A species of Old World monkeys from the genera CERCOCEBUS that is important in AIDS research. They may be naturally or experimentally infected with the SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS. They inhabit African forests from Sierra Leone to the Congo Republic.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE inhabiting the African forests. They are also known as mangabeys.
The family of Old World monkeys and baboons consisting of two subfamilies: CERCOPITHECINAE and COLOBINAE. They are found in Africa and part of Asia.
Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A species of DELTARETROVIRUS that includes the strains SIMIAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 3 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 3.
Diseases of chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2, closely related to the human HTLV-1 virus. The clinical, hematological, and histopathological characteristics of the disease in STLV-infected monkeys are very similar to those of human adult T-cell leukemia. Subgroups include the African green monkey subtype (STLV-I-AGM), for which the nucleotide sequence is 95% homologous with that of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1, and the Asian rhesus macaque subtype (STLV-I-MM), for which the nucleotide sequence is 90% homologous with that of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1.
Infections caused by the HTLV or BLV deltaretroviruses. They include human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED).
A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.

Identification of multiple simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific CTL epitopes in sooty mangabeys with natural and experimentally acquired SIV infection. (1/113)

Host immune responses to SIV infection in sooty mangabeys are likely to be an important determinant of how such nonhuman primate species maintain asymptomatic lentivirus infection. We have previously described two patterns of asymptomatic SIV infection in sooty mangabeys: low viral loads with vigorous SIV-specific CTL activity in SIVmac239-infected sooty mangabeys, and high viral loads with generally weak or absent SIV-specific CTL activity in naturally infected sooty mangabeys. To define the specificity of the CTL response in SIV-infected mangabeys, we characterized CTL epitopes in two naturally infected and three SIVmac239-infected sooty mangabeys. Compared with that in SIVmac239-infected mangabeys, the yield of SIV-specific CTL clones was significantly lower in naturally infected sooty mangabeys. All CTL clones were phenotypically CD3+ CD8+, and lysis was MHC restricted. Seven SIV CTL epitopes were identified in five sooty mangabeys: one in Gag and three each in Nef and Envelope (Env). The CTL epitopes mapped to conserved regions in the SIV genome and were immunodominant. Several similar or identical CTL epitopes were recognized by both naturally infected and SIVmac239-infected mangabeys that shared class I MHC alleles. To our knowledge, this is the first report of SIV-specific CTL epitopes in sooty mangabeys. Longitudinal studies of viral load and sequence variation in CTL epitopes may provide useful information on the role of CTL in control or persistence of SIV infection in sooty mangabeys.  (+info)

Simian immunodeficiency virus utilizes human and sooty mangabey but not rhesus macaque STRL33 for efficient entry. (2/113)

It has been established that many simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolates utilize the orphan receptors GPR15 and STRL33 about as efficiently as the chemokine receptor CCR5 for entry into target cells. Most studies were performed, however, with coreceptors of human origin. We found that SIV from captive rhesus macaques (SIVmac) can utilize both human and simian CCR5 and GPR15 with comparable efficiencies. Strikingly, however, only human STRL33 (huSTRL33), not rhesus macaque STRL33 (rhSTRL33), functioned efficiently as an entry cofactor for a variety of isolates of SIVmac and SIV from sooty mangabeys. A single amino acid substitution of S30R in huSTRL33 impaired coreceptor activity, and the reverse change in rhSTRL33 greatly increased coreceptor activity. In comparison, species-specific sequence variations in N-terminal tyrosines in STRL33 had only moderate effects on SIV entry. These results show that a serine residue located just outside of the cellular membrane in the N terminus of STRL33 is critical for SIV coreceptor function. Interestingly, STRL33 derived from sooty mangabeys, a natural host of SIV, also contained a serine at the corresponding position and was used efficiently as an entry cofactor. These results suggest that STRL33 is not a relevant coreceptor in the SIV/macaque model but may play a role in SIV replication and transmission in naturally infected sooty mangabeys.  (+info)

Simian immunodeficiency viruses of diverse origin can use CXCR4 as a coreceptor for entry into human cells. (3/113)

Primary simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolated from sooty mangabey (SIVsm [n = 6]), stumptail (SIVstm [n = 1]), mandrill (SIVmnd [n = 1]), and African green (SIVagm [n = 1]) primates were examined for their ability to infect human cells and for their coreceptor requirements. All isolates infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a CCR5(+/+) donor, and seven of eight isolates tested also infected CCR5(-/-) PBMCs. Analysis of coreceptor utilization using GHOST and U87 cell lines revealed that all of the isolates tested used CCR5 and the orphan receptors STRL33 and GPR15. Coreceptors such as CCR2b, CCR3, CCR8, and CX3CR1 were also utilized by some primary SIV isolates. More importantly, we found that CXCR4 was used as a coreceptor by the SIVstm, the SIVagm, and four of the SIVsm isolates in GHOST and U87 cells. These data suggest that primary SIV isolates from diverse primate species can utilize CXCR4 for viral entry, similar to what has been described for human immunodeficiency viruses.  (+info)

Relative resistance in the development of T cell anergy in CD4+ T cells from simian immunodeficiency virus disease-resistant sooty mangabeys. (4/113)

Despite high viral loads, T cells from sooty mangabey (SM) monkeys that are naturally infected with SIV but remain clinically asymptomatic, proliferate and demonstrate normal Ag-specific memory recall CD4(+) T cell responses. In contrast, CD4(+) T cells from rhesus macaques (RM) experimentally infected with SIV lose Ag-specific memory recall responses and develop immunological anergy. To elucidate the mechanisms for these distinct outcomes of lentiviral infection, highly enriched alloreactive CD4(+) T cells from humans, RM, and SM were anergized by TCR-only stimulation (signal 1 alone) and subsequently challenged with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 Abs (signals 1 + 2). Whereas alloreactive CD4(+)T cells from humans and RM became anergized, surprisingly, CD4(+) T cells from SM showed marked proliferation and IL-2 synthesis after restimulation. This resistance to undergo anergy was not secondary to a global deficiency in anergy induction of CD4(+) T cells from SM since incubation of CD4(+) T cells with anti-CD3 alone in the presence of rapamycin readily induced anergy in these cells. The resistance to undergo anergy was reasoned to be due to the ability of CD4(+) T cells from SM to synthesize IL-2 when incubated with anti-CD3 alone. Analysis of phosphorylated kinases involved in T cell activation showed that the activation of CD4(+) T cells by signal 1 in SM elicited a pattern of response that required both signals 1 + 2 in humans and RM. This function of CD4(+) T cells from SM may contribute to the resistance of this species to SIV-induced disease.  (+info)

No evidence of HIV and SIV sequences in two separate lots of polio vaccines used in the first U.S. polio vaccine campaign. (5/113)

We obtained sealed vials of two different polio vaccine lots, expiration date 1955, which were used in the first U.S. polio vaccine campaign. These early lots were pulled from the market because they contained live infectious poliovirus which caused polio in some of the vaccines. Theoretically, these vaccines could have contained other infectious retroviruses, including HIV. No viral sequences were detected using RT-PCR analyses with primers capable of amplifying chimpanzee SIV and HIV-1-related viruses nor with primers for macaque SIV, sooty mangabey SIV, and HIV-2-related viruses. Poliovirus sequences were readily amplified by RT-PCR, suggesting that the technique used would have detected SIV or HIV sequences, if present.  (+info)

Identification of protein kinases dysregulated in CD4(+) T cells in pathogenic versus apathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infection. (6/113)

Human immunodeficiency virus infection in humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques (RM) leads to a generalized loss of immune responses involving perturbations in T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling. In contrast, naturally SIV-infected sooty mangabeys (SM) remain asymptomatic and retain immune responses despite relatively high viral loads. However, SIV infection in both RM and SM led to similar decreases in TCR-induced Lck phosphorylation. In this study, a protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) differential display method was utilized to characterize the effects of in vivo SIV infection on key signaling molecules of the CD4(+) T-cell signaling pathways. The CD4(+) T cells from SIV-infected RM, but not SIV-infected SM, showed chronic downregulation of baseline expression of MLK3, PRK, and GSK3, and symptomatically SIV-infected RM showed similar downregulation of MKK3. In vitro TCR stimulation with or without CD28 costimulation of CD4(+) T cells did not lead to the enhancement of gene transcription of these PTKs. While the CD4(+) T cells from SIV-infected RM showed a significant increase of the baseline and anti-TCR-mediated ROR2 transcription, SIV infection in SM led to substantially decreased anti-TCR-stimulated ROR2 transcription. TCR stimulation of CD4(+) T cells from SIV-infected RM (but not SIV-infected SM) led to the repression of CaMKKbeta and the induction of gene transcription of MLK2. Studies of the function of these molecules in T-cell signaling may lead to the identification of potential targets for specific intervention, leading to the restoration of T-cell responses.  (+info)

Noninvasive detection of new simian immunodeficiency virus lineages in captive sooty mangabeys: ability to amplify virion RNA from fecal samples correlates with viral load in plasma. (7/113)

The sooty mangabey (SM) (Cercocebus atys) is the natural host of a simian immunodeficiency virus, termed SIVsm, which gave rise to human immunodeficiency virus type 2. Data on the geographic distribution, prevalence, and genetic diversity of SIVsm in the wild remains limited. To address this issue, noninvasive strategies based on screening SM fecal and urine specimens for SIVsm-specific antibodies and virion RNA (vRNA) were developed, and the results were correlated with viral loads in plasma. Twenty-three SIVsm-infected and 27 uninfected SMs were evaluated. Time-matched urine, fecal and plasma samples were collected over a 2-month period from 16 captive naturally infected SMs. The remaining 7 infected and 27 uninfected SMs were sampled once. Each specimen was subjected to enhanced chemiluminescence-Western blot analysis and nested reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR. The results showed that urine was highly sensitive (96%) and specific (100%) for detection of SIVsm antibodies, while fecal detection was much less sensitive (16%). Conversely, vRNA detection was more sensitive in feces (50%) than in urine (2%) samples. Fecal-vRNA detection correlated with viral loads in plasma (P < 0.002). SMs with detectable fecal vRNA had a mean viral load in plasma of 458,006 copies/ml, while those with undetectable fecal vRNA had a mean viral load in plasma of 29,428 copies/ml. Moreover, for every log increase in the viral load in plasma, the odds of detecting virus in fecal samples increased 87-fold. Genetic diversity of SIVsm in the SM colony was characterized by sequencing partial gag (846 bp) and gp43 (439 bp) fragments. Surprisingly, four new SIVsm lineages were identified, two of which were initially detected by fecal RT-PCR. This study documents the suitability of noninvasive methods for the detection and molecular characterization of new SIV variants. These assays will be useful for studying the phylogeny and epidemiology of SIVsm infections in the wild, and they hold promise as tools for investigating natural SIV infections in endangered nonhuman primates.  (+info)

Nonpathogenic SIV infection of sooty mangabeys is characterized by limited bystander immunopathology despite chronic high-level viremia. (8/113)

HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected rhesus macaques who remain healthy despite long-term infection exhibit exceptionally low levels of virus replication and active antiviral cellular immune responses. In contrast, sooty mangabey monkeys that represent natural hosts for SIV infection do not develop AIDS despite high levels of virus replication and limited antiviral CD8(+) T cell responses. We report here that SIV-infected mangabeys maintain preserved T lymphocyte populations and regenerative capacity and manifest far lower levels of aberrant immune activation and apoptosis than are seen in pathogenic SIV and HIV infections. These data suggest that direct consequences of virus replication alone cannot account for progressive CD4(+) T cell depletion leading to AIDS. Rather, attenuated immune activation enables SIV-infected mangabeys to avoid the bystander damage seen in pathogenic infections and protects them from developing AIDS.  (+info)

Understanding the reasons why SIV-infected sooty mangabeys (SMs) remain healthy despite high viremia is a key unanswered question in contemporary AIDS research,...
Major immune regulatory cytokine that acts on many cells of the immune system where it has profound anti-inflammatory functions, limiting excessive tissue disruption caused by inflammation. Mechanistically, IL10 binds to its heterotetrameric receptor comprising IL10RA and IL10RB leading to JAK1 and STAT2-mediated phosphorylation of STAT3. In turn, STAT3 translocates to the nucleus where it drives expression of anti-inflammatory mediators. Targets antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as macrophages and monocytes and inhibits their release of pro-inflammatory cytokines including granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor /GM-CSF, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor/G-CSF, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha. Interferes also with antigen presentation by reducing the expression of MHC-class II and co-stimulatory molecules, thereby inhibiting their ability to induce T cell activation (By similarity). In addition, controls the inflammatory response of macrophages by reprogramming essential
High levels of HIV-1 replication during the chronic phase of infection usually correlate with rapid progression to severe immunodeficiency. However, a minority of highly viremic individuals remains asymptomatic and maintains high CD4? T cell counts. This tolerant profile is poorly understood and reminiscent of the widely studied nonprogressive disease model of SIV infection in natural hosts. Here, we identify transcriptome differences between rapid progressors (RPs) and viremic nonprogressors (VNPs) and highlight several genes relevant for the understanding of HIV-1-induced immunosuppression. RPs were characterized by a specific transcriptome profile of CD4? and CD8? T cells similar to that observed in pathogenic SIV-infected rhesus macaques. In contrast, VNPs exhibited lower expression of interferon-stimulated genes and shared a common gene regulation profile with nonpathogenic SIV-infected sooty mangabeys. A short list of genes associated with VNP, including CASP1, CD38, LAG3, TNFSF13B, SOCS1, ...
In contrast to infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in macaques, SIV infection of a natural host, sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), is non-pathogenic despite high viraemia(1). Here we sequenced and assembled the genome of a captive sooty mangabey. We conducted genome-wide comparative analyses of transcript assemblies from C. atys and AIDS-susceptible species, such as humans and macaques, to identify candidates for host genetic factors that influence susceptibility. We identified several immune-related genes in the genome of C. atys that show substantial sequence divergence from macaques or humans. One of these sequence divergences, a C-terminal frameshift in the toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) gene of C. atys, is associated with a blunted in vitro response to TLR-4 ligands. In addition, we found a major structural change in exons 3-4 of the immune-regulatory protein intercellular adhesion molecule 2 (ICAM-2); expression of this variant ...
Disease-free infection in HIV-infected adults is associated with human leukocyte antigen-mediated suppression of viremia, whereas in the sooty mangabey and other healthy natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), viral replication continues unabated. To better understand factors preventing HIV disease, we investigated pediatric infection, where AIDS typically develops more rapidly than in adults. Among 170 nonprogressing antiretroviral therapy-naïve children aged |5 years maintaining normal-for-age CD4 T cell counts, immune activation levels were low despite high viremia (median, 26,000 copies/ml). Potent, broadly neutralizing antibody responses in most of the subjects and strong virus-specific T cell activity were present but did not drive pediatric nonprogression. However, reduced CCR5 expression and low HIV infection in long-lived central memory CD4 T cells were observed in pediatric nonprogressors. These children therefore express two cardinal immunological features of nonpathogenic SIV
Numerous studies have sought to link craniofacial morphology with behavioral ecology in primates. Extant hard-object feeders have been of particular interest because of their potential to inform our understanding about the diets of early fossil hominins. Sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) are hard-object feeders that frequently generate what have been described as audibly powerful bites at wide jaw gapes to process materially stiff and hard seeds. We address the hypothesis that sooty mangabeys have features of the masticatory apparatus that facilitate this feeding behavior by comparing fiber architecture and leverage of the masseter and temporalis muscles between sooty mangabeys and three papionin primates that do not specialize on hard objects ...
The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by two retroviruses of the lentivirus subfamily, human immunodeficiency viruses types 1 (HIV-1) and 2 (HIV-2), which derive from cross-species transmissions of viruses naturally infecting two African primate species, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys), respectively. Eleven transmission events of lentiviruses from these primate species to humans have been inferred from phylogenetic sequence analyses, although only four (which originated HIV-1 groups M and O, and HIV-2 groups A and B) have resulted in epidemic spread. One of these transmissions, corresponding to the common ancestor of the HIV-1 group M viruses, whose initial expansion in Central Africa has been dated by molecular clock analyses to around 1930, eventually originated the AIDS pandemic. How humans acquired the ancestors of the AIDS viruses from simians is uncertain, but natural infection of African non-human primates with lentiviruses is ...
The primate lentiviruses comprise SIV strains from various host species, as well as two viruses, HIV-1 and HIV-2, that cause AIDS in humans. The origins of HIV-1 and HIV-2 have been traced to cross-species transmissions from chimpanzees and sooty mangabey monkeys respectively. Two approaches have been taken to estimate the time-scale of the evolution of these viruses. Certain groups of SIV strains appear to have evolved in a host-dependent manner, implying a time-scale of many thousands or even millions of years. In stark contrast, molecular clock calculations have previously been used to estimate a time-scale of only tens or hundreds of years. Those calculations largely ignored heterogeneity of evolutionary rates across different sites within sequences. In fact, the distribution of rates at different sites seems extremely skewed in HIV-1, and so the time-depth of the primate lentivirus evolutionary tree may have been underestimated by at least a factor of ten. However, these date estimates ...
HIV-2: Background HIV-2 is a diverse group of viruses closely related to and thought to be derived from the SIV of sooty mangabey monkeys First isolated in 1986 from AIDS patient in West Africa Generally confined to W Africa and in countries with close links such as Portugal. Different subtypes exist; A and B main subtypes infecting humans Different disease progression to HIV-1 Lower virulence - slower progression to AIDS Lower viral load - lower transmission rates Poorly or not detected by most HIV-1 assays. International Standard for HIV-2 RNA would be valuable for assays that detect HIV-2
By Maximilian Muenchhoff, Emily Adland, Owen Karimanzira, Carol Crowther, Matthew Pace, Anna Csala, Ellen Leitman, Angeline Moonsamy, Callum McGregor, Jacob Hurst, Andreas Groll, Masahiko Mori, Smruti Sinmyee, Christina Thobakgale, Gareth Tudor-Williams, Andrew J. Prendergast, Henrik Kloverpris, Julia Roider, Alasdair Leslie, Delane Shingadia, Thea Brits, Samantha Daniels, John Frater, Christian B. Willberg, Bruce D. Walker, Thumbi Ndungu, Pieter Jooste, Penny L. Moore, Lynn Morris, Philip Goulder. Science Translational Medicine ...
... Grow a disease-resistant plant and it seems that in no time a flour... To begin to construct a new understanding of the co-evolutionary... Like the immune system in animals plants depend on special mole... When we went looking for the molecular evidence for an arms rac...,Plant/pathogen,evolutionary,dynamic,defies,simple,arms,race,model,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Disease-resistant fruit trees make growing your own easier. Their tolerance to certain diseases means you'll grow healthier trees with minimal spraying.
Disease-resistant fruit trees make growing your own easier. Their tolerance to certain diseases means you'll grow healthier trees with minimal spraying.
Tom, It depends on how you define epidemic. An epidemic is generally a large number of cases of an illness in a relatively short period of time. Influenza is a good example of an epidemic virus. Now, if you look at SIV, the situation is more complicated. In feral African green monkeys in East Africa, 50% are actively infected with SIV. However, SIVAGM causes no disease in this species. The virus is essentially normal flora. The same situation can be seen in humans. Epstein Barr virus infects ,80% of the adult population, but causes no detectable disease in most of those infected. In addition, sooty mangabeys also carry an SIV which causes no disease in sooty mangabeys. But inoculate a Rhesus macaque with SIVSM, and it causes an AIDS-like illness. It appears that in the species in which SIV is found naturally, it causes little or no disease. Cross species transmission results in disease, but this appears to rarely occur in nature. Jay M ...
T cell activation levels in HIV infection are predictive of AIDS progression. We searched for the immunological correlates of protection against disease progression by studying the early stages of nonpathogenic SIV infection in African green monkeys (SIVagm). The African green monkeys (AGMs) displayed high peak viremias and a transient decline in levels of blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells between days 5 and 17 after infection. A concomitant increase in levels of CD4+DR+, CD8+DR+, and CD8+CD28- cells was detected. After the third week, T cell activation returned to baseline levels, which suggested a protective downregulation of T cell activation. A very early (24 hours after infection) and strong induction of TGF-β1 and FoxP3 expression was detected and correlated with increases in levels of CD4+CD25+ and CD8+CD25+ T cells. This was followed by a significant increase in levels of IL-10, whereas IFN-γ gene upregulation was more transient, and levels of TNF-α and MIP-1α/β transcripts did not ...
Plant breeder Martha Mutschler-Chu has developed a variety of tomato that deters pests and counters the killer viruses they transmit.
In the battle against thrips, Cornell breeder Martha Mutschler-Chu has developed a new weapon: a tomato that packs a powerful one-two punch to deter the pests and counter the killer viruses they transmit.
The development of disease resistance among Chesapeake Bay oysters calls for a shift in oyster-restoration strategies within the Bay and its tributaries.
Researchers have taken a step towards understanding how some species of monkeys such as sooty mangabeys and African green monkeys do not get AIDS when infected with SIV, the simian equivalent of HIV.
To identify viral characteristics that may explain how the SIVs have successfully infected other primate species, we analyzed the types and extent of SIVsm diversification in naturally infected SMs. Our findings of high intra-host extremes of SIVsm V1V2 nt diversity extend previous studies of naturally SIV-infected SMs and African green monkeys (AGMs) [56-63] by demonstrating that viruses found within a single animal can vary by greater than 35% at the aa level. The ranges of aa diversity in some intra-host pairwise SIVsm V1V2 sequence comparisons in this study rival that of inter-animal comparisons [40]. As our diversity calculations exclude V1V2 length variation, they represent an underestimate of the true magnitude of viral diversity. V1V2 length polymorphisms would be predicted to have dramatic effects on SIVsm Env conformation and phenotypic diversity [64,65].. Positive selection in V1V2 appears to explain the observed env diversification. Specific sites in V1 were consistently selected for ...
Handheld, point-of-care glucometers are found in NHP for clinical and study reasons frequently, but whether the unit work for use in NHP is unknown. and hyperglycemia. To compare the accuracy of the human glucometers during different glycemic states, rhesus macaques were screened during clinical exams for hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia by using either human glucometer with a capillary (fingerstick) blood sample. Sooty mangabeys were screened for inclusion based on venous BG according to both human glucometers during experiment 1. For both rhesus macaques and sooty mangabeys, hypoglycemia was defined as a BG value of less than 60 mg/dL, whereas BG greater than 100 mg/dL was considered hyperglycemia. Rhesus macaques and sooty mangabeys with BG of 60 to 100 mg/dL were considered euglycemic controls. These ranges were selected in light of previously reported reference values and diagnostic criteria for diabetes in Old World NHP.7,35,40 For both species, the final categorization regarding glycemic ...
Genetic engineering (GE)-the introduction or change of DNA, RNA or proteins by human manipulation to effect a change in an organisms genome-has thus far delivered a very limited range of products to agriculture-principally pest- and disease-resistant crop varieties. But this is about to change. A much broader range of applications is becoming available, including new options to enhance disease and pest resistance, nutritional quality, and the ecological sustainability of cropping systems.. The technologies include gene editing (site-specific changes to DNA in a genome), gene drives (greatly enhancing or reducing the frequency of genes that affect insect or pathogen reproduction) and synthetic biology (re-designing or constructing biological devices, e.g. chromosomes or organelles).. In a new review paper in the Annual Review of Phytopathology, we describe these emerging GE technologies to control plant pests and diseases, and focus on their applications for problems of importance to ...
Worobey et al.s conclusion is not supported by the data, and there are three major reasons why.. 1) The assertion that schweinfurthii SIV is highly divergent from HIV-1 is misleading and wrong. The reality is that schweinfurthii SIV is roughly 70% similar to HIV-1(M), and troglodytes SIV is about 80% similar to HIV-1(M). However, of the thirty or so known SIVs from African primates, these are the only two SIVs that closely resemble the pandemic AIDS virus. Both these chimp SIVs have the same range of genes, including a crucial identifier, the vpu gene. However, it is important to note that neither virus is identical to HIV-1 Group M viruses.. By contrast, the SIV of the sooty mangabey and the second human AIDS virus, HIV-2, are virtually identical, proving fairly conclusively that HIV-2 is actually sooty mangabey SIV that has transferred (by whichever route) to humans.. So, although some sort of chimpanzee SIV is almost certainly the direct ancestor of HIV-1(M), it would seem that the ...
Disease resistance is bred into many Tomato varieties. These plants have sturdy constitutions that fend off certain fungi, pests (such as nematodes), and viruses.
A British animal genetics firm, working with U.S. scientists, has bred the worlds first pigs resistant to a common viral disease, using the hot new technology of gene editing.
orghum Downy Mildew (SDM), which is a foliar disease caused by a fungus called Peronosclerosporasorghi, has been an issue of concern for maize farmers.
The canola plant is set for an overhaul to boost its oil content, make it more disease-resistant, and help it adapt to climate change, thanks to the sequencing of its genome.
September 5, 2020 (New Vision) Prossy Nandudu writes in New Vision that Ugandan farmers are eager to access disease-resistant GMO cassava after visiting field trial sites, and urging the government to clear a path to its release. With biotechnology, traits for resistance to a particular disease are taken from one crop and introduced into another…. ...
A Dutch hybrid for growing in various types of greenhouses and outdoors, also suitable for later harvest. Plants grow few side shoots, are highly disease-resistant, start yielding early and simultaneously, are distinguished by especially abundant first yield. Yield very well until the end of the vegetation period. Fruits are cylindrical, dark green, with large bumps, 8-10cm long, excellent internal structure, do not thicken. Suitable for marinating, pickling and growing cornichons. Delivery: 5-10 business days ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relationship of neurologic status in macaques infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus to cerebrospinal fluid quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid. AU - Heyes, Melvyn P.. AU - Jordan, Elaine K.. AU - Lee, Kristin. AU - Saito, Kuniaki. AU - Frank, Joseph A.. AU - Snoy, Phillip J.. AU - Markey, Sanford P.. AU - Gravell, Maneth. PY - 1992/1/20. Y1 - 1992/1/20. N2 - Increased concentrations of the excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QUIN) have been implicated in the neurologic deficits and brain atrophy that may accompany infection with the human immunodeficiency virus type-1. Key neuropathologic features of the AIDS encephalitis are replicated in some macaques following infection with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). In the present studies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) QUIN concentrations increased within 2 weeks following infection of 11 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with a neurotropic sooty mangabey isolate of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVsm) and were sustained to , ...
ID A0A2K5NBI2_CERAT Unreviewed; 3113 AA. AC A0A2K5NBI2; DT 28-MAR-2018, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 28-MAR-2018, sequence version 1. DT 10-FEB-2021, entry version 17. DE SubName: Full=Uncharacterized protein {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSCATP00000034829}; GN Name=CENPF {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSCATP00000034829}; OS Cercocebus atys (Sooty mangabey) (Cercocebus torquatus atys). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; OC Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; OC Cercopithecidae; Cercopithecinae; Cercocebus. OX NCBI_TaxID=9531 {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSCATP00000034829, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000233060}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSCATP00000034829} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RA Liu Y., Hughes D.S., Murali S., Raveendran M., Korchina V., Wang M., RA Jhangiani S., Bandaranaike D., Bellair M., Blankenburg K., Chao H., RA Dahdouli M., Dinh H., Doddapaneni H., English A., Firestine M., Gross S., RA Hernandez B., ...
Although the cellular immune response is essential for controlling SIV replication in Asian macaques, its role in maintaining nonpathogenic SIV infection in natural hosts such as sooty mangabeys (SM) remains to be defined. We have previously shown that similar to rhesus macaques (RM), SM are able to mount a T lymphocyte response against SIV infection. To investigate early control of SIV replication in natural hosts, we performed a detailed characterization of SIV-specific cellular immunity and viral control in the first 6 mo following SIV infection in SM. Detection of the initial SIV-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT response in SIVsmE041-infected SM coincided temporally with a decline in peak plasma viremia and was similar in magnitude, specificity, and breadth to SIVsmE041-infected and SIVmac239-infected RM. Despite these similarities, SM showed a greater reduction in postpeak plasma viremia and a more rapid disappearance of productively SIV-infected cells from the lymph node compared with ...
The grey-cheeked mangabey (Lophocebus albigena) is an Old World monkey that can be found in the forests of Central Africa. Its range stretches from Cameroon to Gabon. This monkey prefers habitats in primary forests or swamps within forests, but it has also been found in secondary forests. It was thought that these monkeys only lived in the higher canopy, but groups have been found searching for food on the forest floor. The diet of the grey-cheeked mangabey consists of shoots, flowers, and insects, but it mainly eats fruits such as figs. It will eat seasonal fruit as well.. The grey-cheeked mangabey will live in groups of up to thirty individuals, and these groups may contain several males. However, there is no alpha male and young males will leave to join other groups when they are ready. Female mangabey will reside in the group in which they are born. Groups have been known to split if one becomes too large. Each mangabey troop prefers to avoid other troops, so hostilities do not often ...
猴免疫缺陷病毒(英语:Simian immunodeficiency virus,简称SIV),也称为非洲绿猴病毒(英语:African Green Monkey virus),是一种可影响至少33种非洲灵长目的逆转录病毒。[1][2]在对比奥科岛(于大约11000年前因海平面上升而从大陆隔离出来的一座岛屿)的四种猴中所发现的病毒株进行分析后,科学家们得出结论,称SIV在猴和猿中至少已存在了32000年,且实际存在时间可能比这长得多。[3][4] 这些灵长目动物中的两个物种中存在的病毒株,即白顶白眉猴(英语:sooty mangabey)体内的SIVsmm和黑猩猩体内的SIVcpz,被认为已跨越了种间屏障而进入人体,并最终成为了HIV的两个亚型,即HIV-2和HIV-1。HIV-1转移到人体最可能的路径之一是人类与黑猩猩(在非洲常作为丛林肉的来源而被捕猎)血液的接触。[3] ...
Struggling with rose diseases often converts affection to frustration for the millions of gardeners who grow the beloved shrubs.. Instead of cursing the big three - black spot, powdery mildew and rust - take the advice of Jay Pscheidt, a plant pathologist with Oregon State University Extension Service, who steers people to roses that enjoy immunity to the threats of these diseases.. Save yourself a lot of hassle and plant disease-resistant roses this spring for trouble-free bouquets in the summer, he said. The Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Handbook, which Pscheidt co-authored, offers a list of varieties.. Hybrid teas that smell sweet and are moderately resistant to all three diseases include dark-red Mr. Lincoln; Double Delight with its shades of reds, pinks and whites; pastel pink Tiffany; and sunset-orange Voodoo. Dark-salmon Fragrant Cloud is highly resistant to rust and moderately resistant to powdery mildew and black spot.. Tournament of Roses, a coral-colored grandiflora, and the ...
T cell activation levels in HIV infection are predictive of AIDS progression. We searched for the immunological correlates of protection against disease progression by studying the early stages of nonpathogenic SIV infection in African green monkeys (SIVagm). The African green monkeys (AGMs) displayed high peak viremias and a transient decline in levels of blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells between days 5 and 17 after infection. A concomitant increase in levels of CD4+DR+, CD8+DR+, and CD8+CD28- cells was detected. After the third week, T cell activation returned to baseline levels, which suggested a protective downregulation of T cell activation. A very early (24 hours after infection) and strong induction of TGF-β1 and FoxP3 expression was detected and correlated with increases in levels of CD4+CD25+ and CD8+CD25+ T cells. This was followed by a significant increase in levels of IL-10, whereas IFN-γ gene upregulation was more transient, and levels of TNF-α and MIP-1α/β transcripts did not ...
Macaulay Library ML170582; gray-cheeked mangabey; Lophocebus albigena; © Peter Waser; Kanyawara; near Makerere University Biological Field Station, Western, Uganda; 21 Aug 1974
Definition: Appendix II lists species that are not necessarily now threatened with extinction but that may become so unless trade is closely controlled. It also includes so-called look-alike species, i.e. species whose specimens in trade look like those of species listed for conservation reasons. International trade in specimens of Appendix-II species may be authorized by the granting of an export permit or re-export certificate. No import permit is necessary for these species under CITES (although a permit is needed in some countries that have taken stricter measures than CITES requires). Permits or certificates should only be granted if the relevant authorities are satisfied that certain conditions are met, above all that trade will not be detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild. (See Article IV of the Convention ...
A team of US researchers, including an Indian-origin scientist, has found that older adults who used a hearing aid performed significantly better on cognitive tests than those who did not use a hearing aid despite having poorer hearing.
Prevent insects from entering your home by caulking or covering entryways with holes or gaps. Erase ants trails with soapy water so that they will stop using that path. Use insect traps before using insecticides. Use local, disease-resistant plants that are less likely to contribute to infestation ...
Monitor roses closely for blackspot. Conditions earlier this season were perfect for encouraging this fungal condition. Remove any leaves that show darkened circles with fuzzy margins on either the tops or undersides of leaves; yellow foliage with dark spots; and any leaves that have already dropped from the plant. In the future, choose disease-resistant roses.. ...
Choose from high-yielding, disease-resistant vegetable, flower, and herb varieties selected by our research team for their performance in the greenhouse.
Hybrid Asian elms Hybrid Asian elms are the result of controlled breeding programs throughout North America. All have demonstrated resistance to Dutch elm disease and are great selections for tough sites where other trees wont grow. In general, hybrid elms are smaller at maturity than their American cousins. Many have leaves and mature forms that are distinctly different from American elms.List of Dutch elm disease-resistant varieties of elm trees for Minnesota property owners and arborists
February 2018-In a small, rural community in the San Marcos department of northwestern Guatemala, Rosita Juárez has learned how to perform plant surgery. With steady hands, she grafts a coffee plant root with the stem of a different variety that is less susceptible to diseases. The result is a productive, disease-resistant coffee seedling that will flourish in the regions
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mucosal immunity in HIV/SIV infection. T2 - T Cells, B cells and beyond. AU - Shacklett, Barbara. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - As our understanding of mucosal immunity increases, it is becoming clear that the host response to HIV-1 is more complex and nuanced than originally believed. The mucosal landscape is populated with a variety of specialized cell types whose functions include combating infectious agents while preserving commensal microbiota, maintaining barrier integrity, and ensuring immune homeostasis. Advances in multiparameter flow cytometry, gene expression analysis and bioinformatics have allowed more detailed characterization of these cell types and their roles in host defense than was previously possible. This review provides an overview of existing literature on immunity to HIV-1 and SIVmac in mucosal tissues of the female reproductive tract and the gastrointestinal tract, focusing on major effector cell populations and briefly summarizing new information on ...
Michelle and Ann are both in the 2017 edition of Best American Science and Nature Writing, Michelle for The Parks of Tomorrow in National Geographic, Ann for Inside the Breakthrough Starshot Mission to Alpha Centauri in Scientific American. Notable mentions in the same edition were Christies Failure is Moving Science Forward in FiveThirtyEight.com and Eriks Why Great Sharks Are Still a Mystery to Us for National Geographic.. Michelle and ex-LWONian Erika Check Hayden were each finalists in the (also big-deal) National Academies 2017 Communication Awards/Keck Futures Initiative. Michelle co-finalized for articles in National Geographic on climate change, Erika for articles in Nature on CRISPR-Cas9.. Christie won a 2016 AAAS-Kavli Science Journalism award (big deal) for a FiveThirtyEight.com series on p-hacking your way to scientific glory. One of that series, called Science Isnt Broken also won a Kantor Information is Beautiful award. Classic Christie: When the first analysis you try doesnt ...
Apparently humans arent the only primates that plan outdoor events based on weather. Gray-cheeked mangabey monkeys rely on recent trends in temperature and solar radiation to forage for figs and insect larvae, report Karline Janmaat and her colleagues of the University of St. Andrews in Scotland. The results support a lesser-studied notion that primate cognition evolved to solve problems rooted in ecology--such as foraging--instead of the more favored viewpoint, that cognition evolved as a way to cope within a complex society. The findings, published today in Current Biology, come from field studies conducted for 210 days in the Kibale National Park of Uganda, where Janmaat mapped out the locations of 80 fig trees, noting whether the trees contained ripe fruit, unripe fruit or no fruit at all. Next, her team followed a group of mangabey monkeys from dawn to dusk, recording their position every 10 minutes using global positioning system (GPS) satellite technology, and observing whether the ...
Simian immunodeficiency viruses are retroviruses found in primates. Researchers have hypothesized that SIVs led to the transmission of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) in humans. Evidence suggests that both HIV-1 and HIV-2 originated in Africa, with HIV-1 being a relative of a SIV that infects wild chimpanzees, and HIV-2 being a relative of one that infects the sooty mangabey. It is likely that the first human cases of HIV resulted from contact with an infected chimpanzee or monkey.. ...
Once known as the redwood of the East, the American chestnut was one of the most dominant trees in the eastern United States, growing as tall as 100 feet. But a blight overtook the trees during the first half of the 1900s, wiping out the population by the 1950s ...
Big Bertha Bell Pepper produces thick-walled, 7-inch long fruit thats perfect for stuffing. Plants will grow 3 to 5 feet tall. Learn more here.
Researchers have identified an important cog in the molecular machinery of plant immunity -- a discovery that could help crop breeders produce disease-resistant varieties to help ensure future food security. There may also be implications for treating human immune-related disorders.
WOKW rats and BB/OK rats were originated from the same colony of Wistar rat and both strains possess RT1u haplotype (Kovács, 1997). WOKW rats develop polygenic inherited metabolic syndrome resembling human disorder such as obesity, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia (Kovács, 1997; Kovács, 2000; van den Brandt, 2000; van den Brandt, 2002). By breeding analysis of disease-prone WOKW and disease-resistant DA rats, several QTLs associated with metabolic syndrome were mapped (Kovács, 2000; Klöting, 2001; Baguhl, 2009). Some of them were sex-specific. (Sep 16, 2010 ...
Grapes come in many disease-resistant cultivars, but this does not mean they are all impervious to diseases. Even resistant varieties can develop grape diseases under the proper conditions. Sprays designed for grape diseases can prevent infection and eradicate existing diseases quickly to avert crop disasters. Use ...
A very adaptable, disease-resistant spinach good for use in any climate. Ready in no time, it holds well and is super flavorful. These seeds arrive embedded in biodegradable paper (seed tape) that can be cut to desired size and direct-sown into the garden or containers. Available today at Park Seed!
CITES is an international agreement between governments, aimed to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.. ...
The Taï National Park is home to another terrestrial primate species, the Sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys). Sooty mangabeys ...
Effects of changing housing conditions on mangabey behavior (Cercocebus atys): Spatial density, housing quality, and novelty ...
Cercocebus atys. species. 0.4. 9,147. Eukaryota. Cebidae. family. 0.4. 7,386. How to read results? Results show distribution of ...
Cercocebus atys. species. 0.5. 16,048. Eukaryota. Nomascus leucogenys. species. 0.3. 9,842. How to read results? Results show ...
Cercocebus atys. species. 0.6. 18,412. Eukaryota. Rhinopithecus bieti. species. 0.5. 17,213. Eukaryota. Nomascus leucogenys. ...
Cercocebus atys NA 65319 0 0 11433 # ... with 89 more rows, and 9 more variables: scaffold_N50 ,int,, scaffold_L50 ,int,, # ...
Cercocebus atys). AIDS was first recognized in the United States in 1981 with the unexplained occurrence of Pneumocyuctis ...
Animals, Base Sequence, Cercocebus atys, Databases, Genetic, Decision Making, Drosophila, Genome, Melopsittacus, ...
Cercocebus. Kaku kijivu (C. agilis) · Kaku mweusi (C. atys) · Kaku tumbo-dhahabu (C. chrysogaster) · Kaku wa Tana (C. galeritus ...
  • The Taï National Park is home to another terrestrial primate species, the Sooty mangabey ( Cercocebus atys ). (mpg.de)
  • While HIV-1 is thought to have been derived from SIV infected chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), it is believed that HIV-2 resulted from zoonotic transmission from SIV infect sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys). (biologicalmimetics.com)

No images available that match "cercocebus atys"