Naturally occurring family of beta-lactam cephalosporin-type antibiotics having a 7-methoxy group and possessing marked resistance to the action of beta-lactamases from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.
Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A TETRACYCLINE with a 7-chloro substitution.
Infections of non-skeletal tissue, i.e., exclusive of bone, ligaments, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. The concept is usually referred to as skin and soft tissue infections and usually subcutaneous and muscle tissue are involved. The predisposing factors in anaerobic infections are trauma, ischemia, and surgery. The organisms often derive from the fecal or oral flora, particularly in wounds associated with intestinal surgery, decubitus ulcer, and human bites. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1688)
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family STAPHYLOCOCCACEAE. It is a zoonotic organism and common commensal in dogs, but can cause disease in dogs and other animals. It also can be associated with human disease.
A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE with a somewhat different social structure than PAPIO HAMADRYAS. They inhabit several areas in Africa south of the Sahara.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
The reactions, changes in structure and composition, the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds, and the associated energy changes.
The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
An optical disk storage system used on specialized players that combine the functions of computer and CD player in a self-contained box, designed to be connected to a television set and a home stereo for video and sound output. The player is controlled with a hand-held remote unit resembling a television remote control. (J Allied Health 1993 Winter;22(1):131-8)
Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.
Educational institutions.
The collecting of fetal blood samples typically via ENDOSCOPIC ULTRASOUND GUIDED FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION from the umbilical vein.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.
High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.
High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A plant species of the genus PINUS that contains isocupressic acid.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.

Development of resistance during antimicrobial therapy caused by insertion sequence interruption of porin genes. (1/232)

We have demonstrated by using an in vitro approach that interruption of the OmpK36 porin gene by insertion sequences (ISs) is a common type of mutation that causes loss of porin expression and increased resistance to cefoxitin in Klebsiella pneumoniae. This mechanism also operates in vivo: of 13 porin-deficient cefoxitin-resistant clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae, 4 presented ISs in their ompK36 gene.  (+info)

Inducing effect of diamines on transcription of the cephamycin C genes from the lat and pcbAB promoters in Nocardia lactamdurans. (2/232)

The diamines putrescine, cadaverine, and diaminopropane stimulate cephamycin biosynthesis in Nocardia lactamdurans, in shake flasks and fermentors, without altering cell growth. Intracellular levels of the P7 protein (a component of the methoxylation system involved in cephamycin biosynthesis) were increased by diaminopropane, as shown by immunoblotting studies. Lysine-6-aminotransferase and piperideine-6-carboxylate dehydrogenase activities involved in biosynthesis of the alpha-aminoadipic acid precursor were also greatly stimulated. The diamine stimulatory effect is exerted at the transcriptional level, as shown by low-resolution S1 protection studies. The transcript corresponding to the pcbAB gene and to a lesser extent also the lat transcript were significantly increased in diaminopropane-supplemented cultures, whereas transcription from the cefD promoter was not affected. Coupling of the lat and pcbAB promoters to the reporter xylE gene showed that expression from the lat and pcbAB promoters was increased by addition of diaminopropane in Streptomyces lividans. Intracellular accumulation of diamines in Nocardia may be a signal to trigger antibiotic production.  (+info)

Deletion of the pyc gene blocks clavulanic acid biosynthesis except in glycerol-containing medium: evidence for two different genes in formation of the C3 unit. (3/232)

The beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid is formed by condensation of a pyruvate-derived C3 unit with a molecule of arginine. A gene (pyc, for pyruvate converting) located upstream of the bls gene in the clavulanic acid gene cluster of Streptomyces clavuligerus encodes a 582-amino-acid protein with domains recognizing pyruvate and thiamine pyrophosphate that shows 29.9% identity to acetohydroxyacid synthases. Amplification of the pyc gene resulted in an earlier onset and higher production of clavulanic acid. Replacement of the pyc gene with the aph gene did not cause isoleucine-valine auxotrophy in the mutant. The pyc replacement mutant did not produce clavulanic acid in starch-asparagine (SA) or in Trypticase soy broth (TSB) complex medium, suggesting that the pyc gene product is involved in the conversion of pyruvate into the C3 unit of clavulanic acid. However, the beta-lactamase inhibitor was still formed at the same level as in the wild-type strain in defined medium containing D-glycerol, glutamic acid, and proline (GSPG medium) as confirmed by high-pressure liquid chromatography and paper chromatography. The production of clavulanic acid by the replacement mutant was dependent on addition of glycerol to the medium, and glycerol-free GSPG medium did not support clavulanic acid biosynthesis, suggesting that an alternative gene product catalyzes the incorporation of glycerol into clavulanic acid in the absence of the Pyc protein. The pyc replacement mutant overproduces cephamycin.  (+info)

Early cephamycin biosynthetic genes are expressed from a polycistronic transcript in Streptomyces clavuligerus. (4/232)

A polycistronic transcript that is initiated at the lat promoter has been implicated in the expression of the genes involved in early steps of cephamycin C biosynthesis in Streptomyces clavuligerus. pcbC is also expressed as a monocistronic transcript from its own promoter. However, an alternative interpretation involving expression via three separate yet interdependent transcripts has also been proposed. To distinguish between these possibilities, mutants lacking the lat promoter and containing a transcription terminator within the lat gene (Deltalat::tsr/term mutants) were created. This mutation eliminated the production of lysine-epsilon-aminotransferase (the lat gene product) but also affected the expression of downstream genes, indicating an operon arrangement. Production of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (ACVS) (the pcbAB gene product) was eliminated in Deltalat::tsr/term mutants, while production of isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS) (the pcbC gene product) was greatly reduced. The provision of alpha-aminoadipate to the Deltalat::tsr/term mutants, either via exogenous feeding or via lat gene complementation, did not restore production of ACVS or IPNS. Analysis of RNA isolated from the Deltalat::tsr/term mutants confirmed that the polycistronic transcript was absent but also indicated that monocistronic pcbC transcript levels were greatly decreased. In contrast, Deltalat mutants created by in-frame internal deletion of lat maintained the polycistronic transcript and allowed production of wild-type levels of both ACVS and IPNS.  (+info)

Enzymes catalyzing the early steps of clavulanic acid biosynthesis are encoded by two sets of paralogous genes in Streptomyces clavuligerus. (5/232)

Genes encoding the proteins required for clavulanic acid biosynthesis and for cephamycin biosynthesis are grouped into a "supercluster" in Streptomyces clavuligerus. Nine open reading frames (ORFs) associated with clavulanic acid biosynthesis were located in a 15-kb segment of the supercluster, including six ORFs encoding known biosynthetic enzymes or regulatory proteins, two ORFs that have been reported previously but whose involvement in clavulanic acid biosynthesis is unclear, and one ORF not previously reported. Evidence for the involvement of these ORFs in clavulanic acid production was obtained by generating mutants and showing that all were defective for clavulanic acid production when grown on starch asparagine medium. However, when five of the nine mutants, including mutants defective in known clavulanic acid biosynthetic enzymes, were grown in a soy-based medium, clavulanic acid-producing ability was restored. This ability to produce clavulanic acid when seemingly essential biosynthetic enzymes have been mutated suggests that paralogous genes encoding functionally equivalent proteins exist for each of the five genes but that these paralogues are expressed only in the soy-based medium. The five genes that have paralogues encode proteins involved in the early steps of the pathway common to the biosynthesis of both clavulanic acid and the other clavam metabolites produced by this organism. No evidence was seen for paralogues of the four remaining genes involved in late, clavulanic acid-specific steps in the pathway.  (+info)

Heterogeneous distribution of lysine 6-aminotransferase during cephamycin C biosynthesis in Streptomyces clavuligerus demonstrated using green fluorescent protein as a reporter. (6/232)

The cellular distribution of the cephamycin biosynthetic enzyme lysine 6-aminotransferase (LAT) has been studied in Streptomyces clavuligerus hyphae by confocal microscopy using the S65T mutant of green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. LAT mediates the first committed step in the biosynthesis of the secondary metabolite cephamycin C by S. clavuligerus. The enzymic activity of LAT varies with time during the growth of S. clavuligerus in liquid medium. To investigate if this temporal variation occurs uniformly amongst all hyphae, S. clavuligerus was transformed with a plasmid containing the LAT-encoding gene translationally fused to the GFP-encoding gene. The LAT-GFP fusion product displayed fluorescence spectral characteristics of GFP, and showed similar temporal characteristics of LAT activity compared to the wild-type strain of S. clavuligerus. The transformed strain exhibited a heterogeneous distribution of fluorescence in mycelia grown in liquid cultures. This distribution varied significantly as the batch progressed: only a fraction of the mycelia fluoresced in the early growth phase, whereas nearly all hyphae fluoresced by the late growth phase. Thereafter, a non-uniform distribution of fluorescence was again observed in the declining growth phase. A large fraction of the non-fluorescent cells in the declining growth phase were found to be non-viable. Observations of S. clavuligerus colonies grown on solid agar also showed variation of LAT-GFP expression at different stages of growth. These observations in the solid phase can be explained in terms of nutrient deprivation and signalling molecules. The results suggest that physiological differentiation of S. clavuligerus mycelia leading to cephamycin C biosynthesis is both temporally and spatially distributed. The findings also revealed that the observed heterogeneity was independent of the position of individual cell compartments within the hypha. The potential of GFP as a reporter for the quantitative study of cephamycin biosynthesis at the cellular level has also been demonstrated.  (+info)

Ampicillin/sulbactam and cefoxitin in the treatment of cutaneous and other soft-tissue abscesses in patients with or without histories of injection drug abuse. (7/232)

A randomized, double-blind trial compared the clinical and bacteriologic efficacy of ampicillin/sulbactam (2 g/1 g) and cefoxitin (2 g) administered intravenously every 6 h to patients with (n=49) or without (n=47) histories of injection drug abuse who presented with cutaneous or other soft-tissue infections. Cure or improvement occurred in 89.8% of ampicillin/sulbactam-treated patients, compared with 93.6% of cefoxitin-treated patients. The median time to resolution of all symptoms was 10.5 days with ampicillin/sulbactam treatment and 15.5 days with cefoxitin treatment. Mixed aerobic-anaerobic infection was encountered frequently in both treatment groups. A significantly higher percentage of Streptococcus species was found in the major abscesses of the patients with histories of injection drug abuse, compared with those without such histories (37% vs. 19%, respectively; P=.0009). Overall, ampicillin/sulbactam eradicated pathogens from the major abscesses in 100% of patients, whereas the eradication rate with cefoxitin was 97.9%. The 2 drugs were well tolerated. Ampicillin/sulbactam and cefoxitin were equally effective for the empirical treatment of cutaneous or other soft-tissue infections in injection drug abusers and patients who did not inject drugs.  (+info)

Nucleotide sequence of the chromosomal ampC gene of Enterobacter aerogenes. (8/232)

The AmpC beta-lactamase gene and a small portion of the regulatory ampR sequence of Enterobacter aerogenes 97B were cloned and sequenced. The beta-lactamase had an isoelectric point of 8 and conferred cephalosporin and cephamycin resistance on the host. The sequence of the cloned gene is most closely related to those of the ampC genes of E. cloacae and C. freundii.  (+info)

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A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms ...
In recent years, bacterial drug resistance increased gravity with applied of P-lactam antibiotics widely. Extended Spectrum P-Lactamase (ESBLs) and Amp Cephalosporinase (AmpC enzyme) were the major
Pediatric Dosage Children 13 year of age or older or those weighing more than 43 kg may receive the usual Cefdinir Online shop dosage of cefdinir. Cautions Adverse Effects Adverse effects reported with cefdinir are similar to those reported with other oral cephalosporins. See Cautions in the Cephalosporins General Statement 8: Cefdinir generally is well tolerated. Precautions and Contraindications Cefdinir Cefdinir Online shops the toxic potentials of other cephalosporins, Cefdinir Online Shop, and the usual cautions, Cefdinir Online Shop, precautions, and contraindications associated Cefdinir Online shop cephalosporin therapy should be observed.. There is clinical and laboratory evidence of generic Famvir cross-allergenicity among cephalosporins and other b-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins and cephamycins. Use of cephalosporins should be avoided in patients who have had an immediate-type anaphylactic hypersensitivity reaction to penicillins. For a more complete discussion of these and ...
Cefotetan is a type of injection given to treat or prevent certain bacterial infections. This page from the eMedTV site takes a look at a number of topics related to this prescription antibiotic, including how it works, how it is given, and side effects.
Naturally occurring Family of beta-lactam cephalosporin-type Antibiotics having a 7-methoxy group and possessing marked resistance to the action of beta-Lactamases from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms ...
As detailed in this selection from the eMedTV Web library, cefotetan can interact with warfarin, probenecid, and other drugs. This article explains how you can reduce your risk of interactions and lists other products that can cause problems.
In theory, CCAR submissions can be done using your existing risk and finance infrastructure. But an analytic solution can automate many of the steps.
Looking for online definition of cefotetan in the Medical Dictionary? cefotetan explanation free. What is cefotetan? Meaning of cefotetan medical term. What does cefotetan mean?
Suckling and adult mice were infected intragastrically with different doses of viable Listeria monocytogenes. The 50% lethal dose for the intragastric infection was 10(3.7) CFU for suckling mice, while adult mice were highly resistant and the 50% lethal dose was more than 10(9.3) CFU. When adult mice were infected intragastrically with 5 x 10(8) CFU of L. monocytogenes, no mice died. However, 35% of adult mice died when they were treated with cyclosporin A 1 day before infection. Although mice did not die when treated with an L. monocytogenes-resistant broad-spectrum cephalosporin, sodium cefbuperazone, before and during infection, the number of L. monocytogenes bacteria increased in the feces. The sodium cefbuperazone treatment of mice resulted in superinfection, i.e., a marked decrease of Escherichia coli and an increase of Enterococcus spp. in the intestines. Furthermore, host resistance against the intragastric infection markedly decreased when the mice were treated with both drugs. The ...
NDC Code 63323-342-25 is assigned to a package of 25 vial in 1 carton > 1 powder, for solution in 1 vial of Cefoxitin, a human prescription drug labeled by Fresenius Kabi Usa, Llc.
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ID ACVS_AMYLA Reviewed; 3649 AA. AC P27743; DT 01-AUG-1992, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. DT 01-AUG-1992, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 96. DE RecName: Full=N-(5-amino-5-carboxypentanoyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthase; DE EC=; DE AltName: Full=Delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase; DE Short=ACV synthetase; DE Short=ACVS; GN Name=pcbAB; OS Amycolatopsis lactamdurans (Nocardia lactamdurans). OC Bacteria; Actinobacteria; Pseudonocardiales; Pseudonocardiaceae; OC Amycolatopsis. OX NCBI_TaxID=1913; RN [1] RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=VAR LC 411; RX PubMed=1956290; DOI=10.1111/j.1365-2958.1991.tb01885.x; RA Coque J.J.R., Martin J.F., Calzada J.G., Liras P.; RT The cephamycin biosynthetic genes pcbAB, encoding a large multidomain RT peptide synthetase, and pcbC of Nocardia lactamdurans are clustered RT together in an organization different from the same genes in RT Acremonium chrysogenum and Penicillium chrysogenum.; RL Mol. ...
The Inventors Assistance Center is available to help you on patent matters.Send questions about USPTO programs and services to the USPTO Contact Center (UCC). You can suggest USPTO webpages or material you would like featured on this section by E-mail to the [email protected] While we cannot promise to accommodate all requests, your suggestions will be considered and may lead to other improvements on the website. ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Second Generation Anti-anaerobe Cephalosporins, Cefoxitin, Cefotetan, Cefamandole.
The results of a multicenter US survey using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards currently recommended methodology for measuring in vitro susceptibility of 2673 isolates of Bacteroides fragilis group species were compared from 1997 to 2000. The test panel consisted of 14 antibiotics: 3 carbapenems, 3 β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitors, 3 cephamycins, 2 fluoroquinolones, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, and metronidazole. Declines in the geometric mean minimum inhibitory concentrations were seen with imipenem, meropenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, and the cephamycins. Increased geometric means were observed with the fluoroquinolones and were usually accompanied by an increase in resistance rates. Bacteroides distasonis shows the highest resistance rates among β-lactam antibiotics, whereas Bacteroides vulgatus shows the highest resistance levels among fluoroquinolones. B. fragilis shows the lowest resistance rates for all antibiotics. All strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Delayed hypersensitivity to cefotetan. AU - Romano, A.. AU - Di Fonso, M.. AU - Artesani, M. C.. AU - Viola, M.. AU - Adesi, F. B.. AU - Venuti, A.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. KW - Cefotetan. KW - Delayed hypersensitivity. KW - Intradermal tests. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1034/j.1398-9995.2001.056003260.x. DO - 10.1034/j.1398-9995.2001.056003260.x. M3 - Article. C2 - 11251418. AN - SCOPUS:0035097715. VL - 56. SP - 260. EP - 261. JO - Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. JF - Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. SN - 0105-4538. IS - 3. ER - ...
Govaerts, R. et al. 2015. Cattleya trianae in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2015 Feb. 1 ...
Provides information on usage, precautions, side effects and brand names when available. Data provided by various government agencies and health-related organizations. ...
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Expression of CCAR1 (CARP-1, CARP1, FLJ10590) in breast tissue. Antibody staining with HPA007856 and HPA048513 in immunohistochemistry.
Find information on Cefoperazone in Daviss Drug Guide including dosage, side effects, interactions, nursing implications, mechanism of action, half life, administration, and more. Davis Drug Guide PDF.
351 medications are known to interact with Sensorcaine with Epinephrine. Includes Ancef (cefazolin), Cefotan (cefotetan), cephalexin.
Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from 11 patients at the Miriam Hospital were identified as resistant to cefoxitin and ceftibuten as well as to aztreonam, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime. Resistance could be transferred by conjugation or transformation with plasmid DNA into Escherichia coli and was due to the production of a beta-lactamase with an isoelectric point of 8.4 named MIR-1. In E. coli, MIR-1 conferred resistance to aztreonam, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftibuten, ceftriaxone, and such alpha-methoxy beta-lactams as cefmetazole, cefotetan, cefoxitin, and moxalactam. In vitro, MIR-1 hydrolyzed cephalothin and cephaloridine much more rapidly than it did penicillin G, ampicillin, or carbenicillin. Cefotaxime was hydrolyzed at 10% the rate of cephaloridine. Cefoxitin inactivation could only be detected by a microbiological test. The inhibition profile of MIR-1 was similar to that of chromosomally mediated class I beta-lactamases. Potassium clavulanate had little effect on cefoxitin or cefibuten ...
High-level expression of the Streptomyces clavuligerus isopenicillin N synthase gene in Escherechia coli. Isolation and antifungal and antioomycete activities of aerugine produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain MM-B16
Lee, H. J., Schofield, C. J. and Lloyd, M. D., 2002. Active site mutations of recombinant deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 292, pp. 66-70.. ...
Structural and biochemical studies of the orf12 gene product (ORF12) from the clavulanic acid (CA) biosynthesis gene cluster are described. Sequence and crystallographic analyses reveal two domains: a C-terminal penicillin-binding protein (PBP)/beta-lactamase-type fold with highest structural similarity to the class A beta-lactamases fused to an N-terminal domain with a fold similar to steroid isomerases and polyketide cyclases. The C-terminal domain of ORF12 did not show beta-lactamase or PBP activity for the substrates tested, but did show low-level esterase activity towards 3-O-acetyl cephalosporins and a thioester substrate. Mutagenesis studies imply that Ser173, which is present in a conserved SXXK motif, acts as a nucleophile in catalysis, consistent with studies of related esterases, beta-lactamases and d-Ala carboxypeptidases. Structures of wild-type ORF12 and of catalytic residue variants were obtained in complex with and in the absence of clavulanic acid. The role of ORF12 in ...
Clavulanic acid. Its not an antibiotic in the classical sense of the word, but where would be without it? Probably one of the most important discoveries in the history of antibiotic development.. Clavulanic acid, or potassium clavulanate, was discovered in the early 1970s by scientists at Beecham pharmaceuticals. Produced naturally by the bacterium Streptomyces clavuligerus, it is a potent inhibitor of (Class A) beta-lactamases.. We know that Streptomyces are soil bacteria and there are hundreds of different Streptomyces species recorded in the taxonomy. A majority of Streptomyces species produce beta-lactam antibiotics and a lot of them also produce beta-lactamases, showing the lengths that these bacteria would go to to survive amongst other streptomyces and also other micro-organisms living in close proximity. It is interesting therefore that one of the Streptomyces species (Streptomyces clavuligerus) had the brains to produce a beta-lactamase inhibitor. Why? This would have given the ...
Cefotetan (CAS 69712-56-7) Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on cefotetan market globally and regionally (Europe, Asia, Liquid sorbitol is made by processing dextrose, while crystal one is obtained by spray drying liquid sorbitol. Liquid sorbitol led the sorbitol market in 2013 in terms of demand. It accounted for a demand of 1,524.7 KT that year. Crystal sorbitol can register a growth rate of 2.9% till 2020.. Vitamin C production, oral care products, as surfactants, and diabetic & dietetic food & beverages are the market applications. Vitamin C production should grow slowly on account of the overproduction of the vitamin. Since sorbitol is metabolized at a slower rate, it is a popular choice for toothpastes & oral care products. Toothpaste, one of the oral products, would grow at 4% CAGR over the forecast phase. This will be attributed to it preventing tooth decay. Sorbitol is also used as surfactants in the form of wetting agents, emulsifiers, detergents, and dispersants.. Request for sample of this research report ...
Its very important to refuse to get lost in semantics. The body is a complex system. Like zoo animals we dont live in a way thats comparable to the environment in which we evolved. Our genes for Vitamin C production might have been fall victim to gene drift. Just like the perfectly rational participants dont exist in economics the human body isnt running perfect. Both are ideals that hide the inherent ambiguity of the real world. Its not a good idea to pretend that things that one doesnt understand cant exist. Take Vitamin E in elderly subjects. Meydani et al published a peer reviewed paper that showed a placebo controlled double blind study various boosts the immune system in various ways:. ...
Carbapenems are a class of beta-lactam classes of drugs which include penicillins, cephalosporins,. cephamycins and carbapenems. These antibiotics have a common element in. their molecular structure: a four-atom ring known as a beta-lactam. The. lactamase enzyme breaks that ring open, deactivating the molecules. antibacterial properties.. Jones also noted that current susceptibility patterns of newer antimicrobial drugs goes up every year, especially with drugs such as Vancomycin and Daptomycin MIC, a glycopeptide antibiotic and a novel lipopeptide antibiotic respectively, used in the prophylaxis and treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria.. Speaker Dudley presented a technical talk on pharmaceutical breakpoints and antimicrobial resistance called Towards Improved Susceptibility Tests: Getting the Right Answer. Whites presentation entitled Paper or Plastic? Bringing Resistance Home touched on the current crossroads of food safety and antimicrobial resistance. He cited the ...
DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is a highly conserved biological pathway that plays a key role in maintaining genomic stability. MMR corrects DNA mismatches generated during DNA replication, thereby preventing mutations from becoming permanent in dividing cells. MMR also suppresses homologous recombination and was recently shown to play a role in DNA damage signaling. Defects in MMR are associated with genome-wide instability, predisposition to certain types of cancer including HNPCC, resistance to certain chemotherapeutic agents, and abnormalities in meiosis and sterility in mammalian systems. The Escherichia coli MMR pathway has been extensively studied and is well characterized. In E. coli, the mismatch-activated MutS-MutL-ATP complex licenses MutH to incise the nearest unmethylated GATC sequence. UvrD and an exonuclease generate a gap. This gap is filled by pol III and DNA ligase. The GATC sites are then methylated by Dam. Several human MMR proteins have been identified based on their homology to ...
O gênero possui aproximadamente 50 espécies distribuídas nos trópicos da América central e América do sul. Na amazonia brasileira são conhecidas sete espécies e duas espécies híbridas naturais. C. araguainensis e C. nobilior são espécies do Brasil central e chegaram até as bordas da Amazônia. A primeira do rio Araguaia e a outra chega ao estado de rondonia. São espécies do bioma cerrado. Na amazonia central encontram-se C. Eldorado, C. Luteola e C. violácea. Nas florestas submontanas da grande savana venezuelana, no estado de Roraima, C. jenmanii e C. lawrenciana. Existem dois híbridos naturais de Cattleya: um entre C. Eldorado e C. Violacea (cattleya Brymeriana) nativa dos estados do Amazonas e Roraima. O outro entre C. Eldorado e Brassavola martiana (Brassocattleya Ruby). Descoberta e publicada pelo Dr. Pedro Ivo Soares Braga, no Estado do Amazonas.. ...
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SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1hjf.1. Alteration of the co-substrate selectivity of deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase: The role of arginine-258
Cefmenoxime is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Cefmenoxime is available on the website.
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When youve worked for a while as a recovery coach, I hope you look at all the recoverees youve had the privilege of coaching and envision a swim team. My youngest son loves sports. He loves to play. From my vantage point I think he loves basketball before all others. He started fairly late an ...
Organofluorine compounds are widely prepared throughout the chemicals industry, but their prepararion generally requires harsh fluorinating reagents and non-aqueous solvents. On the other hand, biology has hardly exploited organofluorine compounds. A very few organisms synthesize organofluorine metabolites, suggesting they have evolved a mechanism to overcome the kinetic desolvation barrier to utilizing F(-)(aq). Here, the purification and crystallization of an enzyme from Streptomyces cattleya which is responsible for the synthesis of the C-F bond during fluoroacetate and 4-fluorothreonine biosynthesis is reported. The protein crystallizes in space group C222(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 75.9, b = 130.3, c = 183.4 A, alpha = beta = gamma = 90 degrees. Data were recorded to 1.9 A at the ESRF. The structure of the protein should provide important insights into the biochemical process of C-F bond formation.. ...
We conducted a randomized, prospective study of moxalactam versus gentamicin plus clindamycin in 42 patients with penetrating abdominal trauma. Patients were randomized to receive intravenously either 2 grams of moxalactam every 12 hours or 80 millig
Cyclic amides are known as lactams. They can be a β-lactam which is a 4-membered ring, a γ-lactam which is a 5-membered ring, a δ-lactam which is a 6- membered ring, an ε-lactam which is 7-membered ring, and so on. An example of a drug containing a β-lactam ring is ezetimibe. Antibiotics that contain a β-lactam ring are collectively known as β-lactam antibiotics which include penicillins such as amoxicillin, cephalosporins such as cephalexin, cephamycins such as cefoxitin, carbacephems such as loracarbef, carbapenems such as doripenem, monobactams such as aztreonam, oxacephems such as moxalactam. Examples of drugs containing a γ-lactam ring include levetiracetam, doxapram, glimepiride. Examples of drugs containing a δ-lactam ring include perampanel, milrinone, pirfenidone. Example of a drug containing an ε-lactam ring fused to a benzene ring is benazepril. There are also groups that are half ester and half amide. They are known as carbamates (or urethanes). Some examples of cyclic ...
LABORATORY DETECTION OF EXTENDED-SPECTRUM Β-LACTAMASES (ESBLS). Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) producing organisms are a major problem in the area of infectious disease. ESBLs are enzymes that mediate resistance to extended-spectrum (third generation) cephalosporins (e.g., ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone) and monobactams (e.g., aztreonam) but do not affect cephamycins (e.g., cefoxitin and cefotetan) or carbapenems (e.g., meropenem or imipenem). In addition, ESBL-producing organisms frequently show cross-resistance to many other classes of antibiotics; including aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones thus treatment of these infections is often a therapeutic challenge. The frequency of ESBL-producing organisms differs significantly in accordance with geographic location. Published data from Pakistan supports an urgent need for regular screening and surveillance for these organisms in this region. Detection of ESBL is a major challenge for the clinical microbiology laboratory as its ... What sorts of examples of other advantageous rare variants are there? (specific disease resistance like that for AIDS perhaps, but my bet would be that involves an immune system tradeoff) Of course this does raise the question of how to tell if something is advantageous. How do we know if there is a problem in environmental conditions that are currently uncommon? For me this is where the idea of genetic engineering becomes worrisome. I think it is dangerous to attempt to highly optimize a poorly understood system (I think this is one of the major sins of economics, e.g. stagflation, if one attempts to push a linear model to its limits one may find out it is nonlinear after all ;-) because of unintended side effects. One (somewhat speculative) example is vitamin C production in primates. Speculation is that it was selected against when the population lived in a dietary vitamin C rich environment (fruit). That is ...
Researchers say that this ability to produce vitamin C may be the underlying reason why animals can live a healthy life through old age if give half a chance. Optimal C will stimulate your body to produce similar quantities of vitamin C appropriate to your weight. Thus producing extremely high levels of the most optimal form of vitamin C or ascorbic acid there is, the kind the body makes. Being able to turn on natural vitamin C production in the body makes Optimal C the most valuable supplement there is to prevent disease, to achieve optimal health and to increase longevity ...
Expression of CCAR1 (CARP-1, CARP1, FLJ10590) in lymph node tissue. Antibody staining with HPA007856 and HPA048513 in immunohistochemistry.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Randomized, double-blind comparison of ceftazidime and moxalactam in complicated urinary tract infections. AU - Horowitz, E. A.. AU - Preheim, L. C.. AU - Safranek, T. J.. AU - Pugsley, M. P.. AU - Sanders, C. C.. AU - Bittner, M. J.. PY - 1985/1/1. Y1 - 1985/1/1. N2 - Sixty-seven patients with complicated urinary tract infections were randomized in double-blind fashion to ceftazidime or moxalactam (MOX). A total of 54 patients were evaluable, 27 in each group. Patients received 500 mg of antibiotic intravenously every 12 h, except for those with Pseudomonas aeruginosa randomized to MOX who received 2 g intravenously every 12 h. Toxic effects with ceftazidime were experienced by the following number of patients: pain with infusion, one; posttherapy diarrhea, one; liver function test elevations, two; and neutropenia, one. Toxic effects with MOX were experienced by the following number of patients: liver function test elevations, two; and prolonged prothrombin time, one. All ...
Beta-lactamases (β-lactamases, also known as penicillinase) are enzymes (EC produced by bacteria, that provide multi-resistance to β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, cephamycins, and carbapenems (ertapenem), although carbapenems are relatively resistant to beta-lactamase. Beta-lactamase provides antibiotic resistance by breaking the antibiotics structure. These antibiotics all have a common element in their molecular structure: a four-atom ring known as a β-lactam. Through hydrolysis, the lactamase enzyme breaks the β-lactam ring open, deactivating the molecules antibacterial properties. Beta-lactam antibiotics are typically used to treat a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Beta-lactamases produced by Gram-negative organisms are usually secreted, especially when antibiotics are present in the environment. The structure of a Streptomyces β-lactamase is given by 1BSG. Penicillinase is a specific type of β-lactamase, showing ...
Escherichia coli is the primary cause of urinary tract infections and Gram-negative bacteremia worldwide. Since the early years of the 21st century, E.coli has acquired a new mechanism of resistance to antibiotics: extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), type CTX-M. These ESBL inactivate most β-lactams, the preferred class of antibiotics for the treatment of severe E.coli infections. Moreover, the strains that produce these ESBL are often resistant to other classes of antibiotics. Their rapid spread constitutes a major public health concern because of a serious risk of therapeutic impasse. Treatment options in cases of infection with ESBL-producing E.coli are often limited to carbapenems, a class of more recently developed β-lactams. Carbapenems have a very wide spectrum of activity but their effectiveness is threatened by the emergence of strains producing carbapenemases. The development of therapeutic alternatives to treat ESBL-producing E.coli infections is therefore essential. Cephamycins, ...
All plants in a 4-pack will be of the same size. Happy cattleyas produce roots prolifically, PLEASE PASS ON THIS. They can then be trimmed off. Of course, qty 1 or in 4-packs i. E. You can purchase as many individual plants or 4-packs as you like. Please note: the flowers in the main photo are only represeNTATIVE of the range of excellent Cattleyas we offer, but will NOT be the plants were offering as there are literally thousands of possibilities out there! This listing offers plants individually i ...
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Neodiversity 3: th Mar 2008 NEW COMBINATIONS IN THE GENUS CATTLEYA LINDL. (ORCHIDACEAE) C. VAN DEN BERG 1,2 1Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual de Feira
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[Study of clinical bacteriological efficacy in a cefmenoxime ototopical solution].: One percent cefmenoxime (CMX) ototopical solution was administered to 302 pa
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Cefotaxime is approved for adults and children who have infections caused by certain types of bacteria. This eMedTV page focuses on specific uses for cefotaxime. It also explores some of the reasons a doctor may prescribe the drug for unapproved purposes.
Thanks Abiom- I am a bit obsessed with fragrance. All my smelly orchids are in the Cattleya alliance but I am planning to expand my collection in the direction of fragrant Phals and Cymbidiums as well. I think I like the challenge, because these are so hard to get hold of here. So to start off, I am researching the subject to acquaint myself with as many as I can ...
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