Cercocebus atys: A species of Old World monkeys from the genera CERCOCEBUS that is important in AIDS research. They may be naturally or experimentally infected with the SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS. They inhabit African forests from Sierra Leone to the Congo Republic.Cercocebus: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE inhabiting the African forests. They are also known as mangabeys.Cercopithecidae: The family of Old World monkeys and baboons consisting of two subfamilies: CERCOPITHECINAE and COLOBINAE. They are found in Africa and part of Asia.Monkey Diseases: Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Primate T-lymphotropic virus 3: A species of DELTARETROVIRUS that includes the strains SIMIAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 3 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 3.Ape Diseases: Diseases of chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.Simian T-lymphotropic virus 1: A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2, closely related to the human HTLV-1 virus. The clinical, hematological, and histopathological characteristics of the disease in STLV-infected monkeys are very similar to those of human adult T-cell leukemia. Subgroups include the African green monkey subtype (STLV-I-AGM), for which the nucleotide sequence is 95% homologous with that of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1, and the Asian rhesus macaque subtype (STLV-I-MM), for which the nucleotide sequence is 90% homologous with that of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1.Deltaretrovirus Infections: Infections caused by the HTLV or BLV deltaretroviruses. They include human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED).Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Markov Chains: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Structural Homology, Protein: The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.rap1 GTP-Binding Proteins: A genetically related subfamily of RAP GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that share homology with RAS PROTEINS. They bind to Ras effectors but do not activate them, therefore they may antagonize the effects of RAS PROTEINS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.rap GTP-Binding Proteins: A family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are related to RAS PROTEINS.This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.LDL-Receptor Related Protein-Associated Protein: A membrane protein found in the rough endoplasm reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) that binds to LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEINS. It may function to prevent ligand binding of receptors during protein processing events within endosomal compartments.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.PrimatesConvolvulaceae: The morning glory family of flowering plants, of the order Solanales, which includes about 50 genera and at least 1,400 species. Leaves are alternate and flowers are funnel-shaped. Most are twining and erect herbs, with a few woody vines, trees, and shrubs.United StatesAfrican Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Mandrillus: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, comprising two species: the drill (M. leucophaeus) and the mandrill (M. sphinx). They are usually found in thick rainforest and have a gentle disposition despite their ferocious reputation. Some authors consider Mandrillus a subgenus of PAPIO.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Peer Review: An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.Sociobiology: The comparative study of social organization in animals including humans, especially with regard to its genetic basis and evolutionary history. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Cercopithecinae: A subfamily of the Old World monkeys, CERCOPITHECIDAE. They inhabit the forests and savannas of Africa. This subfamily contains the following genera: CERCOCEBUS; CERCOPITHECUS; ERYTHROCEBUS; MACACA; PAPIO; and THEROPITHECUS.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Prostitution: The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.

Identification of multiple simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific CTL epitopes in sooty mangabeys with natural and experimentally acquired SIV infection. (1/113)

Host immune responses to SIV infection in sooty mangabeys are likely to be an important determinant of how such nonhuman primate species maintain asymptomatic lentivirus infection. We have previously described two patterns of asymptomatic SIV infection in sooty mangabeys: low viral loads with vigorous SIV-specific CTL activity in SIVmac239-infected sooty mangabeys, and high viral loads with generally weak or absent SIV-specific CTL activity in naturally infected sooty mangabeys. To define the specificity of the CTL response in SIV-infected mangabeys, we characterized CTL epitopes in two naturally infected and three SIVmac239-infected sooty mangabeys. Compared with that in SIVmac239-infected mangabeys, the yield of SIV-specific CTL clones was significantly lower in naturally infected sooty mangabeys. All CTL clones were phenotypically CD3+ CD8+, and lysis was MHC restricted. Seven SIV CTL epitopes were identified in five sooty mangabeys: one in Gag and three each in Nef and Envelope (Env). The CTL epitopes mapped to conserved regions in the SIV genome and were immunodominant. Several similar or identical CTL epitopes were recognized by both naturally infected and SIVmac239-infected mangabeys that shared class I MHC alleles. To our knowledge, this is the first report of SIV-specific CTL epitopes in sooty mangabeys. Longitudinal studies of viral load and sequence variation in CTL epitopes may provide useful information on the role of CTL in control or persistence of SIV infection in sooty mangabeys.  (+info)

Simian immunodeficiency virus utilizes human and sooty mangabey but not rhesus macaque STRL33 for efficient entry. (2/113)

It has been established that many simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolates utilize the orphan receptors GPR15 and STRL33 about as efficiently as the chemokine receptor CCR5 for entry into target cells. Most studies were performed, however, with coreceptors of human origin. We found that SIV from captive rhesus macaques (SIVmac) can utilize both human and simian CCR5 and GPR15 with comparable efficiencies. Strikingly, however, only human STRL33 (huSTRL33), not rhesus macaque STRL33 (rhSTRL33), functioned efficiently as an entry cofactor for a variety of isolates of SIVmac and SIV from sooty mangabeys. A single amino acid substitution of S30R in huSTRL33 impaired coreceptor activity, and the reverse change in rhSTRL33 greatly increased coreceptor activity. In comparison, species-specific sequence variations in N-terminal tyrosines in STRL33 had only moderate effects on SIV entry. These results show that a serine residue located just outside of the cellular membrane in the N terminus of STRL33 is critical for SIV coreceptor function. Interestingly, STRL33 derived from sooty mangabeys, a natural host of SIV, also contained a serine at the corresponding position and was used efficiently as an entry cofactor. These results suggest that STRL33 is not a relevant coreceptor in the SIV/macaque model but may play a role in SIV replication and transmission in naturally infected sooty mangabeys.  (+info)

Simian immunodeficiency viruses of diverse origin can use CXCR4 as a coreceptor for entry into human cells. (3/113)

Primary simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolated from sooty mangabey (SIVsm [n = 6]), stumptail (SIVstm [n = 1]), mandrill (SIVmnd [n = 1]), and African green (SIVagm [n = 1]) primates were examined for their ability to infect human cells and for their coreceptor requirements. All isolates infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a CCR5(+/+) donor, and seven of eight isolates tested also infected CCR5(-/-) PBMCs. Analysis of coreceptor utilization using GHOST and U87 cell lines revealed that all of the isolates tested used CCR5 and the orphan receptors STRL33 and GPR15. Coreceptors such as CCR2b, CCR3, CCR8, and CX3CR1 were also utilized by some primary SIV isolates. More importantly, we found that CXCR4 was used as a coreceptor by the SIVstm, the SIVagm, and four of the SIVsm isolates in GHOST and U87 cells. These data suggest that primary SIV isolates from diverse primate species can utilize CXCR4 for viral entry, similar to what has been described for human immunodeficiency viruses.  (+info)

Relative resistance in the development of T cell anergy in CD4+ T cells from simian immunodeficiency virus disease-resistant sooty mangabeys. (4/113)

Despite high viral loads, T cells from sooty mangabey (SM) monkeys that are naturally infected with SIV but remain clinically asymptomatic, proliferate and demonstrate normal Ag-specific memory recall CD4(+) T cell responses. In contrast, CD4(+) T cells from rhesus macaques (RM) experimentally infected with SIV lose Ag-specific memory recall responses and develop immunological anergy. To elucidate the mechanisms for these distinct outcomes of lentiviral infection, highly enriched alloreactive CD4(+) T cells from humans, RM, and SM were anergized by TCR-only stimulation (signal 1 alone) and subsequently challenged with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 Abs (signals 1 + 2). Whereas alloreactive CD4(+)T cells from humans and RM became anergized, surprisingly, CD4(+) T cells from SM showed marked proliferation and IL-2 synthesis after restimulation. This resistance to undergo anergy was not secondary to a global deficiency in anergy induction of CD4(+) T cells from SM since incubation of CD4(+) T cells with anti-CD3 alone in the presence of rapamycin readily induced anergy in these cells. The resistance to undergo anergy was reasoned to be due to the ability of CD4(+) T cells from SM to synthesize IL-2 when incubated with anti-CD3 alone. Analysis of phosphorylated kinases involved in T cell activation showed that the activation of CD4(+) T cells by signal 1 in SM elicited a pattern of response that required both signals 1 + 2 in humans and RM. This function of CD4(+) T cells from SM may contribute to the resistance of this species to SIV-induced disease.  (+info)

No evidence of HIV and SIV sequences in two separate lots of polio vaccines used in the first U.S. polio vaccine campaign. (5/113)

We obtained sealed vials of two different polio vaccine lots, expiration date 1955, which were used in the first U.S. polio vaccine campaign. These early lots were pulled from the market because they contained live infectious poliovirus which caused polio in some of the vaccines. Theoretically, these vaccines could have contained other infectious retroviruses, including HIV. No viral sequences were detected using RT-PCR analyses with primers capable of amplifying chimpanzee SIV and HIV-1-related viruses nor with primers for macaque SIV, sooty mangabey SIV, and HIV-2-related viruses. Poliovirus sequences were readily amplified by RT-PCR, suggesting that the technique used would have detected SIV or HIV sequences, if present.  (+info)

Identification of protein kinases dysregulated in CD4(+) T cells in pathogenic versus apathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infection. (6/113)

Human immunodeficiency virus infection in humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques (RM) leads to a generalized loss of immune responses involving perturbations in T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling. In contrast, naturally SIV-infected sooty mangabeys (SM) remain asymptomatic and retain immune responses despite relatively high viral loads. However, SIV infection in both RM and SM led to similar decreases in TCR-induced Lck phosphorylation. In this study, a protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) differential display method was utilized to characterize the effects of in vivo SIV infection on key signaling molecules of the CD4(+) T-cell signaling pathways. The CD4(+) T cells from SIV-infected RM, but not SIV-infected SM, showed chronic downregulation of baseline expression of MLK3, PRK, and GSK3, and symptomatically SIV-infected RM showed similar downregulation of MKK3. In vitro TCR stimulation with or without CD28 costimulation of CD4(+) T cells did not lead to the enhancement of gene transcription of these PTKs. While the CD4(+) T cells from SIV-infected RM showed a significant increase of the baseline and anti-TCR-mediated ROR2 transcription, SIV infection in SM led to substantially decreased anti-TCR-stimulated ROR2 transcription. TCR stimulation of CD4(+) T cells from SIV-infected RM (but not SIV-infected SM) led to the repression of CaMKKbeta and the induction of gene transcription of MLK2. Studies of the function of these molecules in T-cell signaling may lead to the identification of potential targets for specific intervention, leading to the restoration of T-cell responses.  (+info)

Noninvasive detection of new simian immunodeficiency virus lineages in captive sooty mangabeys: ability to amplify virion RNA from fecal samples correlates with viral load in plasma. (7/113)

The sooty mangabey (SM) (Cercocebus atys) is the natural host of a simian immunodeficiency virus, termed SIVsm, which gave rise to human immunodeficiency virus type 2. Data on the geographic distribution, prevalence, and genetic diversity of SIVsm in the wild remains limited. To address this issue, noninvasive strategies based on screening SM fecal and urine specimens for SIVsm-specific antibodies and virion RNA (vRNA) were developed, and the results were correlated with viral loads in plasma. Twenty-three SIVsm-infected and 27 uninfected SMs were evaluated. Time-matched urine, fecal and plasma samples were collected over a 2-month period from 16 captive naturally infected SMs. The remaining 7 infected and 27 uninfected SMs were sampled once. Each specimen was subjected to enhanced chemiluminescence-Western blot analysis and nested reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR. The results showed that urine was highly sensitive (96%) and specific (100%) for detection of SIVsm antibodies, while fecal detection was much less sensitive (16%). Conversely, vRNA detection was more sensitive in feces (50%) than in urine (2%) samples. Fecal-vRNA detection correlated with viral loads in plasma (P < 0.002). SMs with detectable fecal vRNA had a mean viral load in plasma of 458,006 copies/ml, while those with undetectable fecal vRNA had a mean viral load in plasma of 29,428 copies/ml. Moreover, for every log increase in the viral load in plasma, the odds of detecting virus in fecal samples increased 87-fold. Genetic diversity of SIVsm in the SM colony was characterized by sequencing partial gag (846 bp) and gp43 (439 bp) fragments. Surprisingly, four new SIVsm lineages were identified, two of which were initially detected by fecal RT-PCR. This study documents the suitability of noninvasive methods for the detection and molecular characterization of new SIV variants. These assays will be useful for studying the phylogeny and epidemiology of SIVsm infections in the wild, and they hold promise as tools for investigating natural SIV infections in endangered nonhuman primates.  (+info)

Nonpathogenic SIV infection of sooty mangabeys is characterized by limited bystander immunopathology despite chronic high-level viremia. (8/113)

HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected rhesus macaques who remain healthy despite long-term infection exhibit exceptionally low levels of virus replication and active antiviral cellular immune responses. In contrast, sooty mangabey monkeys that represent natural hosts for SIV infection do not develop AIDS despite high levels of virus replication and limited antiviral CD8(+) T cell responses. We report here that SIV-infected mangabeys maintain preserved T lymphocyte populations and regenerative capacity and manifest far lower levels of aberrant immune activation and apoptosis than are seen in pathogenic SIV and HIV infections. These data suggest that direct consequences of virus replication alone cannot account for progressive CD4(+) T cell depletion leading to AIDS. Rather, attenuated immune activation enables SIV-infected mangabeys to avoid the bystander damage seen in pathogenic infections and protects them from developing AIDS.  (+info)

*Sooty mangabey

Cercocebus atys atys (west of the Sassandra River) White-collared (or White-crowned) mangabey, Cercocebus atys lunulatus (east ... Sooty Mangabey Photos and information about the Sooty Mangabey (Cercocebus atys). ARKive. Primate Info Net Cercocebus atys ... The sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys) is an Old World monkey found in forests from Senegal in a margin along the coast down to ... Oates, J. F.; Gippoliti, S. & Groves, C. P. (2016). "Cercocebus atys". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016.2. ...

*List of Old World monkey species

Groves, C.P. (2005). "Cercocebus atys". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic ... Oates, J. F.; Gippoliti, S.; Groves, C. P. (2008). "Cercocebus atys". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. ... Groves, C.P. (2005). "Cercocebus agilis". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic ... Groves, C.P. (2005). "Cercocebus sanjei". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic ...

*Sexual swelling

One example of this stems from research into sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys); the females of this species have been found to ... Cercocebus torquatus atys)". International Journal of Primatology. 12 (6): 585-597. doi:10.1007/BF02547671. ISSN 0164-0291. ... For instance, they occur in all species of Cercocebus, Mandrillus, Theropithecus, Papio and Pan, and in most macaques, ...

*Beatrice Hahn

Cercocebus atys). The realization that the transfer of SIVs had generated HIV led Hahn to conclude that presence of Acquired ...

*History of emerging infectious diseases

It is established that HIV-2 originated from the sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys), an Old World monkey of Guinea Bissau, Gabon ...

*AIDS bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Cercocebus atys), monyet dari Guinea Bissau, Gabon, dan Kamerun. Banyak ahli berpendapat bahwa HIV masuk ke dalam tubuh manusia ...

*Subtypes of HIV

Cercocebus atys atys) from the Taï Forest, Côte d'Ivoire: Implications for the Origin of Epidemic Human Immunodeficiency Virus ... Cercocebus atys atys) (SIVsmm), a monkey species inhabiting the forests of Littoral West Africa. Phylogenetic analyses show ...

*History of HIV/AIDS

Similar research has been undertaken with SIV strains collected from several wild sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys atys) (SIVsmm ... Cercocebus atys atys) from the Tai Forest, Cote d'Ivoire: Implications for the Origin of Epidemic Human Immunodeficiency Virus ... Cercocebus atys atys), an Old World monkey inhabiting southern Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and ...

*Old World monkey

Cercocebus atys Collared mangabey, Cercocebus torquatus Agile mangabey, Cercocebus agilis Golden-bellied mangabey, Cercocebus ... chrysogaster Tana River mangabey, Cercocebus galeritus Sanje mangabey, Cercocebus sanjei Genus Mandrillus Mandrill, Mandrillus ... Theropithecus gelada Genus Cercocebus - white-eyelid mangabeys Sooty mangabey, ...

*List of mammals of Guinea

Cercocebus Sooty mangabey Cercocebus atys LR/nt Collared mangabey Cercocebus torquatus LR/nt Subfamily: Colobinae Genus: ...

*List of MeSH codes (B01)

... cercocebus MeSH B01.150.900.649.801.400.112.199.120.120.110 --- cercocebus atys MeSH B01.150.900.649.801.400.112.199.120.126 ...

*Collared mangabey

... leading to easy confusion with Cercocebus atys lunulatus), is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae of Old World ... Nguyen, Khoa Huu (1999). "Cercocebus torquatus". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 6 January 2012. Media related to Cercocebus ... The collared mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus), also known as the red-capped mangabey, or the white-collared mangabey ( ... Oates, J. F.; Gippoliti, S. & Groves, C. P. (2008). "Cercocebus torquatus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008 ...

*Taï National Park

Cercocebus atys), the dwarf galago (Galago demidovii) and Bosman's potto (Perodicticus potto). There were more than 2,000 West ...

*List of mammals of Senegal

Cercocebus Sooty mangabey Cercocebus atys LR/nt Subfamily: Colobinae Genus: Colobus King colobus Colobus polykomos LR/nt Genus ...

*HIV/AIDS

Cercocebus atys atys), an Old World monkey living in coastal West Africa (from southern Senegal to western Côte d'Ivoire). New ...

*Mont Sângbé National Park

Cercocebus atys lunulatus), Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana rolowayi), western palm squirrel (Epixerus ebi), African linsang ...

*List of primates

Genus Cercocebus Agile mangabey (Cercocebus agilis) Sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys) Golden-bellied mangabey (Cercocebus ... chrysogaster) Tana River mangabey (Cercocebus galeritus) Sanje mangabey (Cercocebus sanjei) Collared mangabey (Cercocebus ...

*List of mammals of Ghana

Cercocebus Sooty mangabey Cercocebus atys LR/nt Subfamily: Colobinae Genus: Colobus Ursine colobus Colobus vellerosus VU Genus ...

*HIV

Cercocebus atys atys), an Old World monkey living in littoral West Africa (from southern Senegal to western Côte d'Ivoire).[20] ...

*Ukimwi, kamusi elezo huru

Virusi vinavyohusiana kwa karibu na VVU-2 ni VSVU(smm) ambavyo ni virusi vya mangabi mwenye masizi (Cercocebus atys atys), ...

*List of primates of Africa

... golden-bellied mangabey Cercocebus agilis (Milne-Edwards, 1886) - agile mangabey Cercocebus atys (Audebert, 1797) - sooty ... Geoffroy, 1812) - white-eyelid mangabeys Cercocebus sanjei (Mittermeier, 1986) - Sanje mangabey Cercocebus galeritus (Peters, ... mangabey Cercocebus torquatus (Kerr, 1792) - collared mangabey Rungwecebus (Davenport, 2006) Rungwecebus kipunji (Jones et al ...

*White-eyelid mangabey

Genus Cercocebus Sooty mangabey, Cercocebus atys Collared mangabey, Cercocebus torquatus Agile mangabey, Cercocebus agilis ... Primate Info Net Cercocebus Factsheets Cercocebus in Animal Diversity Web This article incorporates text from a publication now ... Golden-bellied mangabey, Cercocebus chrysogaster Tana River mangabey, Cercocebus galeritus Sanje mangabey, Cercocebus sanjei ... The other two genera of mangabeys, Lophocebus and Rungwecebus, were once thought to be very closely related to Cercocebus, so ...

*Barbary macaque

Cercocebus. (White-eyelid. mangabeys). *Sooty mangabey (C. atys). *Collared mangabey (C. torquatus) ...

*Grey-cheeked mangabey

Cercocebus. (White-eyelid. mangabeys). *Sooty mangabey (C. atys). *Collared mangabey (C. torquatus) ...

*Gelada

Cercocebus. (White-eyelid. mangabeys). *Sooty mangabey (C. atys). *Collared mangabey (C. torquatus) ...

*Barbary macaque

Cercocebus. (White-eyelid. mangabeys). *Sooty mangabey (C. atys). *Collared mangabey (C. torquatus) ...
Understanding the reasons why SIV-infected sooty mangabeys (SMs) remain healthy despite high viremia is a key unanswered question in contemporary AIDS research,...
High levels of HIV-1 replication during the chronic phase of infection usually correlate with rapid progression to severe immunodeficiency. However, a minority of highly viremic individuals remains asymptomatic and maintains high CD4? T cell counts. This tolerant profile is poorly understood and reminiscent of the widely studied nonprogressive disease model of SIV infection in natural hosts. Here, we identify transcriptome differences between rapid progressors (RPs) and viremic nonprogressors (VNPs) and highlight several genes relevant for the understanding of HIV-1-induced immunosuppression. RPs were characterized by a specific transcriptome profile of CD4? and CD8? T cells similar to that observed in pathogenic SIV-infected rhesus macaques. In contrast, VNPs exhibited lower expression of interferon-stimulated genes and shared a common gene regulation profile with nonpathogenic SIV-infected sooty mangabeys. A short list of genes associated with VNP, including CASP1, CD38, LAG3, TNFSF13B, SOCS1, ...
Disease-free infection in HIV-infected adults is associated with human leukocyte antigen-mediated suppression of viremia, whereas in the sooty mangabey and other healthy natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), viral replication continues unabated. To better understand factors preventing HIV disease, we investigated pediatric infection, where AIDS typically develops more rapidly than in adults. Among 170 nonprogressing antiretroviral therapy-naïve children aged |5 years maintaining normal-for-age CD4 T cell counts, immune activation levels were low despite high viremia (median, 26,000 copies/ml). Potent, broadly neutralizing antibody responses in most of the subjects and strong virus-specific T cell activity were present but did not drive pediatric nonprogression. However, reduced CCR5 expression and low HIV infection in long-lived central memory CD4 T cells were observed in pediatric nonprogressors. These children therefore express two cardinal immunological features of nonpathogenic SIV
Numerous studies have sought to link craniofacial morphology with behavioral ecology in primates. Extant hard-object feeders have been of particular interest because of their potential to inform our understanding about the diets of early fossil hominins. Sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) are hard-object feeders that frequently generate what have been described as audibly powerful bites at wide jaw gapes to process materially stiff and hard seeds. We address the hypothesis that sooty mangabeys have features of the masticatory apparatus that facilitate this feeding behavior by comparing fiber architecture and leverage of the masseter and temporalis muscles between sooty mangabeys and three papionin primates that do not specialize on hard objects ...
The primate lentiviruses comprise SIV strains from various host species, as well as two viruses, HIV-1 and HIV-2, that cause AIDS in humans. The origins of HIV-1 and HIV-2 have been traced to cross-species transmissions from chimpanzees and sooty mangabey monkeys respectively. Two approaches have been taken to estimate the time-scale of the evolution of these viruses. Certain groups of SIV strains appear to have evolved in a host-dependent manner, implying a time-scale of many thousands or even millions of years. In stark contrast, molecular clock calculations have previously been used to estimate a time-scale of only tens or hundreds of years. Those calculations largely ignored heterogeneity of evolutionary rates across different sites within sequences. In fact, the distribution of rates at different sites seems extremely skewed in HIV-1, and so the time-depth of the primate lentivirus evolutionary tree may have been underestimated by at least a factor of ten. However, these date estimates ...
HIV-2: Background HIV-2 is a diverse group of viruses closely related to and thought to be derived from the SIV of sooty mangabey monkeys First isolated in 1986 from AIDS patient in West Africa Generally confined to W Africa and in countries with close links such as Portugal. Different subtypes exist; A and B main subtypes infecting humans Different disease progression to HIV-1 Lower virulence - slower progression to AIDS Lower viral load - lower transmission rates Poorly or not detected by most HIV-1 assays. International Standard for HIV-2 RNA would be valuable for assays that detect HIV-2
By Maximilian Muenchhoff, Emily Adland, Owen Karimanzira, Carol Crowther, Matthew Pace, Anna Csala, Ellen Leitman, Angeline Moonsamy, Callum McGregor, Jacob Hurst, Andreas Groll, Masahiko Mori, Smruti Sinmyee, Christina Thobakgale, Gareth Tudor-Williams, Andrew J. Prendergast, Henrik Kloverpris, Julia Roider, Alasdair Leslie, Delane Shingadia, Thea Brits, Samantha Daniels, John Frater, Christian B. Willberg, Bruce D. Walker, Thumbi Ndungu, Pieter Jooste, Penny L. Moore, Lynn Morris, Philip Goulder. Science Translational Medicine ...
Tom, It depends on how you define epidemic. An epidemic is generally a large number of cases of an illness in a relatively short period of time. Influenza is a good example of an epidemic virus. Now, if you look at SIV, the situation is more complicated. In feral African green monkeys in East Africa, 50% are actively infected with SIV. However, SIVAGM causes no disease in this species. The virus is essentially normal flora. The same situation can be seen in humans. Epstein Barr virus infects ,80% of the adult population, but causes no detectable disease in most of those infected. In addition, sooty mangabeys also carry an SIV which causes no disease in sooty mangabeys. But inoculate a Rhesus macaque with SIVSM, and it causes an AIDS-like illness. It appears that in the species in which SIV is found naturally, it causes little or no disease. Cross species transmission results in disease, but this appears to rarely occur in nature. Jay M ...
In the battle against thrips, Cornell breeder Martha Mutschler-Chu has developed a new weapon: a tomato that packs a powerful one-two punch to deter the pests and counter the killer viruses they transmit.
Plant breeder Martha Mutschler-Chu has developed a variety of tomato that deters pests and counters the killer viruses they transmit.
The development of disease resistance among Chesapeake Bay oysters calls for a shift in oyster-restoration strategies within the Bay and its tributaries.
Researchers have taken a step towards understanding how some species of monkeys such as sooty mangabeys and African green monkeys do not get AIDS when infected with SIV, the simian equivalent of HIV.
To identify viral characteristics that may explain how the SIVs have successfully infected other primate species, we analyzed the types and extent of SIVsm diversification in naturally infected SMs. Our findings of high intra-host extremes of SIVsm V1V2 nt diversity extend previous studies of naturally SIV-infected SMs and African green monkeys (AGMs) [56-63] by demonstrating that viruses found within a single animal can vary by greater than 35% at the aa level. The ranges of aa diversity in some intra-host pairwise SIVsm V1V2 sequence comparisons in this study rival that of inter-animal comparisons [40]. As our diversity calculations exclude V1V2 length variation, they represent an underestimate of the true magnitude of viral diversity. V1V2 length polymorphisms would be predicted to have dramatic effects on SIVsm Env conformation and phenotypic diversity [64,65].. Positive selection in V1V2 appears to explain the observed env diversification. Specific sites in V1 were consistently selected for ...
Genetic engineering (GE)-the introduction or change of DNA, RNA or proteins by human manipulation to effect a change in an organisms genome-has thus far delivered a very limited range of products to agriculture-principally pest- and disease-resistant crop varieties. But this is about to change. A much broader range of applications is becoming available, including new options to enhance disease and pest resistance, nutritional quality, and the ecological sustainability of cropping systems.. The technologies include gene editing (site-specific changes to DNA in a genome), gene drives (greatly enhancing or reducing the frequency of genes that affect insect or pathogen reproduction) and synthetic biology (re-designing or constructing biological devices, e.g. chromosomes or organelles).. In a new review paper in the Annual Review of Phytopathology, we describe these emerging GE technologies to control plant pests and diseases, and focus on their applications for problems of importance to ...
Disease resistance is bred into many Tomato varieties. These plants have sturdy constitutions that fend off certain fungi, pests (such as nematodes), and viruses.
The canola plant is set for an overhaul to boost its oil content, make it more disease-resistant, and help it adapt to climate change, thanks to the sequencing of its genome.
Although the cellular immune response is essential for controlling SIV replication in Asian macaques, its role in maintaining nonpathogenic SIV infection in natural hosts such as sooty mangabeys (SM) remains to be defined. We have previously shown that similar to rhesus macaques (RM), SM are able to mount a T lymphocyte response against SIV infection. To investigate early control of SIV replication in natural hosts, we performed a detailed characterization of SIV-specific cellular immunity and viral control in the first 6 mo following SIV infection in SM. Detection of the initial SIV-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT response in SIVsmE041-infected SM coincided temporally with a decline in peak plasma viremia and was similar in magnitude, specificity, and breadth to SIVsmE041-infected and SIVmac239-infected RM. Despite these similarities, SM showed a greater reduction in postpeak plasma viremia and a more rapid disappearance of productively SIV-infected cells from the lymph node compared with ...
The grey-cheeked mangabey (Lophocebus albigena) is an Old World monkey that can be found in the forests of Central Africa. Its range stretches from Cameroon to Gabon. This monkey prefers habitats in primary forests or swamps within forests, but it has also been found in secondary forests. It was thought that these monkeys only lived in the higher canopy, but groups have been found searching for food on the forest floor. The diet of the grey-cheeked mangabey consists of shoots, flowers, and insects, but it mainly eats fruits such as figs. It will eat seasonal fruit as well.. The grey-cheeked mangabey will live in groups of up to thirty individuals, and these groups may contain several males. However, there is no alpha male and young males will leave to join other groups when they are ready. Female mangabey will reside in the group in which they are born. Groups have been known to split if one becomes too large. Each mangabey troop prefers to avoid other troops, so hostilities do not often ...
Struggling with rose diseases often converts affection to frustration for the millions of gardeners who grow the beloved shrubs.. Instead of cursing the big three - black spot, powdery mildew and rust - take the advice of Jay Pscheidt, a plant pathologist with Oregon State University Extension Service, who steers people to roses that enjoy immunity to the threats of these diseases.. "Save yourself a lot of hassle and plant disease-resistant roses this spring for trouble-free bouquets in the summer," he said. The Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Handbook, which Pscheidt co-authored, offers a list of varieties.. Hybrid teas that smell sweet and are moderately resistant to all three diseases include dark-red Mr. Lincoln; Double Delight with its shades of reds, pinks and whites; pastel pink Tiffany; and sunset-orange Voodoo. Dark-salmon Fragrant Cloud is highly resistant to rust and moderately resistant to powdery mildew and black spot.. Tournament of Roses, a coral-colored grandiflora, and the ...
Macaulay Library ML170582; gray-cheeked mangabey; Lophocebus albigena; © Peter Waser; Kanyawara; near Makerere University Biological Field Station, Western, Uganda; 21 Aug 1974
A team of US researchers, including an Indian-origin scientist, has found that older adults who used a hearing aid performed significantly better on cognitive tests than those who did not use a hearing aid despite having poorer hearing.
Monitor roses closely for blackspot. Conditions earlier this season were perfect for encouraging this fungal condition. Remove any leaves that show darkened circles with fuzzy margins on either the tops or undersides of leaves; yellow foliage with dark spots; and any leaves that have already dropped from the plant. In the future, choose disease-resistant roses.. ...
Prevent insects from entering your home by caulking or covering entryways with holes or gaps. Erase ants trails with soapy water so that they will stop using that path. Use insect traps before using insecticides. Use local, disease-resistant plants that are less likely to contribute to infestation ...
Michelle and Ann are both in the 2017 edition of Best American Science and Nature Writing, Michelle for The Parks of Tomorrow in National Geographic, Ann for Inside the Breakthrough Starshot Mission to Alpha Centauri in Scientific American. Notable mentions in the same edition were Christies Failure is Moving Science Forward in FiveThirtyEight.com and Eriks Why Great Sharks Are Still a Mystery to Us for National Geographic.. Michelle and ex-LWONian Erika Check Hayden were each finalists in the (also big-deal) National Academies 2017 Communication Awards/Keck Futures Initiative. Michelle co-finalized for articles in National Geographic on climate change, Erika for articles in Nature on CRISPR-Cas9.. Christie won a 2016 AAAS-Kavli Science Journalism award (big deal) for a FiveThirtyEight.com series on p-hacking your way to scientific glory. One of that series, called Science Isnt Broken also won a Kantor Information is Beautiful award. Classic Christie: "When the first analysis you try doesnt ...
Apparently humans arent the only primates that plan outdoor events based on weather. Gray-cheeked mangabey monkeys rely on recent trends in temperature and solar radiation to forage for figs and insect larvae, report Karline Janmaat and her colleagues of the University of St. Andrews in Scotland. The results support a lesser-studied notion that primate cognition evolved to solve problems rooted in ecology--such as foraging--instead of the more favored viewpoint, that cognition evolved as a way to cope within a complex society. The findings, published today in Current Biology, come from field studies conducted for 210 days in the Kibale National Park of Uganda, where Janmaat mapped out the locations of 80 fig trees, noting whether the trees contained ripe fruit, unripe fruit or no fruit at all. Next, her team followed a group of mangabey monkeys from dawn to dusk, recording their position every 10 minutes using global positioning system (GPS) satellite technology, and observing whether the ...
Simian immunodeficiency viruses are retroviruses found in primates. Researchers have hypothesized that SIVs led to the transmission of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) in humans. Evidence suggests that both HIV-1 and HIV-2 originated in Africa, with HIV-1 being a relative of a SIV that infects wild chimpanzees, and HIV-2 being a relative of one that infects the sooty mangabey. It is likely that the first human cases of HIV resulted from contact with an infected chimpanzee or monkey.. ...
Researchers have identified an important cog in the molecular machinery of plant immunity -- a discovery that could help crop breeders produce disease-resistant varieties to help ensure future food security. There may also be implications for treating human immune-related disorders.
WOKW rats and BB/OK rats were originated from the same colony of Wistar rat and both strains possess RT1u haplotype (Kovács, 1997). WOKW rats develop polygenic inherited metabolic syndrome resembling human disorder such as obesity, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia (Kovács, 1997; Kovács, 2000; van den Brandt, 2000; van den Brandt, 2002). By breeding analysis of disease-prone WOKW and disease-resistant DA rats, several QTLs associated with metabolic syndrome were mapped (Kovács, 2000; Klöting, 2001; Baguhl, 2009). Some of them were sex-specific. (Sep 16, 2010 ...
Grapes come in many disease-resistant cultivars, but this does not mean they are all impervious to diseases. Even resistant varieties can develop grape diseases under the proper conditions. Sprays designed for grape diseases can prevent infection and eradicate existing diseases quickly to avert crop disasters. Use ...
CITES is an international agreement between governments, aimed to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.. ...
CIAT distributes the seeds from this project to various sub-organisations who then supply them to breeders. The analytical method for determining genetic markers is relatively simple and inexpensive to apply, making it viable for use in agricultural laboratories in the countries concerned. It costs less than 0.2 CHF to test a genetic marker, Nay explains, which is an affordable amount for laboratories in less affluent countries. Whats more, all the findings from this study are available through open access. "This way, our work reaches the people who really need these kind of resources," Nay emphasises.. Nay and Studer worked on this project in close collaboration with CIAT. The global research centre runs the largest breeding programme in the tropics and has several thousand varieties of bean in its seed repository. At its headquarters in Colombia, CIAT breeds new bean varieties, tests the seeds, and, in partnership with the Pan-Africa Bean Research Alliance, makes the seeds available to ...
HIV pathogenesis reflects the various biologic properties of HIV and the hosts immune response to the virus. The differential expression of these two major components of HIV infection determines the final outcome: long-term survival or development of AIDS with its associated opportunistic infections and cancers. How these viral and immunological features of HIV pathogenesis influence survival from HIV infection becomes an important consideration. This chapter first discusses cofactors in HIV infection and disease progression. The pathogenic pathway, after the acute infection period, can be divided into three major phases: early period following acute virus infection, persistent period, and symptomatic period. One noteworthy observation is the loss of CD4+ T cells in the bowel of SIV-infected healthy sooty mangabeys similar to that noted in HIV infection. The chapter talks about high-risk HIV-exposed seronegative individuals, and diversity of viruses involved in transmission and infection. In addition
This balanced formula contains a 6-12-6 fertilizer, plus humus, amino acids, and vitamins to make seedlings stocky and disease-resistant Gardeners Supply
J Virol. 2008 Apr;82(7):3725-35. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02408-07. Epub 2008 Jan 23. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.
Introduction Tributyltin is among the wide-spread and important persistent organic impurities that accumulate in the meals string. tissues was processed for CAL-101 cell signaling ultrastructure and histological evaluation. The colloid section of thyroid follicles was evaluated and statistically analyzed morphometrically. Results A substantial reduction in T3 and T4 amounts and serum decreased glutathione in the group II in comparison to the various other groups. Furthermore, a substantial upsurge in serum Malondialdehyde and TSH amounts was documented in group II treated group in comparison towards the various other two groups. Ultrastructural and Histopathological adjustments of thyroid gland follicles were discovered in tributyltin treated rats; the follicular cells appeared vacuolated and swollen. Epithelial stratification was seen in some foci with extreme vacuolation from the colloid. Dilated tough endoplasmic reticulum filled up with flocculent material and increased number of lysosomes ...
While following a troop of sooty mangabeys, monkeys found in the forests of Ivory Coast, Boston University primatologist Erin Kane walked face-first into a
South Africa remains plagued by AIDS despite massive government and NGO efforts on prevention and life-sustaining Anti-Retro-Viral programs. The country has the highest number of new HIV infection worldwide and 15 to 20 percent of the adult population is HIV positive. But it has opened up another front to reduce new HIV infections: promoting circumcision. Each day, dozens of men pass through the doors of this circumcision clinic in southern Johannesburg.
But as you can imagine, Atys could not escape his fate. While prohibited from war, he is allowed to go on a boar hunt where he is accidentally stabbed by a compatriots spear. He dies of his wound, and then the friend commits suicide. A real dream by historical character? Or a morality tale Herodotus spins to underscore his own belief in fate, the will of the gods and the honour of friends?. Most likely the latter, given Herodotus tendencies to throw tall tales into his histories. Herodotus also recounts the dream of King Astyages where his daughter Mandane urinates until all of Asia is flooded. That, we learn later, was a prophecy of the rise of Cyrus. great leaders are often - later - said to have been prophesized by dreams.. Similarly, the Bible is replete with dreams and visions, mostly in the Old Testament, some of which are recast in the New Testament to justify elements of the Christian story. Post facto, again, of course, sometimes with the help of editors.. Its a fairly common to find ...
The preliminary sequencing of the cacao genome is a promising first step in advancing farmers ability to plant more robust, higher yielding and drought and disease-resistant trees. The results of the research will be made available to the public with permanent access via the Cacao Genome Database (www.cacaogenomedb.org) to ensure that the data remains perpetually open without patent, as well as to allow scientists to begin applying the findings immediately to crop cultivation efforts ...
Saving the American Elm by Bruce Carley http://www.elmpost.org I have posted this article to call attention to a special project which I have been doing since 1994 and which hopefully will be a source of inspiration for many. Ever since some new disease-resistant varieties of purely American elm were called to my attention, I have been hooked on raising these trees for distribution in my home town of Acton, Massachusetts, and it did not take me long to conceive of finding a way to have them planted on various conservation lands, where they will always be safe from indifferent landowners. I soon became acquainted with this town s conservation director, who welcomed my idea wholeheartedly and gave me the necessary permission. During their usual strolls along the main streets of their home towns, our parents and grandparents gazed at the scenery around them and took for granted a spectacular picture that is seldom observed nowadays and that few of us can hope to see during our lifetimes. The ...
These easy-care beauties offer repeat bloom, disease-resistant foliage, and outstanding hardiness. Their extraordinary tolerance for wind, salt, and neglect also makes them a superb choice for seaside gardens. Their perfume is exquisite, and the bright fruits borne by many of them are colorful and attractive later in the season.
three_related_papers_published_in_the_sept_1_edition_of_the_journal_of_immunology_provide_key_new_insights_into_the_complexity_of_hivaids_don_sodora_phd_a_principal_investigator_in_sbris_viral_vaccines_program_who_recently_joined_sbri_from_the_university_of_texas_southwestern_medical_center_is_senior_author_on_one_of_three_papers_that_collectively_show_cd4_tcell_depletion_a_critic
At the Agricultural Research Services National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture (NCCCWA) in Leetown, West Virginia, scientists have developed a new line of trout that is resistant to bacterial cold-water disease.. They have also developed a susceptible line and a control line to use in studies of how breeding changes disease-resistance properties in trout. They have identified regions on several chromosomes that are responsible for disease resistance and have developed a test that detects F. psychrophilum after infection.. Molecular biologist Greg Wiens and geneticist Timothy Leeds recently completed a field performance evaluation in collaboration with industry and government stakeholders.. In a study that appeared in Aquaculture in 2013, Mr Wiens measured performance of the control, susceptible, and disease-resistant lines of fish under farm conditions before and after natural exposure to the pathogen.. "After exposure, the disease-resistant line had a higher rate of survival than ...
Science, 12 November 1999; Volume 286, pp. 1305-1306. Thanks to immunization, polio like smallpox may soon be eradicated. But did the trials of early polio vaccines trigger AIDS? The central thesis of Edward Hoopers new book, The River, is that they did. Hooper argues that both AIDS viruses, HIV-1 and HIV-2, first infected humans via contaminated oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV). He claims these vaccines were grown in kidney cell cultures derived in the 1950s from chimpanzees and sooty mangabeys, respectively, that were infected with simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs). Although this notion has been explored before, no one previously has researched the history of polio vaccine trials and early AIDS cases so exhaustively. Hooper builds up layer upon layer of circumstantial evidence and plausible conjecture, until he declares: "The reader must make up his mind or her mind. I have made up mine." Yet after having read his 858 pages of text and 175 pages of notes and references, I remain undecided ...
The advantages of cloning include genetic continuity, creating all-female gardens, and reducing the length of the growing cycle. One disadvantage of cloning is that plants grown this way can be less vigorous and disease-resistant than plants grown from seeds.. Also, growers who work only with clones are forfeiting the chance to increase marijuanas ability to survive on earth: genetic diversity through sexual reproduction is the only way that plants and animals can evolve fast enough to keep up with changing habitat conditions.. For the sake of genetic diversity, and to ensure vigorous plants, growers should start with seeds and produce new mother plants every few crops.. Heres a guide to the basics of proper cloning technique. ...
Semidwarfing rootstocks produce a tree that may be 20 feet or taller on fertile, well-drained soil. M.7 rootstock (75 percent size of a seedling tree) and MM.111 (85 percent of a seedling tree) perform well on most Missouri sites (Figure 12). M.26 rootstock is not recommended because it is extremely susceptible to fire blight. Even though these trees may be advertised as freestanding, use an 8-foot stake to support trees on dwarfing rootstock at planting and a 5-foot stake to support trees on M.7 rootstock). Stakes may be removed from M.7 trees when they are self-supporting after seven years. Trees generally will not bear a full crop of fruit until five or more years after planting. These trees will usually have a lifespan of more than 25 years.. Many apple cultivars are suitable for use in Missouri. To reduce the incidence of disease infections, plant a disease-resistant cultivar such as Liberty or Enterprise. Other disease-resistant varieties include Jonafree, Redfree and Goldrush, but they ...
far, four out of ten VRQ/VRQ and two out abnormal PrP (and, by implication, infec- of ten VRQ/ARQ Cheviot sheep have also tivity) was detected in the lymphoid tissues Selective breeding for disease-resistant succumbed to disease after incubation peri- of any of the ARR/ARRsheep cases of BSE ods of 881-1,092 days. Unexpectedly, 3 out reported here. Likewise, neither clinically of 19 BSE-challenged ARR/ARR sheep also normal ARR/ARR sheep in scrapie-endem- spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), if it is showed clinical symptoms after incubation ic flocks, nor those challenged orally with that the genotype associated with the respectively, but none of the ARR hetero- highest resistance can still be infected with zygotes has been clinically affected to date. although here again the number of animals BSE by intracerebral inoculation. Although examined is small6,12. These results indicate protease-resistant fraction of PrP (PrPSc) that ARR/ARR sheep are unlikely to excrete exposed to natural infection ...
Cucumber, Edmonson Heirloom Cucumber, Heirloom Cucumber, Pickling Cucumber, Slicing Cucumber). This is an easy-to-grow heirloom cucumber that produces loads of crisp ivory green fruits. This variety came from Kansas native Clarice Cooper, whose grandfather Edmonson selected and grew the cucumber throughout his lifetime. The non-bitter cucumbers are crisp and flavorful and turn from milky green when pickle-sized (4 inches (10 cm) long) to dark orange-red when large and full-sized. The plants begin to produce harvestable fruits about 70 days after sowing seeds. Plants are disease-resistant and.... ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measurement of hemolytic complement and the third component of complement in nonhuman primates. AU - Holmberg, C. A.. AU - Ellingsworth, L.. AU - Osburn, Bennie. AU - Grant, C. K.. PY - 1977/12/1. Y1 - 1977/12/1. N2 - Complement, determined by hemolytic assay, and the third component of complement (C3), determined by radial immunodiffusion assay, were measured in nine nonhuman primate species. The species studied were the titi (Callicebus mollach). The sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys), the thick-tailed galago or bushbaby (Galago crassicaudatus panganiensis), the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis), the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata), the stumptailed macaque (Macaca speciosa), the yelllow baboon (Papio cynocephalus), and the black-and-red tamarin (Saguinus nigricollis). Both sheep and bovine erythrocytes were used in the hemolytic complement assays. With the sheep erythrocyte system sera from four species (yellow baboon, sooty mangabey, ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
In vivo blockade of CD28 and CD40 T cell costimulation pathways during acute simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of rhesus macaques was performed to assess the relative contributions of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and Ab responses in modulating SIV replication and disease progression. Transient administration of CTLA4-Ig and anti-CD40L mAb to SIV-infected rhesus macaques resulted in dramatic inhibition of the generation of both SIV-specific cellular and humoral immune responses. Acute levels of proliferating CD8+ T cells were associated with early control of SIV viremia but did not predict ensuing set point viremia or survival. The level of in vivo CD4+ T cell proliferation during acute SIV infection correlated with concomitant peak levels of SIV plasma viremia, whereas measures of in vivo CD4+ T cell proliferation that extended into chronic infection correlated with lower SIV viral load and increased survival. These results suggest that proliferating CD4+ T cells function both as ...
In related news, a large number of HIV-positive people in central China have developed AIDS despite receiving access to no-cost antiretroviral drugs, Chen Zhiwei, director of the AIDS Institute at the University of Hong Kong, said Thursday, Reuters Health reports. According to Chen, resistance to first-line antiretrovirals is fueling the increase in AIDS cases.. Chen did not specify which provinces in central China are affected. He said that researchers since 2003 have been "trying to understand" why the number of AIDS cases has increased despite the availability of no-cost treatment for low-income people.. According to Reuters Health, second-line antiretrovirals are not widely available and are expensive in China. Chinese pharmaceutical companies also are unable to produce lower-cost versions of second-line drugs because of patent laws. Advocates have said that although some HIV-positive people can afford to purchase second-line antiretrovirals from other countries, others develop AIDS because ...
In HIV infection, complete immunological clearance of the foreign antigen does not occur, resulting in chronic immune activation. Because chronic immune activation may contribute to disease progression in HIV infection, immunomodulators may have therapeutic value in early HIV disease prior to development of opportunistic infections. The clinical benefits of methotrexate appear to derive from an anti-inflammatory effect; thus, it may reduce the state of chronic immune activation.. Patients are randomized to receive methotrexate at Dose 1 or 2 (low doses) for 12 weeks, with 8 weeks of follow-up. If interim safety monitoring and viral burden results for the two cohorts support continuation, a third cohort of patients receive methotrexate starting at Dose 2 for the first 2 weeks, then at Dose 3 for the next 2 weeks, and at Dose 4 for the remaining 8 weeks, with 8 weeks of follow-up.. AS PER AMENDMENT 1/10/97:. The Dose 1 (the lowest dose) has been eliminated; the first 10 patients are now assigned ...
In HIV infection, complete immunological clearance of the foreign antigen does not occur, resulting in chronic immune activation. Because chronic immune activation may contribute to disease progression in HIV infection, immunomodulators may have therapeutic value in early HIV disease prior to development of opportunistic infections. The clinical benefits of methotrexate appear to derive from an anti-inflammatory effect; thus, it may reduce the state of chronic immune activation.. Patients are randomized to receive methotrexate at Dose 1 or 2 (low doses) for 12 weeks, with 8 weeks of follow-up. If interim safety monitoring and viral burden results for the two cohorts support continuation, a third cohort of patients receive methotrexate starting at Dose 2 for the first 2 weeks, then at Dose 3 for the next 2 weeks, and at Dose 4 for the remaining 8 weeks, with 8 weeks of follow-up.. AS PER AMENDMENT 1/10/97:. The Dose 1 (the lowest dose) has been eliminated; the first 10 patients are now assigned ...
Botanist Phyllis Clinch paved the way for new disease-resistant crop varieties and effective procedures for controlling plant diseases by investigating the viruses that can decimate commercial crops.
Also within the VitisGen and VitisGen2 programs is a trait-economics component, which helps the research team understand the value these traits would have in the industry. The team assesses what consumers would be willing to pay for desirable table grape traits such as flavor, texture, berry shape and size, and thin skins, in order to help guide the breeding decisions. The trait-economics group did studies in California to assess what type of savings certain traits might result for growers and Reisch says savings would be seen in materials, applications, etc. He says disease-resistant winegrape varieties may be a solution to Pierces disease. However, the challenges to introducing a new winegrape variety in an industry which favors single-varietal wines is a little bit more of a challenge. "Adopting replacement varieties for Chardonnay and Merlot - that may take a little more time because the market really wants its Chardonnay and Merlot, even though those are susceptible to disease, to ...
Tissue in monkeys infected with a close relative of HIV can ramp up production of a type of T cell that actually weakens the bodys attack against the invading virus. The discovery, in lymph nodes draining the intestinal tract, could help explain how the HIV virus evades the bodys immune defenses. [en español]
The addition of CD40 mAb further enhanced cytokine-mediated IgG production in culture supernatants from non-infected and SIV-infected macaques on D21p.i. but not on D14p.i ...

Sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys)Sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys)

... Recordings of vocalisations, images, video clips and links to published research. for ...
more infohttp://www.unine.ch/compcog/en/home/audio_visual_material/sooty-mangabeys-cercocebus-atys.html

SOCS1 - Uncharacterized protein - Cercocebus atys (Sooty mangabey) - SOCS1 gene & proteinSOCS1 - Uncharacterized protein - Cercocebus atys (Sooty mangabey) - SOCS1 gene & protein

Cercocebus atys (Sooty mangabey) (Cercocebus torquatus atys)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,A0A2K5KNU8,A0A2K5KNU8_CERAT Uncharacterized protein OS=Cercocebus atys OX=9531 GN=SOCS1 PE=4 SV=1 ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A0A2K5KNU8

PUF60 - Uncharacterized protein - Cercocebus atys (Sooty mangabey) - PUF60 gene & proteinPUF60 - Uncharacterized protein - Cercocebus atys (Sooty mangabey) - PUF60 gene & protein

Cercocebus atys (Sooty mangabey) (Cercocebus torquatus atys)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,A0A2K5MFC1,A0A2K5MFC1_CERAT Uncharacterized protein OS=Cercocebus atys OX=9531 GN=PUF60 PE=4 SV=1 ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A0A2K5MFC1

Primate Factsheets: Sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys) Taxonomy, Morphology, & EcologyPrimate Factsheets: Sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys) Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology

Genus: Cercocebus. Species: C. atys. Subspecies: C. a. atys, C. a. lunulatus. ... Cercocebus atys. ,Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology, , Behavior , Conservation , References , Links , AV. This sheet covers the " ... Cercocebus atys The sooty mangabey is found on the west coast of Africa from Senegal to Ghana and in every coastal country ... atys populations, C. atys is elevated to its own species, with the white-naped mangabey (C. a. lunulatus) as a subspecies ( ...
more infohttp://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/sooty_mangabey

Index of /genomes/Cercocebus atys/Index of /genomes/Cercocebus atys/

Index of /genomes/Cercocebus_atys/. ../ CHR_Un/ 31-Mar-2015 19:54 - GFF/ 31-Mar-2015 19:54 - Gnomon/ 31-Mar-2015 19:54 - RNA/ ...
more infohttp://mirror.ufs.ac.za/genomes/Cercocebus_atys/

Sooty mangabey - WikipediaSooty mangabey - Wikipedia

Cercocebus atys atys (west of the Sassandra River) White-collared (or White-crowned) mangabey, Cercocebus atys lunulatus (east ... Sooty Mangabey Photos and information about the Sooty Mangabey (Cercocebus atys). ARKive. Primate Info Net Cercocebus atys ... The sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys) is an Old World monkey found in forests from Senegal in a margin along the coast down to ... Oates, J. F.; Gippoliti, S. & Groves, C. P. (2016). "Cercocebus atys". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016.2. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sooty_mangabey

List of Old World monkey species - WikipediaList of Old World monkey species - Wikipedia

Groves, C.P. (2005). "Cercocebus atys". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic ... Oates, J. F.; Gippoliti, S.; Groves, C. P. (2008). "Cercocebus atys". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. ... Groves, C.P. (2005). "Cercocebus agilis". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic ... Groves, C.P. (2005). "Cercocebus sanjei". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Old_World_monkey_species

CDC at Work: Mycotic Diseases Branch | Fungal Diseases | CDCCDC at Work: Mycotic Diseases Branch | Fungal Diseases | CDC

Ruptured mycotic aortic aneurysm in a sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys)external icon. Comp Med 2011; 61(6): 532-7. ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/fungal/cdc-and-fungal.html

Emergence of Monkeypox - West and Central Africa, 1970-2017  | MMWREmergence of Monkeypox - West and Central Africa, 1970-2017 | MMWR

Monkeypox virus was isolated from a wild caught sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys).. ** Democratic Republic of the Congo has ... Cercocebus atys) in Côte dIvoire. Contact with the animal reservoir/reservoirs, including contact with live or dead animals, ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6710a5.htm

Primate FactsheetsPrimate Factsheets

Cercocebus (mangabey). *. Cercocebus atys (sooty mangabey) *Cercopithecus (guenon). *Cheirogaleus (dwarf lemur). *. Chiropotes ...
more infohttp://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/factsheets/

SWISS-MODEL Repository | A0A024RAP5SWISS-MODEL Repository | A0A024RAP5

Cercocebus atys: A0A2K5NY11 ; Callithrix jacchus: F7HVH6 ; Pteropus alecto: L5L209 ; Erinaceus europaeus: A0A1S3ASI5 ; Gallus ...
more infohttps://swissmodel.expasy.org/repository/uniprot/A0A024RAP5

SWISS-MODEL Repository | A0A099ZYX9SWISS-MODEL Repository | A0A099ZYX9

Cercocebus atys: A0A2K5KXP4 ; Austropotamobius pallipes: A0A221C7D5 ; Austropotamobius torrentium: A0A221C7E1 ; Callithrix ...
more infohttps://swissmodel.expasy.org/repository/uniprot/A0A099ZYX9

ASP - Taxonomic IndexASP - Taxonomic Index

Cercocebus atys [109] Cercopithecus ascanius [145] Cercopithecus lomamiensis [145] Cercopithecus mitis [4] ...
more infohttps://www.asp.org/meetings/taxonomicindex.cfm?year=2014&expand=true

Yaws Disease Caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue in Wild Chimpanzee, Guinea, 2019 - Volume 26, Number 6-June 2020 ...Yaws Disease Caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue in Wild Chimpanzee, Guinea, 2019 - Volume 26, Number 6-June 2020 ...

Cercocebus atys atys] in Taï National Park, Côte dIvoire) (1; B. Mubemba et al., unpub. data, ). Two studies observed that TPE ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/6/19-1713_article

TSC1 | CTDTSC1 | CTD

105594171 Cercocebus atys , 105721089 Aotus nancymaae , 105806636 Propithecus coquereli , 105859868 Microcebus murinus , ...
more infohttp://ctd.mdibl.org/detail.go?type=gene&acc=7248

APOE | CTDAPOE | CTD

105595125 Cercocebus atys , 105713028 Aotus nancymaae , 105817646 Propithecus coquereli , 105869509 Microcebus murinus , ...
more infohttp://ctd.mdibl.org/detail.go?type=gene&acc=348

FAO -  TWENTY-THIRD REGIONAL CONFERENCE FOR AFRICAFAO - TWENTY-THIRD REGIONAL CONFERENCE FOR AFRICA

Cercocebus atys lunulatus), colobines (Miss Waldrons Red colobus, Procolobus badius waldroni); and the black-and-white colobus ... Cercocebus atys). Serologic evidence of SIV infection has so far been documented in 26 primate species, and surveys in Central ...
more infohttp://www.fao.org/3/J1457E/J1457E.htm

Laboratory Primate Newsletter Volume 31 Number 3Laboratory Primate Newsletter Volume 31 Number 3

Female rank instability in newly formed groups of familiar sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus atys). Gust, D. A. & Gordon, T ... Threats to observers, keepers, visitors, and others, by zoo mangabeys (Cercocebus galeritus chrysogaster). Mitchell, G., ...
more infohttp://www.brown.edu/Research/Primate/lpn31-3.html

Comparative Medicine: Ingenta Connect Table Of ContentsComparative Medicine: Ingenta Connect Table Of Contents

Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy in an Aged Sooty Mangabey (Cercocebus atys) pp. 515-520(6) Authors: DAngelo, Olivia M; Dooyema, ...
more infohttps://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/aalas/cm/2013/00000063/00000006
  • Specifically, we discovered that HIV-1 resulted from cross-species infections of SIVcpz and SIVgor naturally infecting chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) , respectively, while HIV-2 resulted from transmissions of SIVsmm infecting sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) . (upenn.edu)
  • To a lesser extent, leprosy has been reported in wild chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) and sooty mangabey monkeys ( Cercocebus atys ) in Africa and several primate species have been infected experimentally with leprosy bacilli ( 6 - 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Accuracy of Human and Veterinary Point-of-Care Glucometers for Use in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta), Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), and Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). (emory.edu)