The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.
The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.
Reflex closure of the eyelid occurring as a result of classical conditioning.
A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
A beta-carboline alkaloid isolated from seeds of PEGANUM.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.
A vital dye used as an indicator and biological stain. Various adverse effects have been observed in biological systems.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.
**Pyridazine** is a heterocyclic organic compound, consisting of a six-membered ring containing two nitrogen atoms, which is a basic structure found in certain pharmaceuticals and natural compounds, though it does not have a specific medical definition itself as a component or condition.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
A sulfanilamide that is used as an anti-infective agent.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.
A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The delivery of a drug into a fluid-filled cavity of the brain.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The delicate interlacing threads, formed by aggregations of neurofilaments and neurotubules, coursing through the CYTOPLASM of the body of a NEURON and extending from one DENDRITE into another or into the AXON.
'Nerve tissue proteins' are specialized proteins found within the nervous system's biological tissue, including neurofilaments, neuronal cytoskeletal proteins, and neural cell adhesion molecules, which facilitate structural support, intracellular communication, and synaptic connectivity essential for proper neurological function.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
Incoordination of voluntary movements that occur as a manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES. Characteristic features include a tendency for limb movements to overshoot or undershoot a target (dysmetria), a tremor that occurs during attempted movements (intention TREMOR), impaired force and rhythm of diadochokinesis (rapidly alternating movements), and GAIT ATAXIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p90)
Performance of complex motor acts.
The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
An attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p77)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
Quinoxalines are heterocyclic organic compounds consisting of a benzene fused to a pyrazine ring, which have been studied for their potential antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer properties.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
Inorganic or organic derivatives of phosphinic acid, H2PO(OH). They include phosphinates and phosphinic acid esters.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A persistent activity-dependent decrease in synaptic efficacy between NEURONS. It typically occurs following repeated low-frequency afferent stimulation, but it can be induced by other methods. Long-term depression appears to play a role in MEMORY.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Quantitative morphological studies of developing human cerebellar cortex in various disease states. (1/592)

A quantitative morphological assessment was carried out of the cellularity and staining properties of the cells of the layers of the human cerebellar cortex, both in the normal child and in 41 children suffering from a series of disorders including mental retardation. A computerized image analyser and highly standardized procedures were used. All of the cases of mental retardation and some cases with congenital cardiac anomalies showed abnormal cell concentrations and staining properties. 3 cases of 'cot death' also showed abnormal results. These findings are presented as a new measurable aspect of brain disease, and as a indication for further study.  (+info)

Novel form of spreading acidification and depression in the cerebellar cortex demonstrated by neutral red optical imaging. (2/592)

A novel form of spreading acidification and depression in the rat cerebellar cortex was imaged in vivo using the pH-sensitive dye, Neutral red. Surface stimulation evoked an initial beam of increased fluorescence (i.e., decreased pH) that spread rostrally and caudally across the folium and into neighboring folia. A transient but marked suppression in the excitability of the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell circuitry accompanied the spread. Characteristics differentiating this phenomenon from the spreading depression of Leao include: high speed of propagation on the surface (average of 450 microm/s), stable extracellular DC potential, no change in blood vessel diameter, and repeatability at short intervals. This propagating acidification constitutes a previously unknown class of neuronal processing in the cerebellar cortex.  (+info)

Gating of transmission in climbing fibre paths to cerebellar cortical C1 and C3 zones in the rostral paramedian lobule during locomotion in the cat. (3/592)

1. Climbing fibre field potentials evoked by low intensity (non-noxious) electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral superficial radial nerve have been recorded in the rostral paramedian lobule (PML) in awake cats. Chronically implanted microwires were used to monitor the responses at eight different C1 and C3 zone sites during quiet rest and during steady walking on a moving belt. The latency and other characteristics of the responses identified them as mediated mainly via the dorsal funiculus-spino-olivocerebellar path (DF-SOCP). 2. At each site, mean size of response (measured as the area under the field, in mV ms) varied systematically during the step cycle without parallel fluctuations in size of the peripheral nerve volley. Largest responses occurred overwhelmingly during the stance phase of the step cycle in the ipsilateral forelimb while smallest responses occurred most frequently during swing. 3. Simultaneous recording from pairs of C1 zone sites located in the anterior lobe (lobule V) and C1 or C3 zone sites in rostral PML revealed markedly different patterns of step-related modulation. 4. The findings shed light on the extent to which the SOCPs projecting to different parts of a given zone can be regarded as functionally uniform and have implications as to their reliability as channels for conveying peripheral signals to the cerebellum during locomotion.  (+info)

Electrotonic coupling interacts with intrinsic properties to generate synchronized activity in cerebellar networks of inhibitory interneurons. (4/592)

Exploring the organization and function of local inhibitory networks is an essential step on the way to understand the principles of brain operation. We show here that molecular layer inhibitory interneurons of the guinea pig cerebellar cortex are organized as local networks, generating synchronous activity. Simultaneous recording from two adjacent interneurons revealed a direct current flow between synchronized pairs of neurons. Blocking inhibitory or excitatory synaptic transmission did not alter the synchronization. The electrotonic coupling coefficient (average 0.1) depended mainly on the input resistance of the postsynaptic cell, indicating a homogenous coupling resistance between different pairs. A presynaptic action potential generated a short, attenuated spikelet in the postsynaptic cell. The passive current flow was amplified by voltage-dependent intrinsic currents to create a reciprocal interplay between the presynaptic and postsynaptic cells. This interplay results in a time window for synchronization that is wider than expected from the duration of the spikelet. Intracellular staining with biocytin revealed high incidence of dye coupling. Furthermore, the interneurons located superficially in the molecular layer tend to form larger networks compared with the inner interneurons. We propose that weakly coupled inhibitory networks can generate loosely synchronous activity, which results from the interaction of electrical coupling and intrinsic currents.  (+info)

Dopamine reuptake inhibition in the rostral agranular insular cortex produces antinociception. (5/592)

We provide evidence for an antinociceptive effect of dopamine in the rat cerebral cortex that is mediated through descending nociceptive inhibition of spinal neurons. Injection of the dopamine reuptake inhibitor GBR-12935 in the rostral agranular insular cortex (RAIC), a cortical area that receives a dense dopaminergic projection and is involved in descending antinociception (Burkey et al.,1996), resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of formalin-induced nociceptive behavior, without any alteration of motor function. Injection of the dopamine reuptake inhibitor in the surrounding cortical areas had no effect on nociceptive behaviors. GBR-12935 also produced a reduction in noxious stimulus-induced c-fos expression in nociceptive areas of the spinal dorsal horn, suggesting that dopamine in the RAIC acts in part through descending antinociception. Electrophysiological recording from single wide dynamic range-type spinal dorsal horn neurons confirmed the descending nociceptive inhibitory effect. GBR-12935 in the RAIC significantly reduced neuronal responses evoked by noxious thermal stimulation of the skin, an effect that was reversed by local administration of the selective D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390. Finally, administration of SCH-23390 alone in the RAIC decreased paw withdrawal latencies from noxious heat, suggesting that dopamine acts tonically in the cortex to inhibit nociception.  (+info)

Selective disruption of "late onset" sagittal banding patterns by ectopic expression of engrailed-2 in cerebellar Purkinje cells. (6/592)

To explore the role of Engrailed proteins in development of the cerebellum, Engrailed-2 (En-2) was ectopically expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells from the late embryonic stage into adulthood. The fundamental organization of Purkinje cell sagittal zones as revealed by the "early onset" markers L7-beta-gal and cadherin-8 was found to be virtually identical to that in wild type. In contrast, "late onset" sagittal banding patterns revealed by Purkinje cell markers zebrin I, zebrin II, and 9-O-acetyl GD3 Ganglioside (P-Path), and the granule cell marker NADPH-diaphorase, were disrupted. In general, although some evidence of banding was still detectable, boundaries defined by the latter markers were poorly defined, and the patterns overall took on a diffuse appearance. In parallel with the changes in late onset markers, anterograde tracing of spinocerebellar axons revealed a general diffusion of the mossy fiber projection pattern in lobule VIII and the anterior lobe. These observations suggest that at least two separate mediolateral boundary systems exist in the cerebellum, and these are differentially affected by ectopic En-2 expression. Alternatively, one boundary system exists that remains primarily intact in the mutant, but recognition of this system by a set of late developmental events is perturbed.  (+info)

Neurotrophic activity of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide on rat cerebellar cortex during development. (7/592)

High concentrations of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptors are present in the external granule cell layer of the rat cerebellum during postnatal development. In vitro studies have shown that PACAP promotes cell survival and neurite outgrowth on immature cerebellar granule cells in primary culture. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of PACAP on the development of the cerebellar cortex of 8-day-old rats. Incubation of cultured granule cells for 12 or 18 h with PACAP provoked a significant increase in the rate of incorporation of [(3)H]thymidine in cultured granule cells, suggesting that PACAP could stimulate the proliferation of granule cells. After 96 h of treatment, in vivo administration of PACAP provoked a transient increase in the number of granule cells in the molecular layer and in the internal granule cell layer. In contrast, PACAP did not affect the number of Purkinje cells. The augmentation of the number of granule cells evoked by PACAP was significantly inhibited by the PACAP receptor antagonist PACAP(6-38). Administration of PACAP also caused a significant increase in the volume of the cerebellar cortex. The present study provides evidence that PACAP can act in vivo as a trophic factor during rat brain development. Our data indicate that PACAP increases proliferation and/or inhibits programmed cell death of granule cells, as well as stimulating neuronal migration from the external granule cell layer toward the internal granule cell layer.  (+info)

Simulations of cerebellar motor learning: computational analysis of plasticity at the mossy fiber to deep nucleus synapse. (8/592)

We question the widely accepted assumption that a molecular mechanism for long-term expression of synaptic plasticity is sufficient to explain the persistence of memories. Instead, we show that learning and memory require that these cellular mechanisms be correctly integrated within the architecture of the neural circuit. To illustrate this general conclusion, our studies are based on the well characterized synaptic organization of the cerebellum and its relationship to a simple form of motor learning. Using computer simulations of cerebellar-mediated eyelid conditioning, we examine the ability of three forms of plasticity at mossy fiber synapses in the cerebellar nucleus to contribute to learning and memory storage. Results suggest that when the simulation is exposed to reasonable patterns of "background" cerebellar activity, only one of these three rules allows for the retention of memories. When plasticity at the mossy fiber synapse is controlled by nucleus or climbing fiber activity, the circuit is unable to retain memories because of interactions within the network that produce spontaneous drift of synaptic strength. In contrast, a plasticity rule controlled by the activity of the Purkinje cell allows for a memory trace that is resistant to ongoing activity in the circuit. These results suggest specific constraints for theories of cerebellar motor learning and have general implications regarding the mechanisms that may contribute to the persistence of memories.  (+info)

The cerebellar cortex is the outer layer of the cerebellum, which is a part of the brain that plays a crucial role in motor control, balance, and coordination of muscle movements. The cerebellar cortex contains numerous small neurons called granule cells, as well as other types of neurons such as Purkinje cells, basket cells, and stellate cells. These neurons are organized into distinct layers and microcircuits that process information related to motor function and possibly other functions such as cognition and emotion. The cerebellar cortex receives input from various sources, including the spinal cord, vestibular system, and cerebral cortex, and sends output to brainstem nuclei and thalamus, which in turn project to the cerebral cortex. Damage to the cerebellar cortex can result in ataxia, dysmetria, dysdiadochokinesia, and other motor symptoms.

Purkinje cells are a type of neuron located in the cerebellar cortex, which is the outer layer of the cerebellum, a part of the brain that plays a crucial role in motor control and coordination. These cells have large branching dendrites and receive input from many other neurons, particularly granule cells. The axons of Purkinje cells form the principal output pathway of the cerebellar cortex, synapsing with deep cerebellar nuclei. They are named after Johannes Evangelista Purkinje, a Czech physiologist who first described them in 1837.

The cerebellum is a part of the brain that lies behind the brainstem and is involved in the regulation of motor movements, balance, and coordination. It contains two hemispheres and a central portion called the vermis. The cerebellum receives input from sensory systems and other areas of the brain and spinal cord and sends output to motor areas of the brain. Damage to the cerebellum can result in problems with movement, balance, and coordination.

The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain, characterized by its intricate folded structure and wrinkled appearance. It is a region of great importance as it plays a key role in higher cognitive functions such as perception, consciousness, thought, memory, language, and attention. The cerebral cortex is divided into two hemispheres, each containing four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. These areas are responsible for different functions, with some regions specializing in sensory processing while others are involved in motor control or associative functions. The cerebral cortex is composed of gray matter, which contains neuronal cell bodies, and is covered by a layer of white matter that consists mainly of myelinated nerve fibers.

The cerebellar nuclei are clusters of neurons located within the white matter of the cerebellum, a region of the brain responsible for motor coordination, balance, and fine movement regulation. There are four main pairs of cerebellar nuclei: the fastigial, interpositus, dentate, and vestibular nuclei. These nuclei receive input from various parts of the cerebellar cortex and project to different areas of the brainstem and thalamus, contributing to the regulation of muscle tone, posture, and movement.

Eyelid conditioning, also known as eyelid classical conditioning or Ursinus' phenomenon, is a type of reflex conditioning that involves associating a neutral stimulus with the natural act of blinking. This concept was first described by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov and later studied in detail by German ophthalmologist Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz and Austrian physician Sigmund Exner.

In this procedure, a conditioned stimulus (like a sound or light) is repeatedly presented just before the unconditioned stimulus (such as a puff of air directed at the eye), which naturally triggers the blink reflex. Over time, the subject begins to associate the conditioned stimulus with the blinking response and will start to blink even when only the conditioned stimulus is presented, without the presence of the unconditioned stimulus. This learning process is an example of classical conditioning and can be used in various research and clinical applications.

The olivary nucleus is a structure located in the medulla oblongata, which is a part of the brainstem. It consists of two main parts: the inferior olive and the accessory olive. The inferior olive is further divided into several subnuclei.

The olivary nucleus plays an important role in the coordination of movements, particularly in the regulation of fine motor control and rhythmic movements. It receives input from various sources, including the cerebellum, spinal cord, and other brainstem nuclei, and sends output to the cerebellum via the climbing fibers.

Damage to the olivary nucleus can result in a variety of neurological symptoms, including ataxia (loss of coordination), tremors, and dysarthria (speech difficulties). Certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as multiple system atrophy, may also affect the olivary nucleus and contribute to its degeneration.

The prefrontal cortex is the anterior (frontal) part of the frontal lobe in the brain, involved in higher-order cognitive processes such as planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making, and moderating social behavior. It also plays a significant role in working memory and executive functions. The prefrontal cortex is divided into several subregions, each associated with specific cognitive and emotional functions. Damage to the prefrontal cortex can result in various impairments, including difficulties with planning, decision making, and social behavior regulation.

The visual cortex is the part of the brain that processes visual information. It is located in the occipital lobe, which is at the back of the brain. The visual cortex is responsible for receiving and interpreting signals from the retina, which are then transmitted through the optic nerve and optic tract.

The visual cortex contains several areas that are involved in different aspects of visual processing, such as identifying shapes, colors, and movements. These areas work together to help us recognize and understand what we see. Damage to the visual cortex can result in various visual impairments, such as blindness or difficulty with visual perception.

Harmane, also known as harmaline, is a naturally occurring psychoactive compound found in several plants, including the seeds of the Syrian rue (Peganum harmala) and the bark of the African pinwheel cactus (Adenium obesum). It is an alkaloid with beta-carboline structure.

In a medical context, harmaline has been studied for its potential effects on the central nervous system. It acts as a reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), which means it can increase the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain by preventing their breakdown. This property has led to some research into its use as a treatment for depression and other neurological disorders, although it is not currently approved for medical use in this capacity due to potential side effects and toxicity concerns.

It's important to note that harmaline can have dangerous interactions with certain medications and foods, particularly those containing tyramine, which can lead to a hypertensive crisis. Therefore, its use should only be under the supervision of a qualified medical professional.

The motor cortex is a region in the frontal lobe of the brain that is responsible for controlling voluntary movements. It is involved in planning, initiating, and executing movements of the limbs, body, and face. The motor cortex contains neurons called Betz cells, which have large cell bodies and are responsible for transmitting signals to the spinal cord to activate muscles. Damage to the motor cortex can result in various movement disorders such as hemiplegia or paralysis on one side of the body.

Cerebellar diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the cerebellum, which is the part of the brain located at the back of the head, below the occipital lobe and above the brainstem. The cerebellum plays a crucial role in motor control, coordination, balance, and some cognitive functions.

Cerebellar diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, tumors, stroke, trauma, or degenerative processes. These conditions can result in a wide range of symptoms, such as:

1. Ataxia: Loss of coordination and unsteady gait
2. Dysmetria: Inability to judge distance and force while performing movements
3. Intention tremors: Shaking or trembling that worsens during purposeful movements
4. Nystagmus: Rapid, involuntary eye movement
5. Dysarthria: Speech difficulty due to muscle weakness or incoordination
6. Hypotonia: Decreased muscle tone
7. Titubation: Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of the head and neck
8. Cognitive impairment: Problems with memory, attention, and executive functions

Some examples of cerebellar diseases include:

1. Ataxia-telangiectasia
2. Friedrich's ataxia
3. Multiple system atrophy (MSA)
4. Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs)
5. Cerebellar tumors, such as medulloblastomas or astrocytomas
6. Infarctions or hemorrhages in the cerebellum due to stroke or trauma
7. Infections, such as viral encephalitis or bacterial meningitis
8. Autoimmune disorders, like multiple sclerosis (MS) or paraneoplastic syndromes
9. Metabolic disorders, such as Wilson's disease or phenylketonuria (PKU)
10. Chronic alcoholism and withdrawal

Treatment for cerebellar diseases depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications, physical therapy, surgery, or supportive care to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Blinking is the rapid and repetitive closing and reopening of the eyelids. It is a normal physiological process that helps to keep the eyes moist, protected and comfortable by spreading tears over the surface of the eye and removing any foreign particles or irritants that may have accumulated on the eyelid or the conjunctiva (the mucous membrane that covers the front of the eye and lines the inside of the eyelids).

Blinking is controlled by the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII), which sends signals to the muscles that control the movement of the eyelids. On average, people blink about 15-20 times per minute, but this rate can vary depending on factors such as mood, level of attention, and visual tasks. For example, people tend to blink less frequently when they are concentrating on a visual task or looking at a screen, which can lead to dry eye symptoms.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

The auditory cortex is the region of the brain that is responsible for processing and analyzing sounds, including speech. It is located in the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex, specifically within the Heschl's gyrus and the surrounding areas. The auditory cortex receives input from the auditory nerve, which carries sound information from the inner ear to the brain.

The auditory cortex is divided into several subregions that are responsible for different aspects of sound processing, such as pitch, volume, and location. These regions work together to help us recognize and interpret sounds in our environment, allowing us to communicate with others and respond appropriately to our surroundings. Damage to the auditory cortex can result in hearing loss or difficulty understanding speech.

Nerve fibers are specialized structures that constitute the long, slender processes (axons) of neurons (nerve cells). They are responsible for conducting electrical impulses, known as action potentials, away from the cell body and transmitting them to other neurons or effector organs such as muscles and glands. Nerve fibers are often surrounded by supportive cells called glial cells and are grouped together to form nerve bundles or nerves. These fibers can be myelinated (covered with a fatty insulating sheath called myelin) or unmyelinated, which influences the speed of impulse transmission.

The somatosensory cortex is a part of the brain located in the postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe, which is responsible for processing sensory information from the body. It receives and integrates tactile, proprioceptive, and thermoception inputs from the skin, muscles, joints, and internal organs, allowing us to perceive and interpret touch, pressure, pain, temperature, vibration, position, and movement of our body parts. The somatosensory cortex is organized in a map-like manner, known as the sensory homunculus, where each body part is represented according to its relative sensitivity and density of innervation. This organization allows for precise localization and discrimination of tactile stimuli across the body surface.

Neural pathways, also known as nerve tracts or fasciculi, refer to the highly organized and specialized routes through which nerve impulses travel within the nervous system. These pathways are formed by groups of neurons (nerve cells) that are connected in a series, creating a continuous communication network for electrical signals to transmit information between different regions of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.

Neural pathways can be classified into two main types: sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent). Sensory neural pathways carry sensory information from various receptors in the body (such as those for touch, temperature, pain, and vision) to the brain for processing. Motor neural pathways, on the other hand, transmit signals from the brain to the muscles and glands, controlling movements and other effector functions.

The formation of these neural pathways is crucial for normal nervous system function, as it enables efficient communication between different parts of the body and allows for complex behaviors, cognitive processes, and adaptive responses to internal and external stimuli.

Brain mapping is a broad term that refers to the techniques used to understand the structure and function of the brain. It involves creating maps of the various cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes in the brain by correlating these processes with physical locations or activities within the nervous system. Brain mapping can be accomplished through a variety of methods, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, electroencephalography (EEG), and others. These techniques allow researchers to observe which areas of the brain are active during different tasks or thoughts, helping to shed light on how the brain processes information and contributes to our experiences and behaviors. Brain mapping is an important area of research in neuroscience, with potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

An action potential is a brief electrical signal that travels along the membrane of a nerve cell (neuron) or muscle cell. It is initiated by a rapid, localized change in the permeability of the cell membrane to specific ions, such as sodium and potassium, resulting in a rapid influx of sodium ions and a subsequent efflux of potassium ions. This ion movement causes a brief reversal of the electrical potential across the membrane, which is known as depolarization. The action potential then propagates along the cell membrane as a wave, allowing the electrical signal to be transmitted over long distances within the body. Action potentials play a crucial role in the communication and functioning of the nervous system and muscle tissue.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Eyelids are the thin folds of skin that cover and protect the front surface (cornea) of the eye when closed. They are composed of several layers, including the skin, muscle, connective tissue, and a mucous membrane called the conjunctiva. The upper and lower eyelids meet at the outer corner of the eye (lateral canthus) and the inner corner of the eye (medial canthus).

The main function of the eyelids is to protect the eye from foreign particles, light, and trauma. They also help to distribute tears evenly over the surface of the eye through blinking, which helps to keep the eye moist and healthy. Additionally, the eyelids play a role in facial expressions and non-verbal communication.

Neuronal plasticity, also known as neuroplasticity or neural plasticity, refers to the ability of the brain and nervous system to change and adapt as a result of experience, learning, injury, or disease. This can involve changes in the structure, organization, and function of neurons (nerve cells) and their connections (synapses) in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Neuronal plasticity can take many forms, including:

* Synaptic plasticity: Changes in the strength or efficiency of synaptic connections between neurons. This can involve the formation, elimination, or modification of synapses.
* Neural circuit plasticity: Changes in the organization and connectivity of neural circuits, which are networks of interconnected neurons that process information.
* Structural plasticity: Changes in the physical structure of neurons, such as the growth or retraction of dendrites (branches that receive input from other neurons) or axons (projections that transmit signals to other neurons).
* Functional plasticity: Changes in the physiological properties of neurons, such as their excitability, responsiveness, or sensitivity to stimuli.

Neuronal plasticity is a fundamental property of the nervous system and plays a crucial role in many aspects of brain function, including learning, memory, perception, and cognition. It also contributes to the brain's ability to recover from injury or disease, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury.

"Cat" is a common name that refers to various species of small carnivorous mammals that belong to the family Felidae. The domestic cat, also known as Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus, is a popular pet and companion animal. It is a subspecies of the wildcat, which is found in Europe, Africa, and Asia.

Domestic cats are often kept as pets because of their companionship, playful behavior, and ability to hunt vermin. They are also valued for their ability to provide emotional support and therapy to people. Cats are obligate carnivores, which means that they require a diet that consists mainly of meat to meet their nutritional needs.

Cats are known for their agility, sharp senses, and predatory instincts. They have retractable claws, which they use for hunting and self-defense. Cats also have a keen sense of smell, hearing, and vision, which allow them to detect prey and navigate their environment.

In medical terms, cats can be hosts to various parasites and diseases that can affect humans and other animals. Some common feline diseases include rabies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and toxoplasmosis. It is important for cat owners to keep their pets healthy and up-to-date on vaccinations and preventative treatments to protect both the cats and their human companions.

Dendrites are the branched projections of a neuron that receive and process signals from other neurons. They are typically short and highly branching, increasing the surface area for receiving incoming signals. Dendrites are covered in small protrusions called dendritic spines, which can form connections with the axon terminals of other neurons through chemical synapses. The structure and function of dendrites play a critical role in the integration and processing of information in the nervous system.

GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) antagonists are substances that block the action of GABA, which is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. GABA plays a crucial role in regulating neuronal excitability and reducing the transmission of nerve impulses.

GABA antagonists work by binding to the GABA receptors without activating them, thereby preventing the normal function of GABA and increasing neuronal activity. These agents can cause excitation of the nervous system, leading to various effects depending on the specific type of GABA receptor they target.

GABA antagonists are used in medical treatments for certain conditions, such as sleep disorders, depression, and cognitive enhancement. However, they can also have adverse effects, including anxiety, agitation, seizures, and even neurotoxicity at high doses. Examples of GABA antagonists include picrotoxin, bicuculline, and flumazenil.

A synapse is a structure in the nervous system that allows for the transmission of signals from one neuron (nerve cell) to another. It is the point where the axon terminal of one neuron meets the dendrite or cell body of another, and it is here that neurotransmitters are released and received. The synapse includes both the presynaptic and postsynaptic elements, as well as the cleft between them.

At the presynaptic side, an action potential travels down the axon and triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft through exocytosis. These neurotransmitters then bind to receptors on the postsynaptic side, which can either excite or inhibit the receiving neuron. The strength of the signal between two neurons is determined by the number and efficiency of these synapses.

Synapses play a crucial role in the functioning of the nervous system, allowing for the integration and processing of information from various sources. They are also dynamic structures that can undergo changes in response to experience or injury, which has important implications for learning, memory, and recovery from neurological disorders.

Interneurons are a type of neuron that is located entirely within the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain and spinal cord. They are called "inter" neurons because they connect and communicate with other nearby neurons, forming complex networks within the CNS. Interneurons receive input from sensory neurons and/or other interneurons and then send output signals to motor neurons or other interneurons.

Interneurons are responsible for processing information and modulating neural circuits in the CNS. They can have either excitatory or inhibitory effects on their target neurons, depending on the type of neurotransmitters they release. Excitatory interneurons release neurotransmitters such as glutamate that increase the likelihood of an action potential in the postsynaptic neuron, while inhibitory interneurons release neurotransmitters such as GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) or glycine that decrease the likelihood of an action potential.

Interneurons are diverse and can be classified based on various criteria, including their morphology, electrophysiological properties, neurochemical characteristics, and connectivity patterns. They play crucial roles in many aspects of CNS function, such as sensory processing, motor control, cognition, and emotion regulation. Dysfunction or damage to interneurons has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorder.

Picrotoxin is a toxic, white, crystalline compound that is derived from the seeds of the Asian plant Anamirta cocculus (also known as Colchicum luteum or C. autummale). It is composed of two stereoisomers, picrotin and strychnine, in a 1:2 ratio.

Medically, picrotoxin has been used as an antidote for barbiturate overdose and as a stimulant to the respiratory center in cases of respiratory depression caused by various drugs or conditions. However, its use is limited due to its narrow therapeutic index and potential for causing seizures and other adverse effects.

Picrotoxin works as a non-competitive antagonist at GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) receptors in the central nervous system, blocking the inhibitory effects of GABA and increasing neuronal excitability. This property also makes it a convulsant agent and explains its use as a research tool to study seizure mechanisms and as an insecticide.

It is important to note that picrotoxin should only be used under medical supervision, and its handling requires appropriate precautions due to its high toxicity.

Neutral Red is not a medical term itself, but it is a dye that is widely used in medical research and clinical settings. Neutral Red is a supravital stain, which means it can be used to selectively stain living cells without staining non-living or dead cells. It is an acidophilic dye, which stains structures that have an affinity for acidic dyes.

Neutral Red is commonly used in cell culture to assess the viability and cytotoxicity of various compounds, as well as to measure the activity of lysosomes in cells. The dye can be taken up by living cells and accumulate in lysosomes, where it exhibits fluorescence. When cells are treated with a cytotoxic compound, the integrity of their lysosomal membranes may be disrupted, leading to the release of Neutral Red into the cytosol and a decrease in fluorescence intensity.

Therefore, Neutral Red can serve as an indicator of cell health and can be used to monitor the effects of various treatments on cells in vitro.

Afferent pathways, also known as sensory pathways, refer to the neural connections that transmit sensory information from the peripheral nervous system to the central nervous system (CNS), specifically to the brain and spinal cord. These pathways are responsible for carrying various types of sensory information, such as touch, temperature, pain, pressure, vibration, hearing, vision, and taste, to the CNS for processing and interpretation.

The afferent pathways begin with sensory receptors located throughout the body, which detect changes in the environment and convert them into electrical signals. These signals are then transmitted via afferent neurons, also known as sensory neurons, to the spinal cord or brainstem. Within the CNS, the information is further processed and integrated with other neural inputs before being relayed to higher cognitive centers for conscious awareness and response.

Understanding the anatomy and physiology of afferent pathways is essential for diagnosing and treating various neurological conditions that affect sensory function, such as neuropathies, spinal cord injuries, and brain disorders.

Reaction time, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the time period between the presentation of a stimulus and the subsequent initiation of a response. This complex process involves the central nervous system, particularly the brain, which perceives the stimulus, processes it, and then sends signals to the appropriate muscles or glands to react.

There are different types of reaction times, including simple reaction time (responding to a single, expected stimulus) and choice reaction time (choosing an appropriate response from multiple possibilities). These measures can be used in clinical settings to assess various aspects of neurological function, such as cognitive processing speed, motor control, and alertness.

However, it is important to note that reaction times can be influenced by several factors, including age, fatigue, attention, and the use of certain medications or substances.

The entorhinal cortex is a region in the brain that is located in the medial temporal lobe and is part of the limbic system. It plays a crucial role in memory, navigation, and the processing of sensory information. The entorhinal cortex is closely connected to the hippocampus, which is another important structure for memory and spatial cognition.

The entorhinal cortex can be divided into several subregions, including the lateral, medial, and posterior sections. These subregions have distinct connectivity patterns and may contribute differently to various cognitive functions. One of the most well-known features of the entorhinal cortex is the presence of "grid cells," which are neurons that fire in response to specific spatial locations and help to form a cognitive map of the environment.

Damage to the entorhinal cortex has been linked to several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, and schizophrenia.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Pyridazines" is not a medical term. It is a chemical term that refers to a class of heterocyclic organic compounds which contain a six-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms. These types of compounds are often used in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, but "Pyridazines" itself is not a medical concept or diagnosis. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you.

Evoked potentials (EPs) are medical tests that measure the electrical activity in the brain or spinal cord in response to specific sensory stimuli, such as sight, sound, or touch. These tests are often used to help diagnose and monitor conditions that affect the nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis, brainstem tumors, and spinal cord injuries.

There are several types of EPs, including:

1. Visual Evoked Potentials (VEPs): These are used to assess the function of the visual pathway from the eyes to the back of the brain. A patient is typically asked to look at a patterned image or flashing light while electrodes placed on the scalp record the electrical responses.
2. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEPs): These are used to evaluate the function of the auditory nerve and brainstem. Clicking sounds are presented to one or both ears, and electrodes placed on the scalp measure the response.
3. Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SSEPs): These are used to assess the function of the peripheral nerves and spinal cord. Small electrical shocks are applied to a nerve at the wrist or ankle, and electrodes placed on the scalp record the response as it travels up the spinal cord to the brain.
4. Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs): These are used to assess the function of the motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord. A magnetic or electrical stimulus is applied to the brain or spinal cord, and electrodes placed on a muscle measure the response as it travels down the motor pathway.

EPs can help identify abnormalities in the nervous system that may not be apparent through other diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies or clinical examinations. They are generally safe, non-invasive procedures with few risks or side effects.

Neural inhibition is a process in the nervous system that decreases or prevents the activity of neurons (nerve cells) in order to regulate and control communication within the nervous system. It is a fundamental mechanism that allows for the balance of excitation and inhibition necessary for normal neural function. Inhibitory neurotransmitters, such as GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and glycine, are released from the presynaptic neuron and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron, reducing its likelihood of firing an action potential. This results in a decrease in neural activity and can have various effects depending on the specific neurons and brain regions involved. Neural inhibition is crucial for many functions including motor control, sensory processing, attention, memory, and emotional regulation.

Sulfadimethoxine is an antimicrobial agent, specifically a sulfonamide. It is defined as a synthetic antibacterial drug that contains the sulfanilamide nucleus and is used to treat various bacterial infections in both humans and animals. In human medicine, it is used to treat urinary tract infections, bronchitis, and traveler's diarrhea. In veterinary medicine, it is commonly used to treat coccidiosis in animals such as poultry, cattle, and pets.

The drug works by inhibiting the bacterial synthesis of folic acid, which is essential for bacterial growth. It is usually administered orally and is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and powder for suspension. As with any medication, it should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional to ensure its safe and effective use.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

A nerve net, also known as a neural net or neuronal network, is not a medical term per se, but rather a concept in neuroscience and artificial intelligence (AI). It refers to a complex network of interconnected neurons that process and transmit information. In the context of the human body, the nervous system can be thought of as a type of nerve net, with the brain and spinal cord serving as the central processing unit and peripheral nerves carrying signals to and from various parts of the body.

In the field of AI, artificial neural networks are computational models inspired by the structure and function of biological nerve nets. These models consist of interconnected nodes or "neurons" that process information and learn patterns through a process of training and adaptation. They have been used in a variety of applications, including image recognition, natural language processing, and machine learning.

The kidney cortex is the outer region of the kidney where most of the functional units called nephrons are located. It plays a crucial role in filtering blood and regulating water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance in the body. The kidney cortex contains the glomeruli, proximal tubules, loop of Henle, and distal tubules, which work together to reabsorb necessary substances and excrete waste products into the urine.

Classical conditioning is a type of learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired together, leading to an association between them. This concept was first introduced by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist, in his studies on classical conditioning in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

In classical conditioning, there are typically two types of stimuli involved: the unconditioned stimulus (US) and the neutral stimulus (NS). The US is a stimulus that naturally triggers a response, known as the unconditioned response (UR), in an organism. For example, food is an US that triggers salivation, which is the UR, in dogs.

The NS, on the other hand, is a stimulus that does not initially trigger any response in the organism. However, when the NS is repeatedly paired with the US, it becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) and begins to elicit a conditioned response (CR). The CR is similar to the UR but is triggered by the CS instead of the US.

For example, if Pavlov repeatedly rang a bell (NS) just before presenting food (US) to a dog, the dog would eventually start salivating (CR) in response to the bell (CS) even when food was not presented. This is an example of classical conditioning.

Classical conditioning has been widely studied and is believed to play a role in various physiological processes, such as learning, memory, and emotion regulation. It has also been used in various applications, including behavioral therapy and advertising.

Neurologic mutant mice are genetically engineered or spontaneously mutated rodents that are used as models to study various neurological disorders and conditions. These mice have specific genetic modifications or mutations that affect their nervous system, leading to phenotypes that resemble human neurological diseases.

Some examples of neurologic mutant mice include:

1. Alzheimer's disease models: Mice that overexpress genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, such as the amyloid precursor protein (APP) or presenilin 1 (PS1), to study the pathogenesis and potential treatments of this disorder.
2. Parkinson's disease models: Mice that have genetic mutations in genes associated with Parkinson's disease, such as alpha-synuclein or parkin, to investigate the mechanisms underlying this condition and develop new therapies.
3. Huntington's disease models: Mice that carry an expanded CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene to replicate the genetic defect seen in humans with Huntington's disease and study disease progression and treatment strategies.
4. Epilepsy models: Mice with genetic mutations that cause spontaneous seizures or increased susceptibility to seizures, used to investigate the underlying mechanisms of epilepsy and develop new treatments.
5. Stroke models: Mice that have surgical induction of stroke or genetic modifications that increase the risk of stroke, used to study the pathophysiology of stroke and identify potential therapeutic targets.

Neurologic mutant mice are essential tools in biomedical research, allowing scientists to investigate the complex interactions between genes and the environment that contribute to neurological disorders. These models help researchers better understand disease mechanisms, develop new therapies, and test their safety and efficacy before moving on to clinical trials in humans.

Calbindin 2 is a calcium-binding protein that belongs to the calbindin family and is found in various tissues, including the brain and intestines. It has a molecular weight of approximately 28 kDa and plays a crucial role in regulating intracellular calcium levels, neurotransmitter release, and protecting neurons from excitotoxicity. Calbindin 2 is also known as calbindin D-28k or calbindin-D9k, depending on the species and its molecular weight. It has multiple isoforms generated by alternative splicing and is involved in various physiological processes, including muscle contraction, hormone secretion, and cell proliferation. In the nervous system, calbindin 2 is expressed in specific populations of neurons and glial cells, where it functions as a neuroprotective agent and modulates synaptic plasticity.

Neurological models are simplified representations or simulations of various aspects of the nervous system, including its structure, function, and processes. These models can be theoretical, computational, or physical and are used to understand, explain, and predict neurological phenomena. They may focus on specific neurological diseases, disorders, or functions, such as memory, learning, or movement. The goal of these models is to provide insights into the complex workings of the nervous system that cannot be easily observed or understood through direct examination alone.

"Newborn animals" refers to the very young offspring of animals that have recently been born. In medical terminology, newborns are often referred to as "neonates," and they are classified as such from birth until about 28 days of age. During this time period, newborn animals are particularly vulnerable and require close monitoring and care to ensure their survival and healthy development.

The specific needs of newborn animals can vary widely depending on the species, but generally, they require warmth, nutrition, hydration, and protection from harm. In many cases, newborns are unable to regulate their own body temperature or feed themselves, so they rely heavily on their mothers for care and support.

In medical settings, newborn animals may be examined and treated by veterinarians to ensure that they are healthy and receiving the care they need. This can include providing medical interventions such as feeding tubes, antibiotics, or other treatments as needed to address any health issues that arise. Overall, the care and support of newborn animals is an important aspect of animal medicine and conservation efforts.

Synaptic transmission is the process by which a neuron communicates with another cell, such as another neuron or a muscle cell, across a junction called a synapse. It involves the release of neurotransmitters from the presynaptic terminal of the neuron, which then cross the synaptic cleft and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic cell, leading to changes in the electrical or chemical properties of the target cell. This process is critical for the transmission of signals within the nervous system and for controlling various physiological functions in the body.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Functional laterality, in a medical context, refers to the preferential use or performance of one side of the body over the other for specific functions. This is often demonstrated in hand dominance, where an individual may be right-handed or left-handed, meaning they primarily use their right or left hand for tasks such as writing, eating, or throwing.

However, functional laterality can also apply to other bodily functions and structures, including the eyes (ocular dominance), ears (auditory dominance), or legs. It's important to note that functional laterality is not a strict binary concept; some individuals may exhibit mixed dominance or no strong preference for one side over the other.

In clinical settings, assessing functional laterality can be useful in diagnosing and treating various neurological conditions, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury, where understanding any resulting lateralized impairments can inform rehabilitation strategies.

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. It plays a crucial role in regulating neuronal excitability and preventing excessive neuronal firing, which helps to maintain neural homeostasis and reduce the risk of seizures. GABA functions by binding to specific receptors (GABA-A, GABA-B, and GABA-C) on the postsynaptic membrane, leading to hyperpolarization of the neuronal membrane and reduced neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals.

In addition to its role in the central nervous system, GABA has also been identified as a neurotransmitter in the peripheral nervous system, where it is involved in regulating various physiological processes such as muscle relaxation, hormone secretion, and immune function.

GABA can be synthesized in neurons from glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter, through the action of the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Once synthesized, GABA is stored in synaptic vesicles and released into the synapse upon neuronal activation. After release, GABA can be taken up by surrounding glial cells or degraded by the enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T) into succinic semialdehyde, which is further metabolized to form succinate and enter the Krebs cycle for energy production.

Dysregulation of GABAergic neurotransmission has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances. Therefore, modulating GABAergic signaling through pharmacological interventions or other therapeutic approaches may offer potential benefits for the treatment of these conditions.

Physical stimulation, in a medical context, refers to the application of external forces or agents to the body or its tissues to elicit a response. This can include various forms of touch, pressure, temperature, vibration, or electrical currents. The purpose of physical stimulation may be therapeutic, as in the case of massage or physical therapy, or diagnostic, as in the use of reflex tests. It is also used in research settings to study physiological responses and mechanisms.

In a broader sense, physical stimulation can also refer to the body's exposure to physical activity or exercise, which can have numerous health benefits, including improving cardiovascular function, increasing muscle strength and flexibility, and reducing the risk of chronic diseases.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

The Radial nerve is a major peripheral nerve in the human body that originates from the brachial plexus, which is a network of nerves formed by the union of the ventral rami (anterior divisions) of spinal nerves C5-T1. The radial nerve provides motor function to extensor muscles of the upper limb and sensation to parts of the skin on the back of the arm, forearm, and hand.

More specifically, the radial nerve supplies motor innervation to:

* Extensor muscles of the shoulder (e.g., teres minor, infraspinatus)
* Rotator cuff muscles
* Elbow joint stabilizers (e.g., lateral head of the triceps)
* Extensors of the wrist, fingers, and thumb

The radial nerve also provides sensory innervation to:

* Posterior aspect of the upper arm (from the lower third of the humerus to the elbow)
* Lateral forearm (from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus to the wrist)
* Dorsum of the hand (skin over the radial side of the dorsum, including the first web space)

Damage or injury to the radial nerve may result in various symptoms, such as weakness or paralysis of the extensor muscles, numbness or tingling sensations in the affected areas, and difficulty with extension movements of the wrist, fingers, and thumb. Common causes of radial nerve injuries include fractures of the humerus bone, compression during sleep or prolonged pressure on the nerve (e.g., from crutches), and entrapment syndromes like radial tunnel syndrome.

Photic stimulation is a medical term that refers to the exposure of the eyes to light, specifically repetitive pulses of light, which is used as a method in various research and clinical settings. In neuroscience, it's often used in studies related to vision, circadian rhythms, and brain function.

In a clinical context, photic stimulation is sometimes used in the diagnosis of certain medical conditions such as seizure disorders (like epilepsy). By observing the response of the brain to this light stimulus, doctors can gain valuable insights into the functioning of the brain and the presence of any neurological disorders.

However, it's important to note that photic stimulation should be conducted under the supervision of a trained healthcare professional, as improper use can potentially trigger seizures in individuals who are susceptible to them.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, learning is often discussed in relation to learning abilities or disabilities that may impact an individual's capacity to acquire, process, retain, and apply new information or skills. Learning can be defined as the process of acquiring knowledge, understanding, behaviors, and skills through experience, instruction, or observation.

Learning disorders, also known as learning disabilities, are a type of neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to learn and process information in one or more areas, such as reading, writing, mathematics, or reasoning. These disorders are not related to intelligence or motivation but rather result from differences in the way the brain processes information.

It is important to note that learning can also be influenced by various factors, including age, cognitive abilities, physical and mental health status, cultural background, and educational experiences. Therefore, a comprehensive assessment of an individual's learning abilities and needs should take into account these various factors to provide appropriate support and interventions.

An axon is a long, slender extension of a neuron (a type of nerve cell) that conducts electrical impulses (nerve impulses) away from the cell body to target cells, such as other neurons or muscle cells. Axons can vary in length from a few micrometers to over a meter long and are typically surrounded by a myelin sheath, which helps to insulate and protect the axon and allows for faster transmission of nerve impulses.

Axons play a critical role in the functioning of the nervous system, as they provide the means by which neurons communicate with one another and with other cells in the body. Damage to axons can result in serious neurological problems, such as those seen in spinal cord injuries or neurodegenerative diseases like multiple sclerosis.

Calbindins are a family of calcium-binding proteins that are widely distributed in various tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract, brain, and kidney. They play important roles in regulating intracellular calcium levels and modulating calcium-dependent signaling pathways. Calbindin D28k, one of the major isoforms, is particularly abundant in the central nervous system and has been implicated in neuroprotection, neuronal plasticity, and regulation of neurotransmitter release. Deficiencies or alterations in calbindins have been associated with various pathological conditions, including neurological disorders and cancer.

A decerebrate state is a medical condition that results from severe damage to the brainstem, specifically to the midbrain and above. This type of injury can cause motor responses characterized by rigid extension of the arms and legs, with the arms rotated outward and the wrists and fingers extended. The legs are also extended and the toes pointed downward. These postures are often referred to as "decerebrate rigidity" or "posturing."

The decerebrate state is typically seen in patients who have experienced severe trauma, such as a car accident or gunshot wound, or who have suffered from a large stroke or other type of brain hemorrhage. It can also occur in some cases of severe hypoxia (lack of oxygen) to the brain, such as during cardiac arrest or drowning.

The decerebrate state is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. If left untreated, it can lead to further brain damage and even death. Treatment typically involves providing supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation to help with breathing, medications to control blood pressure and prevent seizures, and surgery to repair any underlying injuries or bleeding. In some cases, patients may require long-term rehabilitation to regain lost function and improve their quality of life.

Psychomotor performance refers to the integration and coordination of mental processes (cognitive functions) with physical movements. It involves the ability to perform complex tasks that require both cognitive skills, such as thinking, remembering, and perceiving, and motor skills, such as gross and fine motor movements. Examples of psychomotor performances include driving a car, playing a musical instrument, or performing surgical procedures.

In a medical context, psychomotor performance is often used to assess an individual's ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), such as bathing, dressing, cooking, cleaning, and managing medications. Deficits in psychomotor performance can be a sign of neurological or psychiatric disorders, such as dementia, Parkinson's disease, or depression.

Assessment of psychomotor performance may involve tests that measure reaction time, coordination, speed, precision, and accuracy of movements, as well as cognitive functions such as attention, memory, and problem-solving skills. These assessments can help healthcare professionals develop appropriate treatment plans and monitor the progression of diseases or the effectiveness of interventions.

Intraventricular infusion is a medical procedure where medication or fluid is delivered directly into the cerebral ventricles of the brain through a catheter. The cerebral ventricles are spaces in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This method is often used to administer drugs that need to bypass the blood-brain barrier, which can be difficult for certain medications to cross on their own. It is commonly used in the treatment of conditions such as meningitis, encephalitis, and brain tumors.

The process involves surgically implanting a catheter into one of the ventricles, which is then connected to an external or internal pump that delivers the medication or fluid. The infusion can be done continuously over a period of time or intermittently as needed. This method allows for precise control over the amount and rate of drug delivery to the brain, reducing the risk of systemic side effects and increasing the effectiveness of treatment.

However, it's important to note that intraventricular infusions carry risks such as infection, bleeding, and damage to surrounding tissues. Therefore, they are typically reserved for situations where other treatment options have been exhausted or are not effective.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, "movement" refers to the act or process of changing physical location or position. It involves the contraction and relaxation of muscles, which allows for the joints to move and the body to be in motion. Movement can also refer to the ability of a patient to move a specific body part or limb, which is assessed during physical examinations. Additionally, "movement" can describe the progression or spread of a disease within the body.

Neurofibrils are thin, thread-like structures found within the cytoplasm of nerve cells (neurons). They are primarily composed of various proteins and are involved in maintaining the structure and function of neurons. Neurofibrils include two types: neurofilaments and microtubule-associated protein tau (TAU) proteins.

Neurofilaments are intermediate filaments that provide structural support to neurons, while TAU proteins are involved in microtubule assembly, stability, and intracellular transport. Abnormal accumulation and aggregation of these proteins can lead to neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

Nerve tissue proteins are specialized proteins found in the nervous system that provide structural and functional support to nerve cells, also known as neurons. These proteins include:

1. Neurofilaments: These are type IV intermediate filaments that provide structural support to neurons and help maintain their shape and size. They are composed of three subunits - NFL (light), NFM (medium), and NFH (heavy).

2. Neuronal Cytoskeletal Proteins: These include tubulins, actins, and spectrins that provide structural support to the neuronal cytoskeleton and help maintain its integrity.

3. Neurotransmitter Receptors: These are specialized proteins located on the postsynaptic membrane of neurons that bind neurotransmitters released by presynaptic neurons, triggering a response in the target cell.

4. Ion Channels: These are transmembrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the neuronal membrane and play a crucial role in generating and transmitting electrical signals in neurons.

5. Signaling Proteins: These include enzymes, receptors, and adaptor proteins that mediate intracellular signaling pathways involved in neuronal development, differentiation, survival, and death.

6. Adhesion Proteins: These are cell surface proteins that mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, playing a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of neural circuits.

7. Extracellular Matrix Proteins: These include proteoglycans, laminins, and collagens that provide structural support to nerve tissue and regulate neuronal migration, differentiation, and survival.

The pons is a part of the brainstem that lies between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain. Its name comes from the Latin word "ponte" which means "bridge," as it serves to connect these two regions of the brainstem. The pons contains several important structures, including nerve fibers that carry signals between the cerebellum (the part of the brain responsible for coordinating muscle movements) and the rest of the nervous system. It also contains nuclei (clusters of neurons) that help regulate various functions such as respiration, sleep, and facial movements.

Excitatory amino acid antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of excitatory neurotransmitters, particularly glutamate and aspartate, in the brain. These drugs work by binding to and blocking the receptors for these neurotransmitters, thereby reducing their ability to stimulate neurons and produce an excitatory response.

Excitatory amino acid antagonists have been studied for their potential therapeutic benefits in a variety of neurological conditions, including stroke, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, their use is limited by the fact that blocking excitatory neurotransmission can also have negative effects on cognitive function and memory.

There are several types of excitatory amino acid receptors, including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), and kainite receptors. Different excitatory amino acid antagonists may target one or more of these receptor subtypes, depending on their specific mechanism of action.

Examples of excitatory amino acid antagonists include ketamine, memantine, and dextromethorphan. These drugs have been used in clinical practice for various indications, such as anesthesia, sedation, and treatment of neurological disorders. However, their use must be carefully monitored due to potential side effects and risks associated with blocking excitatory neurotransmission.

"Long-Evans" is a strain of laboratory rats commonly used in scientific research. They are named after their developers, the scientists Long and Evans. This strain is albino, with a brownish-black hood over their eyes and ears, and they have an agouti (salt-and-pepper) color on their backs. They are often used as a model organism due to their size, ease of handling, and genetic similarity to humans. However, I couldn't find any specific medical definition related to "Long-Evans rats" as they are not a medical condition or disease.

Acoustic stimulation refers to the use of sound waves or vibrations to elicit a response in an individual, typically for the purpose of assessing or treating hearing, balance, or neurological disorders. In a medical context, acoustic stimulation may involve presenting pure tones, speech sounds, or other types of auditory signals through headphones, speakers, or specialized devices such as bone conduction transducers.

The response to acoustic stimulation can be measured using various techniques, including electrophysiological tests like auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) or otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), behavioral observations, or functional imaging methods like fMRI. Acoustic stimulation is also used in therapeutic settings, such as auditory training programs for hearing impairment or vestibular rehabilitation for balance disorders.

It's important to note that acoustic stimulation should be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

A vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is a automatic motion of the eyes that helps to stabilize images on the retina during head movement. It is mediated by the vestibular system, which includes the semicircular canals and otolith organs in the inner ear.

When the head moves, the movement is detected by the vestibular system, which sends signals to the oculomotor nuclei in the brainstem. These nuclei then generate an eye movement that is equal and opposite to the head movement, allowing the eyes to remain fixed on a target while the head is moving. This reflex helps to maintain visual stability during head movements and is essential for activities such as reading, walking, and driving.

The VOR can be tested clinically by having the patient follow a target with their eyes while their head is moved passively. If the VOR is functioning properly, the eyes should remain fixed on the target despite the head movement. Abnormalities in the VOR can indicate problems with the vestibular system or the brainstem.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

The brainstem is the lower part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The brainstem controls many vital functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory and motor information between the cerebral cortex and the rest of the body. Additionally, several cranial nerves originate from the brainstem, including those that control eye movements, facial movements, and hearing.

Autoradiography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize and localize the distribution of radioactively labeled compounds within tissues or organisms. In this process, the subject is first exposed to a radioactive tracer that binds to specific molecules or structures of interest. The tissue is then placed in close contact with a radiation-sensitive film or detector, such as X-ray film or an imaging plate.

As the radioactive atoms decay, they emit particles (such as beta particles) that interact with the film or detector, causing chemical changes and leaving behind a visible image of the distribution of the labeled compound. The resulting autoradiogram provides information about the location, quantity, and sometimes even the identity of the molecules or structures that have taken up the radioactive tracer.

Autoradiography has been widely used in various fields of biology and medical research, including pharmacology, neuroscience, genetics, and cell biology, to study processes such as protein-DNA interactions, gene expression, drug metabolism, and neuronal connectivity. However, due to the use of radioactive materials and potential hazards associated with them, this technique has been gradually replaced by non-radioactive alternatives like fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or immunofluorescence techniques.

The adrenal cortex is the outer portion of the adrenal gland, which is located on top of the kidneys. It plays a crucial role in producing hormones that are essential for various bodily functions. The adrenal cortex is divided into three zones:

1. Zona glomerulosa: This outermost zone produces mineralocorticoids, primarily aldosterone. Aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium balance and thus influences blood pressure by controlling the amount of fluid in the body.
2. Zona fasciculata: The middle layer is responsible for producing glucocorticoids, with cortisol being the most important one. Cortisol regulates metabolism, helps manage stress responses, and has anti-inflammatory properties. It also plays a role in blood sugar regulation and maintaining the body's response to injury and illness.
3. Zona reticularis: The innermost zone produces androgens, primarily dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate form (DHEAS). These androgens are weak compared to those produced by the gonads (ovaries or testes), but they can be converted into more potent androgens or estrogens in peripheral tissues.

Disorders related to the adrenal cortex can lead to hormonal imbalances, affecting various bodily functions. Examples include Addison's disease (insufficient adrenal cortical hormone production) and Cushing's syndrome (excessive glucocorticoid levels).

Cerebellar ataxia is a type of ataxia, which refers to a group of disorders that cause difficulties with coordination and movement. Cerebellar ataxia specifically involves the cerebellum, which is the part of the brain responsible for maintaining balance, coordinating muscle movements, and regulating speech and eye movements.

The symptoms of cerebellar ataxia may include:

* Unsteady gait or difficulty walking
* Poor coordination of limb movements
* Tremors or shakiness, especially in the hands
* Slurred or irregular speech
* Abnormal eye movements, such as nystagmus (rapid, involuntary movement of the eyes)
* Difficulty with fine motor tasks, such as writing or buttoning a shirt

Cerebellar ataxia can be caused by a variety of underlying conditions, including:

* Genetic disorders, such as spinocerebellar ataxia or Friedreich's ataxia
* Brain injury or trauma
* Stroke or brain hemorrhage
* Infections, such as meningitis or encephalitis
* Exposure to toxins, such as alcohol or certain medications
* Tumors or other growths in the brain

Treatment for cerebellar ataxia depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, there may be no cure, and treatment is focused on managing symptoms and improving quality of life. Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy can help improve coordination, balance, and communication skills. Medications may also be used to treat specific symptoms, such as tremors or muscle spasticity. In some cases, surgery may be recommended to remove tumors or repair damage to the brain.

Motor skills are defined as the abilities required to plan, control and execute physical movements. They involve a complex interplay between the brain, nerves, muscles, and the environment. Motor skills can be broadly categorized into two types: fine motor skills, which involve small, precise movements (such as writing or picking up small objects), and gross motor skills, which involve larger movements using the arms, legs, and torso (such as crawling, walking, or running).

Motor skills development is an essential aspect of child growth and development, and it continues to evolve throughout adulthood. Difficulties with motor skills can impact a person's ability to perform daily activities and can be associated with various neurological and musculoskeletal conditions.

Cortical Spreading Depression (CSD) is a wave of neuronal and glial depolarization that spreads across the cerebral cortex, characterized by the near-complete suppression of neural activity, followed by a period of depressed excitability. It is often accompanied by profound changes in blood flow and metabolism.

CSD is associated with several neurological conditions, including migraine with aura, traumatic brain injury, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. In migraine, it is believed to underlie the visual aura that precedes the headache phase of the attack. CSD can also have harmful effects on the brain, contributing to the development of secondary injuries after trauma or stroke.

The underlying mechanisms of CSD involve the activation of various ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors, leading to a massive efflux of potassium ions (K+) from neurons and glial cells. This K+ efflux triggers a cascade of events that result in the depolarization of surrounding neurons and glia, ultimately leading to the suppression of neural activity and the characteristic hemodynamic and metabolic changes associated with CSD.

Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) are electrical signals that occur in the dendrites and cell body of a neuron, or nerve cell. They are caused by the activation of excitatory synapses, which are connections between neurons that allow for the transmission of information.

When an action potential, or electrical impulse, reaches the end of an axon, it triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft, the small gap between the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes. The excitatory neurotransmitters then bind to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, causing a local depolarization of the membrane potential. This depolarization is known as an EPSP.

EPSPs are responsible for increasing the likelihood that an action potential will be generated in the postsynaptic neuron. When multiple EPSPs occur simultaneously or in close succession, they can summate and cause a large enough depolarization to trigger an action potential. This allows for the transmission of information from one neuron to another.

It's important to note that there are also inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) which decrease the likelihood that an action potential will be generated in the postsynaptic neuron, by causing a local hyperpolarization of the membrane potential.

Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions, leading to repetitive or twisting movements. These movements can be painful and may affect one part of the body (focal dystonia) or multiple parts (generalized dystonia). The exact cause of dystonia varies, with some cases being inherited and others resulting from damage to the brain. Treatment options include medications, botulinum toxin injections, and deep brain stimulation surgery.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione is a chemical compound that is commonly used in research and scientific studies. It is a member of the quinoxaline family of compounds, which are aromatic heterocyclic organic compounds containing two nitrogen atoms.

The 6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione compound has several notable features, including:

* A quinoxaline ring structure, which is made up of two benzene rings fused to a pyrazine ring.
* A cyano group (-CN) at the 6th position of the quinoxaline ring.
* A nitro group (-NO2) at the 7th position of the quinoxaline ring.
* Two carbonyl groups (=O) at the 2nd and 3rd positions of the quinoxaline ring.

This compound is known to have various biological activities, such as antimicrobial, antifungal, and anticancer properties. However, its use in medical treatments is not widespread due to potential toxicity and lack of comprehensive studies on its safety and efficacy. As with any chemical compound, it should be handled with care and used only under appropriate laboratory conditions.

A microelectrode is a small electrode with dimensions ranging from several micrometers to a few tens of micrometers in diameter. They are used in various biomedical applications, such as neurophysiological studies, neuromodulation, and brain-computer interfaces. In these applications, microelectrodes serve to record electrical activity from individual or small groups of neurons or deliver electrical stimuli to specific neural structures with high spatial resolution.

Microelectrodes can be fabricated using various materials, including metals (e.g., tungsten, stainless steel, platinum), metal alloys, carbon fibers, and semiconductor materials like silicon. The design of microelectrodes may vary depending on the specific application, with some common types being sharpened metal wires, glass-insulated metal microwires, and silicon-based probes with multiple recording sites.

The development and use of microelectrodes have significantly contributed to our understanding of neural function in health and disease, enabling researchers and clinicians to investigate the underlying mechanisms of neurological disorders and develop novel therapies for conditions such as Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, and hearing loss.

Ataxia is a medical term that refers to a group of disorders affecting coordination, balance, and speech. It is characterized by a lack of muscle control during voluntary movements, causing unsteady or awkward movements, and often accompanied by tremors. Ataxia can affect various parts of the body, such as the limbs, trunk, eyes, and speech muscles. The condition can be congenital or acquired, and it can result from damage to the cerebellum, spinal cord, or sensory nerves. There are several types of ataxia, including hereditary ataxias, degenerative ataxias, cerebellar ataxias, and acquired ataxias, each with its own specific causes, symptoms, and prognosis. Treatment for ataxia typically focuses on managing symptoms and improving quality of life, as there is no cure for most forms of the disorder.

The frontal lobe is the largest lobes of the human brain, located at the front part of each cerebral hemisphere and situated in front of the parietal and temporal lobes. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive functions such as decision making, problem solving, planning, parts of social behavior, emotional expressions, physical reactions, and motor function. The frontal lobe is also responsible for what's known as "executive functions," which include the ability to focus attention, understand rules, switch focus, plan actions, and inhibit inappropriate behaviors. It is divided into five areas, each with its own specific functions: the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, Broca's area, prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. Damage to the frontal lobe can result in a wide range of impairments, depending on the location and extent of the injury.

Efferent pathways refer to the neural connections that carry signals from the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord, to the peripheral effectors such as muscles and glands. These pathways are responsible for the initiation and control of motor responses, as well as regulating various autonomic functions.

Efferent pathways can be divided into two main types:

1. Somatic efferent pathways: These pathways carry signals from the CNS to the skeletal muscles, enabling voluntary movements and postural control. The final common pathway for somatic motor innervation is the alpha-motor neuron, which synapses directly onto skeletal muscle fibers.
2. Autonomic efferent pathways: These pathways regulate the function of internal organs, smooth muscles, and glands. They are further divided into two subtypes: sympathetic and parasympathetic. The sympathetic system is responsible for the 'fight or flight' response, while the parasympathetic system promotes rest and digestion. Both systems use a two-neuron chain to transmit signals from the CNS to the effector organs. The preganglionic neuron has its cell body in the CNS and synapses with the postganglionic neuron in an autonomic ganglion located near the effector organ. The postganglionic neuron then innervates the target organ or tissue.

In summary, efferent pathways are the neural connections that carry signals from the CNS to peripheral effectors, enabling motor responses and regulating various autonomic functions. They can be divided into somatic and autonomic efferent pathways, with further subdivisions within the autonomic system.

Electrophysiology is a branch of medicine that deals with the electrical activities of the body, particularly the heart. In a medical context, electrophysiology studies (EPS) are performed to assess abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) and to evaluate the effectiveness of certain treatments, such as medication or pacemakers.

During an EPS, electrode catheters are inserted into the heart through blood vessels in the groin or neck. These catheters can record the electrical activity of the heart and stimulate it to help identify the source of the arrhythmia. The information gathered during the study can help doctors determine the best course of treatment for each patient.

In addition to cardiac electrophysiology, there are also other subspecialties within electrophysiology, such as neuromuscular electrophysiology, which deals with the electrical activity of the nervous system and muscles.

The caudate nucleus is a part of the brain located within the basal ganglia, a group of structures that are important for movement control and cognition. It has a distinctive C-shaped appearance and plays a role in various functions such as learning, memory, emotion, and motivation. The caudate nucleus receives inputs from several areas of the cerebral cortex and sends outputs to other basal ganglia structures, contributing to the regulation of motor behavior and higher cognitive processes.

Patch-clamp techniques are a group of electrophysiological methods used to study ion channels and other electrical properties of cells. These techniques were developed by Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann, who were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1991 for their work. The basic principle of patch-clamp techniques involves creating a high resistance seal between a glass micropipette and the cell membrane, allowing for the measurement of current flowing through individual ion channels or groups of channels.

There are several different configurations of patch-clamp techniques, including:

1. Cell-attached configuration: In this configuration, the micropipette is attached to the outer surface of the cell membrane, and the current flowing across a single ion channel can be measured. This configuration allows for the study of the properties of individual channels in their native environment.
2. Whole-cell configuration: Here, the micropipette breaks through the cell membrane, creating a low resistance electrical connection between the pipette and the inside of the cell. This configuration allows for the measurement of the total current flowing across all ion channels in the cell membrane.
3. Inside-out configuration: In this configuration, the micropipette is pulled away from the cell after establishing a seal, resulting in the exposure of the inner surface of the cell membrane to the solution in the pipette. This configuration allows for the study of the properties of ion channels in isolation from other cellular components.
4. Outside-out configuration: Here, the micropipette is pulled away from the cell after establishing a seal, resulting in the exposure of the outer surface of the cell membrane to the solution in the pipette. This configuration allows for the study of the properties of ion channels in their native environment, but with the ability to control the composition of the extracellular solution.

Patch-clamp techniques have been instrumental in advancing our understanding of ion channel function and have contributed to numerous breakthroughs in neuroscience, pharmacology, and physiology.

Muscimol is defined as a cyclic psychoactive ingredient found in certain mushrooms, including Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina. It acts as a potent agonist at GABA-A receptors, which are involved in inhibitory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. Muscimol can cause symptoms such as altered consciousness, delirium, hallucinations, and seizures. It is used in research but has no medical applications.

Quinoxalines are not a medical term, but rather an organic chemical compound. They are a class of heterocyclic aromatic compounds made up of a benzene ring fused to a pyrazine ring. Quinoxalines have no specific medical relevance, but some of their derivatives have been synthesized and used in medicinal chemistry as antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral agents. They are also used in the production of dyes and pigments.

S100 calcium binding protein G, also known as calgranulin A or S100A8, is a member of the S100 family of proteins. These proteins are characterized by their ability to bind calcium ions and play a role in intracellular signaling and regulation of various cellular processes.

S100 calcium binding protein G forms a heterodimer with S100 calcium binding protein B (S100A9) and is involved in the inflammatory response, immune function, and tumor growth and progression. The S100A8/A9 heterocomplex has been shown to play a role in neutrophil activation and recruitment, as well as the regulation of cytokine production and cell proliferation.

Elevated levels of S100 calcium binding protein G have been found in various inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, and psoriasis, as well as in several types of cancer, including breast, lung, and colon cancer. Therefore, it has been suggested that S100 calcium binding protein G may be a useful biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of these conditions.

Implanted electrodes are medical devices that are surgically placed inside the body to interface directly with nerves, neurons, or other electrically excitable tissue for various therapeutic purposes. These electrodes can be used to stimulate or record electrical activity from specific areas of the body, depending on their design and application.

There are several types of implanted electrodes, including:

1. Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) electrodes: These are placed deep within the brain to treat movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. DBS electrodes deliver electrical impulses that modulate abnormal neural activity in targeted brain regions.
2. Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) electrodes: These are implanted along the spinal cord to treat chronic pain syndromes. SCS electrodes emit low-level electrical pulses that interfere with pain signals traveling to the brain, providing relief for patients.
3. Cochlear Implant electrodes: These are surgically inserted into the cochlea of the inner ear to restore hearing in individuals with severe to profound hearing loss. The electrodes stimulate the auditory nerve directly, bypassing damaged hair cells within the cochlea.
4. Retinal Implant electrodes: These are implanted in the retina to treat certain forms of blindness caused by degenerative eye diseases like retinitis pigmentosa. The electrodes convert visual information from a camera into electrical signals, which stimulate remaining retinal cells and transmit the information to the brain via the optic nerve.
5. Sacral Nerve Stimulation (SNS) electrodes: These are placed near the sacral nerves in the lower back to treat urinary or fecal incontinence and overactive bladder syndrome. SNS electrodes deliver electrical impulses that regulate the function of the affected muscles and nerves.
6. Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) electrodes: These are wrapped around the vagus nerve in the neck to treat epilepsy and depression. VNS electrodes provide intermittent electrical stimulation to the vagus nerve, which has connections to various regions of the brain involved in these conditions.

Overall, implanted electrodes serve as a crucial component in many neuromodulation therapies, offering an effective treatment option for numerous neurological and sensory disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Phosphinic Acids" is not a recognized medical term. Phosphinic acids are chemical compounds that contain a phosphorus atom bonded to two organic groups and one hydroxyl group, making them a subclass of organophosphorus compounds. They are widely used in the production of various chemicals, but they do not have specific relevance to medical definitions or terminology. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) agonists are substances that bind to and activate GABA receptors in the brain, mimicking the actions of GABA, which is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. These agents can produce various effects such as sedation, anxiolysis, muscle relaxation, and anticonvulsant activity by enhancing the inhibitory tone in the brain. They are used clinically to treat conditions such as anxiety disorders, seizures, and muscle spasticity. Examples of GABA agonists include benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and certain non-benzodiazepine hypnotics.

Stereotaxic techniques are minimally invasive surgical procedures used in neuroscience and neurology that allow for precise targeting and manipulation of structures within the brain. These methods use a stereotactic frame, which is attached to the skull and provides a three-dimensional coordinate system to guide the placement of instruments such as electrodes, cannulas, or radiation sources. The main goal is to reach specific brain areas with high precision and accuracy, minimizing damage to surrounding tissues. Stereotaxic techniques are widely used in research, diagnosis, and treatment of various neurological disorders, including movement disorders, pain management, epilepsy, and psychiatric conditions.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Optics and Photonics" is a broad field that encompasses various scientific and engineering disciplines. It doesn't have a specific medical definition, as it's not a term typically used in a medical context.

However, I can provide a general definition:

Optics is the study of light and its interactions with matter. This includes how light is produced, controlled, transmitted, and detected. It involves phenomena such as reflection, refraction, diffraction, and interference.

Photonics, on the other hand, is a branch of optics that deals with the generation, detection, and manipulation of individual photons, the basic units of light. Photonics is often applied to technologies such as lasers, fiber optics, and optical communications.

In a medical context, these fields might be used in various diagnostic and therapeutic applications, such as endoscopes, ophthalmic devices, laser surgery, and imaging technologies like MRI and CT scans. But the terms "Optics" and "Photonics" themselves are not medical conditions or treatments.

GABA-A receptors are ligand-gated ion channels in the membrane of neuronal cells. They are the primary mediators of fast inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. When the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binds to these receptors, it opens an ion channel that allows chloride ions to flow into the neuron, resulting in hyperpolarization of the membrane and decreased excitability of the neuron. This inhibitory effect helps to regulate neural activity and maintain a balance between excitation and inhibition in the nervous system. GABA-A receptors are composed of multiple subunits, and the specific combination of subunits can determine the receptor's properties, such as its sensitivity to different drugs or neurotransmitters.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Long-term synaptic depression (LTSD) is a form of prolonged decrease in the strength of synaptic transmission between neurons, which results from specific patterns of synaptic activity. It is characterized by a reduction in the amplitude and/or frequency of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) or currents (EPSCs), reflecting a decrease in the efficiency of neurotransmitter release and/or decreased responsiveness of the postsynaptic neuron.

LTSD typically requires prolonged periods of low-frequency stimulation (1-5 Hz) and can last for hours to days, depending on the synapse and organism. The underlying mechanisms involve changes in both presynaptic and postsynaptic elements, including alterations in the number and function of neurotransmitter receptors, modifications in the release probability of neurotransmitters, and structural remodeling of the synaptic connections.

LTSD is thought to play a crucial role in various forms of synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory processes, particularly those involving the extinction or weakening of synaptic connections. Dysregulation of LTSD has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, and depression.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Glutamic acid is an alpha-amino acid, which is one of the 20 standard amino acids in the genetic code. The systematic name for this amino acid is (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid. Its chemical formula is HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH2CO2H.

Glutamic acid is a crucial excitatory neurotransmitter in the human brain, and it plays an essential role in learning and memory. It's also involved in the metabolism of sugars and amino acids, the synthesis of proteins, and the removal of waste nitrogen from the body.

Glutamic acid can be found in various foods such as meat, fish, beans, eggs, dairy products, and vegetables. In the human body, glutamic acid can be converted into gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), another important neurotransmitter that has a calming effect on the nervous system.

In the cerebellar cortex there are a variety of inhibitory neurons (interneurons). The only excitatory neurons present in the ... The granule cells, produced by the rhombic lip, are found in the granule cell layer of the cerebellar cortex. They are small ... M Manto; C De Zeeuw (2012). "Diversity and Complexity of Roles of Granule Cells in the Cerebellar Cortex". The Cerebellum. 11 ( ... Marr D (1969). "A theory of cerebellar cortex". The Journal of Physiology. 202 (2): 437-70. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1969.sp008820 ...
... s form the thick granular layer of the cerebellar cortex and are among the smallest neurons in the brain ... The cell bodies are packed into a thick granular layer at the bottom of the cerebellar cortex. A granule cell emits only four ... Marr D (1969). "A theory of cerebellar cortex". J. Physiol. 202 (2): 437-70. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1969.sp008820. PMC 1351491. ... The term granule cell is used for several unrelated types of small neurons in various parts of the brain.) Cerebellar granule ...
Palay, Sanford L. (1974). Cerebellar cortex: cytology and organization. Chan-Palay, Victoria. Berlin: Springer. p. 29. ISBN 978 ...
Palay, Sanford L.; Chan-Palay, Victoria (1974). Cerebellar cortex: cytology and organization. Springer. ISBN 9783642655814. ... Chan-Palay, Victoria (1977). Cerebellar dentate nucleus: organization, cytology and transmitters. Springer-Verlag. OCLC 2542632 ...
High and low level (description) Marr Prize Level of analysis (1969) "A theory of cerebellar cortex." J. Physiol., 202:437-470 ... "A theory of cerebellar cortex". J. Physiol. 202 (2): 437-70. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1969.sp008820. PMC 1351491. PMID 5784296. ... Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex each receive tens of thousands of inputs from "parallel fibers", but only one input ... The cerebellum theory was motivated by two unique features of cerebellar anatomy: (1) the cerebellum contains vast numbers of ...
The cerebellar glomerulus is a small, intertwined mass of nerve fiber terminals in the granular layer of the cerebellar cortex ... Chan-Palay, Victoria; Palay, Sanford L. (1972). "The form of velate astrocytes in the cerebellar cortex of monkey and rat: High ... ISBN 978-1-4511-1045-6. De Schutter, Erik (2002). "Cerebellar Cortex: Computation by Extrasynaptic Inhibition?". Current ... A cerebellar glomerulus is about 2.5 um in diameter, and is wrapped by glial sheathing. Glomeruli are centered on the large ...
These Golgi type II neurons have a star-like appearance, and are found in cerebral and cerebellar cortices and retina. A Golgi ... "Golgi cell inhibition in the cerebellar cortex". Nature. 204 (4965): 1265-1266. doi:10.1038/2041265a0. PMID 14254404. Jakab, RL ... Brickley SG, Cull-Candy SG, Farrant M (1996). "Development of a tonic form of synaptic inhibition in rat cerebellar granule ... Tia S, Wang JF, Kotchabhakdi N, Vicini S (June 1, 1996). "Developmental changes of inhibitory synaptic currents in cerebellar ...
The SCA supplies blood to most of the cerebellar cortex, the cerebellar nuclei, and the superior cerebellar peduncles. The AICA ... the cerebellar cortex. It has been estimated that if the human cerebellar cortex could be completely unfolded it would give ... Then the fibers decussate and form the middle cerebellar peduncle, terminating in the cerebellar cortex as mossy fibers. This ... 7): the superior cerebellar artery (SCA), anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), and posterior inferior cerebellar artery ...
"The stellate cells of the rat's cerebellar cortex". Zeitschrift für Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte. 136 (2): 224-248. doi: ... Cerebellar stellate cells are inhibitory and GABAergic. Stellate and basket cells originate from the cerebellar ventricular ... cortical spiny stellate cells are found in layer IVC of the primary visual cortex. In the somatosensory barrel cortex of mice ... Cerebellar stellate cells synapse onto the dendritic trees of Purkinje cells and send inhibitory signals. Stellate neurons are ...
January 2007). "Widespread demyelination in the cerebellar cortex in multiple sclerosis". Brain Pathology. 17 (1): 38-44. doi: ... Pediatric MS patients tend to have active inflammatory disease course with a tendency to have brainstem / cerebellar ... proposed variant with demyelination of spinal cord and cerebral cortex but not of cerebral white matter Several atypical cases ...
The functional organization of the cerebellar cortex neuronal circuits. Defining cerebellar function from an evolutionary ... ISBN 978-0-19-515955-4. Llinas, RR (1969). "Functional aspects of interneuronal evolution in the cerebellar cortex". UCLA Forum ... cite book}}: ,journal= ignored (help) Llinás RR (2011). "Cerebellar motor learning versus cerebellar motor timing: the climbing ... Artificial olivo-cerebellar motor control system as part of the project BAUV (Undersea Vehicle) of the US Navy developed by P. ...
"Perisynaptic organization of plasma membrane calcium pumps in cerebellar cortex". J. Comp. Neurol. (published 2006-12-20). 500 ... "Calcium clearance and its energy requirements in cerebellar neurons". Cell Calcium. 47 (6): 507-513. doi:10.1016/j.ceca.2010.04 ...
... s migrate toward the outer surface of the cerebellar cortex and form the Purkinje cell layer. Purkinje cells are ... 432-4. ISBN 978-0-87893-697-7. Tyrrell, T; Willshaw, D (1992-05-29). "Cerebellar cortex: its simulation and the relevance of ... and constitute the sole output of all motor coordination in the cerebellar cortex. The Purkinje layer of the cerebellum, which ... There is evidence in mice and humans that bone marrow cells either fuse with or generate cerebellar Purkinje cells, and it is ...
... a comparison between the cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex, deep grey matter nuclei and the spinal cord". Journal of Neurology ... 2007). "Widespread Demyelination in the Cerebellar Cortex in Multiple Sclerosis". Brain Pathology. 17 (1): 38-44. doi:10.1111/j ... Lesions in the cortex have been classified by the area they affect into four groups: type I (leukocortical), type II ( ... The optic radiation (OR), which is a set of axons that lead to the visual cortex, is more similar to the rest of the brain ...
Rakic, P (March 1971). "Neuron-glia relationship during granule cell migration in developing cerebellar cortex. A Golgi and ... In the embryonic cerebral cortex, the SVZ contains intermediate neuronal progenitors that continue to divide into post-mitotic ... Cerebral Cortex. 22 (2): 465-8. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhr336. PMC 3256413. PMID 22116731. Dehay, C; Kennedy, H (June 2007). "Cell- ...
They terminate in the hind limb region of the cerebellar cortex. The tectocerebellar tracts emerge from the superior and ... There are six cerebellar peduncles in total, three on each side: Superior cerebellar peduncle is a paired structure of white ... Inferior cerebellar peduncle is a thick rope-like strand that occupies the upper part of the posterior district of the medulla ... The superior cerebellar peduncles represent the main output route from the cerebellum, and as such, most of their fibers are ...
From here information continues rostrally until it reaches the cerebellar cortex. This relay pathway is generally known as the ... the spinal cord and ends as mossy fibers in the ipsilateral cerebellar cortex after passing through the inferior cerebellar ...
2006). "Age-related changes of structures in cerebellar cortex of cat". Journal of Biosciences. 31 (1): 55-60. doi:10.1007/ ...
Human cerebellar cortex is finely convoluted, much more so than cerebral cortex. Its interior axon fiber tracts are called the ... the greater the surface area of the cortex which allows for an expansion of cortex. It is the most evolutionarily advanced part ... "Changes in Thickness and Surface Area of the Human Cortex and Their Relationship with Intelligence". Cerebral Cortex. 25 (6): ... This three-layer cortex is still conserved in some parts of the human brain such as the hippocampus and is believed to have ...
and Cytochem., co-author, 1990) Metabotrop Glutamate Receptor Type 1a Expressing Unipolar Brush Cells in the Cerebellar Cortex ... Presynaptic Dendrites and Perikarya in Deafferented Cerebellar Cortex (Procl. National Academy of Science, co-author, 1982) ... Immunogold Electron Microscopic Demonstration of Glutamate and GABA in Normal and Deafferented Cerebellar Cortex: Correlation ...
... as a new cell type of the cerebellar cortex in 2008. UBCs situated in cerebellar lobule VII are affected in some cases of ... Altman J, Bayer SA (1977). "Time of origin and distribution of a new cell type in the rat cerebellar cortex". Exp Brain Res. 29 ... Mugnaini, Enrico; Floris, Alessandra (1994). "The unipolar brush cell: A neglected neuron of the mammalian cerebellar cortex". ... are a class of excitatory glutamatergic interneuron found in the granular layer of the cerebellar cortex and also in the ...
Watt, A.J; Cuntz, H; Mori, M; Nusser, Z; Sjostrom, P.J; Hausser, M (2009). "Traveling waves in developing cerebellar cortex ... In the cortex, early waves of activity have been observed in the cerebellum and cortical slices. Once sensory stimulus becomes ... An example of tangential migration is the movement of interneurons from the ganglionic eminence to the cerebral cortex. One ... Hutchins, B. Ian; Wray, Susan (2014). "Capture of microtubule plus-ends at the actin cortex promotes axophilic neuronal ...
Sotelo C., Changeux J.-P. (1974). Transsynaptic degeneration 'en cascade' in the cerebellar cortex of staggerer mutant mice. ...
Fañanas cells (also known as Feathered cells of Fañanas) are glial cells of the cerebellar cortex. They are located in the ... The role of the Fañanas cell in the connectivity and structure of the cerebellar cortex is still unknown. One study found ... Petersen, Karl Uwe (Dec 1969). On the fine structure of glia cells in the cerebellar cortex of mammals. Springer-Verlag. pp. ... Reactive astroglia-neuron relationships in the human cerebellar cortex: a quantitative, morphological and immunocytochemical ...
Dvergsten C. L.; Johnson L. A.; Sandstead H. H. (1984). "Alterations in the postnatal development of the cerebellar cortex due ... When animals are fed a diet deficient in essential amino acids, uncharged tRNAs accumulate in the anterior piriform cortex ... An omega-3 deficient diet increases omega-6 levels in the brain disrupting endocannabinoid signaling in the prefrontal cortex ... and the cerebellar vermis. Immediate treatment of Wernicke encephalopathy involves the administration of intravenous thiamine, ...
Brain MRI showed leukodystrophy with involvement of the cerebellar cortex and deep white matter. At age 8, he had spasticity, ... while the cerebellar abnormalities worsen and brainstem abnormalities arise. Using whole exome sequencing, four of the patients ...
... in cerebellar cortex of adult rats". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (14): 5568-72. Bibcode:1990PNAS...87.5568B. doi:10.1073/ ... They have reduced brain activity in the orbital prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, temporal cortex, and brain stem. They ... As a result, the growth and development of neurons and synapses in the visual cortex were much improved due to the enriched ... In 1964, it was found that this was due to increased cerebral cortex thickness and greater synapse and glial numbers. Also ...
Iwaniuk AN, Marzban H, Hawkes R, Pakan JMP, Watanabe M, Wylie DRW (2009). "Compartmentation of the cerebellar cortex of ... "Heterogeneity of parvalbumin expression in the avian cerebellar cortex and comparisons with zebrin II". Neuroscience. 185: 73- ... Iwaniuk AN, Gutiérrez-Ibáñez C, Pakan JM, Wylie DR (2009). "Expression of calcium binding proteins in cerebellar- and inferior ...
Carulli D, Buffo A, Strata P (April 2004). "Reparative mechanisms in the cerebellar cortex". Prog Neurobiol. 72 (6): 373-98. ... Role of the olivo-cerebellar system in timing" J Neurosci 2006; 26: 5990-5. Liu T, Xu D, Ashe J, Bushara K. Specificity of ... These axons pass through the pons and enter the cerebellum via the inferior cerebellar peduncle where they form synapses with ... Grasselli G, Mandolesi G, Strata P, Cesare P (June 2011). "Impaired Sprouting and Axonal Atrophy in Cerebellar Climbing Fibres ...
Ponti G, Peretto P, Bonfanti L (June 2008). Reh TA (ed.). "Genesis of neuronal and glial progenitors in the cerebellar cortex ... This results in activity within the surrounding area of the cortex being misinterpreted by the area of the cortex formerly ... Cortex; A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior. 82: 1-10. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2016.05.012. PMID ... posterior parietal association cortex (PPAC), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). A review by Bavelier et al. (2006) ...
Tonic Inhibition Enhances Fidelity of Sensory Information Transmission in the Cerebellar Cortex. Ian Duguid, Tiago Branco, ... Tonic Inhibition Enhances Fidelity of Sensory Information Transmission in the Cerebellar Cortex ... Tonic Inhibition Enhances Fidelity of Sensory Information Transmission in the Cerebellar Cortex ... Tonic Inhibition Enhances Fidelity of Sensory Information Transmission in the Cerebellar Cortex ...
Histology blog entry for January 17, 2009 about the cerebellar cortex and the cerebral cortex.. eng. ... Cerebellar and Cerebral Cortex. URI. Krause, William J., II, 1942-. eng ...
The researchers showed that candelabrum cells are abundant and present in all regions of the cerebellar cortex, arguing for an ... Candelabrum cells are a specific type of interneurons in the cerebellar cortex with a unique shape and morphology, which was ... The first detailed characterization of candelabrum cells in the cerebellar cortex. by Ingrid Fadelli , Medical Xpress ... More information: Tomas Osorno et al, Candelabrum cells are ubiquitous cerebellar cortex interneurons with specialized circuit ...
Pontine and lateral reticular projections to the c1zone in lobulus simplex and paramedian lobule of the rat cerebellar cortex. ... Pontine and lateral reticular projections to the c1zone in lobulus simplex and paramedian lobule of the rat cerebellar cortex. ... Pontine and lateral reticular projections to the c1zone in lobulus simplex and paramedian lobule of the rat cerebellar cortex. ... Pontine and lateral reticular projections to the c1zone in lobulus simplex and paramedian lobule of the rat cerebellar cortex. ...
Cerebellar granule cell (Masoli et al 2020). Cerebellar granule cell (Masoli et al 2020). Cerebellar granule cell (Masoli et al ... Cerebellar granule cell (Masoli et al 2020). Cerebellar granule cell (Masoli et al 2020). Cerebellar granule cell (Masoli et al ... Cerebellar cortex oscil. robustness from Golgi cell gap jncs (Simoes de Souza and De Schutter 2011). ... 1 . Simões de Souza F, De Schutter E (2011) Robustness effect of gap junctions between Golgi cells on cerebellar cortex ...
Cerebellar granule cell (Masoli et al 2020). Cerebellar granule cell (Masoli et al 2020). Cerebellar granule cell (Masoli et al ... Cerebellar granule cell (Masoli et al 2020). Cerebellar granule cell (Masoli et al 2020). Cerebellar granule cell (Masoli et al ... Cerebellar cortex oscil. robustness from Golgi cell gap jncs (Simoes de Souza and De Schutter 2011). ... 1 . Simões de Souza F, De Schutter E (2011) Robustness effect of gap junctions between Golgi cells on cerebellar cortex ...
In the cerebellar cortex, molecular layer interneurons use chemical and electrical synapses to form subnetworks that fine-tune ... Feed-forward recruitment of electrical synapses enhances synchronous spiking in the mouse cerebellar cortex.. ... which can entrain cerebellar output for driving temporally precise behaviors. ...
... and neuronal cell bodies in cerebellar cortex in vivo. In cerebellar folium crus IIa of anesthetized rats, we imaged the ... Two-photon calcium imaging of bulk-loaded cerebellar cortex is thus well suited to optically monitor synaptic processing in the ... Cerebellar Cortex, Egtazic Acid, Poloxamer, Quinoxalines, Valine ... vivo calcium imaging of circuit activity in cerebellar cortex. ...
Full Length Research Article Anatomical transition of trilaminar cerebellar cortex between reptiles and Aves Naheed Khan1,2, ... Anatomical transition of trilaminar cerebellar cortex between reptiles and Aves. Naheed Khan1,2, Khalida Perveen1,2, Mushtaq ... Cerebellar brain volume accounts for variance in cognitive performance in older adults. Cortex, (2011); 47: 441-450. ... This study aims to explore anatomical innovations in the cerebellar cortex during the course of evolution of reptiles and Aves. ...
Electrophysiological monitoring of injury progression in the rat cerebellar cortex. In: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 2014 ... Electrophysiological monitoring of injury progression in the rat cerebellar cortex. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 2014 Oct ... Electrophysiological monitoring of injury progression in the rat cerebellar cortex. Gokhan Ordek, Archana Proddutur, ... Dive into the research topics of Electrophysiological monitoring of injury progression in the rat cerebellar cortex. Together ...
Here we show a new role for Eph receptor signalling in the cerebellar cortex. Cerebellar Purkinje cells are innervated by two ... Eph receptors are involved in the activity-dependent synaptic wiring in the mouse cerebellar cortex Condividi "Eph receptors ... Cesa R, Strata P (2009) Axonal competition in the synaptic wiring of the cerebellar cortex during development and in the mature ... Synaptic Wiring in the Mouse Cerebellar Cortex. Roberta Cesa1,2., Federica Premoselli1., Annamaria Renna1,2, Iryna M. Ethell3, ...
... in the different cerebral cortex areas, exists. Instead, the pattern distribution level of sarcoglycans in cerebellar cortex ... in the different cerebral cortex areas, exists. Instead, the pattern distribution level of sarcoglycans in cerebellar cortex ... An immunofluorescence study about staining pattern variability of Sarcoglycans in rats cerebral and cerebellar cortex. ... we have conducted an indirect immunofluorescence study on normal rats cerebral and cerebellar cortex. Our results show that in ...
... BRIGHINA, Filippo;Romano, M; ... 2009). Effects of cerebellar TMS on motor cortex of patient with focal dystonia: a preliminary report. EXPERIMENTAL BRAIN ... 2009). Effects of cerebellar TMS on motor cortex of patient with focal dystonia: a preliminary report. EXPERIMENTAL BRAIN ... Here we explored, the cerebellar modulation of motor cortex in patients with focal upper limb dystonia. Eight patients and ...
Cerebellar granule cells form the thick granular layer of the cerebellar cortex and are among the smallest neurons in the brain ... The cell bodies are packed into a thick granular layer at the bottom of the cerebellar cortex. A granule cell emits only four ... Marr D (1969). "A theory of cerebellar cortex". J. Physiol. 202 (2): 437-70. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1969.sp008820. PMC 1351491. ... The term granule cell is used for several unrelated types of small neurons in various parts of the brain.) Cerebellar granule ...
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Cerebellar cortex - + Midbrain (substantia grisea centralis) + to ++ ++ to +++ Thalamus ++ ++ to +++ Hippocampus n.d. + Basal ...
Mapping of the mouse cerebellar cortex using 3D reconstruction from electron microscopy, as well as numerical simulation of ... we mapped the feedforward connectivity in the mouse cerebellar cortex using automated large-scale transmission electron ... Influential theories of cerebellar information processing have largely assumed random network connectivity, which increases the ... 1: Reconstruction of feedforward circuitry in the cerebellar cortex using large-scale electron microscopy.. ...
No cerebellar activation was associated with the learning phase, despite extensive involvement of other cortical and ... There was, however, significant cerebellar activation during the expression of learning; thus, the cerebellum does not ... Cerebellar Cortex / physiology * Cerebellum / physiology* * Humans * Learning* * Magnetic Resonance Imaging * Motor Activity ...
involved_in cerebellar cortex morphogenesis ISS Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity. more info ... Predicted to be involved in several processes, including cerebellar cortex morphogenesis; neural precursor cell proliferation; ... Trnp1 regulates expansion and folding of the mammalian cerebral cortex by control of radial glial fate. Stahl R, et al. Cell, ... Title: Trnp1 regulates expansion and folding of the mammalian cerebral cortex by control of radial glial fate. ...
Cerebellar Cortex / anatomy & histology * Cerebellar Cortex / physiology* * Cerebellum / anatomy & histology* * Cerebellum / ... Overall, the results support the view that a general principle of cerebellar cortical organisation is a division into ... Percutaneous electrical stimulation generated climbing fibre field potentials on the cerebellar surface that indicated a ... and from medial to lateral the cortex was subdivided as follows [principal site(s) of stimulation in parentheses with ...
Histological changes of the albino rat cerebellar cortex under the effect of different doses of tramadol administration. The ... After 30 days, frontal motor and cerebellar cortex specimens were biochemically assessed for oxidative stress biomarkers and ... Oxidative stress/PERK/apoptotic pathways interaction contribute to tramadol neurotoxicity in rat cerebral and cerebellar cortex ... Effect of chronic usage of tramadol on motor cerebral cortex and testicular tissues of adult male albino rats and the effect of ...
Dive into the research topics of Conserved DNA methylation combined with differential frontal cortex and cerebellar expression ... Conserved DNA methylation combined with differential frontal cortex and cerebellar expression distinguishes C9orf72-associated ...
Cerebellar Cortex. Reuss et al., stated that Ngb is expressed predominantly in the cerebellar cortex of the rodent brain. The ... The expression trend in the adult cerebellar cortex showed higher as compared to the young yak cerebellar cortex and this may ... The pattern of Ngb expression in the medulla, white matter, and cerebellar cortex was higher in adult yak than young yak but ... The comparison shows that Ngb and Hif-1α are highly found in the white matter of the cerebellum, cerebellar cortex, and medulla ...
Here, we review what is known about cerebellar network organization, neural dynamics and synaptic plasticity and point out what ... Here, we review what is known about cerebellar network organization, neural dynamics and synaptic plasticity and point out what ... These techniques are proving essential to investigate the spatiotemporal pattern of activity and plasticity in the cerebellar ... However, recent experimental evidence indicates that cerebellar operations are much more complex than solely predicted by ...
1969) A theory of cerebellar cortex. J Physiol 202:437-470. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1969.sp008820 pmid:5784296. ... 2004) Whats a cerebellar circuit doing in the auditory system? Trends Neurosci 27:104-110. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2003.12.001 pmid ... 2015) Predicting visual acuity from the structure of visual cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112:7815-7820. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... 2013) Neurons and circuits for odor processing in the piriform cortex. Trends Neurosci 36:429-438. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2013.04. ...
CGC migration during cerebellar cortex formation requires kinesin-1. Finally, we investigated whether kinesin-1 is required for ... Nuclear migration of newly born neurons is essential for cortex formation in the brain. The nucleus is translocated by actin ... Here, we observed the dynamic motion of the nucleus in migrating cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) at a high spatiotemporal ... What disorders of cortical development tell us about the cortex: one plus one does not always make two ...
... cerebellar, autonomic, and urogenital dysfunction; and corticospinal disorders. Neuropathological hallmarks of ... ... Cerebellar ataxia. Cell loss in inferior olives, pontine nuclei, and cerebellar cortex ... MSA with cerebellar features (MSA-C) - Cerebellar ataxia predominates; it is sometimes termed sporadic olivopontocerebellar ... 3] categorized MSA in MSA-P with predominant parkinsonism and MSA-P with dominant cerebellar features (MSA-C). (See Categories ...
Signaling Mechanisms Regulating Neuronal Morphogenesis in the Cerebellar Cortex. Advisor: Azad Bonni. ... Cortex, Vision and Action. Advisor: John Assad. Roberson, Christov. G Protein Regulation of Inwardly Rectifying Potassium ... Synaptic Transmission at Cerebellar Stellate Cells. Advisor: Wade Regehr. Deans, Michael. Connexin 36 Localization and Function ... A Chemical Odor Map in Cortex. Advisor: Sandeep Datta. Wu, Yuwen. Modeling activity-dependent synaptic competition via a novel ...
Neural pathways of cerebellar cortex. Pathways in the ciliary ganglion. Green=Parasympathetic; Red=Sympathetic; Blue=Sensory. ... Descending motor pathways of the pyramidal tracts travel from the cerebral cortex to the brainstem or lower spinal cord.[4][5] ... and cerebellar peduncles (Latin, "little foot of the cerebellum").[citation needed] Note that these names describe the ... in the primary motor cortex, Brodmann area 4) and termination (onto the alpha motor neurons of the spinal cord).[citation ...
  • The cerebellum is a favorable model system for addressing this question as granule cells, which form the input layer of the cerebellar cortex, permit high-resolution patch-clamp recordings in vivo , and are the only neurons in the cerebellar cortex that express the α6δ-containing GABA A receptors mediating tonic inhibition. (
  • Additionally, they found that candelabrum cells are the most common interneuron in the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum and that they can be found in all cerebellar lobules. (
  • In the cerebellar cortex, molecular layer interneurons use chemical and electrical synapses to form subnetworks that fine-tune the spiking output of the cerebellum. (
  • Two-photon calcium imaging of bulk-loaded cerebellar cortex is thus well suited to optically monitor synaptic processing in the intact cerebellum. (
  • As CGNPs terminally differentiate into cerebellum granule cells (also called cerebellar granule neurons, CGNs), they migrate to the internal granule layer (IGL), forming the mature cerebellum (by P20, post-natal day 20 in the mouse). (
  • Schmahmann, J. D. Disorders of the cerebellum: ataxia, dysmetria of thought, and the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. (
  • 0.05) expressed in the cerebellar cortex, piriform lobe, medulla, and corpus callosum of the adult yak while in the young yak brain tissues, the protein expressions were significantly found in the white matter of the cerebellum, pineal gland, corpus callosum, and cerebellar cortex. (
  • [ citation needed ] This naming can extend to include any number of structures in a pathway, such that the cerebellorubrothalamocortical pathway originates in the cerebellum , synapses in the red nucleus ("ruber" in Latin), on to the thalamus , and finally terminating in the cerebral cortex . (
  • GAD65 is involved in the synthesis, packaging, and release of GABA, whereas the other three play important roles in the induction of long-term depression (LTD). Thus, the auto-antibodies toward these synaptic molecules likely impair fundamental synaptic machineries involved in unique functions of the cerebellum, potentially leading to the development of cerebellar ataxias (CAs). (
  • Autoimmunity affects the cerebellum, leading to the manifestations of the cerebellar ataxias (CAs), termed immune-mediated cerebellar ataxia (IMCAs). (
  • Feed-forward recruitment of electrical synapses enhances synchronous spiking in the mouse cerebellar cortex. (
  • These results suggest that under basal conditions the level of tonic inhibition in vivo enhances the fidelity of sensory information transmission through the input layer of the cerebellar cortex. (
  • This image shows mRNA signal from candelabrum cells using single molecule fluorescent in-situ hybridization and emphasizes the abundance of CCs and their location in the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellar cortex. (
  • Cerebellar granule cells form the thick granular layer of the cerebellar cortex and are among the smallest neurons in the brain. (
  • Since the loss of CRs from lesions of the cerebellar cortex might be due to the loss of collateral inputs to the cerebellar nuclei from the precerebellar nuclei, fibre sparing lesions were made which destroyed only cells in the cerebellar cortex. (
  • Methods and Findings: In the present report, we have conducted an indirect immunofluorescence study on normal rat's cerebral and cerebellar cortex. (
  • This type of inflammation is associated with the formation of subpial demyelinated lesions in the cerebral and cerebellar cortex, with slow expansion of pre-existing lesions in the white matter and with diffuse neurodegeneration in the normal appearing white or gray matter. (
  • So far, most cerebellar research has focused on known cell types, such as Purkinje or granule cells," Osorno and Rudolph added. (
  • Therefore, spikelet transmission can propagate within the BC network to generate synchronous inhibition of Purkinje cells, which can entrain cerebellar output for driving temporally precise behaviors. (
  • In cerebellar folium crus IIa of anesthetized rats, we imaged the labeled molecular layer and identified all major cellular structures: Purkinje cells, interneurons, parallel fibers, and Bergmann glia. (
  • This trilaminar form widely referred to as cerebellar cortex, is constituted by three layers: the outer molecular layer, an intermediate row of Purkinje neurons and an inner granular layer [8,9,10]. (
  • Typically, the basic organization of cerebellar cortex neural circuitry is also well conserved in vertebrates, which mainly comprises of two types of input systems: mossy and climbing fibers in addition to the granule cells, modulatory interneurons including stellate, golgi and basket cells which regulate the discharge of single output Purkinje neuron [9,11,12]. (
  • Cerebellar Purkinje cells are innervated by two different excitatory inputs. (
  • Interneurons of the cerebellar cortex toggle Purkinje cells between up and down states. (
  • Recent studies in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex show that Eph receptors and ephrins are important in the regulation of synaptic morphology and plasticity. (
  • Conclusions: Then, the presence of a sarcoglycans variability in cerebral cortex, where it is known the existence of several synaptic network, and the absence of a sarcoglycans variability in cerebellar cortex, where the same synaptic networks are repeated unchanged, suggest that in brain sarcoglycans may be associated with synaptic networks. (
  • However, recent experimental evidence indicates that cerebellar operations are much more complex than solely predicted by anatomy, due to the crucial role played by neuronal and synaptic properties. (
  • Here, we review what is known about cerebellar network organization, neural dynamics and synaptic plasticity and point out what is still missing and would require experimental assessments. (
  • non-linear excitation and inhibition properties and multiple forms of synaptic plasticity that cooperate to generate the computational schemes that process incoming signals and generate the cerebellar output. (
  • The presence of auto-antibodies that target synaptic machinery proteins was documented recently in immune-mediated cerebellar ataxias. (
  • Candelabrum cells are a specific type of interneurons in the cerebellar cortex with a unique shape and morphology, which was first identified approximately three decades ago. (
  • Tomas Osorno et al, Candelabrum cells are ubiquitous cerebellar cortex interneurons with specialized circuit properties, Nature Neuroscience (2022). (
  • Current and calcium responses to local activation of axonal NMDA receptors in developing cerebellar molecular layer interneurons. (
  • To understand how neuronal circuits address this fundamental trade-off, we mapped the feedforward connectivity in the mouse cerebellar cortex using automated large-scale transmission electron microscopy and convolutional neural network-based image segmentation. (
  • In the hippocampus there are neural pathways involved in its circuitry including the perforant pathway , that provides a connectional route from the entorhinal cortex [2] to all fields of the hippocampal formation , including the dentate gyrus , all CA fields (including CA1), [3] and the subiculum . (
  • Research in his laboratory is aimed at the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie normal neural circuit assembly in the cerebral cortex and their dysregulation in human neurodevelopmental disorders, in particular autism spectrum disorder, fragile X syndrome, and schizophrenia. (
  • Cerebellar granule cells are also the most numerous neurons in the brain: in humans, estimates of their total number average around 50 billion, which means that they constitute about 3/4 of the brain's neurons. (
  • High-resolution time-lapse observation of migrating murine cerebellar granule cells revealed that the nucleus actively rotates along the direction of its translocation, independently of centrosome motion. (
  • First, we used acute cerebellar slices, which preserve the local circuits and allow us to study the properties of candelabrum cells and how they are connected to other cell types ," Osorno and Rudolph explained. (
  • Such repression persists after Eph receptor activation, but is overridden by Eph receptor inhibition with EphA4/Fc in neonatal cultured cerebellar slices as well as mature acute cerebellar slices, following in vivo infusion of the EphA4/Fc inhibitor and in EphB receptor-deficient mice. (
  • No cerebellar activation was associated with the learning phase, despite extensive involvement of other cortical and subcortical regions. (
  • Percutaneous electrical stimulation generated climbing fibre field potentials on the cerebellar surface that indicated a somatotopical organisation into five distinct cortical areas. (
  • Overall, the results support the view that a general principle of cerebellar cortical organisation is a division into parasagittal zones, each characterised by its somatotopically organised climbing fibre input that arises from a specific, rostrocaudally oriented column of cells within the inferior olivary nucleus. (
  • Finally, we used single nuclei RNA sequencing to learn the molecular identity of candelabrum cells and how they relate genetically to other neuron types of the cerebellar cortex. (
  • Lesions of lobule HVI of the cerebellar cortex or of its target in the anterior cerebellar nuclei disrupt the acquisition and retention of conditioned nictitating membrane responses (CRs). (
  • Some have argued that the primary site of learning and memory is in the cerebellar nuclei. (
  • Aspiration lesions of the cerebellar cortex cause retrograde degeneration of precerebellar nuclei. (
  • CRs were lost, demonstrating that the cerebellar cortex is required for retention of CRs and that the cerebellar nuclei on their own cannot maintain CRs. (
  • Fibre sparing lesions of the anterior cerebellar nuclei prevented the acquisition and abolished retention of CRs. (
  • 2. Pontine nuclei and cerebellar cortex. (
  • MWCNT exposure impaired blood brain barrier integrity, as noted by fluorescein uptake, which was associated with increased gene expression of IL-6 and CCL5 in the cortex and hippocampus. (
  • Here we report the use of bulk-loading of fluorescent calcium indicators to record from axons, dendrites, and neuronal cell bodies in cerebellar cortex in vivo. (
  • The cerebellar cortex microcircuit is characterized by a highly ordered neuronal architecture having a relatively simple and stereotyped connectivity pattern. (
  • In the second application of this endothelial cell biosensor paradigm, WT and MMP-9-/- mice were again exposed to MWCNT-7 via pharyngeal aspiration, leading to enhanced hippocampal and cerebellar GFAP staining, indicative of astrocyte activation. (
  • Previous one-dimensional network modeling of the cerebellar granular layer has been successfully linked with a range of cerebellar cortex oscillations observed in vivo. (
  • Pathology load assessment of de-identified, human, post-mortem Alzheimer's disease and age-matched non-symptomatic donor prefrontal cortex brain tissue. (
  • Turnock-Jones JJ, Jennings CA, Robbins MJ, Cluderay JE, Cilia J, Reid JL, Taylor A , Jones DN, Emson PC , Southam E. Increased expression of the NR2A NMDA receptor subunit in the prefrontal cortex of rats reared in isolation. (
  • Glutamate uptake is reduced in prefrontal cortex in Huntington's disease. (
  • Debates on the dorsomedial prefrontal/dorsal anterior cingulate cortex: insights for future research. (
  • Causes and consequences of oscillations in the cerebellar cortex. (
  • 0.0001) in brain mass, brain volume and cerebellar volume was observed in Aves compared to reptiles. (
  • Eight patients and eight controls underwent a transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol to study the cerebellar-brain-inhibition (CBI): a conditioning cerebellar stimulus (CCS) was followed 5 ms after by the contralateral motor cortex stimulation (test stimulus: TS). (
  • Nuclear migration of newly born neurons is essential for cortex formation in the brain. (
  • additional pathways within the brain connect to the visual cortex . (
  • [4] [5] Ascending sensory tracts in the dorsal column-medial lemniscus pathway (DCML) carry information from the periphery to the cortex of the brain. (
  • The association areas are areas that are free to process all kinds of information and make up most of the cerebral cortex and enable the brain to produce behaviors requiring the coordination of many brain areas. (
  • The cell bodies are packed into a thick granular layer at the bottom of the cerebellar cortex. (
  • Here we demonstrate the use of cerebellar evoked potentials (EPs) mediated through these afferent systems for monitoring the injury progression in a rat model of fluid percussion injury (FPI). (
  • Our results suggest that sensory evoked potentials (SEPs) recorded from the cerebellar surface can be a useful technique to monitor the course of cerebellar injury and identify the phases of injury progression even at mild levels. (
  • Concerted Interneuron Activity in the Cerebellar Molecular Layer During Rhythmic Oromotor Behaviors. (
  • Astrocyte cell from live slices taken from the cortex layer 2/3 of an 8 month old GFAP mouse. (
  • Fig. 1: Reconstruction of feedforward circuitry in the cerebellar cortex using large-scale electron microscopy. (
  • It consists of the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the cerebral cortex. (
  • Synaptogenesis in the foetal and neonatal cerebellar system. (
  • Descending motor pathways of the pyramidal tracts travel from the cerebral cortex to the brainstem or lower spinal cord . (
  • Within its crystalline morphology, the cerebellar cortex contains highly organized topographical subunits that are defined by two main inputs, the climbing (CFs) and mossy fibers (MFs). (
  • This study aims to explore anatomical innovations in the cerebellar cortex during the course of evolution of reptiles and Aves. (
  • Overall, the findings gathered by this team of researchers suggest that all inputs, outputs and local signals in the cerebellar cortex converge onto candelabrum cells, which could mean that they play an important part in controlling cerebellar activity. (
  • Histology blog entry for January 17, 2009 about the cerebellar cortex and the cerebral cortex. (
  • [ citation needed ] The "new" name is based primarily on its origin (in the primary motor cortex , Brodmann area 4) and termination (onto the alpha motor neurons of the spinal cord ). (
  • These techniques are proving essential to investigate the spatiotemporal pattern of activity and plasticity in the cerebellar network, providing new clues on how circuit dynamics contribute to motor control and higher cognitive functions. (
  • Trnp1 regulates expansion and folding of the mammalian cerebral cortex by control of radial glial fate. (
  • The occipital lobe of the cortex, located at the back of the head, receives and processes visual information. (
  • If further confirmed, these findings suggest a reduced cerebellar modulation of motor cortex excitability in patients with focal dystonia. (
  • Barth DS, Baumgartner C, Di S (1990) Laminar interactions in rat motor cortex during cyclical excitability changes of the penicillin focus. (
  • Micrometry of layer and cellular architecture of cerebellar cortex were undertaken digitally using ImageJ and statistically compared using GraphPad Prism. (
  • Cerebellar engagement in an action observation network. (
  • Here we explored, the cerebellar modulation of motor cortex in patients with focal upper limb dystonia. (
  • In contrast, no changes in these neurophysiological measures were observed in the motor cortex of patients, regardless of which side was tested. (
  • After 30 days, frontal motor and cerebellar cortex specimens were biochemically assessed for oxidative stress biomarkers and evaluated for histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical changes. (
  • Cerebellar-conditioning significantly reduced TS-MEP amplitude, increased ICF, and decreased SICI in control subjects. (
  • The pros and cons of multi-spot recordings are exemplified for the cerebellar cortex microcircuit. (