Orthodontic Wires: Wires of various dimensions and grades made of stainless steel or precious metal. They are used in orthodontic treatment.Orthodontic Brackets: Small metal or ceramic attachments used to fasten an arch wire. These attachments are soldered or welded to an orthodontic band or cemented directly onto the teeth. Bowles brackets, edgewise brackets, multiphase brackets, ribbon arch brackets, twin-wire brackets, and universal brackets are all types of orthodontic brackets.Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Stainless Steel: Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dental Debonding: Techniques used for removal of bonded orthodontic appliances, restorations, or fixed dentures from teeth.Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Orthodontic Appliance Design: The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.Dental Bonding: An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.Adhesives: Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.Friction: Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.Corrosion: The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Shear Strength: The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.Saliva, Artificial: A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.Resin Cements: Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Aluminum Oxide: An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Pliability: The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)Dental Soldering: The joining of pieces of metal through the use of an alloy which has a lower melting point, usually at least 100 degrees Celsius below the fusion temperature of the parts being soldered. In dentistry, soldering is used for joining components of a dental appliance, as in assembling a bridge, joining metals to orthodontic bands, or adding to the bulk of certain structures, such as the establishment of proper contact areas on inlays and crowns with adjacent teeth. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Nickel: A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Dental Porcelain: A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate: The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.Acid Etching, Dental: Preparation of TOOTH surfaces and DENTAL MATERIALS with etching agents, usually phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion or osteointegration.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Hydrofluoric Acid: Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.Phosphoric Acids: Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Note that organic derivatives of phosphoric acids are listed under ORGANOPHOSPHATES.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Chromium Alloys: Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Polycarboxylate Cement: Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Differential Thermal Analysis: Technique by which phase transitions of chemical reactions can be followed by observation of the heat absorbed or liberated.Light-Curing of Dental Adhesives: The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Acrylic ResinsComposite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Metal Ceramic Alloys: The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.Thermometers: Measuring instruments for determining the temperature of matter. Most thermometers used in the field of medicine are designed for measuring body temperature or for use in the clinical laboratory. (From UMDNS, 1999)Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.Equipment Reuse: Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.Equipment Failure: Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.Bone Wires: Steel wires, often threaded through the skin, soft tissues, and bone, used to fix broken bones. Kirschner wires or apparatus also includes the application of traction to the healing bones through the wires.Dental Etching: Preparation of TOOTH surfaces, and of materials bonded to teeth or DENTAL IMPLANTS, with agents and methods which roughen the surface to facilitate adhesion. Agents include phosphoric or other acids (ACID ETCHING, DENTAL) and methods include LASERS.Tooth Movement: Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.Elastomers: A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.Compomers: Composite materials composed of an ion-leachable glass embedded in a polymeric matrix. They differ from GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS in that partially silanized glass particles are used to provide a direct bond to the resin matrix and the matrix is primarily formed by a light-activated, radical polymerization reaction.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Tooth Crown: The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Zirconium: Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Tooth Loss: The failure to retain teeth as a result of disease or injury.Glass Ionomer Cements: A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Tooth Germ: The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Curing Lights, Dental: Light sources used to activate polymerization of light-cured DENTAL CEMENTS and DENTAL RESINS. Degree of cure and bond strength depends on exposure time, wavelength, and intensity of the curing light.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Diamond: Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Tooth Demineralization: A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.Tooth Eruption: The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Potassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Cuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Esthetics, Dental: Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)Tooth Wear: Loss of the tooth substance by chemical or mechanical processesDental Veneers: The use of a layer of tooth-colored material, usually porcelain or acrylic resin, applied to the surface of natural teeth, crowns, or pontics by fusion, cementation, or mechanical retention.Tooth, Unerupted: A normal developing tooth which has not yet perforated the oral mucosa or one that fails to erupt in the normal sequence or time interval expected for the type of tooth in a given gender, age, or population group.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Yttrium: An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Y, atomic number 39, and atomic weight 88.91. In conjunction with other rare earths, yttrium is used as a phosphor in television receivers and is a component of the yttrium-aluminum garnet (YAG) lasers.Tooth, Supernumerary: An extra tooth, erupted or unerupted, resembling or unlike the other teeth in the group to which it belongs. Its presence may cause malposition of adjacent teeth or prevent their eruption.Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tooth Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Dentin-Bonding Agents: Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.Replica Techniques: Methods of preparing tissue specimens for visualization using an electron microscope, usually a scanning electron microscope. The methods involve the creation of exact copies of the specimens by making a mold or cast (i.e., replica) of the specimen.Dental Polishing: Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Orthodontic Appliances: Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Denture, Partial, Fixed: A partial denture attached to prepared natural teeth, roots, or implants by cementation.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Dental Restoration Failure: Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.Inlays: Restorations of metal, porcelain, or plastic made to fit a cavity preparation, then cemented into the tooth. Onlays are restorations which fit into cavity preparations and overlay the occlusal surface of a tooth or teeth. Onlays are retained by frictional or mechanical factors.Hardness Tests: A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tooth, Nonvital: A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Air Abrasion, Dental: A technique using a pneumatic, high-pressure stream of aluminum oxide to remove DENTAL ENAMEL; DENTIN; and restorative materials from teeth. In contrast to using DENTAL HIGH-SPEED EQUIPMENT, this method usually requires no dental anesthesia (ANESTHESIA, DENTAL) and reduces risks of tooth chipping and microfracturing. It is used primarily for routine DENTAL CAVITY PREPARATION.Cariostatic Agents: Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Self-Curing of Dental Resins: The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via chemical reactions, usually involving two components. This type of dental bonding uses a self-cure or dual-cure system.Tooth, Impacted: A tooth that is prevented from erupting by a physical barrier, usually other teeth. Impaction may also result from orientation of the tooth in an other than vertical position in the periodontal structures.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Tooth Discoloration: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)Analog-Digital Conversion: The process of converting analog data such as continually measured voltage to discrete, digital form.Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission: The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Malocclusion: Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Mineral Fibers: Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)Dental Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Tooth Cervix: The constricted part of the tooth at the junction of the crown and root or roots. It is often referred to as the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), the line at which the cementum covering the root of a tooth and the enamel of the tooth meet. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p530, p433)Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Tooth Erosion: Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)Odontometry: Measurement of tooth characteristics.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Orthodontics, Corrective: The phase of orthodontics concerned with the correction of malocclusion with proper appliances and prevention of its sequelae (Jablonski's Illus. Dictionary of Dentistry).Polyurethanes: A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.Tooth Fractures: Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Orthodontic Space Closure: Therapeutic closure of spaces caused by the extraction of teeth, the congenital absence of teeth, or the excessive space between teeth.Magnesium Oxide: Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.Tooth Preparation, Prosthodontic: The selected form given to a natural tooth when it is reduced by instrumentation to receive a prosthesis (e.g., artificial crown or a retainer for a fixed or removable prosthesis). The selection of the form is guided by clinical circumstances and physical properties of the materials that make up the prosthesis. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239)Tooth Exfoliation: Physiologic loss of the primary dentition. (Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Gold Alloys: Alloys that contain a high percentage of gold. They are used in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Dental Restoration, Permanent: A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Tooth Avulsion: Partial or complete displacement of a tooth from its alveolar support. It is commonly the result of trauma. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p312)Malocclusion, Angle Class I: Malocclusion in which the mandible and maxilla are anteroposteriorly normal as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (i.e., in neutroclusion), but in which individual teeth are abnormally related to each other.Fluorides, Topical: Fluorides, usually in pastes or gels, used for topical application to reduce the incidence of DENTAL CARIES.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Tooth Bleaching: The use of a chemical oxidizing agent to whiten TEETH. In some procedures the oxidation process is activated by the use of heat or light.Fused Teeth: Two teeth united during development by the union of their tooth germs; the teeth may be joined by the enamel of their crowns, by their root dentin, or by both.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Computer-Aided Design: The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.Polyethylene: A vinyl polymer made from ethylene. It can be branched or linear. Branched or low-density polyethylene is tough and pliable but not to the same degree as linear polyethylene. Linear or high-density polyethylene has a greater hardness and tensile strength. Polyethylene is used in a variety of products, including implants and prostheses.Methylmethacrylates: The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Hip Prosthesis: Replacement for a hip joint.

*Orthodontics

The arch wires interact with the brackets to move teeth into the desired positions. Fixed orthodontic appliances aid tooth ... These can be supplied as either metal or ceramic. The surfaces of the teeth are etched, and brackets are attached to the teeth ... Some manufacturers offer self-litigating fixed appliances where the metal wires are held by an integral clip on the bracket ... During fixed orthodontic treatment, metal wires are held in place by elastic bands on orthodontic brackets (braces) on each ...

*Palatal lift prosthesis

... that engage undercuts formed with composite resin or orthodontic brackets are fashioned from custom bent orthodontic wire that ... lift prostheses to be retained by primary teeth or teeth whose buccal surfaces have been replaced by metallic or ceramic ... wire extends from the polymethylmethacrylate to engage the gingival aspect of the composite resin or orthodontic bracket ... the placement of orthodontic bands that harbor large buccal orthodontic brackets can serve as an alternative to the placement ...

*Dental braces

Ceramic braces with thin metal or clear wires were a less desirable option, and braces with metal brackets and metal wires were ... In most cases the teeth will be banded and then brackets will be added. A bracket will be applied with dental cement, and then ... or that it breaks the brackets off, but chewing gum bends the wire. In the course of treatment orthodontic brackets may pop off ... A Roman tomb was found with a number of teeth bound with gold wire documented as a ligature wire, a small elastic wire that is ...

*Self-ligating bracket

Active self-ligating brackets have a clip that works to press on the archwire and a wire bracket interaction is observed. A ... Braun, Thomas (February 25, 2014). "Static Self Ligating Orthodontic Bracket". 2009 Chapter 7: Orthodontic Appliances Jeryl D. ... They also tend to stand off the teeth further toward the lips and cheeks. Proponents of self-ligating brackets say that ... These braces were typically made from stainless steel but, in some cases, are available in ceramic or polycarbonate. The first ...

*SureSmile

... is a type of customized orthodontic arch wires used by orthodontists to straighten teeth. The technique utilises 3-D ... Orthodontists that offer lingual braces will often suggest putting lingual braces on the upper teeth and clear ceramic braces ... brackets are adhered to the underside of the teeth on the top arch, bottom arch or both arches. Most patients choose lingual ... The creation of the archwires is accurate to within 1 mm, and 1˚. The bracket placement is accurate to within 25 µm, and in ...
The invention relates to a dental orthodontic archwire bending robot. The robot mainly comprises a pedestal, an orthodontic archwire feeding mechanism, an orthodontic archwire rotation mechanism, an orthodontic archwire clamping and supporting mechanism and an orthodontic archwire bending module, wherein the orthodontic archwire feeding mechanism is fixed on the pedestal, and an orthodontic archwire rotating motor is connected with the orthodontic archwire feeding mechanism through an L-shaped support frame of the orthodontic archwire rotating motor, so that rotation and feeding of an orthodontic archwire can be realized; the orthodontic archwire clamping and supporting mechanism consists of an orthodontic archwire clamping mechanism and a supporting mechanism, and is used for avoiding vibrating in an ...
Also, the research study gives a complete list of all the leading players working in the United States Self-Ligating Brackets market. Moreover, the financial status, company profiles, business strategies and policies, and the latest expansions in the United States Self-Ligating Brackets market have been mentioned in the research study.. For more inquiry before purchase: https://www.researchnreports.com/enquiry_before_buying.php?id=60672. Table of Contents 1 Industry Overview of Self-Ligating Brackets. 2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Self-Ligating Brackets. 3 Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Self-Ligating Brackets. 4 United States Self-Ligating Brackets Overall Market Overview. 5 Self-Ligating Brackets Regional Market Analysis. 6 United States 2011-2016E Self-Ligating Brackets Segment Market Analysis (by Type). 7 United States 2011-2016E ...
The data is summarized (Table 2) by means and standard deviations. Friction was evaluated and compared in grams-force (gF) under traction with a round 0.020-in stainless steel wire. The findings suggest lower friction means for the self-ligating groups compared with conventional brackets tied with elastomeric ligatures. A more effective frictional control was achieved in the passive self-ligating system when these brackets were tested with no angulation. Under a 2.5° angulation, the frictional force increased in the self-ligating and conventional groups (p , 0.01).. ANOVA revealed associations between frictional forces and self-ligating systems. The p value (p , 0.01) found using the Bonferroni multiple comparisons test indicated differences between groups (Table 2).. DISCUSSION. Surface friction generated by sliding an orthodontic archwire inside a bracket slot opposes the tendency of tooth movement intended when delivering ...
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of treatment of mandibular crowding with self-ligating and conventional brackets on dental arch variables. Fifty-six patients were selected from a pool of subjects satisfying the following inclusion criteria: non-extraction treatment in the mandibular or maxillary arches, eruption of all mandibular teeth, no spaces and an irregularity index greater than 2 mm in the mandibular arch, and no adjunct treatment such as etxra- or intraoral appliances. The patients were assigned to two groups: one group received treatment with the self-ligating bracket and the other with a conventional edgewise appliance, both with a 0.022 inch slot. Lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained at the beginning (T1) and end (T2) of treatment were used to assess the alteration in mandibular incisor inclination, and measurements of intercanine and intermolar widths were made on dental casts to investigate changes associated with ...
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A system automatically adjusts an orthodontic bracket to a desired occlusal height on a tooth within a 3D environment. The system allows a practitioner to specify a desired occlusal height at which to place the bracket on the tooth. The practitioner may choose the desired occlusal height from a standardized set of occlusal heights or may create a customized occlusal height to meet a patients particular needs. Based on the desired occlusal height, the system automatically adjusts the placement of the orthodontic bracket to the desired occlusal height on the tooth within the 3D environment. The system then generates a visual representation the resulting bracket placement within the 3D environment.
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|h2|Orthodontic Bracket Adhesive|/h2| |h3|Fluoride Releasing • Light Cure|/h3| |p|Provides secure bonds, easy handling, long term fluoride ion release and rapid light cure technique. Works equally well with metal, ceramic and clear sapphire brackets. The viscosity Is designed to prevent bracket drift.|/p| |ul| |li|Thick, smooth consistency - |em|Eliminates bracket flow|/em||/li| |li|Visible light cure - |em|Ready for arch wires in seconds|/em||/li| |li|Fluoride ion release - |em|Protects against decalcification|/em||/li| |li|Ideal bond strength - |em|Bonds securely, debonds precisely|/em||/li| |li|Syringes or pre-filled tips - |em|Choose your preferred delivery system|/em||/li| |/ul| |p|Available packaged in syringes or pre-filled tips. Kit includes OBA paste, resin bonding agent, etching gel, brush handle, brush tips and gel applicator tips.|/p|
This study evaluates and compares the effects of enamel prophylaxis using either oil-free pumice or oil-containing prophylaxis paste on the incidence of bracket failure in orthodontic patients.. Forty-six orthodontic patients participated in this prospective clinical trial. A cross-mouth method was used in each patient, in which two diagonal quadrants (i.e. upper right and lower left or vice versa) were randomly assigned to the pumice group and the contralateral diagonal quadrants to the Prophy Paste (R) group. A total of 836 teeth were bonded using Transbond XT (3M Unitek) and monitored for an average of 23 months for bond failure. Chi-square analysis was used to compare the number of bracket failures between the groups.. Overall, 26 bond failures occurred by the end of the trial. Fifteen bracket failures were observed in the Prophy Paste group (3.6%) and 11 in the pumice group (2.6%). The failure rates ...
The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) and failure modes of a conventional resin-based composite with a recently developed amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-containing orthodontic composite system. Forty freshly extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were randomly divided into two equal groups. Conventional composite (group 1; Transbond-XT®; 3M Unitek) and ACP-containing orthodontic composite (group 2; Aegis-Ortho®; Harry J. Bosworth Co.) were used for bonding ceramic orthodontic brackets. The SBS of these brackets were measured and recorded in megapascals (MPa). Adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were determined after bracket failure. Data were analysed with a Students t-test for two independent variables and Pearsons chi-square tests.. Statistical analysis showed that the bond strength of group 1 (mean: 36.7 ± 6.8 MPa) was ...
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Objectives: The present study was deigned to investigate different polishing techniques used to restore feldspathic porcelain surface regarding surface roughness after debonding of orthodontic brackets. Methods: Metal discs of 1 cm diameter and 1 mm thickness (n=60) were prepared from Wiron 99 non-precious alloy (BEGO Bremer Goldschägerei with Herbst GmbH& Co. Bremen. Germany). The discs were veneered from one side by 1 mm thickness Vita 3D Master feldspathic porcelain (Vita zhan fabric H. Rauter GmbH & Co. KG. Germany). Orthodontic metal brackets were bonded at the center of each disc (3M, Unitek), and then discs were water stored for 30 days before debonding. Brackets were debonded using bracket removing pliers, and resin was removed with a 12-fluted carbide bur. The prepared specimens were divided into 3 groups (n=20) representing different porcelain refinishing techniques as follows; group 1: using ...
This script works with the Brackets Test spreadsheet to create a tournament bracket // given a list of players or teams. var RANGE_PLAYER1 = FirstPlayer; var SHEET_PLAYERS = Players; var SHEET_BRACKET = Bracket; var CONNECTOR_WIDTH = 15; // This method adds a custom menu item to run the script function onOpen() { var ss = SpreadsheetApp.getActiveSpreadsheet(); ss.addMenu("Bracket Maker", [{ name: "Create Bracket", functionName: "createBracket" }]); } // This method creates the brackets based on the data provided on the players function createBracket() { var ss = SpreadsheetApp.getActiveSpreadsheet(); var rangePlayers = ss.getRangeByName(RANGE_PLAYER1); var sheetControl = ss.getSheetByName(SHEET_PLAYERS); var sheetResults = ss.getSheetByName(SHEET_BRACKET); // Get the players from column A. We assume the entire column is filled here. ...
Ceramic orthodontic brackets are disclosed. The brackets are fabricated from high alumina ceramic materials and, in preferred embodiments, have holes or grooves on the back or rear surfaces thereof to improve adhesion to the teeth. Light wire brackets are also disclosed which is substantially wider than prior art light wire brackets, but which comprise means defining a substantially point contact for an arch wire.
Definition of orthodontic attachment in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is orthodontic attachment? Meaning of orthodontic attachment as a finance term. What does orthodontic attachment mean in finance?
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One of the most commonly asked questions about dental braces is whether placing them causes any pain or discomfort. The honest answer is that braces do not hurt at all when they are applied to the teeth, so there is no reason to be anxious. In most cases, there is mild soreness or discomfort after the orthodontic wire is engaged into the brackets, which may last for a few days.. There are two common types of fixed dental braces used to realign the teeth: ceramic fixed braces and metal fixed braces. Both types of fixed appliances include brackets which are affixed to each individual tooth and an archwire the orthodontist fits into the bracket slot to gently move the teeth into proper alignment. Elastic or wire ties will be applied to hold the wire in place. Some orthodontists may use self-ligating brackets which do not require a rubber or wire tie to secure ...
This study was performed to investigate the effect of age on the efficiency of orthodontic tooth movement based on critical literature reviews, studies on a standardized orthodontic animal model and a non-invasive clinical investigation. A systematic review was performed on the optimum force for orthodontic tooth movement. It appeared that no evidence about the optimal force level in orthodontics could be extracted from literature. Therefore, a mathematic model that was developed to describe the relation between the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and the magnitude of the applied force. The results showed that the maximum rates of tooth movement in humans and in dogs are very similar. A threshold for force magnitude that would switch on tooth movement could not be defined. As there are general drawbacks in literature using rat as a model for experimental tooth movement, a newly designed experimental appliance for tooth ...
Methodology: The sample comprised 22 NiTi wires of the upper jaw from 7 different manufacturers. For each brand two different batches were investigated (LOT A, LOT B). Three different investigations were carried out. First transformation behaviour and transition temperatures were determined by differential scanning calorimetry, second a three point bending test was done to evaluate the mechanical properties and third scanning electron microscopy was performed on all samples to evaluate surface quality ...
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استاد: خانم دکتر بهاروند جایزه: پنجاه هزار تومان History of the present illnessThis 14-year-old white male was referred to the oral surgeon for surgical exposure of impacted teeth #s 6 and 11 and placement of brackets with gold chains to facilitate orthodontic eruption. The maxillary incisor teeth showed severe resorption. Surgical exposure with bracket placement was accomplished 3 months later. After 2 months, the bracket with gold chain on tooth #6 had
Metabolism by peptidases plays an important role in modulating the levels of biologically active neuropeptides. One of these neuropeptides, substance P (SP), a component of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), may exponentiate the inflammatory process during orthodontic tooth movement. The aim of this study was to investigate the GCF levels of SP in patients using different bracket systems. Subjects were 10 patients (four males, six females; mean age, 25.1 4.4 years) undergoing orthodontic movement (leveling) in the maxilla. Conventional brackets were placed on the left side, while the teeth on the right received self-ligating brackets. The teeth on the mandibular left side without any orthodontic attachments served as controls. GCF was sampled at 0, 1, 24, and 168 hours after initiation of treatment. Prevention of plaque-induced inflammation allowed assessment of the dynamics ...
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0069]Referring now to FIGS. 3-10, it will be seen that the orthodontic bracket 10 of the present invention includes a substantially planar resilient biasing member 17 which is borne by the ligating slide 16, and which slideably cooperates with the projection 34 to biasingly support the ligating slide 16 in at least one of the first or second positions 75 and 76, respectively. In this regard, the resilient member 80 has a substantially planar main body 80 which is positioned in a generally parallel, spaced relationship relative to the anterior facing surface 53 of the ligating slide 16. As seen in the drawings, the substantially planar main body 80 is received within the cavity 70 which is defined by the ligating slide, and is oriented in a fashion so as to resiliently cooperate with the projection 34 which extends anteriorly outwardly relative to the base member 13. As illustrated, it will be appreciated that the resilient biasing member provides a resilient or biasing force ...
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The means of attaching an orthodontic archwire to an orthodontic bracket, usually by means of elastomeric modules or wire ligatures. Self ligation is a term used to describe an orthodontic bracket which has a rotating or sliding mechanism to ligate an archwire. This type of bracket is an alternative to ligating using elastomeric modules. ...
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RETRACTION MECHANICS. SLIDING / FRICTION MECHANICS. Space closure using sliding mechanics requires a wire that produces less friction with the brackets. The arch wire and the bracket friction slow the movement of teeth along the wire. The elastic chain is the force component of the retraction assembly and the wire-bracket interaction produces the moment. The distal tipping of the tooth contributes to the retraction by causing binding of the arch wire, which in turn produces a moment that results in distal root movement. The magnitude of this moment, which causes the distal root movement, depends of the size, shape and material of the wire and the bracket width. As the tooth uprights, the moment decreases until the wire no longer binds. The crown then slides along the arch wire until distal crown tipping again causes binding. This process is repeated until the tooth is retracted or elastic force is dissipated.. ...
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Robotics Claw Mounting Bracket: The SparkFun Robotics Claw MkII (part # ROB-11524) is a big improvement on their mark 1 model. The new Pan/Tilt MKII bracket (part # ROB-11674) is also nice (if a tad pricey). Unfortunately the instructions to mount a claw to the Pan/Tilt bracket ...
A robotic bending apparatus for bending archwires and other types of elongate, bendable medical devices into a desired configuration includes a first gripping tool and a moveable gripping tool. The first gripping tool can be either fixed with respect to a base or table for the robot or positioned at the end of robot am. The moveable gripping tool is mounted to the end of a moveable robot arm having a proximal portion also mounted to the base. The robot preferably comprises a six axis bending robot, in which the distal end of the moveable arm can move relative to the fixed gripping tool about three translational axes and three rotational axes. The gripping tools preferably incorporate force sensors which are used to determine overbends needed to get the desired final shape of the archwire. The robot may also include a resistive heating system in which current flows through the wire while the wire is held in a bent condition to heat the wire and thereby retain the bent shape of the wire. A ...
A robotic bending apparatus for bending archwires and other types of elongate, bendable medical devices into a desired configuration includes a first gripping tool and a moveable gripping tool. The first gripping tool can be either fixed with respect to a base or table for the robot or positioned at the end of robot am. The moveable gripping tool is mounted to the end of a moveable robot arm having a proximal portion also mounted to the base. The robot preferably comprises a six axis bending robot, in which the distal end of the moveable arm can move relative to the fixed gripping tool about three translational axes and three rotational axes. The gripping tools preferably incorporate force sensors which are used to determine overbends needed to get the desired final shape of the archwire. The robot may also include a resistive heating system in which current flows through the wire while the wire is held in a bent condition to heat the wire and thereby retain the bent shape of the wire. A ...
Types Of Frictional Force: solid & liquid frictional force : solid friction occurs between two solid surfaces. e.g an inclined plane liquid friction occurs between layers of liquid molecules which is known as Viscosity or Liquid Friction and surface tension
In the initial alignment phase of orthodontic treatment using edgewise appliances, light round archwires are usually ligated to each bracket. Archwires are deflected between adjacent brackets to create orthodontic force. The magnitude of force delivered to each bracket affects the efficiency of tooth movement and the possibility of root resorption. , It is, therefore, crucial to understand the characteristics of the force delivered to each bracket.. In addition to interbracket distance, , bracket width, , bracket design, , and archwire diameter, , the ligation method , , is a significant factor that affects the magnitude of force. According to a recent questionnaire study, 63% of orthodontists reported using a self-ligation bracket. Self-ligation has become widely used by orthodontists as well as ...
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A thin-walled reinforced catheter shaft having polymers that are reinforced with a variable wire size radiopaque braid which maintains the thin-wall of the shaft while providing improved properties in
A low profile orthodontic appliance and method of designing custom and standard low profile orthodontic appliances are provided. The archwire of the appliance is not parallel to the dental archform but converges toward the archform preferably in the vicinity of the incisors. Slotted brackets on either the laterals, the cuspids or the first bicuspids have mesially rotated slots to support the archwire in sloped relation to the teeth. For standardized appliances, the slot rotation may be provided only in brackets for the upper laterals and the lower cuspids. For Caucasians, the preferred rotation angles are 4.5 and 6 degrees respectively. For Asians, the rotation angles are preferably distributed over brackets for the laterals, cuspids and first bicuspids. Tooth to archwire spacing is not more than 0.05 inches for all teeth but the upper laterals. The archwire shape is designed in custom ...
One of the exemplary filter systems described includes a bracket and a filter module that can be suspended from the bracket by a plurality of flexible supports. The bracket can support the filter system beneath the grate of a storm drain without the need for the filter system to be attached to the grate. The grate can be lifted out of the storm drain separately from the filter unit, which allows the filter system to be lifted without the added weight of the grate. When the grate has been lifted out of the way, a suitable fastener structure can be attached to the bracket of the filter system to make the use of mechanical lifting devices more convenient. The bracket can be manufactured to known dimensions, or it can be offered from among a set of brackets that are pre-configured for known storm drain dimensions or as a standard bracket that can be modified to fit the dimensions of a particular ...
Heater core assembly - A heater core assembly includes a heater core having two tube stubs projecting therefrom. Two heater tubes engage the two tube stubs, respectively, to define respective abutting interfaces therewith. A clamp couples the heater tubes to corresponding ones of the tube stubs. The clamp includes a first bracket half having two arcuately-shaped openings formed therein for accommodating the stub/tube pairs at the abutting interfaces to permit the stub/tube pairs to extend transversely to the clamp. A second bracket half is hinge connected to the first bracket to permit opening and closing of the clamp. The second bracket half likewise has two arcuately-shaped openings to accommodate the stub/tube pairs when the second bracket half is pivoted onto the first bracket half. The clamp snugly holds the stub/tube pairs when closed. The first and second bracket halves have a ...
It is generally accepted that the effect of orthodontic tooth movement on the dental pulp in adolescents is reversible and that it has no long-lasting effect on pulpal physiology. However, it is not clear yet if the same conclusion is also valid for adult subjects. Thus, in two groups of rats, aged 6 and 40 weeks respectively, 3 molars at one side of the maxilla were moved together in a mesial direction with a standardized orthodontic appliance delivering a force of 10 cN. The contralateral side served as a control. Parasagittal histological sections were prepared after tooth movement for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The pulp tissue was characterized for the different groups, with special emphasis on cell density, inflammatory cells, vascularity, and odontoblasts. Dimensions of dentin and the pulpal horns was determined and related with the duration of orthodontic force application and age ware evaluated. We found that neither in young nor in adult rats, force ...
Several studies [15],[23],[29],[30] evaluated the efficacy of the Pendulum appliance, reporting data relative to dentoalveolar and skeletal changes, but few studies [7],[14],[31] described molar distalization in the presence of fully erupted second molar. Segmented and Quad Pendulums were previously described by Kinzinger et al. in a case report study [21] and differed from most distalizing devices since TMA wires acted directly on second molars, without being distalized by a force applied on the first molar. Appliance design was based on the concepts of Gianelly [17] and Jeckel and Rakosi [18]; according to them, when the second molars have erupted, the distalization of the molars should be done in stages, first, the second molars and then the first molars.. No significant difference was found in molar distalization between the two appliances. The second molar distalized 3.8 mm in the SP and 3.2 mm in the QP, and the first molar distalized 4 and 3.5 mm, respectively, between T1 and T2. ...
HYPOTHESIS No. 5 FiberWire (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) cerclage (FWC) and 1.25-mm stainless steel wire cerclage (SSWC) are biomechanically similar in resistance to prosthetic subsidence in shoulder arthroplasty. METHODS In this laboratory bench study, 3 different surgical knot configurations (4-throw knot, cow hitch, and simple hitch) using a No. 5 FWC were evaluated and compared with a 1.25-mm SSWC. First, distraction tests were performed using bovine femoral cortical half shells mounted on a testing jig. Cerclage tightening, load to a 3-mm gap opening, and load to total failure were measured. Second, uncemented humeral prosthetic stems were inserted into an experimentally split humeral medullary canal, secured by the cerclage. After 100 N of preloading, the prosthesis was advanced into the humerus at a speed of 0.2 mm/s, and resistance during subsidence up to a penetration depth of 10 mm, as well as gap opening, was measured. RESULTS Tightening force showed higher values for SSWC (618 N) than ...
Fastbraces in Melbourne is specifically offered by many of the dental clinics. Again, the fastbraces treatment helps to straighten teeth in about 120 days. This section will again briefly discuss this important dental care technology.. This particular fastbraces technology was mainly developed with safety in mind. It helps to straighten teeth in a different manner and thereby it allows for a safe, fast as well as affordable solution.. In this regard, the patented bracket design is mainly used by this Fastbraces technology and so, it involves using unique and also triangular-shaped braces that allow the usage of superelastic nickel-titanium wire at the time of specific treatment process.. Altogether, this brace technology works on a completely diverse mechanical principle. In the first year, historically the old braces contribute to moving the tooth crown and also the root of the tooth in the second year.. Additional Information Regarding This Fastbraces ...
The researchers fabricated a tightly coiled nickel-titanium wire and wound it around the mesh tube, mimicking the circular muscle fibers of the earthworm. They then fitted a small battery and circuit board within the tube, generating a current to heat the wire at certain segments along the body: As a segment reaches a certain temperature, the wire contracts around the body, squeezing the tube and propelling the robot forward. Kim and his colleagues developed algorithms to carefully control the wires heating and cooling, directing the worm to move in various patterns ...
An improved guiding member for use within a body lumen having a unique combination of superelastic characteristics. The superelastic alloy material has a composition consisting of about 30% to about 52% (atomic) titanium, and about 38% to 52% nickel and may have one or more elements selected from the group consisting of iron, cobalt, platinum, palladium, vanadium, copper, zirconium, hafnium and niobium. The alloy material is subjected to thermomechanical processing which includes a final cold working of about 10 to about 75% and then a heat treatment at a temperature between about 4500 and about 600 C. and preferably about 4750 to about 5500 C. Before the heat treatment the cold worked alloy material is preferably subjected to mechanical straightening. The alloy material is preferably subjected to stresses equal to about 5 to about 50% of the room temperature ultimate yield stress of the material during the thermal treatment. The guiding member using such improved material exhibits a stress-induced
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A hot-wire foam cutter is a tool used to cut polystyrene foam and similar materials. The device consists of a thin, taut metal wire, often made of nichrome or stainless steel, or a thicker wire preformed into a desired shape, which is heated via electrical resistance to approximately 200°C. As the wire is passed through the material to be cut, the heat from the wire vaporises the material just in advance of contact. The depth of the cut is limited only by the wire length. Width of cut is limited by throat, if any. Preformed, manually or with pliers. Tensioned, held tight by a frame with springs or (equivalently) by a bow. Many indicate a preference for single-strand stainless steel wire over nichrome wire, in diameters ranging from .008 inches(0.2032mm) to .020 inches(0.508mm) for frame-tensioned cutters. Musical instrument strings and leader wire used for fishing lures are readily available and inexpensive. Commercial cutting equipment often uses the nickel-based alloy wire Rene 41, a ...
0003] In a hot wire or filler wire process, a high intensity energy source, such as for example, a laser, non-consumable tungsten electrode, or other high energy arc or plasma process is used to heat and melt a workpiece to form a molten puddle. A filler wire is advanced towards a workpiece and the molten puddle. The wire is resistance-heated by a separate energy source such that the wire approaches or reaches its melting point and contacts the molten puddle. The heated wire is fed into the molten puddle for carrying out the hot wire process. Accordingly, transfer of the filler wire to the workpiece occurs by simply melting the filler wire into the molten puddle. Alternatively, the filler wire may be solid as the wire enters the molten puddle. For example, 30% of the filler wire can be solid as the filler wire enters the molten puddle. Because the filler wire is pre-heated to at or near its melting point, its presence in the molten puddle will not appreciably cool or solidify the puddle and is ...
Periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement are considered regional reactions. However, how systemic immune responses are involved in this regional reaction remains unclear. In this study, we explored the systemic effects of orthodontic force by focusing on the mononuclear phagocyte system. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the percentage of inflammatory monocytes, in peripheral blood and in the monocyte reservoir spleen, decreased on days 1 and 3 and then recovered on day 7 after force application. Along with the systemic decrease of inflammatory monocyte percentage, the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts increased in the compression side of the periodontal tissue during orthodontic tooth movement. Systemic transfusion of enhanced green fluorescent protein-labeled inflammatory monocytes showed recruitment of these monocytes to the orthodontic force compression ...
Biology of Orthodontic Tooth Movement: Current Concepts and Applications in Orthodontic Practice Springer | Dentistry | Jun 19 2016 | ISBN-10: 3319266071 | 164