Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Crop, Avian: A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Plant Weeds: A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Weed Control: The prevention of growth and or spread of unwanted plants.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Brachypodium: A plant genus in the family POACEAE. Brachypodium distachyon is a model species for functional genomics studies.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Gibberella: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Hypocreaceae, order Hypocreales including several pathogens of grains and cereals. It is also the source of plant growth regulators such as gibberellin and gibberellic acid.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Trichothecenes: Usually 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes, produced by Fusaria, Stachybotrys, Trichoderma and other fungi, and some higher plants. They may contaminate food or feed grains, induce emesis and hemorrhage in lungs and brain, and damage bone marrow due to protein and DNA synthesis inhibition.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Avena sativa: A plant species of the family POACEAE that is widely cultivated for its edible seeds.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Secale cereale: A hardy grain crop, rye, grown in northern climates. It is the most frequent host to ergot (CLAVICEPS), the toxic fungus. Its hybrid with TRITICUM is TRITICALE, another grain.Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Renewable Energy: Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Saccharum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Herbicide Resistance: Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.Brassica rapa: A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Beta vulgaris: A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phytic Acid: Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Bioelectric Energy Sources: Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Manihot: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Lolium: Common member of the Gramineae family used as cattle FODDER. It harbors several fungi and other parasites toxic to livestock and people and produces allergenic compounds, especially in its pollen. The most commonly seen varieties are L. perenne, L. multiflorum, and L. rigidum.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Photobioreactors: Devices for generating biological products that use light as the energy source. They are used for controlled BIOMASS production such as growing cyanobacteria, mosses, or algae.Zearalenone: (S-(E))-3,4,5,6,8,10-Hexahydro-14,16-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2-benzoxacyclotetradecin-1,7(8H)-dione. One of a group of compounds known under the general designation of resorcylic acid lactones. Cis, trans, dextro and levo forms have been isolated from the fungus Gibberella zeae (formerly Fusarium graminearum). They have estrogenic activity, cause toxicity in livestock as feed contaminant, and have been used as anabolic or estrogen substitutes.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Cicer: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for the edible beans.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Microalgae: A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Rhizosphere: The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Pennisetum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the millets used in EDIBLE GRAIN. It contains vitexin. The common name of buffelgrass is also used for CENCHRUS.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Waste Products: Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Lens Plant: A plant genus of the FABACEAE family known for the seeds used as food.Cellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Endosperm: Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.Arachis hypogaea: A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Flour: Ground up seed of WHEAT.Energy Drinks: Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.Lettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Organic Agriculture: Systems of agriculture which adhere to nationally regulated standards that restrict the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ANIMAL FEED.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Jatropha: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. Members contain jatrophone and other diterpenes.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.FiresBrassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Psyllium: Dried, ripe seeds of PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM; PLANTAGO INDICA; and PLANTAGO OVATA. Plantain seeds swell in water and are used as demulcents and bulk laxatives.Salt-Tolerance: The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Second-generation biofuel feedstocks include cereal and sugar crops, specifically grown energy crops, agricultural and ... in that the higher alcohols have higher energy content. Also, when blending, the higher alcohols increase compatibility of ... Feedstocks are energy crops, agricultural and forest residues, food industry and municipal biowaste and other biomass ... The yield of crude tall oil from process is in the range of 30 - 50 kg / ton pulp. Lignocellulosic biofuels reduces greenhouse ...
Biomass Biofuel Energy crop Food vs fuel Issues relating to biofuels Non food crops Poplar Short rotation coppice Short ... Yields of some varieties can be as high as 12 oven dry tonnes every year. However, commercial experience on plantations in ... such as cereal). Although in many areas of the world government funding is still required to support large scale development of ... fuel, whereby it has become financially profitable to replace food crops with energy crops. It has to be noted, however, that ...
Specially bred mustard varieties can produce reasonably high oil yields and are very useful in crop rotation with cereals, and ... fuel Biomass to liquid bio-oil Renewable energy by country Ecological sanitation Economics European Biomass Association IRENA ... In addition to its projected high yield, algaculture - unlike crop-based biofuels - does not entail a decrease in food ... Research is ongoing into finding more suitable biofuel crops and improving the oil yields of these crops. Using the current ...
Energy use in Crop Production System in India. National Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal. C I A E Bhopal. ... low-cost and abundantly available raw food ingredients having high nutrition and functional properties like cereals, coarse ... for basal dose application Yield mapping through grain combine harvester fitted with yield monitors in soybean-wheat cropping ... Value Chain on Biomass based decentralized power generation for agro enterprises. Precision farming technologies based on ...
Specially bred mustard varieties can produce reasonably high oil yields and are very useful in crop rotation with cereals, and ... This biomass can be converted to convenient energy-containing substances in three different ways: thermal conversion, chemical ... In addition to its projected high yield, algaculture - unlike crop-based biofuels - does not entail a decrease in food ... Research is ongoing into finding more suitable biofuel crops and improving the oil yields of these crops. Using the current ...
Because an increased biomass implies higher respiration per surface unit and a limited increase in intercepted light, crop ... The recombination of the electron with the proton yields the energy carriers NADH and ATP. The rate of this reaction often ... Theoretical production ecology assumes that the growth of common agricultural crops, such as cereals and tubers, usually ... Crop Standing crop biomass - Unlimited growth is an exponential process, which means that the amount of biomass determines the ...
Arthropod abundance and biomass was also higher in the clover cover cropped fields throughout much of the songbird breeding ... Ditsch, D. C.; Alley, M. M. (1991). "Nonleguminous Cover Crop Management for Residual N Recovery and Subsequent Crop Yields". ... They can be grown after a main (cereal) crop and trap nematodes, for example the beet cyst nematode[37][38] and Columbian root ... often run out of stored energy for growth before building the necessary structural capacity to break through the cover crop ...
Ceres and Texas A&M to Develop and Market High-Biomass Sorghum for Biofuels Archived July 24, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. " ... The crop is particularly suitable for growing in dryland conditions, as it only extracts one-seventh of the water used by ... Sorghum syrup is also used on pancakes, cornmeal mush, grits and other hot cereals. It can be used as a cooking ingredient with ... Grain sorghum has also been used by the ethanol industry for quite some time because it yields about the same amount of ethanol ...
Arthropod abundance and biomass was also higher in the clover cover cropped fields throughout much of the songbird breeding ... Ditsch, D. C.; Alley, M. M. (1991). "Nonleguminous Cover Crop Management for Residual N Recovery and Subsequent Crop Yields". ... 2003). Catch crops are typically fast-growing annual cereal species adapted to scavenge available nitrogen efficiently from the ... often run out of stored energy for growth before building the necessary structural capacity to break through the cover crop ...
Energy crops are plants which are produced with the express purpose of using their biomass energetically and at the same time ... Harvest time and plant density were found to not affect the biomass yields. Due to its high growth rate and superior resource- ... cereals-legumes cultivated conventionally). Arundo is a highly invasive plant in southwestern North American rivers, and its ... Studies in the European Union have identified A. donax as the most productive and lowest impact of all energy biomass crops ( ...
Early breeding efforts concentrated on developing a high yielding, drought tolerant human food crop species suitable for ... It has received attention as a potential energy crop, and research is currently being conducted on the use of the crop's ... Triticale holds much promise as a commercial crop, as it has the potential to address specific problems within the cereal ... biomass in bioethanol production. Triticale hybrids include: × Triticosecale blaringhemii A.Camus × Triticosecale ...
The Western Biomass Energy facility is currently achieving yields of 40-45 US gallons (150-170 L) per dry ton. It is the first ... forest biomass has significant advantages over agricultural biomass. Forest biomass also has high density which significantly ... A study done over five years showed that growing and managing switchgrass exclusively as a biomass energy crop can produce 500 ... cereal straws and grasses. It is particularly the non-edible portions of plant material which are used to make cellulosic ...
... organic crop yields can be 40%-50% lower than conventional, more intensive farming and labour use can be 10%-25% higher. The ... During the growing season about half the arable area is devoted to cereal crops, and of the cereal crop area, more than 65% is ... Unfortunately biofuels are quite bulky for their energy yield, which means processing into fuel needs to happen near where the ... The UK's share of the European organic farming market is about 10%. Biofuels are fuels derived from biomass. They can be used ...
Such stover makes up about half of the yield of a corn crop and is similar to straw from other cereal grasses; in Britain it is ... It can be burned in furnaces to yield energy that steam turbines convert to electricity. It also has potential for cellulosic ... although it must be managed properly to prevent nitrogen robbery of the next crop, as the high C/N ratio causes available ... biomass ethanol production would use the corn stover from the corn crop produced in areas around ethanol plants. Corn stover, ...
It makes up about half of the yield[clarification needed] of cereal crops such as barley, oats, rice, rye and wheat. It has a ... Schnitzer M, Monreal CM, Powell EE (2014). "Wheat straw biomass: A resource for high-value chemicals". Journal of Environmental ... It has a low digestible energy and nutrient content (as opposed to hay, which is much more nutritious). The heat generated when ... Biomass *The use of straw in large-scale biomass power plants is becoming mainstream in the EU, with several facilities already ...
... in a test to see if higher gas yields could be attained. Biomass The use of straw in large-scale biomass power plants is ... Straw makes up about half of the yield of cereal crops such as barley, oats, rice, rye and wheat. It has many uses, including ... It has a low digestible energy and nutrient content (as opposed to hay, which is much more nutritious). The heat generated when ... Schnitzer M, Monreal CM, Powell EE (2014). "Wheat straw biomass: A resource for high-value chemicals". Journal of Environmental ...
Biomass crops such as SRC willow show higher levels of biodiversity in comparison with intensive arable and grassland crops. ... Currently, the leading countries in area planted for energy generation are Sweden and the UK. SRC uses said high yield ... SRC provides between three and six times the CO2 reduction per pound that can be obtained from bioethanol from cereal crops. ... Natural England.Energy Crops Scheme: Establishment Grants Handbook NNFCC.PowerPlants2020 Web Resource for Energy Crops in UK ...
... but higher levels of warming will negatively affect growth and yields. Extreme events will likely reduce crop yields. Weeds, ... overall reduced biomass production, and lower grain yields. Brazil, Mexico and Argentina alone contribute 70-90% of the total ... cereal fungal disease) development). Scenarios are used in order to estimate climate changes effects on crop development and ... replenish groundwater and use renewable energy. A 2014 study found that warming had increased maize yields in the Heilongjiang ...
It is characterized by a low fallow ratio, higher use of inputs such as capital and labor, and higher crop yields per cubic ... Since cereals that absorbed extra nitrogen would typically lodge (fall over) before harvest, semi-dwarfing genes were bred into ... "Make farming energy efficient." Atlanta Journal-Constitution. June 3. pg. 15A. "What is a dead zone?". NOAA. Retrieved 18 April ... resulting in long-term maximum biomass production. MIRG is especially effective because grazers thrive on the more tender ...
The use of crop breeding, better management of soil nutrients, and improved weed control have greatly increased yields per unit ... Within Agrarian societies the primary source of energy is plant biomass. This means that like hunter-gatherer societies, ... At least at the high points, population densities often seem to have exceeded the level at which everyone could be productively ... Archeological studies show that health deteriorated in populations that adopted cereal agriculture, returning to pre- ...
It is characterized by a low fallow ratio, higher use of inputs such as capital and labour, and higher crop yields per cubic ... of crop rotation is the replenishment of nitrogen through the use of legumes and green manure in sequence with cereals and ... "Make farming energy efficient." Atlanta Journal-Constitution. June 3. pg. 15A". ajc.com.. ... resulting in long-term maximum biomass production.[27][28] MIRG is especially effective because grazers thrive on the more ...
... meaning that desirable traits found in the crop (like high yield or good nutrition) can be lost in subsequent generations ... Higher energy costs affect these costs, especially transportation. The increase in food prices the consumer has been seeing is ... The word "corn" outside North America, Australia, and New Zealand refers to any cereal crop, its meaning understood to vary ... A biomass gasification power plant in Strem near Güssing, Burgenland, Austria, began in 2005. Research is being done to make ...
"The CO2 fertilization effect: higher carbohydrate production and retention as biomass and seed yield". Fao.org. Retrieved 30 ... Grains and cereals are South Africa's most important crops, occupying more than 60 percent of hectare under cultivation in the ... Southern Waters Ecological Research & Consulting & Energy & Development Research Centre. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 ... Due to the aridity of the land, only 13.5 percent can be used for crop production, and only 3 percent is considered high ...
Specially bred mustard varieties can produce reasonably high oil yields and are very useful in crop rotation with cereals, and ... Industrial Crops and Products, 50 (2013) p. 635, table 2. *^ Klass, Donald, "Biomass for Renewable Energy, Fuels,. and ... but DOE is reported as saying that algae yield 30 times more energy per acre than land crops such as soybeans.[107] Yields of ... and the potential oil yields are much higher than from plants. Yield[edit]. Feedstock yield efficiency per unit area affects ...
... there has been an increase in crop growth, particularly in terms of shoot height, dry biomass, and grain yield.[22] ... The International Energy Agency projects higher prices of non-renewable energy resources as a result of fossil fuel resources ... cereals productions lands for some cash crops and even recycling of related food crops. In some cases even a small unit of ... Energy[edit]. Energy is used all the way down the food chain from farm to fork. In industrial agriculture, energy is used in on ...
In general, each trophic level relates to the one below it by absorbing some of the energy it consumes, and in this way can be regarded as resting on, or supported by, the next lower trophic level. Food chains can be diagrammed to illustrate the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to the next in a food chain. This is called an energy pyramid. The energy transferred between levels can also be thought of as approximating to a transfer in biomass, so energy pyramids can also be viewed as biomass pyramids, picturing the amount of biomass that results at higher levels from biomass consumed at lower levels. However, when primary producers grow rapidly and are consumed rapidly, the biomass at any one moment may be low; for example, phytoplankton (producer) biomass can be low compared to the ...
The term biomass is especially useful for plants, where some internal structures may not always be considered living tissue, such as the wood (secondary xylem) of a tree. Biofuels include bioethanol, biodiesel & biogas. Biomass is grown from several plants, including switchgrass, hemp, corn, poplar, willow and sugarcane.[2] The particular plant used is usually not very important to the end products, but it does affect the processing of the raw material. Though biomass is a renewable fuel, its use can still contribute to global warming. This happens when the natural carbon equilibrium is disturbed; for example by deforestation or urbanization of green sites. Biomass is part of the carbon cycle. Photosynthesis converts carbon from the atmosphere into plant matter. When the plant rots or burns, the carbon goes back into the atmosphere. This happens somewhat quickly, and plant matter used as a fuel can be constantly replaced by planting for new ...
Bioenergy global capacity in 2017 was 109 GW.[15]. Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. It most often refers to plants or plant-derived materials which are specifically called lignocellulosic biomass.[69] As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel. Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be achieved by different methods which are broadly classified into: thermal, chemical, and biochemical methods. Wood remains the largest biomass energy source today;[70] examples include forest residues - such as dead trees, branches and tree stumps -, yard clippings, wood chips and even municipal solid waste. In the second sense, biomass includes plant or animal matter that can be converted into fibers or other industrial ...
Annual catches of wild European bass are relatively modest, having fluctuated between 8,500 and 11,900 tonnes in 2000-2009. Most of the reported catches originate from the Atlantic Ocean, with France typically reporting the highest catches. In the Mediterranean, Italy used to report the largest catches, but has been surpassed by Egypt in recent years.[8]. The fish has come under increasing pressure from commercial fishing and has recently become the focus in the United Kingdom of a conservation effort by recreational anglers.[9] The Republic of Ireland has strict laws regarding bass. All commercial fishing for the species is banned and several restrictions are in place for recreational anglers, a closed season May 15 - June 15 inclusive every year, a minimum size of 400 mm, and a bag limit of two fish per day. In a scientific advice (June 2013), it is stressed that fishing mortality is increasing. The total biomass has been declining since 2005. Total ...
where: C(algal oil) is the price of microalgal oil in dollars per gallon and C(petroleum) is the price of crude oil in dollars per barrel. This equation assumes that algal oil has roughly 80% of the caloric energy value of crude petroleum.[142] With current technology available, it is estimated that the cost of producing microalgal biomass is $2.95/kg for photobioreactors and $3.80/kg for open-ponds. These estimates assume that carbon dioxide is available at no cost.[143] If the annual biomass production capacity is increased to 10,000 tonnes, the cost of production per kilogram reduces to roughly $0.47 and $0.60, respectively. Assuming that the biomass contains 30% oil by weight, the cost of biomass for providing a liter of oil would be approximately $1.40 ($5.30/gal) and $1.81 ($6.85/gal) for photobioreactors and raceways, respectively. Oil recovered from the lower cost biomass produced in photobioreactors ...
The simple proposal that biomass is carbon-neutral put forward in the early 1990s has been superseded by the more nuanced proposal that for a particular bioenergy project to be carbon neutral, the total carbon sequestered by a bioenergy crop's root system must compensate for all the emissions from the related, aboveground bioenergy project. This includes any emissions caused by direct or indirect land use change. Many first generation bioenergy projects are not carbon neutral given these demands. Some have even higher total GHG emissions than some fossil based alternatives.[29][30] [31] Transport fuels might be worse than solid fuels in this regard. [32]. Some are carbon neutral or even negative, though, especially perennial crops. The amount of carbon sequestrated and the amount of GHG (greenhouse gases) emitted will determine if the total GHG life cycle cost of a ...
A snail is a common name for a kind of mollusc. The term is used for a gastropod with a coiled shell.. Snails and slugs which breathe with a kind of lung are members of a group, the Pulmonata, which was a well-known order in traditional taxonomy. Their fossil records extends back into the Carboniferous period.[1]. However, the Pulmonata was found to be polyphyletic in a molecular study.[2] What this means is that, in the course of evolution, the same life-style evolved in a number of different lines. Therefore the pulmonates are polyphyletic, and the Pulmonata is no longer an official term in biological classification.. The term "snail" is also sometimes used for aquatic snail-like gastropods, which usually have gills. Actually, most snail species are marine snails: they have much greater diversity and a greater biomass. Numerous kinds of snail can also be found in fresh water habitats.. Close relatives of the snails are the slugs, which are basically snails without shells. Both slugs and ...
Because of Eustrongylides species' complex life cycle with various host species, preventing infection and controlling outbreaks is difficult. Outbreaks of this disease are closely linked to agricultural runoff and urban development[9] Eutrophication of water bodies supports high population levels of oligochaete worms, which causes increased numbers of infected fish that eat the worms, and then the birds who eat the fish.[10] One way to prevent Eustrongylidosis is to control oligochaete populations. Outbreaks of this parasite are closely linked to high numbers of oligochaete worms in the area's waterways. This is because the worms are essential for Eustrongylides species to reproduce. Oligochaete populations can be controlled by monitoring nutrient levels in the water, because high nutrient levels support oligochaete populations.[10] They can also be controlled by decreasing the level of oxygen in the water. Encouraging responsible farming practices in order ...
In agriculture, a living mulch is a cover crop interplanted or undersown with a main crop, and intended to serve the purposes of a mulch, such as weed suppression and regulation of soil temperature. Living mulches grow for a long time with the main crops, whereas cover crops are incorporated into the soil or killed with herbicides. Other benefits of mulches are slowing the growth of weeds, and protecting soil from water and wind erosion. Some living mulches were found to increase populations of the natural enemies of crop pests. Legumes used as living mulches also provide nitrogen fixation, reducing the need for fertilizer. When cover crops are turned over into the soil, they contribute nutrients to the main crop so that less chemical fertilizer is required. The amount of the contribution depends on the biomass, which varies over time and depends on rainfall and other factors. The greater ...
... , or Ming aralia, is a perennial dicot evergreen shrub or dwarf tree native to India. The plant grows fairly slowly but can reach up to 1 to 2 meters in height. The leaves are of a dark green pigment, glossy in texture, and are tripinnate and appear divided. Individual leaves vary from narrowly ovate to lanceolate and are about 10 cm long. The Ming aralia is widely cultivated in several countries of southeastern Asia and the tropical islands of the Pacific region. It was originally located in Polynesia and thrives in environments of medium humidity, with temperatures varying from 16-29⁰C (60-85⁰F). The name Polyscias means many-shaded, in reference to the foliage found on these plants. Their stalks carry compound leaves with up to seven (or more) opposite leaflets. In several species the leaves are deeply lobed. There are about six species of the genus Polyscias which are actively cultivated. The genus contains a variety of tropical plants which include about 80 species ...
In allometric scaling, maximum potential life span (MPLS) is directly related to metabolic rate (MR), where MR is the recharge rate of a biomass made up of covalent bonds. That biomass (W) is subjected to deterioration over time from thermodynamic, entropic pressure. Metabolism is essentially understood as redox coupling, and has nothing to do with thermogenesis. Metabolic efficiency (ME) is then expressed as the efficiency of this coupling, a ratio of amperes[clarification needed] captured and used by biomass, to the amperes available for that purpose. MR is measured in watts, W is measured in grams. These factors are combined in a power law, an elaboration on Kleiber's law relating MR to W and MPLS, that appears as MR = W^ (4ME-1)/4ME.[clarification needed] When ME is 100%, MR = W^3/4; this is popularly known as quarter power scaling, a version of allometric scaling that is premised upon unrealistic estimates of biological efficiency.. The equation reveals ...
The term "Lignin characterization" (or "Lignin analysis") refers to a group of activities within lignin research aiming at describing the characteristics of a lignin by determination of its most important properties. Most often, this term is used to describe the characterization of technical lignins by means of chemical or thermo-chemical analysis. Technical lignins are lignins isolated from various biomasses during various kinds of technical processes such as wood pulping. The most common technical lignins include lignosulphonates (isolated from sulfite pulping), kraft lignins (isolated from kraft pulping black liquor), organosolv lignins (isolated from organosolv pulping), soda lignins (isolated from soda pulping) and lignin residue after enzymatic treatment of biomass. Lignins can be characterized by determination of their purity, molecular structure and thermal properties. For certain applications, other properties such as electrical properties or color may be relevant ...
棘龍擁有獨特的帆狀物,雖然同一時期的該地區其他恐龍也可能發展出類似的背椎結構物,例如鳥腳下目的豪勇龍、蜥腳下目的雷巴齊斯龍,以及生存於南美洲的蜥腳類阿瑪加龍。棘龍的帆狀物也類似異齒龍的背帆;異齒龍是種似哺乳爬行動物,生存於恐龍時代以前的二疊紀,兩者的帆狀物並非同源演化的特徵,而是平行演化的結果。棘龍的背部結構物可能較類似駝峰,而非帆狀物。早在1915年,恩斯特·斯特莫就認為這些背部結構物支撐著脂肪構成的隆肉[4]。在1997年,Jack Bowman Bailey最近提出棘龍、豪勇龍的背棘並非細棒,而是前後軸寬廣,不同於盤龍目的扁平背帆,而是類似巨角犀、水牛的背脊,所以棘龍的背棘應是支撐者較厚、較肥胖的結構物,而非細的帆狀物[8]。 ...
Projected changes in water-limited crop yield Probability of the occurrence of adverse agroclimatic conditions for wheat under ... Projected changes in water-limited yield of winter wheat ... Yields in cereal and oilseed crops respond particularly to the ... The production of biomass in crops is the result of the capture and conversion of solar energy through the process of ... However, this process may be restricted by low (or high) temperatures or by water limitations. Crop yields are affected by the ...
Turning from 1st generation biofuels produced from food crops to 2nd generation biofuels produced from ligno-cellulosic ... Many dedicate crops can be grown on poorer quality land than food crops, although higher yields are likely if grown on quality ... Although biomass crops take up less than 2% of the worlds arable land, estimates about biomass contribution to total food ... as ligno-cellulosic feedstocks include by-products such as cereal straw, sugar cane bagasse and forest residues; waste ...
Biofuels are fuels produced directly or indirectly from organic material - biomass - including plant materials and animal waste ... This stems from both the higher energy yields per hectare and the different choice of fuel used in the conversion process. In ... main cereal and sugar crops based on global average yields and commonly reported conversion efficiencies. The results of their ... Land-use requirements would go up only slightly, to 4.2 percent of arable land, because of higher energy yields per hectare and ...
Projected increases in extreme climatic events are expected to further increase yield variability in the future. Crop yields ... Future climate change can lead to both decreases and increases in yield, depending on the crop type and the climatic and ... whereas yields of other crops (e.g. maize in northern Europe) are increasing. These effects are attributed partly due to ... Extreme climatic events, including droughts and heat waves, have negatively affected crop productivity during the first decade ...
... necessary to support the production of high grain yields or large amounts of plant biomass since it is the high fossil energy ... Legume crops and legume-based pastures use 35% to 60% less fossil energy than N-fertilized cereals or grasslands, and the ... Screening boreal energy crops and crop residues for methane biofuels production. Biomass Bioenerg 32:541-550Google Scholar ... Venendaal R, Jørgensen U, Foster CA (1997) European energy crops. Biomass Bioenerg 13:147-185Google Scholar ...
Biomass Biofuel Energy crop Food vs fuel Issues relating to biofuels Non food crops Poplar Short rotation coppice Short ... Yields of some varieties can be as high as 12 oven dry tonnes every year. However, commercial experience on plantations in ... such as cereal). Although in many areas of the world government funding is still required to support large scale development of ... fuel, whereby it has become financially profitable to replace food crops with energy crops. It has to be noted, however, that ...
Second-generation biofuel feedstocks include cereal and sugar crops, specifically grown energy crops, agricultural and ... in that the higher alcohols have higher energy content. Also, when blending, the higher alcohols increase compatibility of ... Feedstocks are energy crops, agricultural and forest residues, food industry and municipal biowaste and other biomass ... The yield of crude tall oil from process is in the range of 30 - 50 kg / ton pulp. Lignocellulosic biofuels reduces greenhouse ...
The Opera variety and the serrated knife yielded higher shearing strengths and shearing energy than others and knife tilt angle ... 2), plant height and biomass yield (P , 0.01) (Tab. 4). Plant height and biomass yield increased with increasing nitrogen ... Yield adjustment by canola grown at different plant population under semiarid conditions. Crop Sci., 43, 1385-1366. ... Growth and development of winter oilseed rape is more complicated to describe than that of cereals, because of some principal ...
Yields and Economics *Energy *Biotic Factors *Chemical Analysis of Biomass Fuels *References Uses. Alfalfa or lucerne is a ... It has been heralded as having the highest feeding value of all commonly grown hay crops, producing more protein per ha than ... or forage cereals. With total cultivation and harvesting costs at $700/ha/yr and fresh weight yield of 70 MT/ha/yr, the DM ... Energy. In UK, the best options for annual energy plantation crops would probably involve the use of grasses, lucerne, clover, ...
The woodlands of Andhra Pradesh annually yield high-quality timber, such as teak and eucalyptus. Non-timber forest products- ... A number of private companies operate generators powered by natural gas; they also have worked to develop wind, biomass, and ... Most of Andhra Pradeshs energy is produced by thermal generators in the public sector. Hydroelectric power stations-notably ... Livestock raising contributes roughly half as much in overall value as crop production. Animals raised include cattle, water ...
Switchgrass monocultures managed for high yield produced 93% more biomass yield and an equivalent estimated NEY than previous ... Net energy gains or NEY per hectare of biofuels are affected by crop yield, conversion rate, and energy inputs required to ... grain and other cereals such as sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) are the primary feedstock for U.S. ethanol production, but competing ... biomass yield, estimated ethanol output, greenhouse gas emissions, and net energy results. Annual biomass yields of established ...
Specially bred mustard varieties can produce reasonably high oil yields and are very useful in crop rotation with cereals, and ... This biomass can be converted to convenient energy-containing substances in three different ways: thermal conversion, chemical ... In addition to its projected high yield, algaculture - unlike crop-based biofuels - does not entail a decrease in food ... Research is ongoing into finding more suitable biofuel crops and improving the oil yields of these crops. Using the current ...
2012). Efficiently harnessing energy from crop biomass and maximizing the yield of raw materials from crop biomass requires an ... PLA is a biodegradable plastic produced from high sugar/starch biomass crops and typically corn. Other crop biomass may also be ... Since the Green Revolution, global cereal production has increased 200% with only a 30% increase in area for cultivating cereal ... Not only does it cost more to further process biomass into higher value products but it also requires more energy and material ...
Because Brazil relied heavily on imported oil for transportation, but can attain high yields from crops in their tropical ... We should remember that humans originally switched from biomass to fossil fuels because biomass was so inefficient, and took so ... Energy Apr 20, 2014 @ 01:12 PM. Its Final -- Corn Ethanol Is Of No Use. ... corn-based sweeteners and cereals increased as well. World grain reserves dwindled to less than two months, the lowest level in ...
A crop modeling framework, APSIM was adapted to predict the growth and biomass yield of energy sorghum and to identify ... Additionally, APSIM was extended to enable modeling of VPD-limited transpiration traits that reduce crop water use under high ... APSIM was adapted to predict the growth and biomass yield of energy sorghum and to identify potentially useful traits for crop ... Modeling showed that energy sorghums long duration of vegetative growth increased water capture and biomass yield by ~30% ...
We want to develop a high-yielding cropping systems where the need for tillage and herbicides is greatly reduced compared with ... The project objective is to optimize the crop sequence spring cereals - winter wheat in such a system. Subsidiary crops are ... Crop production (7). Potatis (6). Milk (5). Energy and biomass (4). Meat (3). ... We test the hypotheses that herbicide usage can be reduced by 80 % in the crop sequence spring cereals - winter wheat by 80% ...
Improvements of crop yield. Crop yield. In agriculture, crop yield is not only a measure of the yield of cereal per unit area ... Biofuel is a type of fuel whose energy is derived from biological carbon fixation. Biofuels include fuels derived from biomass ... can rise from 16% to 18%. They also warn that higher oil prices might lead to the exploitation of high-carbon alternatives such ... dedicated energy crop. Energy crop. An energy crop is a plant grown as a low cost and low maintenance harvest used to make ...
... in this particular set of experiment yield 13.2 MJ of energy per 1 kg of dry wheat straw, which is at least 20% higher than HTC ... Maize is a major cereal crop worldwide. However, susceptibility to biotrophic pathogens is the primary constraint to increasing ... Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the most abundant yet underutilized renewable energy resources. Both anaerobic digestion (AD ... Complementary FM and TPLSM yield ultra-high resolution images of tissue cellular structure. Results have: (1) identified ...
... using inter-seeded legumes provides further opportunities to improve land management practices that sustain crop yields and ... Benefits of legume cover crops have been known for decades and red clover (Trifolium pratense) is one of the most common and ... We then identify areas of research with significant potential to impact cropping system profitability and sustainability. ... concerns over competition with the main crop and the inability to fully capture red clover benefits due to difficulties in the ...
A model developed in Colombia employs perennial crops with high biomass production potential (sugar cane and forage trees) and ... A common characteristic of these non-conventional feeds is the high water and/or crude fibre contents which alters the energy ... For the world average yield of 50 tonnes/ha/year, total liveweight production per year from pigs and sheep can be 1,500 Kg/ha. ... Recently in Cuba, Castro et al (1990) developed restricted feeding systems using diets in which 60% of the cereal feed was ...
With the ability to produce high biomass in marginal lands with low inputs, sorghum has a great potential to meet second- ... Despite the sorghum crop importance in biofuel and fodder industry, there is no comprehensive information available on the cell ... With the ability to produce high biomass in marginal lands with low inputs, sorghum has a great potential to meet second- ... Despite the sorghum crop importance in biofuel and fodder industry, there is no comprehensive information available on the cell ...
Arthropod abundance and biomass was also higher in the clover cover cropped fields throughout much of the songbird breeding ... Ditsch, D. C.; Alley, M. M. (1991). "Nonleguminous Cover Crop Management for Residual N Recovery and Subsequent Crop Yields". ... They can be grown after a main (cereal) crop and trap nematodes, for example the beet cyst nematode[37][38] and Columbian root ... often run out of stored energy for growth before building the necessary structural capacity to break through the cover crop ...
... textured and high tenacity yarn in rawwhite and spundyed, for spinning and non-woven fiber, for cut flock, for sewing, ... Almost half of the agricultural chemicals used on U. S. crops are applied to cotton. Hemp is considered a high-yield crop and ... Biomass. It has been contended that hemp is notably superior to most crops in terms of biomass production, but van der Werf ( ... While crop residues like cereal straw will probably supply much of the need, specialty fiber plants such as hemp also have ...
Innovative crop protection products and plant biotechnology provide solutions to reduce the energy consumption in agriculture ... The challenges from agricultural requirements to produce food and energy can only be met if we use all options available for ... Algal Biomass. Among alternative feedstocks, algae holds enormous potential to provide a non-food, high-yield, non-arable land ... Feedstocks from ligno-cellulosic materials include cereal straw, bagasse, forest residues, and purpose-grown energy crops such ...
Important crops grown include cereals, cash crops fruits and vegetables. Farming is one of the contributors of pollution to ... The activation energy (Ea) value for immobilized MnP (51.9kJmol -1) was higher than that of the free MnP (34.4kJmol -1).The ... Positive crop yield effects from biochar are likely explained by chemical, physical and/or biological factors. However, studies ... Utilisation of renewable biomass and waste materials in furniture and construction composites2018Conference paper (Other ...
  • This compared to a mean of 3.22 kg N 2 O-N ha −1 from 67 site-years of N-fertilized crops and pastures, and 1.20 kg N 2 O-N ha −1 from 33 site-years of data collected from unplanted soils or unfertilized non-legumes. (springer.com)
  • Hybrid rye is relatively straightforward to grow and suits a wide range of soils across the UK, providing high DM yields and some major agronomic benefits, alongside an ability to spread the workload on farm. (kws-uk.com)
  • It governs everything that we do, from our approach to soils, water and energy to our commitment to community engagement. (fwi.co.uk)
  • A phenol-degrading fungus was isolated from crop soils. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Crop production on soils containing sub-optimal levels of nitrogen (N) severely compromises yield potential. (bioone.org)
  • Our research expertise and interests enable us to address a range of fundamental, strategic and applied aspects of crop-plant agronomy, the interaction of plants with soils, and other genotype by environment (GxE) interactions. (edu.au)
  • His work has focused on how crops respond to nutrient-deficient soils, legume genomics and symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF), which gives rhizobia bacteria in legumes the ability to form root structures vital to plant development. (usda.gov)
  • Global warming will lead to increased evaporation in some areas, causing drier soils and hence less growth, and, in other regions, higher rainfalls which may outweigh the evaporation increase. (uwyo.edu)
  • Life cycle energy balances of legume-based rotations were also assisted by a lower use of agrichemicals for crop protection as diversification of cropping sequences reduce the incidence of cereal pathogens and pests and assisted weed control, although it was noted that differences in fossil energy use between legumes and N-fertilized systems were greatly diminished if energy use was expressed per unit of biomass or grain produced. (springer.com)
  • Another quality unique to leguminous cover crops is that they form symbiotic relationships with the rhizobial bacteria that reside in legume root nodules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cereal/legume intercropping is a classical case. (wur.nl)
  • Some plants, for example legume crops, profit from symbiotic interactions with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, but cereal crops do not naturally form symbiotic nitrogen-fixing associations. (gc.ca)
  • However, for stockless farms even under organic management, the grass-legume biomass would have to be mulched, which involves a loss of financial value, nutrients and evokes nitrous oxide release. (solmacc.eu)
  • Stockless farms also implemented optimized crop rotations with grass-legume leys and the harvested biomass was used by agreed cooperating livestock or biogas producing farms, respectively. (solmacc.eu)
  • As the grass-clover biomass will not be left anymore as much on the field but be removed instead, the associated nitrous oxide emissions will decrease along with an overall increase of the N-fixation performance of the grass-legume system. (solmacc.eu)
  • Hybrid rye is a high value substrate for all year round use in the biogas plant. (kws-uk.com)
  • Straw, processed first as briquettes , has been fed into a biogas plant in Aarhus University, Denmark, in a test to see if higher gas yields could be attained. (wikipedia.org)
  • Worldwide, anaerobic digestion for sanitation and utilization of the produced biogas as energy carrier have a long-standing history. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the light of the transformation of the energy system in Germany towards renewable sources ('Energiewende'), we give an outlook on prospects and concepts for the future role of biogas technology in agriculture and energy supply. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most prominent beneficial features of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process are generation of biogas as a renewable energy carrier based on solar energy stored in biomass and hygienization of the input material during the treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although it turns out from the following section that making use of hygienization is invaluable and has a long-standing history, the focus of this manuscript is on energy supply from biogas. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the last few years, the role of biogas as envisaged in the German renewable energy concept (see 'The role of biogas within the German energy supply system' section) has fuelled respective research and practical initiatives, resulting in an enormous increase of scientific perception and technical know-how. (biomedcentral.com)
  • From these reports it appears that the utility of biogas as energy carrier and of the process for hygienic improvement has been recognized very early. (biomedcentral.com)
  • He oversaw the development of a country strategy for drought-hit Zimbabwe in 2016, the setting up of a pilot biogas plant to extract energy from biomass of constructed wetlands at ICRISAT-India, an effective Farmers Day where farmers pledged to use ICRISAT technology to help double their incomes, and several other milestones. (icrisat.org)
  • The potential of replacing fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW) as remarkable sources of environmentally offensive biomass in metropolises with organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) on biogas production was investigated. (springer.com)
  • Although methane yield did not improve significantly for these substitution ratios, the concentration of methane in the biogas enhanced up to 68% and about 92% of volatile solids' removal achieved. (springer.com)
  • Second-generation biofuels, also known as advanced biofuels, are fuels that can be manufactured from various types of biomass. (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Energy Agency has a goal for biofuels to meet more than a quarter of world demand for transportation fuels by 2050 to reduce dependence on petroleum and coal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Second generation biofuels are fuels manufactured from various types of biomass . (wikipedia.org)
  • Biomass can be used to produce fuels, raw materials, and finished products. (springer.com)
  • In principle, using biomass as an alternative to fossil fuels, fossil raw materials, and minerals presents a clear advantage of displacing the extraction and consumption of these limited resources. (springer.com)
  • Fossil fuels are derived from crude oil, coal, and lignite, which were formed from biomass being trapped in the earth's crust under pressure for hundreds of millions of years. (springer.com)
  • Essentially, the use of fossil fuels results in the large carbon stocks deep beneath the earth's surface being extracted and converted into energy and atmospheric CO 2 , among other emissions. (springer.com)
  • Biomass based alternative fuels offer a solution to the world's ever-increasing energy demand. (frontiersin.org)
  • Dr. David Thompson is principal investigator for a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with an industry partner to develop thermoacidophilic enzymes for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. (inl.gov)
  • Biofuels are fuels derived from crop plants, and include biomass directly burnt, and especially biodiesel from plant seed-oil, and bioethanol from fermenting grain, sap, grass, straw or wood ( Biofuels for Oil Addicts , SiS 30). (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Most models of how plant growth and crop yields will be affected by the CO₂ released by burning fossil fuels have assumed that regular C3 plants may perform better. (phys.org)
  • In the last years a growing attentions was lead to anaerobic digestion (AD) as a suitable ways for treating the OFMSW able to return renewable energy and fuels, together with organic fertilizer. (springer.com)
  • The atmospheric CO 2 concentration is increasing primarily due to the burning of fossil fuels, yet a global increase in biomass during this build-up reduces the rate of CO2 increase . (uwyo.edu)
  • Two major concerns have been the net energy efficiency and economic feasibility of switchgrass and similar crops. (pnas.org)
  • Elveden Farms, which specialises in potatoes, onions, carrots and parsnips, is harnessing the latest technology to keep moving forward with energy efficiency, as well as using irrigation, mechanisation and its skilled workforce to drive improvements. (fwi.co.uk)
  • Recent successes in energy efficiency include a 10% fuel saving from switching to Fendt tractors, in-house design of sub-soiler points to reduce wear and diesel usage and the move to a one-pass establishment system, which saves both time and money. (fwi.co.uk)
  • on the negative side it has created more environmental degradation, more dependence on fossil energy, and a lower energy efficiency. (essaypride.com)
  • This results in lowering the energy efficiency (output-input ratios), and a rapid depletion of non-renewable oil stocks. (essaypride.com)
  • Genetic improvement of photosynthetic performance of cereal crops and increasing the efficiency with which solar radiation is converted into biomass has recently become a major focus for crop physiologists and breeders. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The development of crop varieties displaying high N use efficiency (NUE) is necessary in order to optimize N fertilizer use, and reduce the environmental damage caused by the current excessive application of N in agricultural areas. (bioone.org)
  • This new transition is targeted to increase production efficiency and environmental performance at system level, with coupling of crop-livestock production, whole chain manure management, and spatial planning as major components. (sciencemag.org)
  • With superb efficiency she borrows the energy in cellulose (think grass, upon which humans starve) and reinvests it into a food more perfect than anything in the supermarket. (real-food.com)
  • Water-use efficiency will improve since partially closed stomata on the crop s leaves will still take in the usual amount of CO 2 for plant growth, but the throttling of the stomata lessens the loss of water vapour from within the leaves (2). (uwyo.edu)
  • A higher CO 2 vapour pressure would also increase the mineral use efficiency, in particular that of potassium and calcium. (uwyo.edu)
  • Perennial herbaceous plants such as switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.) are being evaluated as cellulosic bioenergy crops. (pnas.org)
  • Viral diseases are potentially significant threats to bioenergy crops such as Miscanthus x giganteus, energycane and switchgrass," said Bright Agindotan, research associate working in Carl Bradley's laboratory as part of the Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI) located in the Institute for Genomic Biology at the U of I. "Our team at EBI has been charged with identifying potential pests and pathogens of these bioenergy crops. (southeastfarmpress.com)
  • Until recently, little has been known about viruses in these bioenergy crops. (southeastfarmpress.com)
  • This study, "Application of sequence-independent amplification (SIA) for the identification of RNA viruses in bioenergy crops," was published in the Journal of Virological Methods . (southeastfarmpress.com)
  • A report published in 2002 by the CONCAWE group - the oil companies' European association for environment, health and safety in refining and distribution - estimated that if all 5.6 million hectares of set-asides in the EU15 nations were intensively farmed for bioenergy crops, we could save merely 1.3-1.5 percent of road transport emissions, or around 0.3 percent of total emissions from those 15 countries . (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Simulation results indicated that the VPD-limited transpiration trait is most beneficial in hot and dry regions of production where crops are exposed to extended periods without rainfall during the season or to a terminal drought. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, genetics of drought/water stress tolerance in different crops has become a priority area of research. (mdpi.com)
  • This knowledge will be applied to improving drought tolerance of these and other crops through marker-assisted selection and potentially transgenic approaches. (purdue.edu)
  • The advantageous traits of these dryland crops are wider adaptability, fast growth, high biomass production potential, resilience to drought, and non-compromise on food security as the grain is used for human consumption. (icrisat.org)
  • Amaranth (a mah ran th) is a versatile, drought- and weed-resistant crop, making it attractive in many regions of the United States. (agmrc.org)
  • The CRP was authorized by the Food Security Act of 1985 and had a goal of removing highly erodible marginal cropland from crop production by paying farmers and land owners to revegetate the land with perennial grasses and trees. (pnas.org)
  • Farmers who grow hemp claim it is a great rotation crop and can be substituted for almost any harvest. (swicofil.com)
  • The U. S. economy manages in this way to sustain its farmers at an income level that is almost comparable to that of workers in other U. S. economic sectors, but that is almost a hundred times higher than the income of Chinese farmers. (essaypride.com)
  • In contrast, high cost and limited availability of chemical fertilizers prevent its use by poor farmers, causing poverty and hunger derived from low crop yields. (globalplantcouncil.org)
  • Although much bioengineering remains to be done, research carried out at the Rubio laboratory will hopefully contribute to reduce nitrogen fertilization in developed countries and to increase cereal production for farmers in developing countries of Africa and Asia. (globalplantcouncil.org)
  • These inventions increased yields and allowed individual farmers to manage increasingly large farms. (gutenberg.org)
  • Farmers will use a crop monitoring and benchmarking system using satellite data that provides information on the crop status based on weather data and greenness index data. (sintef.no)
  • There, the most exposed portion of the global population, in terms of nutrition and all the ills of extreme poverty, tend to be subsistence farmers who are driven into misery not by low US crop yields, but low commodity prices. (truth-out.org)
  • Only a small percentage of farmers actually plant cover crops because most farmers believe the disadvantages outweigh the advantages. (osu.edu)
  • In order to reduce GHG emissions on the farms, SOLMACC farmers implement different changes in their crop rotation systems, depending on their farm structures, size and technical/financial possibilities. (solmacc.eu)
  • Farmers base their decisions on which crops to grow based on a number of factors, including yield, water availability, and return on investment. (agriculture-xprt.com)
  • In California, farmers most often decide to plant crops that thrive between March and October. (agriculture-xprt.com)
  • According to the FAO, compared to other energy crops, wood is among the most efficient sources of bioenergy in terms of quantity of energy released by unit of carbon emitted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biomass is a wide-ranging term meaning any source of organic carbon that is renewed rapidly as part of the carbon cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon-based materials can be heated at high temperatures in the absence (pyrolysis) or presence of oxygen, air and/or steam (gasification). (wikipedia.org)
  • We have also changed to a glycol refrigerant system in the onion stores, with associated energy savings and a reduction of 31.5t of carbon dioxide/year. (fwi.co.uk)
  • In the bacterial processes involved in the mitigation of nitrogen pollution, an adequately high carbon-to-nitrogen (C : N) ratio is key to sustain denitrification. (hindawi.com)
  • However, as woodchips yielded lower amounts of suspended solids, they constitute an adequate exogenous source for the biological treatment of carbon-deficient effluents. (hindawi.com)
  • The use of straw as a carbon-neutral energy source is increasing rapidly, especially for biobutanol . (wikipedia.org)
  • Movement toward comprehensive coverage of all land sectors under a carbon pricing mechanism would yield economic and environmental benefits. (garnautreview.org.au)
  • This ignores the costs in carbon emissions and energy of the fertiliser and pesticides used for growing the crops, of farming implements, processing and refining, refinery plants, transport, and infrastructure for transport and distribution. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The extra costs in energy and carbon emissions can be quite substantial particularly if the biofuels are made in one country and exported to another, or worse, if the raw materials, such as seed oils, are produced in one country to be refined for use in another. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Phenol degradation was tested at 25 °C under resting mycelium conditions at 6, 30, 60, 200, 350 and 400 mg/l of phenol as the only source of carbon and energy. (scielo.org.ar)
  • The cover crop may grow over winter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The different cover crop species seed rates used were 100 kg ha-1 for white oats, triticale and barley and 40 kg ha-1 for Italian ryegrass (Fourie et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This is a literature review of cover crop benefits from Dabney et al. (osu.edu)
  • These include achieving food security for a rapidly expanding population, lowering the risk of climate change by reducing the net release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere due to human activity, and meeting the increasing demand for energy in the face of dwindling reserves of fossil energy and uncertainties about future reliability of supply. (springer.com)
  • citation needed] The system of energy forestry has faced criticism over food vs. fuel, whereby it has become financially profitable to replace food crops with energy crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some scientists believe that widespread biological nitrogen fixation, achieved mainly through the use of cover crops, is the only alternative to industrial nitrogen fixation in the effort to maintain or increase future food production levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • First-generation biofuels (produced primarily from food crops such as grains, sugar beet and oil seeds) are limited in their ability to achieve targets for oil-product substitution, climate change mitigation, and economic growth. (altenergymag.com)
  • The cumulative impacts of these concerns have increased the interest in developing biofuels produced from non-food biomass. (altenergymag.com)
  • In countries like India, human food demand for food and feed oilseed crops (e.g. soybean, sunflower) exceeds supply, so it is not desirable to divert large quantities of these crops for biodiesel. (altenergymag.com)
  • The challenges are to make the big promises come true: high oil yield, low competition with food crops, use in various agrosystems from monoculture plantations, to mixed cropping and use in hedges around agricultural fields. (europa.eu)
  • For the time being, North America and much of the industrial world have achieved very high agricultural production and low food costs on the basis of extremely intensive industrialised farming systems which use modern technology and chemicals. (essaypride.com)
  • Food security is the most basic output from a cropping system. (fao.org)
  • Households managing cropping systems for self-sufficiency occur in all categories of food insecurity. (fao.org)
  • A successful household whose cropping system supports them in a 'food secure' state, will have different opinions on the effectiveness of their cropping system from a neighbouring 'food insecure' household that also aims at self sufficiency. (fao.org)
  • Both increase the yields of food and fiber per acre as compared to traditional animal husbandry. (gutenberg.org)
  • The high food prices before the Great Crash of 2008, and the return to record levels in 2010 and the first months of 2011, is an early taste of the world of climate change and its mitigation. (garnautreview.org.au)
  • The aim is to contribute to the production of the best possible raw materials from the three sectors to improve the output of food, energy and biomaterials. (sintef.no)
  • Developing biomass crops that do not harbor pathogens that can spread to nearby cultivated food crops such as cereals is a high priority for plant breeders. (southeastfarmpress.com)
  • As we will show in this module, food is most definitely one of the Grand Challenges of the 21st Century, and feeding the increasing global population will require a very different approach to the production and distribution of crops and other sources of nutrition. (psu.edu)
  • An enhanced understanding of this relationship holds the potential for improved food crop yields, better prediction of human disease risk and new drug therapies. (nsf.gov)
  • We can't expect that our food security problems will be solved by C4 crop yields increasing in response to CO₂ as they did in the experiment. (phys.org)
  • Right now is the moment to abandon the fiction that cows are high on the food chain. (real-food.com)
  • Several groups are working independently towards development of both agrosystems and high quality germplasm of Jatropha, and downstream processing and biodiesel markets. (europa.eu)
  • DDCE combines DuPont's expertise in biorefinery design and engineering, pretreatment chemistry, and mixed-sugar fermentation with Genencor's expertise in biomass enzymes and low-cost biocatalyst production. (wordpress.com)
  • Climate change also showed positive effects on yields. (europa.eu)
  • The science is telling us that climate change will be associated with significant warming, which will change optimal planting and harvesting times and the crops, cultivars and animal types that do well in each region. (garnautreview.org.au)
  • The software can be used to study crop production from experimental plots and fields, to evaluate the impact of climate variation on crops, to derive crop descriptors from remote sensing, to verify crop growth model output, and to interface surface conditions to regional meteorological models. (gc.ca)
  • To reduce these risks, the impact of climate change mitigation strategies and management systems for crop adaptation to climate change conditions should be considered. (intechopen.com)
  • The large number of serious Covid 19 cases in regions with a high level of air pollution makes a change in our approach to the climate even more urgent. (eliant.eu)