecture, and forms a hamartoma in the cerebellar hemispheres. The tumors are usually found on the left cerebellar hemisphere, and consist of abnormal hypertrophic ganglion cells that are somewhat similar to Purkinje cells. The amount of white matter in the cerebellum is diminished.. Like cowden syndrome, patients with Lhermitte-Duclos disease often have mutations in enzymes involved in the Akt/PKB signaling pathway, which plays a role in cell growth. Mutation in PTEN gene on chromosome no. 10q leads to increased activity of AKT and mTOR pathways.. ...
Background: Although essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common neurologic disorders, there have been few postmortem studies. We recently reported postmortem changes (torpedoes and Bergmann gliosis) in the cerebellar cortex in a few ET cases. Objective: To describe more extensive postmortem changes in the cerebellum in another ET case. Design: Case report. Results: A 90-year-old woman had a 30-year history of ET. At postmortem examination, there was segmental loss of Purkinje cells, presence of torpedoes, and Bergmann gliosis in the cerebellar cortex. Moreover, there were extensive changes in the dentate nucleus, in the form of neuronal loss, neuronal atrophy, microglial clusters, and reduction in the number of efferent fibers (ie, pallor of the hilum). Conclusions: The brain in the current case exhibited more marked cerebellar pathologic features than noted in previously reported ET cases and thereby extends the described cerebellar findings in this common, yet pathologically poorly characterized,
In order to investigate the spatiotemporal organization of neuronal activity in local microcircuits, techniques allowing the simultaneous recording from multiple single neurons are required. To this end, we implemented an advanced spatial-light modulator two-photon microscope (SLM-2PM). A critical issue for cerebellar theory is the organization of granular layer activity in the cerebellum, which has been predicted by single-cell recordings and computational models. With SLM-2PM, calcium signals could be recorded from different network elements in acute cerebellar slices including granule cells (GrCs), Purkinje cells (PCs) and molecular layer interneurons. By combining WCRs with SLM-2PM, the spike/calcium relationship in GrCs and PCs could be extrapolated toward the detection of single spikes. The SLM-2PM technique made it possible to monitor activity of over tens to hundreds neurons simultaneously. GrC activity depended on the number of spikes in the input mossy fiber bursts. PC and molecular ...
Extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors (eGABARs) allow ambient GABA to tonically regulate neuronal excitability and are implicated as targets for ethanol and anesthetics. These receptors are thought to be heteropentameric proteins made up of two α subunits-either α4 or α6-two β2 or β3 subunits, and one δ subunit. The GABA analog 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo (5,4-c)pyridin-3(-ol) (THIP) has been proposed as a selective ligand for eGABARs. Behavioral and in vitro studies suggest that eGABARs have nanomolar affinity for THIP; however, all published studies on recombinant versions of eGABARs report micromolar affinities. Here, we examine THIP sensitivity of native eGABARs on cerebellar neurons and on reconstituted GABARs in heterologous systems. Concentration-response data for THIP, obtained from cerebellar granule cells and molecular layer interneurons in wild-type and δ subunit knockout slices, confirm that submicromolar THIP sensitivity requires δ subunits. In recombinant experiments, we find ...
The cerebellum has been considered only as a classical subcortical center for motor control. However, accumulating experimental and clinical evidences have revealed that the cerebellum also plays an important role in cognition, for instance, in learning and memory, as well as in emotional behavior and in nonsomatic activities, such as visceral and immunological responses. Although it is not yet clear through which pathways such cerebellar nonsomatic functions are mediated, the direct bidirectional connections between the cerebellum and the hypothalamus, a high autonomic center, have recently been demonstrated in a series of neuroanatomical investigations on a variety of mammals and indicated to be potential pathways underlying the cerebellar autonomic modulation. The direct hypothalamocerebellar projections originate from the widespread hypothalamic nuclei/areas and terminate in both the cerebellar cortex as multilayered fibers and the cerebellar nuclei. Immunohistochemistry studies have offered ...
AC1 is the only neurospecific adenylyl cyclase identified thus far. It is expressed in brain, retina, and the adrenal medulla (45). Within the brain, AC1 is expressed in the hippocampus, neocortex, entorhinal cortex, cerebellar cortex, olfactory bulb, and pineal gland (29, 45). AC1 expression in hippocampus increases dramatically during postnatal days 1-16 (31). The tissue specificity and developmentally regulated expression of the AC1 gene may be controlled by a 280-bp region and binary E-box like factor just 5′ to the transcriptional start site (5). AC1 protein is detectable in the mossy fibers and the molecular layer of hippocampus and dentate in the macaque monkey, Macaca nemestrina (13), suggesting that AC1 is localized to axons in neurons of the hippocampus.. Ca2+ and CaM stimulate AC1 enzymatic activity with a half-maximal concentration of 150 nM free Ca2+, slightly above resting concentrations of Ca2+ in neurons (43). CaM interacts with AC1 within the C1 loop region, close to the ...
Fig. 1.4.1.20. Purkinje cell dendritic spines. On the left, a longitudinally sectioned spine with smooth endoplasmic reticulum (arrow) and a cluster of polyribosomes located at the origin of the spine from the dendrite (D). Adjacent and synapsing with the same bouton is another, transversally sectioned spine. On the right, a transversally sectioned dendritic spine with smooth endoplasmic reticulum in the head (large arrow). Nearby spine necks are embedded in a glial process (small arrow). Scale = 200 nm. (Rat, mouse, cerebellar cortex.) Download the high resolution image; Download the high resolution image(a). ...
Landis, D M. and Sidman, R L., "Electron microscopic analysis of postnatal histogenesis in the cerebellar cortex of staggerer mutant mice." (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 4340 ...
It would be very helpful if we could get hold of some of these cells to study. However, the brain is a complex and sensitive organ and we cant just take out important cells. This project aims to solve this problem by growing Purkinje cells in the laboratory.. This can be done by taking cells from an individual - usually skin cells - and reprogramming these to become stem-cells. Stem cells are cells that can become different kinds of cells, unlike most cells in the body, which can only produce copies of themselves. This project then aims to persuade these stem cells, via a long and complicated process, to turn into Purkinje cells.. This is an extremely difficult process, involving cutting-edge technology. Purkinje cells are very large and in the brain they are supported by and networked to many other different cells. It was only carried out for the first time, using normal cells, a couple of years ago. It is likely to be even harder to do in cells from people with A-T, which are therefore ...
Definition of parasagittal in US English - relating to or situated in a plane adjacent or parallel to the plane which divides the body into right and left halves.
This image of a brain specimen was cut in the midsagittal (from the side) plane. This allows excellent visualization of the cerebellar vermis which is that part of the cerebellum located in the midline and just to either side of the midline. There is mild atrophy of the vermis. - Stock Image C022/0808
Youre looking for the brains response to a particular thing, but if you do MEG on a resting person, you dont get zero - you get all sorts of stuff - because theyre thinking about their cat and each person has a different resting state, said Chapman.. The first problem the collaborative team set to work on was characterising the brains response to surprise. The research was supported by GlaxoSmithKline, the MRC and by an EPSRC cross disciplinary feasibility account. Although not prescriptive, surprise is considered one of the six universal emotional responses (alongside anger, fear, disgust, happiness and sadness) and there are robust experimental methods to isolate and study it.. They used something called the mismatch-negativity (MMN) paradigm. While in an MEG scanner, 10 healthy volunteers listened to a series of beeps, some of which were regular and repetitive, and some of which were different and out of sequence.. Previous studies have established that the lateral temporal auditory ...
The goal of this minicourse is to introduce MMP for foliations on surfaces and to outline the classification of foliations on projective surfaces up to birational equivalence.
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Neural networks are able to store information and to learn by adapting the efficacy of synaptic communication between neurons in an activity-dependent way. Synaptic memory formation can be bidirectional: synapses can undergo long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD). These processes participate in behavioral learning in specific ways that depend on the layout of the neuronal circuit that is studied. In our laboratory, we examine forms of synaptic and non-synaptic plasticity in the cerebellum, a brain area that is involved in fine adaptation of movements, but is involved in cognitive functions as well. In Marr-Albus-Ito models of cerebellar function, LTD at parallel fiber (PF) synapses onto Purkinje cells, which provide the sole output of the cerebellar cortex, is seen as a cellular correlate of motor learning, and forms of associative learning in general. LTD is induced by co-activation of PF synapses with the climbing fiber (CF) input, and is postsynaptically induced and ...
In the astrocyte lineage, Meteorin expression appears to be restricted to relatively immature cell populations. Meteorin expression is gradually lost in GLAST‐expressing astrocytes located in the postnatal cerebral parenchyma (Figure 2K and L), and is not detected in two major types of astrocytes in the adult cerebrum, fibrous astrocytes and protoplasmic astrocytes (Miller and Raff, 1984) (Supplementary Figure 3G). In the developing cerebellum, Meteorin is expressed in the VZ and GLAST‐positive migrating glial precursors. Among three subclasses of astrocytes in the adult cerebellar cortex, bushy protoplasmic astrocytes, smooth protoplasmic astrocytes, and Bergmann glia (Palay and Chan‐Palay, 1974), Meteorin expression is restricted to Bergmann glia (Figure 2M and N) (Supplementary Figure 3H and I). Expression of Meteorin in Bergmann glia may be regulated by neurons that interact with Bergmann glia. For instance, dendritic spines of Purkinje cells were completely enwrapped by Bergmann glial ...
We have studied a simple form of motor learning in the human brain so as to isolate activity related to motor learning and the prediction of sensory events. Whole-brain, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to record activity during classical discriminative delay eyeblink conditioning. Auditory conditioned stimulus (CS+) trials were presented either with a corneal airpuff unconditioned stimulus (US, paired), or without a US (unpaired). Auditory CS- trials were never reinforced with a US. Trials were presented pseudorandomly, 66 times each. The subjects gradually produced conditioned responses to CS+ trials, while increasingly differentiating between CS+ and CS- trials. The increasing difference between hemodynamic responses for unpaired CS+ and for CS- trials evolved slowly during conditioning in the ipsilateral cerebellar cortex (Crus I/Lobule HVI), contralateral motor cortex and hippocampus. To localize changes that were related to sensory prediction, we compared trials
Rats can readily be trained to jump a gap of around 16 cm in the dark and a considerably larger gap in the light for a food reward. In the light, they use vision to estimate the distance to be jumped. In the dark, they use their vibrissae at the farthest distances. Bilateral whisker shaving or barrel field lesions reduce the gap crossed in the dark by about 2 cm. Information from the barrel fields reaches motor areas via cortico-cortical, basal ganglia, or cerebellar pathways. The cells of origin of the ponto-cerebellar pathway are segregated in layer Vb of the barrel field. Efferent axons of Vb cells occupy a central position within the basis pedunculi and terminate on cells in the pontine nuclei. Pontine cells, in turn, project to the cerebellar cortex as mossy fibers. We trained normal rats to cross a gap in the light and in a dark alley that was illuminated with an infra-red source. When the performance was stable, we made unilateral lesions in the central region of the basis pedunculi, which
In a previous study it has been demonstrated that fear conditioning is associated with a long-lasting potentiation of parallel fiber to Purkinje cell synaptic transmission in vermal lobules V and VI. Since modifications of intrinsic membrane properties have been suggested to mediate some forms of me …
BioAssay record AID 349212 submitted by ChEMBL: Activity at RYR2 receptor in rat cerebellar granule neurons assessed activation of [45Ca2+] uptake at 20 uM after 10 mins.
It is known that a class of codimension one foliations, namely "taut foliations", have subtle relation with the topology of a 3-manifold. In early 80s, David Gabai introduced the theory of "sutured manifolds" to study these objects and more than 20 years later, Andres Juhasz developed a Floer type theory, namely "Sutured Floer Homology", that turned out to be very useful in answering the question of when a 3-manifold with boundary supports a taut foliation ...
Fig 2. Relative lobar vermal volumes in healthy children and patients with brain malignancies. Patients tended to have lower relative vermal volumes even before the start of the radiation treatment. The volumes of the posterior vermis, lobules VIII-X, were the lowest in 3 patients with medulloblastoma treated by surgical resection, which involved removing parts of cerebellar tissue. The lines connect data from individual subjects; asterisks indicate patients with medulloblastoma. ...
immune Adenosine A1 Receptors Cdc42, INCB8761 Cerebellar Purkinje cells have two unique action possibilities: Complicated spikes (CSs) are evoked by one ascending fibers that originate from the contralateral poor olive. ascending fibres originate; the -nucleus and dorsomedial cell line (DMCC). This decreased vestibular ascending fibers signaling to the contralateral folia 8-10, while leaving intact vestibular supplementary and primary afferent mossy fibres. We documented from Purkinje interneurons and cells in folia 8-10, discovered by juxtacellular labeling with neurobiotin. Microlesions of the poor olive elevated the natural release of SSs in contralateral folia 8-10, but obstructed their modulation during vestibular pleasure. The vestibularly-evoked release of excitatory cerebellar interneurons (granule cells and unipolar clean cells) was not CDC42 really customized by olivary microlesions. The modulated release of stellate cells, but not really Golgi cells was decreased by olivary ...
Author Summary Intensive studies of Pavlovian delay eyelid conditioning suggest that the cerebellum can memorize a passage-of-time (POT) from the onset of an external stimulus. To account for possible mechanisms of such POT representation, some network models have been proposed to show that granule cells (grcs) in the cerebellar granular layer can exhibit random alternation of burst and silent modes under feedback inhibition from Golgi cells, resulting in non-recurrent generation of active granule cells populations. On the other hand, the oscillation of local field potential (LFP) has been observed in the cerebellar granular layer when animals stay at rest. Some network models have shown that grcs can elicit synchronous spikes in an oscillatory manner. These qualitatively different neural dynamics of the granular layer raises a question of how they can be accounted for by an identical network in the granular layer. Here we report that grc activities of a biologically plausible spiking network model
Learning a new dance routine or how to ride a bike is possible because of Cerebellar Granule Cells (GCs) according to Galliano and colleagues in The Netherlands. To find out more about the role of these abundant brain cells, and why we have so many of them, the scientists silenced most of the GCs in a group of mutant mice. They found the rodents could balance and run as well as they ever did, but when it came to learning new activities involving motor function, the mice had a harder time.. "Our findings indicate that a minority of functionally intact GCs is sufficient for the maintenance of basic motor performance, whereas acquisition and stabilization of sophisticated memories require higher numbers of normal GCs controlling PC firing," the authors say in their paper published last month in Cell Reports.. Comprising more than half of all neurons in the central nervous systems of vertebrates, GCs are a particularly populous type of neuron, but why? To get some answers, the research team bred a ...
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By combining atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD) thin-film techniques, the latter being a variant of the former in which organic precursors are used, it is possible to deposit thin films containing precisely controlled portions of inorganic and organic constituents. This in tur
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In the cerebellar cortex there are a variety of inhibitory neurons (interneurons). The only excitatory neurons present in the ... M Manto; C De Zeeuw (2012). "Diversity and Complexity of Roles of Granule Cells in the Cerebellar Cortex". The Cerebellum. 11 ( ... Cerebellar granule cell[edit]. Main article: Cerebellar granule cell. The granule cells, produced by the rhombic lip, are found ... "A theory of cerebellar cortex". The Journal of Physiology. 202 (2): 437-70. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1969.sp008820. PMC 1351491. ...
Descending motor pathways of the pyramidal tracts travel from the cerebral cortex to the brainstem or lower spinal cord.[4][5] ... Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... flexion: Primary motor cortex → Posterior limb of internal capsule → Decussation of pyramids → Corticospinal tract (Lateral, ... Primary motor cortex → Genu of internal capsule → Corticobulbar tract → Facial motor nucleus → Facial muscles ...
Cerebellar cortex: cytology and organization. Springer. OCLC 1367086. Chan-Palay, Victoria (1977). Cerebellar dentate nucleus: ...
High and low level (description) Marr Prize Level of analysis (1969) "A theory of cerebellar cortex." J. Physiol., 202:437-470 ... "A theory of cerebellar cortex". J. Physiol. 202 (2): 437-70. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1969.sp008820. PMC 1351491 . PMID 5784296. ... Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex each receive tens of thousands of inputs from "parallel fibers", but only one input ... The cerebellum theory was motivated by two unique features of cerebellar anatomy: (1) the cerebellum contains vast numbers of ...
Carulli D, Buffo A, Strata P; Buffo; Strata (April 2004). "Reparative mechanisms in the cerebellar cortex". Prog Neurobiol. 72 ... Role of the olivo-cerebellar system in timing" J Neurosci 2006; 26: 5990-5. Liu T, Xu D, Ashe J, Bushara K. Specificity of ... These axons pass through the pons and enter the cerebellum via the inferior cerebellar peduncle where they form synapses with ... 2013). "In vivo single branch axotomyinduces GAP-43-dependent sprouting and synaptic remodeling in cerebellarcortex". Proc Natl ...
The cerebellar glomerulus is a small, intertwined mass of nerve fiber terminals in the granular layer of the cerebellar cortex ... Chan-Palay, Victoria; Palay, Sanford L. (1972). "The form of velate astrocytes in the cerebellar cortex of monkey and rat: High ... ISBN 978-1-4511-1045-6. De Schutter, Erik (2002). "Cerebellar Cortex: Computation by Extrasynaptic Inhibition?". Current ... The cerebellar glomeruli are the first "processing station" for afferent nerve fibers entering the cerebellum. Input comes from ...
flexion: Primary motor cortex → Posterior limb of internal capsule → Decussation of pyramids → Corticospinal tract (Lateral, ... Inferior cerebellar peduncle. Scheme showing the connections of the several parts of the brain. (Inferior peduncle labeled at ... Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... Primary motor cortex → Genu of internal capsule → Corticobulbar tract → Facial motor nucleus → Facial muscles ...
Eccles, JC; Llinas, R; Sasaki, K (1964). "Golgi cell inhibition in the cerebellar cortex". Nature. 204 (4965): 1265-1266. doi: ... Brickley SG, Cull-Candy SG, Farrant M (1996). "Development of a tonic form of synaptic inhibition in rat cerebellar granule ... Tia S, Wang JF, Kotchabhakdi N, Vicini S (June 1, 1996). "Developmental changes of inhibitory synaptic currents in cerebellar ... Jakab, RL; Hámori, J (1988). "Quantitative morphology and synaptology of cerebellar glomeruli in the rat". Anatomy and ...
Chan-Palay, Victoria; Palay, Sanford L. (1972-01-01). "The stellate cells of the rat's cerebellar cortex". Zeitschrift für ... Cerebellar stellate cells synapse onto the dendritic arbors of Purkinje cells. Cortical spiny stellate cells are found in layer ... They receive excitatory synaptic fibres from the thalamus and process feed forward excitation to 2/3 layer of V1 visual cortex ... "How Thalamus Connects to Spiny Stellate Cells in the Cat's Visual Cortex". Journal of Neuroscience. 31 (8): 2925-2937. doi: ...
The functional organization of the cerebellar cortex neuronal circuits. Defining cerebellar function from an evolutionary ... ISBN 0-19-515955-1. Llinas, RR (1969). "Functional aspects of interneuronal evolution in the cerebellar cortex". UCLA Forum Med ... Artificial olivo-cerebellar motor control system as part of the project BAUV (Undersea Vehicle) of the US Navy developed by P. ... Neurobiology of Cerebellar Evolution and Development. (Chicago: Am. Med. Association, 1969) Precht, W., Llinás, R. (eds.): Frog ...
... in parietal and cerebellar cortices of autistic brains.[15] Cerebellar purjinke cells also reported a 40% downregulation, ... "Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67 kDa proteins are reduced in autistic parietal and cerebellar cortices". Biological ... Cerebellar disorders[edit]. Intracerebellar administration of GAD autoantibodies to animals increases the excitability of ... Epitope recognition contributes to cerebellar involvement.[29] Reduced GABA levels increase glutamate levels as a consequence ...
"In vivo single branch axotomy induces GAP-43-dependent sprouting and synaptic remodeling in cerebellar cortex". Proceedings of ... cortex.[22] GAP43 is not only important for axon targeting during development but it has been shown to be important also for ... "Impaired sprouting and axonal atrophy in cerebellar climbing fibres following in vivo silencing of the growth-associated ...
"Perisynaptic organization of plasma membrane calcium pumps in cerebellar cortex". J. Comp. Neurol. (published 2006-12-20). 500 ... "Calcium clearance and its energy requirements in cerebellar neurons". Cell Calcium. 47 (6): 507-513. doi:10.1016/j.ceca.2010.04 ...
2007). "Widespread Demyelination in the Cerebellar Cortex in Multiple Sclerosis". Brain Pathology. 17 (1): 38-44. doi:10.1111/j ... Also a variant affecting mainly the spinal cord and the cortex has been proposed Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and its associated ...
432-4. ISBN 978-0-87893-697-7. Tyrrell, T; Willshaw, D (1992-05-29). "Cerebellar cortex: its simulation and the relevance of ... and constitute the sole output of all motor coordination in the cerebellar cortex. The Purkinje layer of the cerebellum, which ... There is evidence in mice and humans that bone marrow cells either fuse with or generate cerebellar Purkinje cells, and it is ... "Localizing Genes to Cerebellar Layers by Classifying ISH Images". PLoS Computational Biology. 8 (12): e1002790. doi:10.1371/ ...
... s arise from granule cells in the cerebellar cortex. They form excitatory synapses onto the dendrites of Purkinje ...
... a comparison between the cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex, deep grey matter nuclei and the spinal cord". J Neurol Neurosurg ... 2007). "Widespread Demyelination in the Cerebellar Cortex in Multiple Sclerosis". Brain Pathology. 17 (1): 38-44. doi:10.1111/j ... The optic radiation (OR), which is a set of axons that lead to the visual cortex, is more similar to the rest of the brain ... Around 26% of MS lesions appear inside or adjacent to the cortex. It seems that in RRMS patients, both deep and cortical GM ...
This is the primary pathway involved in the transference of cerebellar input to the primary motor cortex. The VA projects ... cortex, and the auditory cortex in the brain. Thalamocortical radiations also innervate the gustatory pathways, as well as pre- ... the TRN in much greater number than do thalamocortical projections to cortex.[5] This suggests that the cortex has a much ... flexion: Primary motor cortex → Posterior limb of internal capsule → Decussation of pyramids → Corticospinal tract (Lateral, ...
Rakic, P (March 1971). "Neuron-glia relationship during granule cell migration in developing cerebellar cortex. A Golgi and ... In the embryonic cerebral cortex, the SVZ contains intermediate neuronal progenitors that continue to divide into post-mitotic ... Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991). 22 (2): 465-8. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhr336. PMC 3256413 . PMID 22116731. Dehay, C; ...
Safo Patrick K; Cravatt Benjamin F; Regehr Wade G (2006) Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling in the cerebellar cortex. ... Mintz I M; Sabatini B L; Regehr W G (1995) Calcium control of transmitter release at a cerebellar synapse. Neuron 1995;15(3): ... Chen C; Regehr W G (1997)The mechanism of cAMP-mediated enhancement at a cerebellar synapse. Journal of Neuroscience 1997;17(22 ... Kreitzer A C; Regehr W G (2000)Modulation of transmission during trains at a cerebellar synapse. Journal of Neuroscience 2000; ...
From here information continues rostrally until it reaches the cerebellar cortex. This relay pathway is generally known as the ... the spinal cord and ends as mossy fibers in the ipsilateral cerebellar cortex after passing through the inferior cerebellar ...
The granular layer is the innermost layer of the cerebellar cortex. The cerebellar cortex (gray matter) is composed of three ...
2006). "Age-related changes of structures in cerebellar cortex of cat". Journal of Biosciences. 31: 55-60. doi:10.1007/ ...
Human cerebellar cortex is finely convoluted, much more so than cerebral cortex. Its interior axon fiber tracts are called the ... A key feature of cortex is that because it scales with surface area, "more" of it can be fit inside a skull by introducing ... At the outer periphery of the cortex, the neurons are arranged into layers (the number of which vary according to species and ...
and Cytochem., co-author, 1990) Metabotrop Glutamate Receptor Type 1a Expressing Unipolar Brush Cells in the Cerebellar Cortex ... Presynaptic Dendrites and Perikarya in Deafferented Cerebellar Cortex (Procl. National Academy of Science, co-author, 1982) ... Immunogold Electron Microscopic Demonstration of Glutamate and GABA in Normal and Deafferented Cerebellar Cortex: Correlation ...
Role of right auditory cortex in fine pitch resolution[edit]. The primary auditory cortex is one of the main areas associated ... Koeneke, Susan; Lutz, Kai; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Jäncke, Lutz (2004). "Long-term training affects cerebellar processing in ... orbitofrontal cortex, ventral striatum, midbrain, and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex. Many of these areas appear to be ... Cereb". Cortex. 6: 102-119. doi:10.1093/cercor/6.2.102.. *^ Rizzolatti, G.; Luppino, G.; Matelli, M. (1998). "The organization ...
Roles of Molecular Layer Interneurons in Sensory Information Processing in Mouse Cerebellar Cortex Crus II In Vivo. . ... Roles of Molecular Layer Interneurons in Sensory Information Processing in Mouse Cerebellar Cortex Crus II In Vivo - Descarga ... Roles of Molecular Layer Interneurons in Sensory Information Processing in Mouse Cerebellar Cortex Crus II In Vivo. ... Cerebellar cortical molecular layer interneurons MLIs play essential roles in sensory information processing by the cerebellar ...
Motor learning induces astrocytic hypertrophy in the cerebellar cortex.. Kleim JA1, Markham JA, Vij K, Freese JL, Ballard DH, ... is associated with an increase in both synapse number and glial cell volume within the cerebellar cortex. The increase in ... Motor learning induces hypertrophy of astrocytes in the cerebellar cortex. The volume of astrocytes per Purkinje cell (± SEM) ... A. Electron micrograph taken within the molecular layer of the cerebellar paramedian lobule. B. The same micrograph is shown ...
Learning-induced multiple synapse formation in rat cerebellar cortex.. Federmeier KD1, Kleim JA, Greenough WT. ...
... low-frequency oscillations in the cerebellar cortex of the anesthetized tg mouse. A: sequential images of the cerebellar cortex ... Each map is superimposed on a background image of the cerebellar cortex. G-I: frequency (G), power (H), and high power domain ( ... Low-frequency oscillations in the cerebellar cortex of the tottering mouse.. Chen G1, Popa LS, Wang X, Gao W, Barnes J, Hendrix ... Oscillations in the electromyographic (EMG) activity and relation to the optical signals in the cerebellar cortex. A: power ...
"Cerebellar Cortex" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Cerebellar Cortex" was a major or minor topic ... "Cerebellar Cortex" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Purkinje Cell Collaterals Enable Output Signals from the Cerebellar Cortex to Feed Back to Purkinje Cells and Interneurons. ... Purkinje Cells Directly Inhibit Granule Cells in Specialized Regions of the Cerebellar Cortex. Neuron. 2016 Sep 21; 91(6):1330- ...
The cerebellar cortex comprises a few cell types and two main afferent systems arranged in a stereotyped synaptic pattern that ... The cerebellar cortex comprises a few cell types and two main afferent systems arranged in a stereotyped synaptic pattern that ... The regularity of the laminated structure of the cerebellar cortex permits the identification of the main cell types, even on ... Altman, J. (1972b): Postnatal development of the cerebellar cortex in the rat. II. Phases in the maturation of Purkinje cells ...
The physiological effects of serotonin are mediated by the 5HT1A receptor in the cats cerebellar cortex.. Kerr CW1, Bishop GA. ... Serotonin is present in a fine beaded plexus in the cerebellar cortex of several mammalian species. In the cat, serotoninergic ... The present data are in partial agreement with previous studies in the rats cerebellar cortex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS ... these same nuclei also contain a separate population of neurons that give rise to mossy fibers to the cerebellar cortex. ...
Pontine and lateral reticular projections to the c1 zone in lobulus simplex and paramedian lobule of the rat cerebellar cortex. ... This suggests that the two parts of the same cerebellar cortical zone differ, at least partially, in regard to their inputs ...
The Community Effect and Purkinje Cell Migration in the Cerebellar Cortex: Analysis of Scrambler Chimeric Mice. Huaitao Yang, ... Numerous ectopic Purkinje cells are evident, with the majority found deep in the cerebellar cortex (arrowheads) and a smaller ... The Community Effect and Purkinje Cell Migration in the Cerebellar Cortex: Analysis of Scrambler Chimeric Mice ... The Community Effect and Purkinje Cell Migration in the Cerebellar Cortex: Analysis of Scrambler Chimeric Mice ...
... of the Purkinje cells fail to migrate to the cerebellar cortex (Goldowitz et al., 1997). The cerebellar Purkinje cells offer an ... Most of these ectopic Ringo+scm/scm cells were found in white matter deep in the cerebellar cortex (Fig. 3B). There was a small ... The Community Effect and Purkinje Cell Migration in the Cerebellar Cortex: Analysis of Scrambler Chimeric Mice. Huaitao Yang, ... Numerous ectopic Purkinje cells are evident, with the majority found deep in the cerebellar cortex (arrowheads) and a smaller ...
The cerebellar cortex consists of a small set of neuronal cell types interconnected in a highly stereotyped way. While the ... Postnatal development of the murine cerebellar cortex: formation and early dispersal of basket, stellate and Golgi neurons.. ... Following their terminal mitosis, inhibitory cerebellar cortical interneurons go through a protracted quiescent phase in which ... These observations provide a quantitative description of cerebellar cortical inhibitory interneuron genesis and early ...
... inputs to the cerebellar cortex. Spatial and temporal parameters were used to develop reliable criteria to distinguish climbing ... inputs to the cerebellar cortex. Spatial and temporal parameters were used to develop reliable criteria to distinguish climbing ... cortex and its anatomical organization in two perpendicular axes provided the foundations for many theories of cerebellar ... cortex and its anatomical organization in two perpendicular axes provided the foundations for many theories of cerebellar ...
... cerebellar cortex. Although the major compartments in the rostral and caudal cerebellar cortex have been given the same numeric ... it is not clear how the cerebellar cortex is organized to give such fine functional localization. The cerebellar cortex shows ... The entire trajectories of single olivocerebellar axons in the cerebellar cortex and their contribution to cerebellar ... In the caudal cerebellar cortex, 4b+ and 5a+ ended in the rostral paramedian lobule, and lightly labeled compartments (e+) ( ...
1972) Cerebellar surface cooling influencing evoked activity in cortex and in interpositus nucleus. Brain Res 45:580-584. ... The cerebellar cortex coordinates movements and maintains balance by computing motor sequences from many types of sensory ... GoCs in acute slices of cerebellar cortex from P25 rats (see Materials and Methods) were initially identified on the basis of ... The MF-GoC synaptic connection has long been recognized from anatomical studies of the cerebellar cortex (Eccles et al., 1967; ...
Involvement of cerebellar cortex and nuclei in the genesis and control of unconditioned and conditioned eyelid motor responses. ... lid responses were recorded in alert cats in simultaneity with unitary and field electrical activity of cerebellar cortex and ... but that cerebellar nuclei are directly involved in the performance of the late components of reflex lid movements and in the ...
PubMed journal article Postnatal development of the murine cerebellar cortex: formation and early dispersal of basket, stellate ... AgingAnimalsAnimals, NewbornBiomarkersCell DifferentiationCell MovementCell ProliferationCerebellar CortexGene Expression ... The cerebellar cortex consists of a small set of neuronal cell types interconnected in a highly stereotyped way. While the ... VL - 24 IS - 2 N2 - The cerebellar cortex consists of a small set of neuronal cell types interconnected in a highly stereotyped ...
The Human Cerebellum, Cerebellar Connections, and Cerebellar Cortex.. Ann Intern Med. ;77:826. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-77-5-826_ ...
Effects of hyperbilirubinaemia on glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes in cerebellar cortex of the Gunn rat. J A Johnson, J J ... Age-dependent and region-specific increases in GST isoenzymes were seen in three regions of the cerebellar cortex of jaundiced ... The present investigation demonstrates that GST activity and the concentration of cytosolic GSTs in cerebellar cortex of Gunn ... Effects of hyperbilirubinaemia on glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes in cerebellar cortex of the Gunn rat ...
... and Cortex. Despite increasing evidence suggesting the cerebellum works in concert with the cortex and basal ganglia, the ... Consensus Paper: Towards a Systems-Level View of Cerebellar Function: the Interplay Between Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia, and ... Cortex. Consensus Paper: Towards a Systems-Level View of Cerebellar Function: the Interplay Between Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia, ... and cortex as an integrated system enables us to understand the function of these areas in radically different ways. In ...
Cerebellar granule cell (Masoli et al 2020). Cerebellar granule cell (Masoli et al 2020). Cerebellar granule cell (Masoli et al ... Cerebellar granule cell (Masoli et al 2020). Cerebellar granule cell (Masoli et al 2020). Cerebellar granule cell (Masoli et al ... Cerebellar cortex oscil. robustness from Golgi cell gap jncs (Simoes de Souza and De Schutter 2011). ... 1 . Simões de Souza F, De Schutter E (2011) Robustness effect of gap junctions between Golgi cells on cerebellar cortex ...
... silencing this same area of cerebellar cortex or reversibly blocking cerebellar cortex output also unmasked short-latency ... Conversely, increasing cerebellar cortex activity by micro-infusions of the GABA(A) antagonist picrotoxin reversibly abolished ... Because Purkinje cells are the sole output of cerebellar cortex, these results provide evidence that the expression of well- ... For rabbits trained with delay conditioning, silencing cerebellar cortex by micro-infusions of the local anesthetic lidocaine ...
We found that chronic disruption of the MLI-Purkinje cell synapse strongly impaired cerebellar learning of the vestibular ... We found that chronic disruption of the MLI-Purkinje cell synapse strongly impaired cerebellar learning of the vestibular ... Although GABA-A receptor-mediated inhibition of cerebellar Purkinje cells by molecular layer interneurons (MLIs) has been ... Although GABA-A receptor-mediated inhibition of cerebellar Purkinje cells by molecular layer interneurons (MLIs) has been ...
Using Western blotting, we compared the expression levels of the two main glutamate transporters in the cerebellar cortex, ... Our main finding, a significant reduction in cerebellar cortical EAAT2 protein levels in essential tremor, suggests that ... One postulated mechanism for essential tremor is the over-excitation of glutamatergic olivo-cerebellar climbing fibers, leading ... Other glutamatergic excitatory signals are transmitted to Purkinje cells via parallel fibers of cerebellar granule neurons. ...
flexion: Primary motor cortex → Posterior limb of internal capsule → Decussation of pyramids → Corticospinal tract (Lateral, ... Inferior cerebellar peduncle. Scheme showing the connections of the several parts of the brain. (Inferior peduncle labeled at ... Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... Primary motor cortex → Genu of internal capsule → Corticobulbar tract → Facial motor nucleus → Facial muscles ...
Cerebellar computation has been proposed to control motor but also non-motor behaviors, including reward expectation and ... Cerebellar outputs contribute to motor as well as cognitive behaviors. Here, the authors elucidate the connectivity between ... Here, we elaborate the cell-type specificity of a broad connectivity matrix from the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) to the dorsal ... Cerebello-striatal connections arise from all deep cerebellar subnuclei and are relayed through intralaminar thalamic nuclei ( ...
  • Because of improved visualization of posterior fossa structures with MR imaging, cerebellar malformations are recognized with increasing frequency. (ajnr.org)
  • however, ongoing controversy exists regarding the relationship of Dandy-Walker malformation to other posterior fossa cystic malformations ( 1 - 4 ), and Dandy-Walker malformations may occur with other cerebellar malformations ( 5 ). (ajnr.org)
  • Gait disturbances can also result from decreased activation of cognitive network especially in right posterior parietal cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flocculus (Latin: tuft of wool, diminutive) is a small lobe of the cerebellum at the posterior border of the middle cerebellar peduncle anterior to the biventer lobule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Roles of Molecular Layer Interneurons in Sensory Information Processing in Mouse Cerebellar Cortex Crus II In Vivo - Descarga este documento en PDF. (duhnnae.com)
  • This suggests that the cortex has a much bigger role in top down processing and regulation of thalamic activity than do the processes originating in thalamic interneurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three main tangential migration pathways that have been identified in this region: the latero-caudal migration (subpallial telencephalon to cortex) the medio-rostral migration (subpallial basal telencephalon to the olfactory bulb) the latero-caudal migration (basal telencephalon to the striatum) These pathways are temporally and spatially distinct, and produce a variety of GABAergic, and non-GABAergic interneurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The precursors of most GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex migrate from the subcortical progenitor zone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early in embryonic development, the interneurons in the cortex stem primarily from the MGE and the AEP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autoradiographic characterization of [3H]L-glutamate binding sites in developing mouse cerebellar cortex. (muscimol.xyz)
  • We demonstrated this approach using recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) to deliver the sequence of the GECI D3cpv in the mouse cerebellar cortex. (omictools.com)
  • These findings indicate that tactile face stimulation evokes rapid excitation in MLIs and inhibition occurring at later latencies in PCs in mouse cerebellar cortex Crus II. (duhnnae.com)
  • Ascending sensory tracts in the dorsal column-medial lemniscus pathway carry information from the periphery to the cortex of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fronto-cerebellar circuitry is important to processes such as language, memory, and thought. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies indicate reorganization of fronto-cerebellar circuitry and fronto-cerebellar dysfunction among heroin addicted subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • This drug-induced damage of fronto-cerebellar circuitry may result in the cerebellum taking a larger role in long-term emotional memory, behavioral sensitization, and inflexible behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mariën P did not support the prevailing view of a global mental retardation as a cardinal feature of Gillespie syndrome but primarily reflect cerebellar induced neurobehavioral dysfunctions following disruption of the cerebrocerebellar anatomical circuitry that closely resembles the "cerebellar cognitive and affective syndrome" (CeCAS). (wikipedia.org)
  • The cerebellar cortex comprises a few cell types and two main afferent systems arranged in a stereotyped synaptic pattern that is repeated monotonously throughout. (springer.com)
  • Our findings indicate distinct in vivo engrams for short-term and long-term memory in cerebellar motor learning, and open new mechanistic investigations of how the short-term memory is stabilized through structural reorganization of synaptic connections. (pnas.org)
  • Segregation of different GABAA receptors to synaptic and extrasynaptic membranes of cerebellar granule cells" (abstract). (wikipedia.org)
  • National Academy of Science, co-author, 1982) Immunogold Electron Microscopic Demonstration of Glutamate and GABA in Normal and Deafferented Cerebellar Cortex: Correlation Between Transmitter Content and Synaptic Vesicle Size (Journal of Histochem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Altman, J. (1972a): Postnatal development of the cerebellar cortex in the rat. (springer.com)
  • Altman, J., and Winfree, A.R. (1977): Postnatal development of the cerebellar cortex in the rat. (springer.com)
  • Postnatal development of the murine cerebellar cortex: formation and early dispersal of basket, stellate and Golgi neurons. (nih.gov)
  • The localized postnatal changes of the [3H]L-glutamate binding sites were correlated with the events occurring during growth and maturation of cerebellar structures. (muscimol.xyz)
  • CHL1-induced cerebellar neurite outgrowth and cell migration at postnatal days 6-8 were inhibited by a CHL1-derived peptide comprising the integrin binding RGD motif, and by antibodies against vitronectin or several integrins, indicating a vitronectin-dependent integrin-mediated pathway. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, within very narrow time windows in postnatal cerebellar development, distinct types of molecular interactions mediated by CHL1 underlie the diverse functions of this protein. (jneurosci.org)
  • indicating that CHL1 plays a role not only in early postnatal mouse cerebellar development, but also in the adult. (jneurosci.org)
  • The strongest expression of Cupidin was detected in the cerebellar granule cells at approximately postnatal day 7. (jneurosci.org)
  • Altman, J., And Das, G. D. Postnatal Changes In The Concentration And Distribution Of Cholinesterase In The Cerebellar Cortex Of Rats. (springer.com)
  • We used patch-clamp recordings and imaging in acute cerebellar slices to unambiguously identify the feedforward mossy fiber (MF) input onto GoCs and investigate its properties. (jneurosci.org)
  • Unipolar brush cells in cerebellar cortex. (elsevier.com)
  • co-author, 1990) Metabotrop Glutamate Receptor Type 1a Expressing Unipolar Brush Cells in the Cerebellar Cortex of Different Species: a Comparative Quantitative Study (Journal of Neuroscientific Research, co-author, 1999) Az emberi agy plaszticitása (Magyar Tudomány, 2005) Adatlap az Magyar Tudományos Akadémia honlapján, publikációs listával Életrajz az MTA honlapján Adatlap a Mindentudás Egyetemének oldalán "Professzorok Batthyány Köre - Tagjaink" (in Hungarian). (wikipedia.org)
  • The parallels between results from delay and trace conditioning suggest similar contributions of plasticity in cerebellar cortex and DCN in both instances. (tmc.edu)
  • Moreover, we will consider how embodied neurorobotic models including spiking cerebellar networks could help explaining the role and interplay of distributed forms of plasticity. (frontiersin.org)
  • To develop a comprehensive theory of sensorimotor learning and control, it is crucial to determine the neural basis of coding and plasticity embedded into the cerebellar neural circuit and how they are translated into behavioral outcomes in learning paradigms. (plos.org)
  • As a first step in assessing the role of cerebellar plasticity in learning, simplified analog models were developed and tested in the context of various sensorimotor tasks. (plos.org)
  • Flavoprotein autofluorescence optical imaging revealed transient, low-frequency oscillations in the cerebellar cortex of anesthetized and awake tottering mice but not in wild-type mice. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we show electron microscopic evidence of degeneration of several different types of neurons in the cerebellar cortex of 2-month-old Atm knockout mice, which is accompanied by glial activation, deterioration of neuropil structure, and both pre- and postsynaptic degeneration. (pnas.org)
  • Western blot analyses were performed with cerebellar cortex tissues to evaluate the protein levels of RORα, YAP, YAPdeltaC, Tip60, GAPDH, tubulin, or actin in three groups of mice at P7, P21, and 32 weeks. (nature.com)
  • On the fine structure of glia cells in the cerebellar cortex of mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unipolar brush cell Lainé J, Axelrad H. Lugaro cells target basket and stellate cells in the cerebellar cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, in vivo experimental evidence for precise temporal signaling in the input layer of the cerebellar cortex is scarce. (jneurosci.org)
  • These results establish that a functional feedforward MF-GoC-GrC pathway is present in the input layer of the cerebellar cortex. (jneurosci.org)
  • There are indications that these short-axoned neurons (microneurons) arise from late-forming secondary germinal matrices (like the subependymal layer of the forebrain ventricles and the external germinal layer of the cerebellar cortex), in contrast to the long-axoned neurons (macroneurons) which originate from the periventricular primary matrix, the neuroepithelium (Altman, 1969). (springer.com)
  • The regularity of the laminated structure of the cerebellar cortex permits the identification of the main cell types, even on conventionally stained sections, based on their position and size. (springer.com)
  • The role of the Fañanas cell in the connectivity and structure of the cerebellar cortex is still unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997). B. Motor learning induces hypertrophy of astrocytes in the cerebellar cortex. (nih.gov)
  • Motor skill learning, but not mere motor activity, is associated with an increase in both synapse number and glial cell volume within the cerebellar cortex. (nih.gov)
  • Learning-induced multiple synapse formation in rat cerebellar cortex. (nih.gov)
  • Together, our findings indicate that Cupidin may serve as a postsynaptic scaffold protein that links mGluR signaling with actin cytoskeleton and Rho family proteins, perhaps during the dynamic phase of morphological changes that occur during synapse formation in cerebellar granule cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • In 1964, it was found that this was due to increased cerebral cortex thickness and greater synapse and glial numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capillaries are wider (4.35 μm compared to 4.15 μm in controls) Shorter distance exist between any part of the neuropil and a capillary (27.6 μm compared to 34.6 μm) These energy related changes to the neuropil are responsible for increasing the volume of the cerebral cortex (the increase in synapse numbers contributes in itself hardly any extra volume). (wikipedia.org)
  • In well-trained trace conditioned rabbits, silencing this same area of cerebellar cortex or reversibly blocking cerebellar cortex output also unmasked short-latency responses. (tmc.edu)
  • 6. Efferent and afferent connections of the cerebellar cortex: corticonuclear, olivocerebellar and mossy fiber connections and cytochemical maps. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition to these pathways, over which impulses originating in the cochlea reach the cerebral cortex, there are corticofugal connections and interneuronal circuits that, together with ascending projections, provide numerous opportunities at all levels of the auditory system for convergence and divergence of afferent input, serial and parallel processing of information, and feedback modulation. (scribd.com)
  • It receives afferent, or incoming, signals from the premotor cortex and supplementary motor cortex via the pontocerebellar system. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct from the spongy, inner cancellous bone tissue Ovarian cortex is the outer layer of the ovarian and contains the follicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two distinct fronto-cerebellar pathways have been identified through evoking and measuring field potentials on the cerebellar surface of rats. (wikipedia.org)