Simian immunodeficiency virus
Primate T-lymphotropic virus 3
Simian T-lymphotropic virus 1
Identification of multiple simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific CTL epitopes in sooty mangabeys with natural and experimentally acquired SIV infection. (1/113)Host immune responses to SIV infection in sooty mangabeys are likely to be an important determinant of how such nonhuman primate species maintain asymptomatic lentivirus infection. We have previously described two patterns of asymptomatic SIV infection in sooty mangabeys: low viral loads with vigorous SIV-specific CTL activity in SIVmac239-infected sooty mangabeys, and high viral loads with generally weak or absent SIV-specific CTL activity in naturally infected sooty mangabeys. To define the specificity of the CTL response in SIV-infected mangabeys, we characterized CTL epitopes in two naturally infected and three SIVmac239-infected sooty mangabeys. Compared with that in SIVmac239-infected mangabeys, the yield of SIV-specific CTL clones was significantly lower in naturally infected sooty mangabeys. All CTL clones were phenotypically CD3+ CD8+, and lysis was MHC restricted. Seven SIV CTL epitopes were identified in five sooty mangabeys: one in Gag and three each in Nef and Envelope (Env). The CTL epitopes mapped to conserved regions in the SIV genome and were immunodominant. Several similar or identical CTL epitopes were recognized by both naturally infected and SIVmac239-infected mangabeys that shared class I MHC alleles. To our knowledge, this is the first report of SIV-specific CTL epitopes in sooty mangabeys. Longitudinal studies of viral load and sequence variation in CTL epitopes may provide useful information on the role of CTL in control or persistence of SIV infection in sooty mangabeys. (+info)
Simian immunodeficiency virus utilizes human and sooty mangabey but not rhesus macaque STRL33 for efficient entry. (2/113)It has been established that many simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolates utilize the orphan receptors GPR15 and STRL33 about as efficiently as the chemokine receptor CCR5 for entry into target cells. Most studies were performed, however, with coreceptors of human origin. We found that SIV from captive rhesus macaques (SIVmac) can utilize both human and simian CCR5 and GPR15 with comparable efficiencies. Strikingly, however, only human STRL33 (huSTRL33), not rhesus macaque STRL33 (rhSTRL33), functioned efficiently as an entry cofactor for a variety of isolates of SIVmac and SIV from sooty mangabeys. A single amino acid substitution of S30R in huSTRL33 impaired coreceptor activity, and the reverse change in rhSTRL33 greatly increased coreceptor activity. In comparison, species-specific sequence variations in N-terminal tyrosines in STRL33 had only moderate effects on SIV entry. These results show that a serine residue located just outside of the cellular membrane in the N terminus of STRL33 is critical for SIV coreceptor function. Interestingly, STRL33 derived from sooty mangabeys, a natural host of SIV, also contained a serine at the corresponding position and was used efficiently as an entry cofactor. These results suggest that STRL33 is not a relevant coreceptor in the SIV/macaque model but may play a role in SIV replication and transmission in naturally infected sooty mangabeys. (+info)
Simian immunodeficiency viruses of diverse origin can use CXCR4 as a coreceptor for entry into human cells. (3/113)Primary simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolated from sooty mangabey (SIVsm [n = 6]), stumptail (SIVstm [n = 1]), mandrill (SIVmnd [n = 1]), and African green (SIVagm [n = 1]) primates were examined for their ability to infect human cells and for their coreceptor requirements. All isolates infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a CCR5(+/+) donor, and seven of eight isolates tested also infected CCR5(-/-) PBMCs. Analysis of coreceptor utilization using GHOST and U87 cell lines revealed that all of the isolates tested used CCR5 and the orphan receptors STRL33 and GPR15. Coreceptors such as CCR2b, CCR3, CCR8, and CX3CR1 were also utilized by some primary SIV isolates. More importantly, we found that CXCR4 was used as a coreceptor by the SIVstm, the SIVagm, and four of the SIVsm isolates in GHOST and U87 cells. These data suggest that primary SIV isolates from diverse primate species can utilize CXCR4 for viral entry, similar to what has been described for human immunodeficiency viruses. (+info)
Relative resistance in the development of T cell anergy in CD4+ T cells from simian immunodeficiency virus disease-resistant sooty mangabeys. (4/113)Despite high viral loads, T cells from sooty mangabey (SM) monkeys that are naturally infected with SIV but remain clinically asymptomatic, proliferate and demonstrate normal Ag-specific memory recall CD4(+) T cell responses. In contrast, CD4(+) T cells from rhesus macaques (RM) experimentally infected with SIV lose Ag-specific memory recall responses and develop immunological anergy. To elucidate the mechanisms for these distinct outcomes of lentiviral infection, highly enriched alloreactive CD4(+) T cells from humans, RM, and SM were anergized by TCR-only stimulation (signal 1 alone) and subsequently challenged with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 Abs (signals 1 + 2). Whereas alloreactive CD4(+)T cells from humans and RM became anergized, surprisingly, CD4(+) T cells from SM showed marked proliferation and IL-2 synthesis after restimulation. This resistance to undergo anergy was not secondary to a global deficiency in anergy induction of CD4(+) T cells from SM since incubation of CD4(+) T cells with anti-CD3 alone in the presence of rapamycin readily induced anergy in these cells. The resistance to undergo anergy was reasoned to be due to the ability of CD4(+) T cells from SM to synthesize IL-2 when incubated with anti-CD3 alone. Analysis of phosphorylated kinases involved in T cell activation showed that the activation of CD4(+) T cells by signal 1 in SM elicited a pattern of response that required both signals 1 + 2 in humans and RM. This function of CD4(+) T cells from SM may contribute to the resistance of this species to SIV-induced disease. (+info)
No evidence of HIV and SIV sequences in two separate lots of polio vaccines used in the first U.S. polio vaccine campaign. (5/113)We obtained sealed vials of two different polio vaccine lots, expiration date 1955, which were used in the first U.S. polio vaccine campaign. These early lots were pulled from the market because they contained live infectious poliovirus which caused polio in some of the vaccines. Theoretically, these vaccines could have contained other infectious retroviruses, including HIV. No viral sequences were detected using RT-PCR analyses with primers capable of amplifying chimpanzee SIV and HIV-1-related viruses nor with primers for macaque SIV, sooty mangabey SIV, and HIV-2-related viruses. Poliovirus sequences were readily amplified by RT-PCR, suggesting that the technique used would have detected SIV or HIV sequences, if present. (+info)
Identification of protein kinases dysregulated in CD4(+) T cells in pathogenic versus apathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infection. (6/113)Human immunodeficiency virus infection in humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques (RM) leads to a generalized loss of immune responses involving perturbations in T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling. In contrast, naturally SIV-infected sooty mangabeys (SM) remain asymptomatic and retain immune responses despite relatively high viral loads. However, SIV infection in both RM and SM led to similar decreases in TCR-induced Lck phosphorylation. In this study, a protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) differential display method was utilized to characterize the effects of in vivo SIV infection on key signaling molecules of the CD4(+) T-cell signaling pathways. The CD4(+) T cells from SIV-infected RM, but not SIV-infected SM, showed chronic downregulation of baseline expression of MLK3, PRK, and GSK3, and symptomatically SIV-infected RM showed similar downregulation of MKK3. In vitro TCR stimulation with or without CD28 costimulation of CD4(+) T cells did not lead to the enhancement of gene transcription of these PTKs. While the CD4(+) T cells from SIV-infected RM showed a significant increase of the baseline and anti-TCR-mediated ROR2 transcription, SIV infection in SM led to substantially decreased anti-TCR-stimulated ROR2 transcription. TCR stimulation of CD4(+) T cells from SIV-infected RM (but not SIV-infected SM) led to the repression of CaMKKbeta and the induction of gene transcription of MLK2. Studies of the function of these molecules in T-cell signaling may lead to the identification of potential targets for specific intervention, leading to the restoration of T-cell responses. (+info)
Noninvasive detection of new simian immunodeficiency virus lineages in captive sooty mangabeys: ability to amplify virion RNA from fecal samples correlates with viral load in plasma. (7/113)The sooty mangabey (SM) (Cercocebus atys) is the natural host of a simian immunodeficiency virus, termed SIVsm, which gave rise to human immunodeficiency virus type 2. Data on the geographic distribution, prevalence, and genetic diversity of SIVsm in the wild remains limited. To address this issue, noninvasive strategies based on screening SM fecal and urine specimens for SIVsm-specific antibodies and virion RNA (vRNA) were developed, and the results were correlated with viral loads in plasma. Twenty-three SIVsm-infected and 27 uninfected SMs were evaluated. Time-matched urine, fecal and plasma samples were collected over a 2-month period from 16 captive naturally infected SMs. The remaining 7 infected and 27 uninfected SMs were sampled once. Each specimen was subjected to enhanced chemiluminescence-Western blot analysis and nested reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR. The results showed that urine was highly sensitive (96%) and specific (100%) for detection of SIVsm antibodies, while fecal detection was much less sensitive (16%). Conversely, vRNA detection was more sensitive in feces (50%) than in urine (2%) samples. Fecal-vRNA detection correlated with viral loads in plasma (P < 0.002). SMs with detectable fecal vRNA had a mean viral load in plasma of 458,006 copies/ml, while those with undetectable fecal vRNA had a mean viral load in plasma of 29,428 copies/ml. Moreover, for every log increase in the viral load in plasma, the odds of detecting virus in fecal samples increased 87-fold. Genetic diversity of SIVsm in the SM colony was characterized by sequencing partial gag (846 bp) and gp43 (439 bp) fragments. Surprisingly, four new SIVsm lineages were identified, two of which were initially detected by fecal RT-PCR. This study documents the suitability of noninvasive methods for the detection and molecular characterization of new SIV variants. These assays will be useful for studying the phylogeny and epidemiology of SIVsm infections in the wild, and they hold promise as tools for investigating natural SIV infections in endangered nonhuman primates. (+info)
Nonpathogenic SIV infection of sooty mangabeys is characterized by limited bystander immunopathology despite chronic high-level viremia. (8/113)HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected rhesus macaques who remain healthy despite long-term infection exhibit exceptionally low levels of virus replication and active antiviral cellular immune responses. In contrast, sooty mangabey monkeys that represent natural hosts for SIV infection do not develop AIDS despite high levels of virus replication and limited antiviral CD8(+) T cell responses. We report here that SIV-infected mangabeys maintain preserved T lymphocyte populations and regenerative capacity and manifest far lower levels of aberrant immune activation and apoptosis than are seen in pathogenic SIV and HIV infections. These data suggest that direct consequences of virus replication alone cannot account for progressive CD4(+) T cell depletion leading to AIDS. Rather, attenuated immune activation enables SIV-infected mangabeys to avoid the bystander damage seen in pathogenic infections and protects them from developing AIDS. (+info)
I'm sorry, but "Cercocebus atys" is not a term commonly used in the medical field. It is actually the scientific name for a species of primate, commonly known as the black-and-white colobus or the black-and-white colobus monkey. In the medical field, scientific names are used to identify and classify living organisms, including animals, plants, and microorganisms. The scientific name for a species is composed of two parts: the genus name and the species name. In the case of Cercocebus atys, "Cercocebus" is the genus name and "atys" is the species name. While Cercocebus atys may not have direct medical applications, studying the biology and behavior of this species can provide valuable insights into the evolution and ecology of primates, which are closely related to humans.
Cercocebus is a genus of Old World monkeys that includes several species commonly known as guenons. These monkeys are found in various parts of Africa, including forests, savannas, and mangrove swamps. In the medical field, Cercocebus monkeys are often used in research studies due to their similarities to humans in terms of genetics, physiology, and behavior. They have been used to study a wide range of topics, including infectious diseases, neurological disorders, and reproductive biology. Some species of Cercocebus monkeys are also kept as pets or used in the entertainment industry, although this is generally discouraged due to the ethical concerns involved in keeping wild animals in captivity.
Cercopithecidae is a family of primates that includes Old World monkeys, such as baboons, macaques, and vervets. These animals are found in Africa and Asia and are known for their intelligence, social behavior, and ability to adapt to a variety of habitats. In the medical field, cercopithecids are often used as models for studying human diseases, particularly those that affect the brain and nervous system. They are also used in research on infectious diseases, such as Ebola and HIV, and in studies of the effects of environmental toxins on animal health.
Monkey diseases, also known as primate diseases, are infections or illnesses that are caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites that are naturally found in non-human primates, such as monkeys, apes, and lemurs. These diseases can be transmitted to humans through direct contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, or through the consumption of contaminated food or water. Some examples of monkey diseases that can be transmitted to humans include: 1. Ebola virus disease: This is a severe and often fatal illness that is caused by the Ebola virus, which is found in primates in Africa. 2. Marburg virus disease: This is another severe and often fatal illness that is caused by the Marburg virus, which is also found in primates in Africa. 3. Monkeypox: This is a viral infection that is caused by the monkeypox virus, which is found in primates in Africa and the Americas. 4. Lassa fever: This is a viral infection that is caused by the Lassa virus, which is found in rats and other small animals in West Africa. 5. Rabies: This is a viral infection that is caused by the rabies virus, which is found in a wide range of animals, including primates. 6. Cholera: This is a bacterial infection that is caused by the Vibrio cholerae bacterium, which is found in contaminated water and food. 7. Typhoid fever: This is a bacterial infection that is caused by the Salmonella typhi bacterium, which is found in contaminated food and water. It is important for healthcare workers and travelers to be aware of the risks of monkey diseases and to take appropriate precautions to prevent infection. This may include avoiding direct contact with wild animals, practicing good hygiene, and receiving appropriate vaccinations.
In the medical field, "Ape Diseases" refers to infectious diseases that are naturally occurring in non-human primates, such as chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. These diseases can be transmitted to humans through direct contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, or through the consumption of contaminated food or water. Some examples of Ape Diseases include Ebola virus, Marburg virus, and Monkeypox. These diseases can cause a range of symptoms, from mild flu-like illness to severe hemorrhagic fever, and can be fatal in some cases. The study of Ape Diseases is important for public health, as it helps to identify potential threats to human health and to develop strategies for preventing and controlling the spread of these diseases. It is also important for conservation efforts, as the loss of non-human primate populations can have a significant impact on the ecosystem and on the spread of infectious diseases.
Deltaretrovirus infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the deltaretrovirus family. These viruses are retroviruses, which means that they use an RNA genome that is reverse transcribed into DNA by the virus's reverse transcriptase enzyme. Deltaretroviruses are known to cause a variety of diseases in humans and animals, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans and leukaemia in cats. The most well-known member of the deltaretrovirus family is the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is the virus that causes AIDS. Deltaretrovirus infections are typically transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. The viruses can also be transmitted through contaminated needles or other medical equipment. Diagnosis of deltaretrovirus infections typically involves detecting the presence of the virus's genetic material or antibodies to the virus in the patient's blood or other bodily fluids. Treatment for these infections may involve antiretroviral therapy (ART) to suppress the virus's replication and slow the progression of the disease.
Cameroon is a country located in Central Africa. In the medical field, Cameroon is known for its high rates of infectious diseases such as malaria, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. The country also has a significant burden of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and cancer. Cameroon has a relatively low healthcare infrastructure and a shortage of trained healthcare professionals, which can make it challenging to provide adequate medical care to its population. Despite these challenges, there are ongoing efforts to improve healthcare in Cameroon through initiatives such as disease prevention and control programs, health education campaigns, and the training of healthcare workers.
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Discovery of disease-causing pathogens
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List of mammals of Ivory Coast
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List of primates of Africa
List of cercopithecoids - Wikipedia
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- IgG and IgM antibody levels to mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen were determined by ELISA in eight sooty mangabey monkeys (Cercocebus atys) prior to and at intervals after experimental inoculation with Mycobacterium leprae. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Monkeypox virus was isolated from a wild caught sooty mangabey ( Cercocebus atys ). (medscape.com)
- The primate reservoir of HIV-2 has been clearly identified as the sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys). (mathworks.com)
- Cercopithecidae Cercocebus spp. (j-monkey.jp)
- HIV-1 groups M, N, and O are believed to have arisen as 3 separate cross-species transmissions from chimpanzees, and each of the HIV-2 subtypes A-G was the result of independent transmissions from sooty mangabeys ( Cercocebus atys ) to humans. (cdc.gov)
- A species of Old World monkeys from the genera CERCOCEBUS that is important in AIDS research. (nih.gov)
- We applied the consistency measure to simulated data and field data for one group of sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys) and to groups of Western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, to test its properties and compare consistency across groups. (rki.de)