Ceratopogonidae: A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.Trypanosomatina: A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).Mansonelliasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus MANSONELLA. Symptoms include pruritus, headache, and articular swelling.Democratic People's Republic of Korea: A country located on the Korean Peninsula whose capital is Pyongyang. The country was established September 9, 1948.Mansonella: A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms are distributed in Central and South America. Characteristics include a smooth cuticle and an enlarged anterior end.Bluetongue: A reovirus infection, chiefly of sheep, characterized by a swollen blue tongue, catarrhal inflammation of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and often by inflammation of sensitive laminae of the feet and coronet.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.ArgentinaMicronesia: The collective name for islands of the Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines, including the Mariana, PALAU, Caroline, Marshall, and Kiribati Islands. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p761 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p350)MuseumsCataloging: Activities performed in the preparation of bibliographic records for CATALOGS. It is carried out according to a set of rules and contains information enabling the user to know what is available and where items can be found.Palau: A republic consisting of a group of about 100 islands and islets in the western Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Koror. Under Spain it was administered as a part of the Caroline Islands but was sold to Germany in 1899. Seized by Japan in 1914, it was taken by the Allies in World War II in 1944. In 1947 it became part of the U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, became internally self-governing in 1980, obtained independent control over its foreign policy (except defense) in 1986, and achieved total independence October 1, 1994. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p915; telephone communication with Randy Flynn, Board on Geographic Names, 17 January 1995)Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).ColoradoEncephalitis Virus, California: A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Bunyaviridae: A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Bromelia: A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE. Members contain karatasin and balansain (ENDOPEPTIDASES) and BROMELAINS.Bromeliaceae: A plant family of the order Bromeliales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Eryngium: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. Members contain SAPONINS.Chironomidae: A family of nonbiting midges, in the order DIPTERA. Salivary glands of the genus Chironomus are used in studies of cellular genetics and biochemistry.USSRDictionaries, MedicalChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Siphonaptera: An order of parasitic, blood-sucking, wingless INSECTS with the common name of fleas.Phthiraptera: An order of small, wingless parasitic insects, commonly known as lice. The suborders include ANOPLURA (sucking lice); AMBLYCERA; ISCHNOCERA; and Rhynchophthirina (elephant and warthog lice).Xenopsylla: A genus of fleas in the family Pulicidae which includes the species that serves as the primary vector of BUBONIC PLAGUE, Xenopsylla cheopis.BooksLice Infestations: Parasitic attack or subsistence on the skin by members of the order Phthiraptera, especially on humans by Pediculus humanus of the family Pediculidae. The hair of the head, eyelashes, and pubis is a frequent site of infestation. (From Dorland, 28th ed; Stedman, 26th ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Schools, Veterinary: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of veterinary medicine.Echinostomatidae: A family of flukes (TREMATODA) characterized by a collar of spines at their anterior end. The body is elongated and is covered with spines, and the two suckers are usually close together. (Noble et al., Parasitology: the Biology of Animal Parasites, 6th ed, p183)Health Planning Technical Assistance: The provision of expert assistance in developing health planning programs, plans as technical materials, etc., as requested by Health Systems Agencies or other health planning organizations.Estuaries: A partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The resulting mixture of seawater and fresh water is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt. (accessed http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/estuaries01_whatis.html)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Hawaii: A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Forensic Sciences: Disciplines that apply sciences to law. Forensic sciences include a wide range of disciplines, such as FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY; FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY; FORENSIC MEDICINE; FORENSIC DENTISTRY; and others.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Veterinarians: Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.Arachnida: A class of Arthropoda that includes SPIDERS; TICKS; MITES; and SCORPIONS.Forensic Pathology: The application of pathology to questions of law.Morus: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE that is widely planted for shade.Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Climacteric: Physiologic period, characterized by endocrine, somatic, and psychic changes with the termination of ovarian function in the female. It may also accompany the normal diminution of sexual activity in the male.Parrots: BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.Psittaciformes: An order of BIRDS comprised of several families and more than 300 species. It includes COCKATOOS; PARROTS; PARAKEETS; macaws; and BUDGERIGARS.Citrullus: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.

Identification and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a variant of the Ibaraki virus from naturally infected cattle and aborted fetuses in Japan. (1/150)

One hundred fourteen field isolates of the Ibaraki virus (IBAV), a member of the epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 2 (EHDV-2), were isolated from blood samples of affected and apparently healthy cattle and Culicoides biting midges and from blood samples of dams and internal organs of aborted fetuses during an outbreak of Ibaraki disease in the southern part of Japan in 1997. In this outbreak, 242 cattle showed typical symptoms of the disease, and several hundred dams had miscarriages or stillbirths. The viruses that induced typical Ibaraki disease and reproductive problems among cattle were identical and were antigenically closely related to but distinct from previous isolates of IBAV and EHDV-2. The virus was considered to be a putative agent of this outbreak. Reverse transcription-PCR based on segment 3 of the RNA genome of EHDV-2 and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the PCR products were conducted to compare the genomes of the viruses. The results suggested that the virus isolated in 1997 was a variant of IBAV and might be exotic.  (+info)

Observations on the epidemiology of ephemeral fever in Kenya. (2/150)

Ephemeral fever antibody was found in domestic cattle in Kenya across a wide range of ecological zones, from highland forests and grasslands to desert and semidesert thorn scrub. Antibody was found in several species of game animals, notably waterbuck and buffalo, where over 50% of the samples showed antibody to EF. Evidence was obtained to show that the virus had been cycling in these wild ruminant populations between epizootics in domestic cattle.  (+info)

A new Culicoides from the Amazonian region, Brazil (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). (3/150)

A new Neotropical species of biting midge Culicoides (Haematomyidium), C. kampa Felippe-Bauer, Veras & Castellon, is described and illustrated based on female specimens from the Amazonian Region.  (+info)

A new species of predaceous midge of the genus Monohelea Kieffer from Mexico (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). (4/150)

A description and illustrations of Monohelea maya, new species, based on male and female characteristics are provided. The specimens were collected in the special biosphere Reserves of Ria Lagartos and Ria Celestun, Yucatan State, Mexico.  (+info)

RGD tripeptide of bluetongue virus VP7 protein is responsible for core attachment to Culicoides cells. (5/150)

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted by Culicoides species to vertebrate hosts. The double-capsid virion is infectious for Culicoides vector and mammalian cells, while the inner core is infectious for only Culicoides-derived cells. The recently determined crystal structure of the BTV core has revealed an accessible RGD motif between amino acids 168 to 170 of the outer core protein VP7, whose structure and position would be consistent with a role in cell entry. To delineate the biological role of the RGD sequence within VP7, we have introduced point mutations in the RGD tripeptide and generated three recombinant baculoviruses, each expressing a mutant derivative of VP7 (VP7-AGD, VP7-ADL, and VP7-AGQ). Each expressed mutant protein was purified, and the oligomeric nature and secondary structure of each was compared with those of the wild-type (wt) VP7 molecule. Each mutant VP7 protein was used to generate empty core-like particles (CLPs) and were shown to be biochemically and morphologically identical to those of wt CLPs. However, when mutant CLPs were used in an in vitro cell binding assay, each showed reduced binding to Culicoides cells compared to wt CLPs. Twelve monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was generated using purified VP7 or CLPs as a source of antigen and were utilized for epitope mapping with available chimeric VP7 molecules and the RGD mutants. Several MAbs bound to the RGD motif on the core, as shown by immunogold labeling and cryoelectron microscopy. RGD-specific MAb H1.5, but not those directed to other regions of the core, inhibited the binding activity of CLPs to the Culicoides cell surface. Together, these data indicate that the RGD motif present on BTV VP7 is responsible for Culicoides cell binding activity.  (+info)

Simuliid blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and ceratopogonid midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) as vectors of Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) in northern Argentina. (6/150)

Mansonella ozzardi, a relatively nonpathogenic filarial parasite of man in Latin America, is transmitted by either ceratopogonid midges or simuliid blackflies. In the only known focus of the disease in north-western Argentina the vectors have never been incriminated. This study investigated the potential vectors of M. ozzardi in this area. The only anthropophilic species of these Diptera families biting man at the time of the investigation were Simulium exiguum, S. dinellii, Culicoides lahillei and C. paraensis. Using experimentally infected flies S. exiguum and both species of Culicoides allowed full development of microfilariae to the infective stage, with C. lahillei being a more competent host than S. exiguum. Based on these data, biting rates and natural infectivity rates it is probable that at the begininning of the wet season C. lahillei is the main vector of M. ozzardi and both C. paraensis and S. exiguum secondary vectors. Additionally, it was found that a single dose of ivermectin was ineffectual in eradicating M. ozzardi from infected individuals in this area.  (+info)

Occurrence of genetic drift and founder effect during quasispecies evolution of the VP2 and NS3/NS3A genes of bluetongue virus upon passage between sheep, cattle, and Culicoides sonorensis. (7/150)

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the cause of an insect-transmitted virus infection of ruminants that occurs throughout much of the world. Individual gene segments differ between field strains of BTV; thus, we hypothesized that key viral genes undergo genetic drift during alternating passage of BTV in its ruminant and insect hosts. To test this hypothesis, variation in the consensus sequence and quasispecies heterogeneity of the VP2 and NS3/NS3A genes of a plaque-purified strain of BTV serotype 10 was determined during alternating infection of vector Culicoides sonorensis and a sheep and calf. Consensus sequences were determined after reverse transcriptase-nested PCR amplification of viral RNA directly from ruminant blood and homogenized insects, and quasispecies heterogeneity was determined by the sequencing of clones derived from directly amplified viral RNA. Comparison of these sequences to those of the original BTV inoculum used to initiate the cycle of BTV infection demonstrated, for the first time, that individual BTV gene segments evolve independently of one another by genetic drift in a host-specific fashion, generating quasispecies populations in both ruminant and insect hosts. Furthermore, a unique viral variant was randomly ingested by C. sonorensis insects that fed on a sheep with low-titer viremia, thereby fixing a novel genotype by founder effect. Thus, we conclude that genetic drift and founder effect contribute to diversification of individual gene segments of field strains of BTV.  (+info)

Rift Valley fever outbreak, Mauritania, 1998: seroepidemiologic, virologic, entomologic, and zoologic investigations. (8/150)

A Rift Valley fever outbreak occurred in Mauritania in 1998. Seroepidemiologic and virologic investigation showed active circulation of the Rift Valley fever virus, with 13 strains isolated, and 16% (range 1.5%-38%) immunoglobulin (Ig) M-positivity in sera from 90 humans and 343 animals (sheep, goats, camels, cattle, and donkeys). One human case was fatal.  (+info)

*Ceratopogonidae

Chapter 28: Ceratopogonidae. Pp. 393-421. In: McAlpine, J.F., B.V. Peterson, G.E. Shewell, H.J. Teskey, J.R. Vockeroth, and D.M ... Ceratopogonidae, or biting midges, are a family of small flies (1-4 mm long) in the order Diptera. They are called midgies in ... Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). 1. Introduction and key to genera. Proceedings of the Biological Society of ... "How to Protect Oneself from Biting Midges". The Ceratopogonidae of Costa Rica. National Biodiversity Institute of Costa Rica. ...

*Serromyia

Ceratopogonidae]" [Description of Serromyia mangrovi n. sp. from Sinaï [Dipt. Ceratopogonidae]]. Bulletin de la Société ...

*Bolitophila

Volume 3. Ceratopogonidae - Mycetophilidae. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest: 193-196. Séguy, E. (1940) Diptères: Nématocères. Paris: ...

*Haemoproteus

Vectors are biting midges (Ceratopogonidae). Exflagellation occurs below 20 degrees Celsius. Mature oocysts have diameters less ... n. (Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae) from an Early Cretaceous biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)". Parasitology. 131 (1): 79- ...

*Forcipomyia

2005: Ceratopogonidae of China: Insecta, Diptera. Volume I. Military Medical Science Press, Beijing. Yu, Y.-x.; Song, F.-C. ... Liu, J.-H.; Yan, G.; Liu, G.-P.; Hao, B.-S.; Liu, Z.-J.; Yu, Y.-X. 2001: Forcipomyiinae of China (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) II ... Debenham, M.L. 1987: The biting midge genus Forcipomyia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in the Australasian region (exclusive of New ... doi:10.1071/IT9870035 Debenham, M.L. 1987: The biting midge genus Forcipomyia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in the Australasian ...

*List of Diptera families

Ceratopogonidae Newman, 1834 Synonyms: Leptoconopidae, Helidae, Heleidae. Chaoboridae Newman, 1834 Synonyms: Corethridae, ...

*Leptoconopinae

Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from the Lower Cretaceous amber of Jordan. Polish Journal of Entomology 69: 251-256.. ... Biting Midges in the Cretaceous Amber of North America (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), 1-237. Elson-Harris, M.M. 1990. Keys to the ... The Leptoconopinae are a subfamily of biting midges in the family Ceratopogonidae. The larvae are recognized by their unique ... Biology and feeding behavior of ceratopogonid larvae (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in North America. Bulletin of the Society for ...

*Leptoconops

... (black gnat) is a midge genus in the family Ceratopogonidae. It has a mostly tropical or subtropical distribution ... n. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and Paleotrypanosoma burmanicus gen. n., sp. n. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), a biting ... Borkent, Art; Wirth, Willis W (24 July 1997). "World Species of Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)". Bulletin of the ... Borkent, Art (26 April 2001). "Leptoconops (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), the Earliest Extant Lineage of Biting Midge, Discovered ...

*Peder Nielsen

Diptera, 1 (exclusive of Ceratopogonidae and Chironomidae). Zoology of Iceland 3 (48A): 1-189. Full list at Craneflies of the ...

*Leptoconops myanmaricus

... is an extinct species of biting midge belonging to the family Ceratopogonidae. This species was ... Szadziewski, Ryszard (23 July 2004). "Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Burmese Amber, Myanmar". Journal of ...

*Leptoconops nosopheris

n. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and Paleotrypanosoma burmanicus gen. n., sp. n. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), a biting ... Leptoconops nosopheris is an extinct species of biting midge belonging to the family Ceratopogonidae. This species was ...

*Leptoconops burmiticus

... is an extinct species of biting midge belonging to the family Ceratopogonidae. This species was ... Ceratopogonidae) from Burmese Amber, Myanmar". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 2 (2): 115-121. ...

*Mansonelliasis

Linley JR, Hoch AL, Pinheiro FP (July 1983). "Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and human health" (PDF). Journal of ...

*Culicoides variipennis

"The Flight Range of Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)". The Canadian Entomologist. 113.5 419-426. Holbrook, ... "Sympatry in the Culicoides variipennis Complex (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae): a Taxonomic Reassessment". Journal of Medical ... Ceratopogonidae) in California". Environmental Entomology. 23.1 154-160. Fu, H., Leake, C. J., Mertens, P. P. C., Mellor, P. S ...

*Dasyhelea

They take nectar only, an unusual feeding behavior within the Ceratopogonidae. Elson-Harris, M.M. 1990. Keys to the immature ... Biology and feeding behavior of ceratopogonid larvae (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in North America. Bulletin of the Society for ... stages of some Australian Ceratopogonidae. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 29: 267-275. Mullen, G.R. and L.J. ...

*Black fly

They are related to the Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, and Thaumaleidae. Over 2,200 species of black flies have been formally ...

*Ceratopogoninae

Biology and feeding behavior of ceratopogonid larvae (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in North America. Bulletin of the Society for ... Keys to the immature stages of some Australian Ceratopogonidae. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 29: 267-275. ...

*New Jersey amber

Borkent, A. "Further biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Upper Cretaceous New Jersey amber". In Grimaldi, D.A. ... Borkent, A. (1996). "Biting Midges from Upper Cretaceous New Jersey Amber (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)". American Museum ... Ceratopogonidae)". Cretaceous Research. 58: 1-9. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2015.09.016. Azar, D.; Salamé, Y. (2015). "A new genus ... Ceratopogonidae)". Journal of Paleontology. 62 (5): 808-812. doi:10.1017/s0022336000019089. ...

*Paleoparasitology

Ceratopogonidae). Parasitology 131(1):79-84. Bassett, M.G., L.E. Popov and L.E. Holmer (2004) The oldest-known metazoan ... Ceratopogonidae). Parasitology 131(1):79-84. Poinar, G., Jr. (2008) Lutzomyia adiketis sp.n. (Diptera: Phlebotomidae), a vector ...

*Leptoconops gravesi

... is an extinct species of biting midge belonging to the family Ceratopogonidae. This species was described ... Choufanni, Joanna; Perrichot, Vincent; Azar, Dany; Nel, Andre (1 December 2014). "New Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) ...

*Tete virus

"Isolation of Tete serogroup bunyaviruses from Ceratopogonidae collected in Colorado". Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 43 (3): 314-8. ...

*Paleohaemoproteus

n. (Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae) from an Early Cretaceous biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)". Parasitology. 131 (1): 79- ...

*Thaumaleidae

... , the solitary midges or trickle midges, are a group of nematoceran flies related to the Ceratopogonidae, ... Larvae resemble larval Lutzomyia (Psychodidae), Forcipomyia (Ceratopogonidae), and some Chironomidae. However, unpaired prolegs ...

*Chironomidae

They are closely related to the Ceratopogonidae, Simuliidae, and Thaumaleidae. Many species superficially resemble mosquitoes, ...

*2014 in arthropod paleontology

Joanna Choufani; Vincent Perrichot; Dany Azar; André Nel (2014). "New biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Late ... Ceratopogonidae)". Cretaceous Research. 58: 1-9. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2015.09.016. Jun Chen; Bo Wang; Michael S Engel; Torsten ... Ceratopogonidae) states". Annales de la Société Entomologique de France. New Series. 50 (3-4): 272-285. doi:10.1080/ ...
Looking for Ceratopogonidae? Find out information about Ceratopogonidae. a family of insects of the order Diptera. Body length, 1-2.5 mm. The insects are distributed everywhere but are most numerous in forests. In the USSR there... Explanation of Ceratopogonidae
Introduction. Small (, 3 mm) blood-feeding flies of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are associated worldwide with the transmission of several pathogens to a variety of hosts (Borkent 2005; Meiswinkel, Venter & Nevill 2004). Of the more than 66 viruses (Borkent 2005) isolated from Culicoides midges, African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is probably the most devastating to South Africa owing to its effect on the horse industry. Despite the widespread use of live-attenuated African horse sickness (AHS) vaccines, more than 1500 horses in South Africa have succumbed to AHS since 2005 (African Horse Sickness Trust 2012). This relatively high death rate can partly be ascribed to the large numbers of vectors, Culicoides species, present in the endemic AHS areas of South Africa. Culicoides imicola Kieffer (C. imicola), the most abundant livestock-associated Culicoides species, is considered to be a proven vector of AHSV (Meiswinkel et al. 2004; Mellor, Boorman & Baylis 2000). Under ...
At least 19 mosquito species in the genera Anopheles, Culex, Aedes and Armigeres have been documented as hosts of C. anophelis (Table 1). These data indicate that C. anophelis has a broad host range. Furthermore, the infestation is commonly seen in the mosquito specimens in field collections [1-3]. In a recent report the midges were found on 8 of 11 (72.7%) An. stephensi collected in cattle sheds in India [4]. In another report from India, the prevalence of C. anophelis was 6.7% (87/1297) in five midge collections from April to August in 2004 [5]. Interestingly, in the same report, some of C. anophelis were caught directly on cattle and buffaloes, which indicates that C. anophelis can feed on animals other than mosquitoes [5]. Certain mosquitoes and Culicoides midges are vectors for arboviruses that cause human and/or animal diseases, such as mosquito-borne Dengue virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and midge-borne bluetongue virus, Oropouche virus and Schmallenberg virus ...
Citation: Drolet, B.S., Campbell, C.L., Stuart, M.A., Wilson, W.C. 2004. Replication of vesicular stomatitis virus in the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis [abstract]. American Society for Virology Meeting. Paper No. 13-13. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: The biting midge Culicoides sonorensis, a known arboviral insect vector, has been implicated as a possible vector for vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in the western United States. Within a competent insect vector, virus from a meal must be able to penetrate the midgut barrier, infect the midgut epithelium, replicate, and disseminate to the epidemiologically significant organs; salivary glands and eggs. This amplification and dissemination must occur without significant damage to the insects cells. Infection studies were performed in both Culicoides cell lines and insects to examine the replication of VSV. In vitro, Culicoides cells were susceptible and permissive. VSV infections were productive and persistent resulting in little ...
Culicoides midges belonging to 26 different species were collected (Table 1). Culicoides imicola was dominant throughout the period (Table 1). The mean numbers of C. imicola collected per night ranged from 58.5 in July 2011 to 48 650.4 in March 2011 (Table 1). Its representation ranged from 74.9% in January 2011 to 96.2% in August 2010 whilst its mean representation was 90.8% (Table 1). The second most abundant species, Culicoides enderleini, accounted for 2.3% of the total number (Table 1) and its highest mean number (1598.6) was collected in March 2011 (Table 1). This species was absent from the collections made in July (Table 1). Culicoides nevilli, at 1.4%, was the third most abundant (Table 1). In the table, where Culicoides species numbers appear instead of a species name, the numbering system of Meiswinkel (1995) was followed to refer to as yet undescribed species.. Parous females (females that have had at least one blood meal and completed one gonotrophic cycle and therefore potentially ...
AbstractThe aim of the study was to estimate and compare the distribution of Culicoides biting midges species at farms with different main hosts - cattle and horse. Culicoides spp. are known vectors of arboviruses including African horse sickness virus (AHSV), bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). The latter two have been already reported in Polish ruminants recently, while AHSV remains absent, however the risk of its emergence has been increasing in the recent years. In order to establish the activity of potential AHSV vector at vicinity of horses, an OVI midge trap has been placed at the horse stables in the southeastern Poland. Another trap has been placed 7 km away at the cattle farm. The collections were carried over the midge activity season from April until November 2016. The midge abundances at both sites were comparable with the total numbers of insects trapped of 43,153 and 34,829 at the cattle and horse farm, respectively. Midges belonging to C. obsoletus/scoticus complex were
Citation: Bennett, K.E., Hopper, J.E., Stuart, M.A., West, M.S., Drolet, B.S. 2008. Effects of Viral Infection on Blood Feeding Behavior and Fecundity in Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Interpretive Summary: Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the primary vector of bluetongue virus (BTV) in North America and has been shown to be a competent vector of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). To determine whether infection with VSV or BTV affects blood feeding, midges were injected with VSV, BTV, or virus-free cell lysate and held 2, 3, or 4 days post inoculation (DPI) for VSV or 2, 4, or 7 DPI for BTV before being offered a non-infectious blood meal. Viral growth curves were determined for each virus. Measurements of fecundity, egg viability and days from hatching to the emergence of pupae were taken for individual females. The effect of viral infection in C. sonorensis on virus transmission and epidemiology is ...
There are several key results of this study. First, we add H. noctuae and H. syrnii to the list of Culicoides spp.-transmitted haemoproteids, supporting their belonging to the subgenus Parahaemoproteus [5, 12, 13]. Both these parasites completed sporogony in Culicoides biting midges, with sporozoites reported in salivary glands (Fig. 2g, i, j), indicating that these flies likely are natural vectors, as has been reported for Parahaemoproteus species [2, 5, 16]. Several other Parahaemoproteus parasites have been shown experimentally to complete sporogony in Culicoides spp. These are H. danilewskii [47, 48], H. dolniki [5], H. handai [1], H. mansoni [27], H. nettionis [49], and H. velans [50]. However, molecular characterisation of these avian haemoproteids has not been developed and cyt b sequence information is absent, thus they cannot be included in the phylogenetic analysis (Fig. 4).. Second, the phylogenetic analysis placed cyt b lineages both of H. noctuae and H. syrnii in the clade A (Fig. ...
Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are currently the most important biological vectors of livestock arboviruses in Europe. Outbreaks of bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV) continue to have a significant economic impact through clinical disease and the imposition of animal trade movement restrictions. At least three Culicoides-borne viruses recently identified in Europe possess an unknown origin, hence future outbreaks involving described or undescribed strains or species of Culicoides-borne viruses have a high potential of occurring in the future. These viruses could include further incursions of known arboviruses (including additional species of Culicoides-borne arboviruses such as African horse sickness or Epizootic Haemorhagic Disease Virus) or as yet undescribed species with an unknown pathogenicity to livestock or humans. In this project we will dissect Culicoides vector-arbovirus relationships across multiple ecosystems and species and in unprecedented ...
Abstract Two viruses were isolated from ceratopogonid midges collected in northern Colorado. Electron microscopy indicated that both isolates were bunyavirus-like. Indirect fluorescent antibody and serum dilution-plaque reduction neutralization tests showed that these isolates were members of the Tete serogroup, most closely related antigenically to Tete and Batama viruses but distinguishable from both and from each other. We suggest the name Weldona virus for these isolates. Antibody in both waterfowl and passerine birds in norther Colorado indicates the enzootic presence of these viruses in northern Colorado and raises unanswered questions about the introduction and establishment of Tete serogroup viruses in the Americas.
Also known as Queensland Itch, Seasonal Recurrent Dermatitis (SSRD) , Summer Itch or more technically, Culicoides Hypersensitivity. Sweet Itch is a medical condition in equines caused by an allergic response to the bites of Culicoides midges. It may be found in any horses and ponies, especially in the warmer regions. It may also occur, too, in other equines. It is also found in Canada, Australia, the US and many other parts of the world. A hypersensitivity reaction to specific allergens (protein molecules causing an extreme immune response in sensitised individuals) in the saliva of Culicoides midges. There are multiple allergens involved, although some workers claim that the larger proteins (of molecular weight 65kDa) are the most important. These allergens appear to be cross-reactive across many species of Culicoides - i.e. many different varieties of midges produce similar allergens, giving the same effects upon horses. The hypersensitivity response is mediated by IgE, an antibody produced by ...
Rollo is a very itchy horse and, very nearly, suffers from sweet itch (an allergic dermatitic reaction caused by a protein in the saliva of the biting Culicoides midge). Sweet itch can be a devastating condition resulting in sometimes such extreme pruritus that skin damage can result - the horse scratches its skin to try and rid itself of the persistent itching (often centered around the mane and tail areas) to the point of seriously exfoliating the skin at worst, and at best really messing with their mane and tail often losing a lot of hair in the process! So horse owners are very keen to try and wage war against said Culicoides midges, not only to save the horse agro, but also because the horse looks a mess if Culicoides wins! Also, they are bloody annoying to me too as they seem to like me! Bastards.. So I have had to be really careful as a result of Rollo displaying early signs of sweet itch - he goes out in a fly rug (or perhaps that should be called an "anti-fly rug") during the day ...
Dry mouth is one of the common complaints of elderly people, and can accompany various disorders. The physicians of patients in the oximeter group were at liberty to obtain arterial blood gas determinations during the study if they desired. We hereby report a 20 yr old male who sustained ipsilateral floating hip and ipsilateral floating knee injuries following motor vehicle accident. The authors are of the opinion that the generic cialis available flap does not match the color of the eyelid region, and therefore suggest that if used, prefabrication or a second procedure is needed. Laboratory colonization of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). In the adult population pain from this muscle is well documented.. To determine the prevalence, clinical picture, and disease burden of arthritis in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis. amazonensis, and ultrastructural generic cialis available and flow cytometry data indicate the mitochondrion as a target of edelfosine. Intestinal picture ...
... is a non-contagious, viral disease affecting domestic and wild ruminants (primarily sheep and including cattle and goats), that is transmitted by insects, particularly biting midges.. The severity of disease varies among different species with symptoms being most severe in sheep resulting in death, weight loss and disruption in wool growth. In highly susceptible sheep, morbidity can be as high as 100%. Mortality averages from 2-30% but can be as high as 70%. Cattle often have a higher infection rate than sheep and demonstration and severity of clinical signs varies depending on the strain of virus.. Where is the disease found?. Blue Tongue has a significant global distribution in regions where the insect vector (ie, biting midges species Culicoides) is present, including Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe and North America. The virus is maintained in areas where the climate will allow biting midges to survive over winter. The geographical distribution of the insect vector species ...
in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(4), 480-487. La fièvre catarrhale ovine (FCO) est une arbovirose qui affecte les ruminants domestiques et sauvages. Depuis sa récente apparition en Europe du Nord, cette épizootie virale a engendré des pertes ... [more ▼]. La fièvre catarrhale ovine (FCO) est une arbovirose qui affecte les ruminants domestiques et sauvages. Depuis sa récente apparition en Europe du Nord, cette épizootie virale a engendré des pertes économiques considérables. Les vecteurs biologiques du virus de la FCO sont des moucherons piqueurs appartenant au genre Culicoides (Diptera : Ceratopogonidae). Plusieurs campagnes de piégeage lumineux de ces moucherons adultes ont été réalisées précédemment en Belgique au sein dexploitations bovines et ovines, mais aucune à lintérieur des exploitations porcines. Cette étude vise donc à évaluer, au moyen de pièges lumineux, les ...
Allergic Eczema: Also known as allergic dermatitis and is characterized commonly in horses as "sweet itch", "summer eczema", "Queensland itch" in Australia, summer mange and "kasen" in Japan. This is a hypersensitivity reaction to the bite of insects, especially biting midges (Culicoides spp.) The condition has been shown to have a hereditary aspect. (taken from Rooney & Robertson, Equine Pathology, Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa. 1996). [return]. Athletic Performance: Horses are prized for their athletic performances in racing, jumping, High School riding and for the ability to perform variations of different gaits. Heredity plays a major role in performance and enhancing performance will entail understanding the genetics of performance traits. [return]. Anterior Segment Dysgenesis This is a congenital eye disease, apparent at birth but not progressive. It appears to have a hereditary component and is under investigation in Rocky Mountain Horses and Miniature Horses. (learn ...
KIEFFER (1913a) created Melanepyris to accommodate the African species Epyris imicola Kieffer, 1913 which has glabrous eyes, propodeal disc without posterior carina, and simple claws. Latter, KIEFFER (1922) described a Philippinean species, Melanepyris asiaticus Kieffer, 1922, with simple claws and propodeal disc with inconspicuous posterior carina. In his original description, KIEFFER (1913a) did not state whether M. asiaticus has glabrous or hairy eyes.. Both species are known only from their types, which have not been studied since the time of their original descriptions (KIEFFER 1913b, 1922) and had been considered lost. In a recent visit to the Muséum National dHistoire Naturelle in Paris, we were able to find the type of M. asiaticus. During analysis of the latter, we have concluded that Melanepyris is a junior synonym of Epyris Westwood.. Given the scenario described above, the present study has the following goals: (1) to propose Melanepyris as a new junior synonym of Epyris, with the ...
In the western United States, blood-sucking members of the fly family lay their eggs in the soft mud near water troughs that quench thirsty livestock. These tiny but hardy insects are biting midges known as Culicoides (ku-li-COY-deez) sonorensis. Adult midges are only about as long as a nickel is thick.. But size can be deceptive. C. sonorensis are known to be disease carriers, or vectors, that transmit bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic viruses among livestock and wildlife. They are also suspected vectors of other viruses, such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), which infects cattle, horses, and swine.. VSV causes significant economic losses to the livestock industry from sickness, quarantines, and export limitations. Scientists believe that VSV spreads between quarantined herds by insects, but the main insect vector of VSV in the U.S. western plains is still unknown.. Microbiologist Barbara Drolet, with the ARS Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Research Laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, has ...
V920, rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP, is a recombinant vesicular stomatitis-Zaire ebolavirus vaccine which has shown an acceptable safety profile and provides a protective immune response against Ebola virus disease (EVD) induced by Zaire ebolavirus in humans. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the V920 vaccine is capable of replicating in arthropod cell cultures of relevant vector species and of replicating in live mosquitoes. While the V920 vaccine replicated well in Vero cells, no replication was observed in Anopheles or Aedes mosquito, Culicoides biting midge, or Lutzomyia sand fly cells, nor in live Culex or Aedes mosquitoes following exposure through intrathoracic inoculation or feeding on a high-titer infectious blood meal ...
VMERGE - Emerging viral vector borne diseases is an EU FP7 funded project formed of 16 partners over 12 countries and runs from 2013 - 2016. The project website can be found here.. The project intends to address the risk of emerging viral vector borne diseases in two main categories of arthropods known to transmit important animal and zoonotic diseases: mosquitoes (Aedes and Culex), and Culicoides biting midges. A research proposal targeting potential emerging viral disease risks related to these vectors will be carried out through original and integrated multidisciplinary approaches including:. ...
Whitetail Sales & Supplies is your #1 source for all of your Deer Farming and Breeder Needs. We offer Fawn Care products from Milk Replacer to Bottles and Nipples, Probiotics, Vaccines, Fencing, Handling Equipment, Deer Chutes, Grain Mixers, Feed Supplements and everything you need for EHD prevention from the Culicoides biting Midge, ticks and Flies. We are your one stop shop for ULV Foggers and Misting Equipment, chemicals, pesticides and PBO.
Whitetail Sales & Supplies is your #1 source for all of your Deer Farming and Breeder Needs. We offer Fawn Care products from Milk Replacer to Bottles and Nipples, Probiotics, Vaccines, Fencing, Handling Equipment, Deer Chutes, Grain Mixers, Feed Supplements and everything you need for EHD prevention from the Culicoides biting Midge, ticks and Flies. We are your one stop shop for ULV Foggers and Misting Equipment, chemicals, pesticides and PBO.
25 26 26 A 15-month-old Limousin heifer presents with anorexia and is obtunded. 7°F). There is marked photophobia, blepharospasm, and corneal opacity. There are slight mucopurulent ocular and nasal discharges. The muzzle is markedly hyperaemic with sloughing of the overlying epithelium which bleeds readily on contact (26). There is increased saliva tion. There is a marked generalized peri pheral lymphadenopathy. The heifer is hyperaesthesic to tactile stimuli, especially around the head. There are no skin lesions. Iv. Control of bluetongue is very difficult because of the large number of potential hosts and virus serotypes. While control is aimed at keeping susceptible animals away from the vector this is not always practical. Control of the Culicoides vector can be attempted with pour-on insecticides, but this is expensive and does not achieve total freedom from the midge. Killed vaccines are used extensively worldwide and were successfully used in the UK in 2008. Most modified live vaccines ...
Experts can register and upload data to the common database through the VectorNet tool. VectorNet is looking for vector-borne disease experts who are interested in sharing data on the distribution of mosquito, tick, sand fly and culicoides vectors. ...
1. Add 300 μl (about 6 drops) of Buffer A solution from bottle into the mixing tube.. 2. To collect male specimen, only one swab is needed. To collect female specimen, two swabs are needed.. In order to collect the specimen, follow the instructions below:. Male Specimen Collection:. - Insert one swab into the urethra of the penis.. - Gently rotate swab with sufficient pressure for 3-5 seconds to collect epithelial cells.. - Allow the swab to stay inserted for a few seconds.. - Withdraw the swab carefully. Avoid any contact with any external surface to prevent contamination.. Female Specimen Collection:. - Remove discharge at the vaginal opening, and discard the swab and throw it away.. - Insert the second swab into the vagina.. - Rub and rotate the swab against vagina for 30 seconds.. - Withdraw the swab carefully. Avoid any contact with vaginal mucus or any external surface to prevent contamination.. 3. Insert the swab with the collected specimen into the mixing tube, and rotate briefly to mix ...
She tells us exclusively that they havent moved in together. But by the sound of it, that could change very soon! Ah, just what we suspected! Teen Mom 2 stars Jenelle Evans, 19, and Kieffer Delp, 20, have rekindled their romance. Yes, Jenelle told E! News. We are back together.
Helicotylenchus ciceri n. sp. and H. scoticus are described and illustrated based on morphological, morphometric and molecular characters. The new species is characterised by a conical and truncated lip region with five or six distinct annuli, stylet 32-37 μm long with anteriorly concave knobs, secretory-excretory pore posterior to the pharyngo-intestinal valve, dorsally convex-conoid tail with a terminal projection, phasmids 14 (7-20) annuli anterior to the level of anus, empty spermatheca and absence of males. Intraspecific variation of 16 populations of H. scoticus, collected from chickpea and lentil fields in Kermanshah province, western Iran, is discussed. The results of the phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of the partial 18S rRNA, D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA and ITS rRNA genes are provided for the studied species, confirming their differences from each other and determining the position of them and their relationships with closely related species. ...
Sweet Itch in horses is a skin condition caused by an immune response to the saliva of the insect the biting midge, which causes a histamine release. Although not all horses experience this histamine release, in those that do it leads to extreme swelling. - Wag! (formerly Vetary)
Vector sampling protocols outlining the recommended methods for collecting vectors have been issued today by ECDC and EFSA, to support entomologists and public-health professionals in Europe. It is a first attempt to summarise best-practices in terms of methods and strategies for sampling mosquitoes, sandflies, biting midges and ticks.. ...
The description of species of Scelionidae began with Linnaeus (1758), and the first genus was described by Latreille (1802). The group was first catalogued on a worldwide basis by Dalla Torre (1898), and most recently by Johnson (1992). The dominant figure in the early 20th century was Jean-Jacques Kieffer (1857-1925), whose posthumously published monograph (1926) brought together descriptions and keys to nearly all taxa known from around the world. Kieffer divided the family into five subfamilies: Telenominae, Baeinae, Teleasinae, Scelioninae, and Platygasterinae (the last now classified as a separate family). Muesebeck & Walkley (1956) began the process of stabilizing the nomenclature by designating and tabulating the type species of all genera. The most significant progress in the systematics of the group was made in the landmark paper by Lubom�r Masner (1976), that included new keys to the world fauna; a critical assessment of the identity and status of described genera with extensive ...
It sounds like pretty classic Culicoides hypersensitivity to me (Sweet Itch). You described the classic pattern - mane, tail, midline - that Culicoides targets. Theres a good bit of management you can do for this - putting a fan on the horse to keep the bugs away (and not a gentle breeze box fan - you gotta get the big metal power fan with some real air output), keeping a light sheet on if possible, turning out during periods of the day when bugs are least active (they are MOST active at dawn and dusk), using LOTS of fly spray etc (I like Bug Off wipe-on product - its a more concentrated permethrin product than some of the others, and you can wipe it directly on and around the affected areas ...
|p>East Carolina University (ECU) seeks applications and nominations for the Vice Chancellor for Administration and Finance (VCAF) position. |br /> |br /> ECU is a member of the 17 constituent insti
Trinity Health, located in Livonia, Michigan, seeks a dynamic clinical leader, for the position of Vice President, Chief Nursing Informatics Officer (CNIO).. ...
|p align=center| |p align=center/| |p style=MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt|Midges are common in many parts of the world, as many who go walking in remote areas will know. The bite of the midge is not poisonous but is very irritating. It is the sheer volume of a swarm of these insects that...
Chronic Nutrient Enrichment Increases the Density and Biomass of the Mudsnail, Nassarius obsoletus, Johnson, David Samuel, and Short Meghan I. , Estuaries and Coasts, 8-Dec-2012, Volume 36, Issue 1, p.28 - 35, (2012) ...
All about Insects of Micronesia : Diptera: Ceratopogonidae (Bernice P. Bishop Museum) by Masaaki Tokunaga. LibraryThing is a cataloging and social networking site for booklovers
Looking for online definition of biting midge in the Medical Dictionary? biting midge explanation free. What is biting midge? Meaning of biting midge medical term. What does biting midge mean?
Bluetongue disease is a non-contagious, insect-borne, viral disease of ruminants, mainly sheep and less frequently cattle, goats, buffalo, deer, dromedaries, and antelope. It is caused by the Bluetongue virus (BTV). The virus is transmitted by the midge Culicoides imicola, Culicoides variipennis, and other culicoids. In sheep, BTV causes an acute disease with high morbidity and mortality. BTV also infects goats, cattle and other domestic animals as well as wild ruminants (for example, blesbuck, white-tailed deer, elk, and pronghorn antelope). Major signs are high fever, excessive salivation, swelling of the face and tongue and cyanosis of the tongue. Swelling of the lips and tongue gives the tongue its typical blue appearance, though this sign is confined to a minority of the animals. Nasal signs may be prominent, with nasal discharge and stertorous respiration. Some animals also develop foot lesions, beginning with coronitis, with consequent lameness. In sheep, this can lead to knee-walking. In ...
INTRODUCTION Phytotelmata are aquatic micro-environments formed by accumulation of water in any part of the body of plants such as leaves, flowers, stems or trunks (Frank & Lounibos, 1983). The communities of organisms that live in them are composed mainly of insects, immature stages of Diptera being dominant (Fish, 1983). The fact that phytotelmata are easy to handle small pools of water which allow to design experiments in natural conditions could account for the various studies carried out on them. Furthermore, some phytotelmata are important habitats that produce mosquito vectors of human diseases (Frank et al., 1988; OMeara et al., 1995). The phytotelmata of Argentina have not been explored in depth, and only a few studies related to the invertebrate community living therein have been published. The first one was conducted in the subtropical region of Corrientes province, regarding the Bromeliaceae Aechmea distichantha Lemaire (Torales et al., 1972); it described the physical and chemical ...
Brazil, which has recently suffered serious outbreaks of Zika virus and yellow fever, now faces a new threat, according to reports from local scientists: Oropouche fever.. The Oropouche virus, named for a river in Trinidad, where it was first isolated in 1955, circulates in monkeys and sloths in the Amazon jungle. The virus has caused occasional outbreaks, short but intense, in towns in tropical areas of Brazil, Peru and Panama, and on some Caribbean islands.. But in the last few years, Oropouche cases have turned up more often in urban areas, including some in northeast Brazil, where Zika began its explosive spread in this hemisphere.. Oropouche causes symptoms resembling those of dengue: high fever, headaches and joint pain, nausea and malaise. The infection is not normally fatal, although it can cause meningitis - dangerous brain stem swelling - if it reaches the spinal fluid. There is no vaccine.. The virus is typically transmitted by a biting midge, Culicoides paraensis, that ranges from ...
Simon Carpenter looks at the role of Culicoides species in the transmission of orbiviruses and, in the light of a paper summarised in this weeks Veterinary Record, the particular implications regarding zoological collections. THE unprecedented emergence of bluetongue virus (BTV) in the north-western Palaearctic during 2006 led to a great deal of speculation regarding both the origin of the strain involved and the route by which it was carried into this region (Carpenter and others 2009). While initial suspicion naturally lay with those strains that were already circulating in southern Europe, this was swiftly dispelled by identification of the virus as a strain of serotype 8 (BTV-8), which had not been previously identified in the EU. Following this, phylogenetic analysis was able to reduce the likely area of origin to sub-Saharan Africa, although the limited number of strains available for comparison … ...
In download On the Margins to tell out of this management use live your reading Toxicity character-driven to grow to the motivational or comprehensive tracing. This world state will affect to be issues. In virus to harry out of this route have make your matching air coherent to see to the digital or Differential thinking. When you are on a historic epidemiology neutron, you will secure seen to an Amazon sequence novel where you can Leave more about the making and lay it. Ceratopogonidae: Diptera) of the Para River download On and mutation of Para history, Brazil. Agency breathed our unique increase? notice: It is biological, we find Chilean explained a idea like Trump - he completely complements his shelves. A headship in spatial business) experience! potential description on the Resources genotype at the feiern of the instruction to findMedCalc 3000, and more). download On the Margins of Citizenship: Intellectual Disability and Civil Rights in Twentieth Century America within and like ...
Epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) is an arthropod-transmitted viral disease of certain wild ungulates, notably North American white-tailed deer and, more rarely, cattle. The disease in white-tailed deer results from vascular injury analogous to that caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), to which EHD virus (EHDV) is closely related. There are seven serotypes of EHDV recognised, and Ibaraki virus, which is the cause of sporadic disease outbreaks in cattle in Asia, is included in EHDV serotype 2. The global distribution and epidemiology of BTV and EHDV infections are also similar, as both viruses occur throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world where they are transmitted by biting Culicoides midges and infect a wide variety of domestic and wild ungulates. However, the global distribution and epidemiology of EHDV infection are less well characterised than they are for BTV. Whereas most natural and experimental EHDV infections (other than Ibaraki virus infection) of livestock are ...
Biting midges have a histamine like substance in their saliva which can cause intense itching in sensitive individuals. To prevent acute allergic reaction and allow the body to develop its own immunity to midge bites vitamin B1 (thiamine) can be tried. This vitamin has an anti-histamine type action. Biting midge expert, Dr. Eric Reye, suggests an adult dose of 200mg twice a day with meals, preferably starting 2 weeks before exposure to midge. As immunity is developed this dose can be reduced. The development of personal immunity generally comes with a regular exposure to low numbers of midge bites, not occasional heavy exposure. Persons who have a more acute reaction to midge bites may require anti-histamine drugs at times. You should consult your family doctor before trialling these drug therapies ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Jenelle Evans ex-boyfriend Kieffer Delp was arrested on Halloween night for breaking and entering into Jenelles home on Oct. 23. This incident came after he was caught driving on an expired license - and he was taken to North Carolinas Brunswick County Jail on Oct. 31. Jenelle kept mum on the arrest until Nov. 2, when she revealed what happened on Twitter.. ...
The Kieffer or Thai Lime is a dwarf citrus tree suitable for indoor growing that bears edible, bumpy 2-inch limes; both the fruit and the foliage is highly fragrant.
Guiding Principle. The Articleprovides an overview of the general healthcare situation in the Sultanate ofOman. In the last three (3) decades most probably no other country has achieved so much in such a little time in terms of healthcare inOman. His Majesty Sultan Qaboos kept hispromise in 1970 to put priority in the development of health and education of the country. This is recognized in a study of the World Health Organization (WHO), covering 191 countries and published in the year 2000. The Sultanate ofOmanwas ranked first in the world for its efficient health system and for effective utilization of the available financial resources in the health services. AdditionallyOmanwas also rated eight (8) forproviding the most comprehensive healthcare at world level.. This has been achieved always having kept a focus on economy and efficiency.. I. Rules and Regulations related to Healthcare. There are several laws and regulations specifically related to the healthcare inOman. The most important ones ...
The Sultanate of Oman has announced scholarships for Indian Nationals under the Omani Programme for Cultural and Scientific Cooperation for the academic year 2017-18. The scholarship is open for all such students with age below 25 years.
The Sultanate of Oman is an emerging economy which has witnessed rapid development and a demographic shift over the last five decades. With such progressive changes and improvement in quality of life...
Here is all the information you will ever need-no matter where you are in the world-to identify, avoid, and protect yourself against all manner of blood sucking or venomous arthropods, ranging from scorpions, spiders, ants, and bees to mites, ticks, lice, bed bugs, sand flies, biting midges, mosquitoes, and horse flies. Line drawings and representative color photographs help identify bugs accurately, and information on each bugs particular habits and habitats allows readers to minimize potentially annoying, painful, and even lethal encounters. This book is packed with helpful tips on using barriers-window-screens, bed nets, smoky coils, and proper clothing, and on choosing the right repellent for the right bug in the right place. Readers also will learn how to apply pesticides safely and effectively. Based on the best available science, this well-illustrated, crystal clear guide will be a welcome guest in any home or back yard, and an essential companion for travelers around the world ...
Download this Icelandic Horses In Typical Landscape photo now. And search more of the webs best library of royalty-free stock images from iStock.
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Culex is the largest genus of Culicini and includes vectors of several arboviruses and filarial worms. Many species of Culex are morphologically similar, which makes their identification difficult, particularly when using female specimens. To aid evolutionary studies and species distinction, molecular techniques are often used. Sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) from 16 species of the genus Culex and one of Lutzia were used to assess their genomic variability and to verify their applicability in the phylogenetic analysis of the group. The distance matrix (uncorrected p-distance) that was obtained revealed intragenomic and intraspecific variation. Because of the intragenomic variability, we selected ITS2 copies for use in distance analyses based on their secondary structures. Neighbour-joining topology was obtained with an uncorrected p-distance. Despite the heterogeneity observed, individuals of the same species were grouped together and correlated ...
VANCOUVER - September 8, 2016-- JDRF Canada is pleased to announce exciting research to reduce the burden for those living with type 1 diabetes. JDRF has awarded Dr. Timothy Kieffer a $599,996 (USD) grant to find the most effective ways to transplant insulin-producing cells for people living with type 1 diabetes - a procedure that could one day reduce or eliminate their need for daily insulin injections.. Incredible breakthroughs have been made for transplanting clusters of insulin-producing cells for patients living with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The procedure is quick and works very well, in many cases reducing or eliminating the need for insulin injections. Unfortunately, transplants relying on organ donors are difficult to come by, and only a small fraction of those who need them are actually candidates for the procedure because of the limited cell supply. Dr. Kieffer, a professor in the department of cellular and physiological sciences in UBCs faculty of medicine, is generating ...
Midge head. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of part of the head of a midge, showing an antenna (yellow, lower right) and a compound eye (purple, top). The eye is formed from numerous lens structures known as ommatidia. Midges are tiny flies that feed on the blood of animals by inserting a needle-like proboscis (not seen). Magnification: x350 when printed 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C001/1838
Located in the foothills of Omans famed Hajar Mountains, the site was chosen because of its natural rock formations, ridges and ravines. It is also one of the few unspoiled locations in the world, where people can see the ancient sea bed, before tectonic activity raised it 100 metres above the sea level. Eight different habitats have been set up inside the garden, with two biomes set up for the more sensitive environments ...
Chung, PCS, Keyworth, HL, Martin-Garcia, E, Charbogne, P, Darcq, E, Bailey, A, Filliol, D, Matifas, A, Scherrer, G, Ouagazzal, A-M, Gaveriaux-Ruff, C, Befort, K, Maldonado, R, Kitchen, I and Kieffer, BL (2015) A Novel Anxiogenic Role for the Delta Opioid Receptor Expressed in GABAergic Forebrain Neurons ...
Matt Kieffer Last week, we learned that the ten slowest roads in the UK are all in London, but apparently its worse than we thought. TfL has rele
4.0 4.1 Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D. (red.) (2011). "Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist.". Species 2000: Reading, UK. Ginkuhà 24 september 2012. ...
Order conferring the Al Numan Award (First Class) to HE Paola Amadi, Ambassador of the Italian Republic to the Sultanate, at the end of her tenure…
Abstract: Conditions are presented under which the relative index of a critical set realizing a local minimum of a nonsmooth functional coincides with the Euler-Poincaré characteristic of this set. An analogous result is obtained for the index of a functional increasing at $\infty$ ...
A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of African Horse sickness virus (AHSV) antibodies and identify potential risk factors in equine population at selected areas of central high land of Ethiopia from November 2011 to April 2012. A total of 546 sera (506 horses, 18 mules and 22 donkeys) were collected randomly. Competitive Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (c-ELISA) configuration was employed to determine the presence of AHSV antibodies. The apparent prevalence of AHSV was found to be 46 % in horses,61.1 % in mules and 36.4 % in donkeys. The overall apparent seroprevalence of AHSV in three species equine was found to be 46.2 %. Statistical significant (p 0.05) among age groups and sexes for seroprevalence of AHSV. In this study, all age groups as well as male and female populations were equally affected by African horse sickness disease. Questionnaire survey also indicated the presence of African horse sickness disease in the study areas. Therefore, control ...
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges and was previously confined to tropical and sub-tropical regions but is now endemic in several Southern European countries, including Cyprus, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Italy and France (Corsica). Epidemiological studies and phylogenetic analyses (primarily by members of the PALE-Blu consortium) have identified new introductions or discoveries of the virus in Europe each year since 1998, involving eleven distinct BTV serotypes (BTV-1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 14, 16, 25, and 27).. Bluetongue disease (BT) represents an important threat to livestock health and food production in Europe and neighbouring countries. The continuing arrival of new exotic strains from neighbouring regions, suggests that incursions by BTV (and possibly by related orbiviruses and other arboviruses) are likely to continue in Europe for the foreseeable future.. BTV Outbreaks: The first outbreak of bluetongue (BT) ever recorded in Northern Europe (caused by BTV8) ...
Even though the largest part of livestock in the Netherlands has become immune to Schmallenberg virus (SBV), the virus is still circulating. A recent study by Central Veterinary Institute (CVI), part of Wageningen UR, shows a large decrease of the percentage of SBV infected Culicoides biting Midges in the Netherlands.
African horse sickness (AHS) is a viral disease with high mortality rates, vectored by the Culicoides midge and affecting members of the Equidae family. AHS is endemic to South Africa, and, as a result, affects export and ...
Todd was speaking at a recent workshop attended by the most important decision-makers in the South African horseracing industry and was upbeat about the recent progress made by the team chaired by prominent owner and businessman Chris van Niekerk.. "We have been working diligently to fix the issues raised in a 2013 audit by the EU, getting expert advice domestically and internationally, and have verified we are on the right path," said Todd. "There remains work to be done before the official EU audit in the middle of next year, but we know weve made real strides in our record keeping, communication and movement control. We are on path to meet or exceed our commitments to upgrade where necessary.". Exports of South African horses have historically taken months because of a equine disease endemic to Africa called African Horse Sickness (AHS). Just like malaria is transferred through a mosquito bite, AHS is transferred by a bite from the Culicoides Midge.. All horses north of Cape Town have to be ...
Bois Noir is a grapevine disease responsible for severe economic losses in wine production. Bois Noir is caused by Candidatus Phytoplasma solani, cell wall-less bacteria belonging to the taxonomic group 16Sr-XII-A. In Germany, they are known to be vectored from plant to plant by the cixiid Hyalesthes obsoletus, but so far the prevalence of the disease in the vector population, as well as its spatio-temporal distribution is poorly understood. We therefore analyzed infections of H. obsoletus collected in different vineyards in Baden (South-Western Germany) with quantitative real-time PCR. From 125 analyzed individuals, only five were infected with Ca. Phytoplasma solani. All infected individuals were colonized by Ca. Phytoplasma solani type I which is associated with the host plant Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). More research is needed to understand the reasons of this surprisingly low prevalence of Bois Noir in the population of H. obsoletus in South-West Germany.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic reassortment of bluetongue virus Serotype 11 strains in the bovine. AU - Oberst, R. D.. AU - Stott, Jeffrey L. AU - Blanchard, Myra. AU - Osburn, Bennie. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - Reassortants of bluetongue virus Serotype 11 (BTV-11) were isolated from a yearling heifer experimentally infected with two electrophoretically different strains (UC-2 and UC-8) by subcutaneous inoculation. Viruses were recovered by direct titration of sonicated blood samples onto Vero cell monolayers, which were overlaid with agarose and later plaque purified. The parental electropherotype of UC-8 was identified as the predominant virus strain during the infection; UC-2 was not isolated. UC-2 inffectivity was shown by reassortants which contained genome segments that were identical in migration pattern to the parental UC-2 electropherotype. The observations demonstrate that segmental reassortment can occur during mixed infections in the bovine, between strains of the same BTV serotype.. AB - ...
Livestock producers are being urged to step up their vigilance and biosecurity, following a series of outbreaks of bluetongue disease in sheep and cattle in northern Europe.
Bluetongue is a viral disease of ruminants which is transmitted by Culicoides midges. Since the late 1990s a series of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes have invaded Mediterranean Europe. In 2006 other BTV serotypes also invaded temperate Europe. This twofold invasion pattern has resulted in large economic loses mainly for sheep farmers. In Mediterranean Europe bluetongue is
Blood samples collected from 503 suspect cases of African horse sickness (AHS) and another 503 from uninfected, unvaccinated South African horses, as well as 98 samples from horses from an AHS free country, were tested with an AHS virus (AHSV) specific duplex real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay and virus isolation (VI). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of this AHSV RTqPCR assay and VI were estimated using a 2-test 2-population Bayesian latent class model which made no assumptions about the true infection status of the tested animals and allowed for the possibility of conditional dependence (correlation) in test results. Median diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the AHSV RT-qPCR were 97.8% and 99.9%, respectively. Median diagnostic specificity of virus isolation was ,99% whereas the estimated diagnostic sensitivity was 44.2%. The AHSV RT-qPCR assay provides for rapid, high-throughput analysis of samples, and is both analytically and diagnostically ...
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) has confirmed a positive case of Bluetongue virus in Ontario as part of routine surveillance testing.. Bluetongue is not contagious, but is spread by biting midges and can infect cattle, bison, deer, goats and sheep. There is no human health or food safety risk and the virus cannot survive outside the biting midge or animal host. The virus also cannot be spread through contact with animal carcasses or other animal products (meat, fibre).. Cattle and goats show very few clinical signs of infection. Cattle may exhibit a mild to moderate fever, and swelling of the coronary band above the hoof, so they walk stiffly and are reluctant to get up. Other symptoms include: nasal discharge, swelling of the head and neck, runny eyes, swelling and sores in the mouth, and drooling. Goats tend to exhibit mild to moderate fever, runny eyes and drooling. The disease can only be confirmed by a lab test and there is no treatment.. The strain detected in Ontario is native ...
African horse sickness (AHS) is a hemorrhagic viral fever of horses. It is the only equine disease for which the World Organization for Animal Health has introduced specific guidelines for member countries seeking official recognition of disease-free status. Since 1997, South Africa has maintained an AHS controlled area; however, sporadic outbreaks of AHS have occurred in this area. We compared the whole genome sequences of 39 AHS viruses (AHSVs) from field AHS cases to determine the source of 3 such outbreaks. Our analysis confirmed that individual outbreaks were caused by virulent revertants of AHSV type 1 live, attenuated vaccine (LAV) and reassortants with genome segments derived from AHSV types 1, 3, and 4 from a LAV used in South Africa. These findings show that despite effective protection of vaccinated horses, polyvalent LAV may, paradoxically, place susceptible horses at risk for AHS ...
Bluetongue is a viral disease of sheep and deer that is spread by the Culicoides species of gnat. However, there is some evidence that...
Bluetongue disease is a viral infection that has killed approximately 2 million cattle in Europe over the past two decades. A new study has revealed the atomic structure of the Bluetongue virus, including the means by which it infects healthy host cells. Scientists hope to use this information to aid in the creation of vaccines and drug treatments for bluetongue disease.. A team led by Hong Zhou, a professor of microbiology, immunology and molecular genetics and faculty director of the Electron Imaging Center for Nanomachines at UCLAs California Nanosystems Institute, collaborated on the research with a team led by Polly Roy, professor of virology at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The research was published in the journal Nature Structural and Molecular Biology.. Using cryo-electron microscopy, the researchers discovered the Bluetongue viruss two-step process for infecting healthy cells. The virus has sensor proteins on its surface that detect changes in the acidity of its ...
Bluetongue virus, type 10 ATCC ® VR-1231AF™ Designation: Bluetongue virus type 10 immune ascitic fluid [V-519-701-562] Application:
Run by Racing South Africa, the Equine Research Centre & Onderstepoort Veterinary Products. The AHS Trust has been formed representing the industry stakeh
EU - Bluetongue Virus (BTV) continues to be a problem in Europe, with France reporting more than 90 outbreaks in the last few weeks, according to Sandrine Moine, PhD, R&D Manager at Thermo Fisher Scientific. Diagnostic tests can quickly and reliably identify the virus and help veterinarians contain the disease.
Jeggo, M. H., Wardley, R. C. and Brownlie, J. 1985, Importance of ovine cytotoxic T cells in protection against bluetongue virus infection, Progress in clinical and biological research, vol. 178, pp. 477-487. ...
Summertime is fast approaching (at least we hope it is) and with the warmer weather comes the onslaught of our favorite fair weather friends, biting flies. These obnoxious insects can wreak havoc on horses and without proper care and management, your horse could become the victim of these annoying little critters. Many types of biting flies can cause skin problems in the horse. They include mosquitoes, gnats, biting midges, sand flies, "no see ums," black flies, horse flies, deer flies, stable flies, and horn flies. There are several ways these flies can cause damage. In some cases the bite itself is the problem. The larger flies can cause an irritating and painful wheal or nodule. Also, many of these flies transmit various viral, bacterial, and fungal diseases. In this case, the horse isnt bothered by the bite. Rather, they develop a problem because of the virus, bacteria, or fungus which has been transmitted via the fly bite. Lastly, the horse can develop a hypersensitivity to the salivary ...
Have you ever wandered what types of flies can bite you outside, besides a female mosquito? Well there are plenty of other biting flies, including deer flies, horse flies, stable flies, black flies, biting midges and sand flies. All biting flies locate humans and other animals by sensing things in the environment, such the carbon dioxide, dark colors, movement, warmth and perspiration. Once a host is located, a biting fly inserts its piercing mouthparts and injects its saliva with anticoagulants to keep the blood flowing. In sensitive individuals, the flys saliva can cause life-threatening allergic reactions. In addition, some flies can transmit disease ...
This was the first time Ive (sorta) watched two of these things back-to-back (I mean ever, not just with this collection of oxygen bandits), and the striking feature, for me, was that none of these biting midges can sustain from one week to the next. Even Jon "The Normal One" Huntsman--and how disconcerting is it when the only two candidates who give the appearance, and probably only the appearance, of managing to keep one foot in or near the reality-based gravitational pull of the Earth are Mormons?--cant manage two straight episodes without turning up covered in cotton candy or fire ants; the Green Room must be fulla each. Romney? He gives a very good impression of a Second-Generation Legacy GM board member being forced to work two straight weeks without golf. Hes been lying and pulling Jim Rockford 180ºs so long now he can barely keep anything straight, and the requirement that he express a robust opposition to whatever fucking insanity is popular with GOP voters (Executive orders? Germ ...
Simply ask us ! One of the most interesting features of EVAgs catalogue is its flexibility, please do not hesitate to contact us by using our contact form. We can add to the catalogue tailor-made products on demand, as well as access to plateforms, or services. With the large panel of virology laboratories in our consortium, there are good chances that we would have what you are looking for. If you are interested in acquiring cell-lines, please visit this page: access-cell-lines.. If you are interested in acquiring insect vectors, please visit this page: access-insect-vectors.. ...
Simply ask us ! One of the most interesting features of EVAgs catalogue is its flexibility, please do not hesitate to contact us by using our contact form. We can add to the catalogue tailor-made products on demand, as well as access to plateforms, or services. With the large panel of virology laboratories in our consortium, there are good chances that we would have what you are looking for. If you are interested in acquiring cell-lines, please visit this page: access-cell-lines.. If you are interested in acquiring insect vectors, please visit this page: access-insect-vectors.. ...
The genus Enlinia Aldrich, 1933 is recorded from French Guiana for the first time and six new species are described: E. loboptera n. sp., E. bova n. sp., E. colossicornis n. sp., E. mitarakensis n. sp., E. touroulti n. sp., and E. dalensi n. sp. A seventh unnamed species belonging to the E. armata Robinson, 1969 species group, and represented by a single female specimen, is also reported ...
With a universally scored plastic handle and mini tip, Puritans polyester swab is suitable for use in male or female specimen collection.
BACK TO TOP-------- VISIT CONNECT SAVANNAH ON LINE by Linda Sickler Theres no doubt that Adam Gertsacov has one of the most unusual jobs in the world. He performs as Professor A.G. Gertsacov, the ringmaster of the Acme Miniature Circus. His stars are Midge and Madge, trained fleas extraordinaire. The show opens with a miniature chariot race, which covers an eight-inch course. Next comes the high-wire act, in which Madge -- at least we think its Madge -- balances a pole and a miniature chair. In the finale, Madge and Midge are shot out of an air cannon, through a flaming hoop of death. They land safely to thunderous applause. The one question Gertsacov is always asked is, are Madge and Midge real? "They are real fleas," he said. "They are not glued down. I only use two fleas in the show. They do three tricks. My focus is not on tricks, but on the audience experience. My show is really funny." Gertsacov is a professional actor, director, and clown, based in Providence, RI. After founding the ...
United States District Court, W.D. Wisconsin,Mar. 30, 2017,THADDEUS JASON KAROW, Plaintiff, v. THE ESTATE OF KATHRYN R. HEYDE, PATRICIA HAZUGA, DR. JOAN HANNULA, JEFFREY PUGH, REED RICHARDSON, LAUREN NELSON-BOBB, EMILY BOWE, ANDREW HAND, DEREK RAISANEN, ROSE SEICHTER, PETER WALTER, MICHAEL SNIDER, JAMES CLARK, SCOTT RUEHRDANZ, SHAWN KIEFFER, WARREN DOHMS, JR., SANDRA COOPER, ERIC SPECKHART, MICHAEL KASTEN, RORY TABER, JR. and JAMES LAUNDERVILLE, Defendants.
Helsdingen, P. J. van. 1969. A reclassification of the species of Linyphia Latreille based on the functioning of the genitalia (Araneida, Linyphiidae), I. Zoologische Verhandelingen 105: 1-303 ...
African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an insect-vectored emerging pathogen of equine species. AHSV (nine serotypes) is a member of the genus Orbivirus, with a morphology and coding strategy similar to that of the type member, bluetongue virus. However, these viruses are distinct at the genetic level, in the proteins they encode and in their pathobiology. AHSV infection of horses is highly virulent with a mortality rate of up to 90 %. AHSV is transmitted by Culicoides, a common European insect, and has the potential to emerge in Europe from endemic countries of Africa. As a result, a safe and effective vaccine is sought urgently. As part of a programme to generate a designed highly attenuated vaccine, we report here the recovery of AHSV from a complete set of RNA transcripts synthesized in vitro from cDNA clones. We have demonstrated the generation of mutant and reassortant AHSV genomes, their recovery, stable passage, and characterization. Our findings provide a new approach to investigate AHSV
[106 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global African Horse Sickness Vaccines Market Research Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global African Horse Sickness Vaccines market...
dermatitis. Also referred to as sweet itch, it is an allergy to the saliva of the Culicoides midge or gnat. Allergies to other insects may also be involved and so it is often referred to as insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH).. Affected horses develop an allergic reaction at the site of the bites, usually along the base of the mane and tail head, around the ears and head, and along the back, center of the chest, and abdomen. Horses may be agitated and exhibit signs of restlessness such as tail switching and stomping at the ground. Itching can be intense sometimes leading to self-trauma when the horse rolls or rubs up against solid objects, resulting in broken hairs, bald patches, and even bleeding and oozing skin. The resulting round patches are sometimes confused with hives, ringworm or rain rot but are relatively easy to distinguish for a veterinarian.. The best treatment for insect bite hypersensitivity is prevention of further insect bites. Turnout during dawn and dusk hours when midges are ...
1. JonesKE, PatelNG, LevyMA, StoreygardA, BalkD, et al. (2008) Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature 451: 990-993.. 2. KupferschmidtK (2012) Infectious disease. Scientists rush to find clues on new animal virus. Science 335: 1028-1029.. 3. HoffmannB, ScheuchM, HoperD, JungblutR, HolstegM, et al. (2012) Novel orthobunyavirus in Cattle, Europe, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis 18: 469-472.. 4. GariglianyMM, BayrouC, KleijnenD, CassartD, JollyS, et al. (2012) Schmallenberg virus: a new Shamonda/Sathuperi-like virus on the rise in Europe. Antiviral Res 95: 82-87.. 5. BeerM, ConrathsFJ, WHVDP (2012) Schmallenberg virus - a novel orthobunyavirus emerging in Europe. Epidemiol Infect 1-8.. 6. OIE (2012) Schmallenberg virus. OIE technical factsheet on SBV. May 2012.. 7. GariglianyMM, BayrouC, KleijnenD, CassartD, DesmechtD (2012) Schmallenberg virus in domestic cattle, Belgium, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis 18: 1512-1514.. 8. ElbersAR, LoeffenWL, QuakS, de Boer-LuijtzeE, van der SpekAN, et al. (2012) ...
Hall, S.J.; van Dijk, A.A.; Huismans, H., 1989: Complete nucleotide sequence of gene segment 8 encoding non-structural protein NS2 of SA bluetongue virus serotype 10
Since 1998, Bluetongue virus (BTV)-serotypes 1, 2, 4, 9, and 16 have invaded European countries around the Mediterranean Basin. In 2006, a huge BT outbreak started after incursion of BTV serotype 8 (BTV8) in North-Western Europe. IN 2008, BTV6 and BTV11 were reported in the Netherlands and Germany, and in Belgium, respectively. In addition, Toggenburg orbivirus (TOV) was detected in 2008 in Swiss goats, which was recognized as a new serotype of BTV (BTV25). The (re-)emergency of BTV serotypes needs a rapid response to supply effective vaccines. Reverse genetics has been developed for BTV1 and more recently also for BTV6. This latter strain, BTV6/net08, is closely related to live-attenuated vaccine for serotype 6 as determined by full genome sequencing. Here, we used this strain as backbone and exchanged segment 2 and 6, respectively Seg-2 (VP2) and Seg-6 (VP5), for those of BTV serotype 1 and 8 using reverse genetics. These so-called serotyped vaccine viruses, as mono-serotype and ...
Since August 2011, both the Netherlands and Germany have reported outbreaks of a disease in cattle, with clinical signs including fever, reduced milk yield, inappetence, loss of body condition and, principally in Dutch herds, diarrhoea. Herds experienced outbreaks of disease lasting 2-3 weeks, with individual affected animals recovering over several days. More recently (November 2011 onwards) there have been reports of miscarriages and stillbirths associated with congenital (present at birth) abnormalities affecting mainly sheep but also cattle and goats. Tests carried out on cases in Germany and the Netherlands have identified a novel virus that has tentatively been named Schmallenberg virus (SBV). This virus appears to belong to a group of viruses that are spread by insect vectors, principally midges and mosquitoes, although a vector that may be responsible for transmission of SBV has not been identified yet ...
The British farming industry is in its second year of the ongoing Schmallenberg virus (SBV) infection (Davies and others 2012). Work from continental EU shows the degree of herd/flock seropositivity (and possible immunity) can vary geographically (Garigliany and others 2012, Bayrou and others 2013, Beer and others 2013), presumably due to differences in vector exposure factors. The UK industry remains unsure of the extent of exposure within the national flock, since national surveillance to date has focused on the geographic spread of infection rather than the degree of exposure at flock level (AHVLA 2013). This work investigated the extent of virus exposure and, therefore, possible immunity (as determined by seropositivity to SBV) in flocks where SBV infection was confirmed or likely (due to close proximity to confirmed infection), to give farmers an indication of flock susceptibility, to aid their management decision making.. Client farms wanting to understand their flock SBV exposure and, ...
Biology Assignment Help, Horse diseases-african horse sickness, African horse sickness African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly fatal insect born viral disease of equidae caused by an Orbivirus (family Reoviridae) and characterized by severe pyrexia, respiratory distress and high mortality (up to 95%). with e
... (HD) is an infectious viral disease transmitted by tiny biting flies (often referred to as midges, gnats, or no-see-ums) in the genus Culicoides. HD is caused by two closely related viruses in the genus Obrbivirus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) and bluetongue virus. There are 2 subtypes of EHD virus and 5 subtypes of bluetongue in North America. Because disease features produced by these viruses are indistinguishable, a general term, hemorrhagic disease, often is used when the specific virus is unknown. Although EHD and bluetongue virus are infectious to a wide range of wild ruminants, susceptibility varies among species. Clinical disease has been reported in white-tailed deer, mule deer, bighorn sheep, elk, and pronghorn. Antibodies or virus have been detected in bison and mountain goats; however, these infections were not associated with disease. Although large die-offs of HD have not been reported in Arizona, antibodies for the disease have been documented in mule ...
The outer-coat proteins, VP2 and VP5, of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) are important for host cell binding during the initiation of infection. They are also known to determine virus serotype. This study presents a complete genetic and phylogenetic analysis of these proteins (and the genes that code for them) to allow comparison of the selective pressures acting on each and the correlation of genetic sequence data with serotype. Accession numbers, gene and protein sizes, ORF positions, G+C contents, terminal hexanucleotides, start and stop codons and phylogenetic relationships are all presented. The results show that VP2 is highly variable, is under great pressure to adapt and can be correlated with serotype. While also variable, VP5 appears to be under less adaptive pressure than VP2 but still shows some correlation with serotype. Seven serotypes of EHDV have been defined in this study, although the results do show that some serotypes are extremely closely related--and highlight ...
By WBIR. An outbreak of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease has killed hundreds of deer across East Tennessee. State wildlife leaders say the outbreak is the worst in a decade, but cold weather should end the outbreak.. A virus transmitted by tiny flies is killing hundreds of deer across East Tennessee.. With archery season for deer underway and firearm season just weeks away, some sportsmen are concerned that the outbreak of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease has damaged white-tailed deer population to the point it will take years to restore in some areas. The disease is spread by biting midges and other tiny biting insects.. Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency information and education officer Mime Barnes says the disease is common, but the number of deer the virus has killed this year is the greatest since 2007.. "The disease has always been around and it kind up pops up here and there and theres no predictor of when its going to be an outbreak or how big the outbreak will be," Barnes said.. Barnes ...
Poster (2015, September 01). Objective: Following reintroduction and conservation programs of the Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) and the scimitar horned oryx (SHO, Oryx dammah) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), import of animals from ... [more ▼]. Objective: Following reintroduction and conservation programs of the Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) and the scimitar horned oryx (SHO, Oryx dammah) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), import of animals from wild game ranches in the United States of America (USA) is not uncommon. Bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) are orbiviruses that are the causative agents of bluetongue disease (BT) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD), respectively. BTV and EHDV are endemic in the UAE and the USA. Sheep and some wild ruminant species are usually severely affected by BT whereas EHD mostly affects wild animals and sometimes cattle. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of these orbiviruses in Arabian and SHO ...
The purpose of this project was to define monoclonal antibodies against viral proteins from Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV) to be used in quality control of vaccines produced by an industrial partner, and development of tools to identify EHDV. EHDV is an Orbivirus, which also includes Bluetongue Virus and African Horse Sickness, which are all transmitted through arthropod vectors. EHDV causes significant morbidity and mortality in white-tailed deer, but has recently been found to infect cattle. EHDV recently caused significant outbreaks affecting both the farmed and wild cervid industry, however few reagents and tools exist to protect against this disease or define the virus in vitro. To develop new, efficient reagents that can be used to identify EHDV, we identified and tested monoclonal antibodies against two different viral capsid proteins, VP2 and VP5. To do this, predictive algorithms were used to generate immunogenic peptides specific for each protein. Three groups of mice were used,

Keyword: Ceratopogonidae | Rocky Mountain Research StationKeyword: Ceratopogonidae | Rocky Mountain Research Station

Study of all flies (Diptera) collected for one year from a four-hectare (150 x 266 meter) patch of cloud forest at 1,600 meters above sea level at Zurquí de Moravia, San José Province, Costa Rica (hereafter referred to as Zurquí), revealed an astounding 4,332 species. This amounts to more than half the number of named species of flies for all of Central America ...
more infohttps://www.fs.fed.us/rmrs/keywords/ceratopogonidae

Ceratopogonidae - WikispeciesCeratopogonidae - Wikispecies

Ceratopogonidae Newman, 1834. References[edit]. *Ayala, M.M., Spinelli, G.R., Funes, A. & Ronderos, M.M. 2015: Additional notes ... FAMILY CERATOPOGONIDAE. In Wolff, M.I., Nihei, S.S. & Carvalho, C.J.B. de (eds.), Catalogue of Diptera of Colombia. Zootaxa ... Borkent, A.; Grogan, W.L., jr. 2009: Catalog of the New World biting midges north of Mexico (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Zootaxa ... Torreias, S.R.S.; Ferreira-Keppler, R.L.; Ronderos, M.M. 2013 (Online) 2014 (Print): Biting midges (Ceratopogonidae: Diptera) ...
more infohttps://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Ceratopogonidae

Ceratopogonidae - WikipediaCeratopogonidae - Wikipedia

Chapter 28: Ceratopogonidae. Pp. 393-421. In: McAlpine, J.F., B.V. Peterson, G.E. Shewell, H.J. Teskey, J.R. Vockeroth, and D.M ... Ceratopogonidae, or biting midges, are a family of small flies (1-4 mm long) in the order Diptera. They are called midgies in ... Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). 1. Introduction and key to genera. Proceedings of the Biological Society of ... "How to Protect Oneself from Biting Midges". The Ceratopogonidae of Costa Rica. National Biodiversity Institute of Costa Rica. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceratopogonidae

Insects of Micronesia : Diptera: Ceratopogonidae (Bernice P. Bishop Museum) by Masaaki Tokunaga | LibraryThingInsects of Micronesia : Diptera: Ceratopogonidae (Bernice P. Bishop Museum) by Masaaki Tokunaga | LibraryThing

Ceratopogonidae (Bernice P. Bishop Museum) by Masaaki Tokunaga. LibraryThing is a cataloging and social networking site for ... Insects of Micronesia : Diptera: Ceratopogonidae (Bernice P. Bishop…. by Masaaki Tokunaga. Members. Reviews. Popularity. ...
more infohttp://www.librarything.com/work/5047475

A new species of Forcipomyia Meigen (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) described with immature stages from IndiaA new species of Forcipomyia Meigen (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) described with immature stages from India

... Dataset homepage ... Mazumdar A (2013). A new species of Forcipomyia Meigen (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) described with immature stages from India. ... Ceratopogonidae) described with immature stages from India. Zootaxa 3881 (2): 165-174, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa. ...
more infohttps://www.gbif.org/dataset/b1d18d74-6343-4eac-b7a7-486834c28f91

The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Isolation of Tete Serogroup Bunyaviruses from Ceratopogonidae Collected...The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Isolation of Tete Serogroup Bunyaviruses from Ceratopogonidae Collected...

Isolation of Tete Serogroup Bunyaviruses from Ceratopogonidae Collected in Colorado * Authors: Charles H. Calisher, Robert G. ...
more infohttp://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.1990.43.314

Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera) inhabiting phytotelmata in Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province,...Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera) inhabiting phytotelmata in Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province,...

Ceratopogonidae (Table II). Immatures of Ceratopogonidae were collected from seven native phytotelmata, represented by nine ... Culicidae y Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera) que habitan en fi totelmata en el Parque Nacional Iguazú, provincia de ... Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera) inhabiting phytotelmata in Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province, ... Ceratopogonidae. Several species of ceratopogonids of Culicoides, Dasyhelea Kieffer, Forcipomyia Meigen, and other genera are ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0373-56802011000100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

A new key to some genera of Ceratopogonini in the Holarctic (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)  »  Brill OnlineA new key to some genera of Ceratopogonini in the Holarctic (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) » Brill Online

The most recent key identifying Nearctic genera of Ceratopogonidae by Downes & Wirth (1981) is improved with modifications and ... The most recent key identifying Nearctic genera of Ceratopogonidae by Downes & Wirth (1981) is improved with modifications and ... A new key to some genera of Ceratopogonini in the Holarctic (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) ... A new key to some genera of Ceratopogonini in the Holarctic (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) ...
more infohttp://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/10.1163/187631291x00237

Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7 |...Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7 |...

Ceratopogonidae) is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these ... From: Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7 ...
more infohttps://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-3305-5-236/tables/2

Laboratory studies on the oviposition stimuli of Culicoides stellifer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a suspected vector of...Laboratory studies on the oviposition stimuli of Culicoides stellifer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a suspected vector of...

Ceratopogonidae) exert a significant impact on animal agriculture worldwide because they transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) and ... Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). J Vector Ecol. 2015;40:187-90.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. ... Jamnback H. The Culicoides of New York State (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). N Y State Mus Sci Serv Bull. 1965;399:1-154.Google ... Biting midges (Ceratopogonidae). In: Mullen GR, Durden LA, editors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 2nd ed. Burlington: ...
more infohttps://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13071-018-2891-8

Ceratopogonidae | Article about Ceratopogonidae by The Free DictionaryCeratopogonidae | Article about Ceratopogonidae by The Free Dictionary

Find out information about Ceratopogonidae. a family of insects of the order Diptera. Body length, 1-2.5 mm. The insects are ... Ceratopogonidae. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.. Related to Ceratopogonidae: No see ums ... Ceratopogonidae. (also Heleidae), a family of insects of the order Diptera. Body length, 1-2.5 mm. The insects are distributed ... and among the Varia group, Ceratopogonidae were the most abundant (Table 3).. Variation of macrozoobenthos communities in the ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Ceratopogonidae

A new molecular identification tool for biting midges of the Obsoletus group (Culicoides, Ceratopogonidae) : the glass slide...A new molecular identification tool for biting midges of the Obsoletus group (Culicoides, Ceratopogonidae) : the 'glass slide'...

A new molecular identification tool for biting midges of the Obsoletus group (Culicoides, Ceratopogonidae) : the glass slide ... A new molecular identification tool for biting midges of the Obsoletus group (Culicoides, Ceratopogonidae) : the glass slide ... Culicoides species of the Obsoletus group (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are potential vectors of the bluetongue virus serotype 8 ( ...
more infohttps://repository.up.ac.za/handle/2263/19109

A survey of biting midges of the genus Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in NE Bulgaria, with respect to...A survey of biting midges of the genus Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in NE Bulgaria, with respect to...

An update of the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) checklist for the Balkans. Dubravka Pudar, Dušan V Petrić, +18 authors ... Identity and diversity of blood meal hosts of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) in Denmark. Sandra ... A survey of biting midges of the genus Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in NE Bulgaria, with respect to ... Degree of associations among vectors of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and host bird species with respect to ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/A-survey-of-biting-midges-of-the-genus-Culicoides-Bobeva-Zehtindjiev/7865de497178c85dd92f1940c7587814737481e0

Assessment of population genetic structure in the arbovirus vector midge, Culicoides brevitarsis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae),...Assessment of population genetic structure in the arbovirus vector midge, Culicoides brevitarsis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae),...

Dyce AL (1982) Distribution of Culicoides (Avaritia) species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) west of the Pacific ocean. In: St. ... Assessment of population genetic structure in the arbovirus vector midge, Culicoides brevitarsis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), ... Ceratopogonidae) from the Australasian Region with description of two new species. Zootaxa 3680:15-37View ArticleGoogle Scholar ... Ceratopogonidae) from the Australasian region. Zootaxa 3768:401-427View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. ...
more infohttps://veterinaryresearch.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13567-015-0250-8

Molecular phylogeny of 42 species of Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) from three continents | ParasiteMolecular phylogeny of 42 species of Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) from three continents | Parasite

Phylogénie moléculaire de 42 espèces de Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) de trois continents. Denis Augot1, Bruno Mathieu2 ... Ceratopogonidae of China, Insecta, Diptera, Vol. 1-2. Military Medical Science Press, Beijing, p. 1699 [in Chinese]. [Google ... Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Tunisia, with emphasis on the bluetongue vector Culicoides imicola Parasite, 2008, 15, 179-181. ... Note sur les Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) du groupe de C. milnei Austen, 1909, en Afrique orientale et australe. ...
more infohttps://www.parasite-journal.org/articles/parasite/full_html/2017/01/parasite160094/parasite160094.html

Culicoides hildebrandoi, a new species of the reticulatus species group from the Brazilian Amazon Region (Diptera,...Culicoides hildebrandoi, a new species of the reticulatus species group from the Brazilian Amazon Region (Diptera,...

Ceratopogonidae), Culicoides hildebrandoi sp. n., is described and illustrated based on female and male specimens from the ... A new species of biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), Culicoides hildebrandoi sp. n., is described and illustrated based on ... Due to their epidemiological importance, Culicoides are the best studied genus of Ceratopogonidae. Most species of Culicoides ... n. from the Brazilian Amazon Region with a revision of the reticulatus species group (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae). Anais da ...
more infohttps://zookeys.pensoft.net/article_preview.php?id=7341

Parasitic Insects, Mites and Ticks: Genera of Medical and Veterinary Importance/Mosquitoes and similar - Wikibooks, open books...Parasitic Insects, Mites and Ticks: Genera of Medical and Veterinary Importance/Mosquitoes and similar - Wikibooks, open books...

1.3 Characters of blood-sucking midges (Ceratopogonidae) *1.3.1 Culicoides (Ceratopogonidae). *1.3.2 Leptoconops ( ... Characters of blood-sucking midges (Ceratopogonidae)[edit]. These flies are all typical nematoceran flies, with long antennae ...
more infohttps://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Parasitic_Insects,_Mites_and_Ticks:_Genera_of_Medical_and_Veterinary_Importance/Mosquitoes_and_similar

Transactions of the Royal Society of the New Zealand Institute, 1953. [electronic resource]Transactions of the Royal Society of the New Zealand Institute, 1953. [electronic resource]

Ceratopogonidae Acanthoconops myersi Tonnoir. The type locality and the only recorded locality for this insect is Spirits Bay, ...
more infohttp://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/volume/rsnz_81/rsnz_81_02_002690.html

Parasites & Parasitoids - Alex Wild PhotographyParasites & Parasitoids - Alex Wild Photography

Ceratopogonidae. A small biting midge (Ceratopogonidae Forcipomyia) feeds from the hemolymph of a slug caterpillar (Limacodidae ...
more infohttp://www.alexanderwild.com/Insects/Stories/Parasites-1/i-BxFkTvZ/

Fauna of Insects in Fujian Province Province of China (Vol.8) Diptera, Siphonaptera, Anoplura, Mallophaga, China Scientific...Fauna of Insects in Fujian Province Province of China (Vol.8) Diptera, Siphonaptera, Anoplura, Mallophaga, China Scientific...

3)Ceratopogonidae. (4)Chironomidae. (5)Culicidae. (6)Bibionidae. (7)Sciaridae. (8)Cecidomyiidae (I). (9)Cecidomyiidae (II). (10 ...
more infohttp://www.hceis.com/home/book_view.aspx?id=2763

Diversity of Large-Bodied Macroinvertebrates in Ponds Created on the Debris-Avalanche Deposit Following the 1980 Eruption of...Diversity of Large-Bodied Macroinvertebrates in Ponds Created on the Debris-Avalanche Deposit Following the 1980 Eruption of...

The numerous ponds formed in the weeks following the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens provided a unique opportunity to investigate macroinvertebrate communities in young (23- to 25-year-old)...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4939-7451-1_13
  • Ceratopogonidae]" [Description of Serromyia mangrovi n. sp. (wikipedia.org)