Naturally occurring family of beta-lactam cephalosporin-type antibiotics having a 7-methoxy group and possessing marked resistance to the action of beta-lactamases from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.
Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A TETRACYCLINE with a 7-chloro substitution.
Infections of non-skeletal tissue, i.e., exclusive of bone, ligaments, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. The concept is usually referred to as skin and soft tissue infections and usually subcutaneous and muscle tissue are involved. The predisposing factors in anaerobic infections are trauma, ischemia, and surgery. The organisms often derive from the fecal or oral flora, particularly in wounds associated with intestinal surgery, decubitus ulcer, and human bites. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1688)
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family STAPHYLOCOCCACEAE. It is a zoonotic organism and common commensal in dogs, but can cause disease in dogs and other animals. It also can be associated with human disease.
A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE with a somewhat different social structure than PAPIO HAMADRYAS. They inhabit several areas in Africa south of the Sahara.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.

Development of resistance during antimicrobial therapy caused by insertion sequence interruption of porin genes. (1/232)

We have demonstrated by using an in vitro approach that interruption of the OmpK36 porin gene by insertion sequences (ISs) is a common type of mutation that causes loss of porin expression and increased resistance to cefoxitin in Klebsiella pneumoniae. This mechanism also operates in vivo: of 13 porin-deficient cefoxitin-resistant clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae, 4 presented ISs in their ompK36 gene.  (+info)

Inducing effect of diamines on transcription of the cephamycin C genes from the lat and pcbAB promoters in Nocardia lactamdurans. (2/232)

The diamines putrescine, cadaverine, and diaminopropane stimulate cephamycin biosynthesis in Nocardia lactamdurans, in shake flasks and fermentors, without altering cell growth. Intracellular levels of the P7 protein (a component of the methoxylation system involved in cephamycin biosynthesis) were increased by diaminopropane, as shown by immunoblotting studies. Lysine-6-aminotransferase and piperideine-6-carboxylate dehydrogenase activities involved in biosynthesis of the alpha-aminoadipic acid precursor were also greatly stimulated. The diamine stimulatory effect is exerted at the transcriptional level, as shown by low-resolution S1 protection studies. The transcript corresponding to the pcbAB gene and to a lesser extent also the lat transcript were significantly increased in diaminopropane-supplemented cultures, whereas transcription from the cefD promoter was not affected. Coupling of the lat and pcbAB promoters to the reporter xylE gene showed that expression from the lat and pcbAB promoters was increased by addition of diaminopropane in Streptomyces lividans. Intracellular accumulation of diamines in Nocardia may be a signal to trigger antibiotic production.  (+info)

Deletion of the pyc gene blocks clavulanic acid biosynthesis except in glycerol-containing medium: evidence for two different genes in formation of the C3 unit. (3/232)

The beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid is formed by condensation of a pyruvate-derived C3 unit with a molecule of arginine. A gene (pyc, for pyruvate converting) located upstream of the bls gene in the clavulanic acid gene cluster of Streptomyces clavuligerus encodes a 582-amino-acid protein with domains recognizing pyruvate and thiamine pyrophosphate that shows 29.9% identity to acetohydroxyacid synthases. Amplification of the pyc gene resulted in an earlier onset and higher production of clavulanic acid. Replacement of the pyc gene with the aph gene did not cause isoleucine-valine auxotrophy in the mutant. The pyc replacement mutant did not produce clavulanic acid in starch-asparagine (SA) or in Trypticase soy broth (TSB) complex medium, suggesting that the pyc gene product is involved in the conversion of pyruvate into the C3 unit of clavulanic acid. However, the beta-lactamase inhibitor was still formed at the same level as in the wild-type strain in defined medium containing D-glycerol, glutamic acid, and proline (GSPG medium) as confirmed by high-pressure liquid chromatography and paper chromatography. The production of clavulanic acid by the replacement mutant was dependent on addition of glycerol to the medium, and glycerol-free GSPG medium did not support clavulanic acid biosynthesis, suggesting that an alternative gene product catalyzes the incorporation of glycerol into clavulanic acid in the absence of the Pyc protein. The pyc replacement mutant overproduces cephamycin.  (+info)

Early cephamycin biosynthetic genes are expressed from a polycistronic transcript in Streptomyces clavuligerus. (4/232)

A polycistronic transcript that is initiated at the lat promoter has been implicated in the expression of the genes involved in early steps of cephamycin C biosynthesis in Streptomyces clavuligerus. pcbC is also expressed as a monocistronic transcript from its own promoter. However, an alternative interpretation involving expression via three separate yet interdependent transcripts has also been proposed. To distinguish between these possibilities, mutants lacking the lat promoter and containing a transcription terminator within the lat gene (Deltalat::tsr/term mutants) were created. This mutation eliminated the production of lysine-epsilon-aminotransferase (the lat gene product) but also affected the expression of downstream genes, indicating an operon arrangement. Production of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (ACVS) (the pcbAB gene product) was eliminated in Deltalat::tsr/term mutants, while production of isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS) (the pcbC gene product) was greatly reduced. The provision of alpha-aminoadipate to the Deltalat::tsr/term mutants, either via exogenous feeding or via lat gene complementation, did not restore production of ACVS or IPNS. Analysis of RNA isolated from the Deltalat::tsr/term mutants confirmed that the polycistronic transcript was absent but also indicated that monocistronic pcbC transcript levels were greatly decreased. In contrast, Deltalat mutants created by in-frame internal deletion of lat maintained the polycistronic transcript and allowed production of wild-type levels of both ACVS and IPNS.  (+info)

Enzymes catalyzing the early steps of clavulanic acid biosynthesis are encoded by two sets of paralogous genes in Streptomyces clavuligerus. (5/232)

Genes encoding the proteins required for clavulanic acid biosynthesis and for cephamycin biosynthesis are grouped into a "supercluster" in Streptomyces clavuligerus. Nine open reading frames (ORFs) associated with clavulanic acid biosynthesis were located in a 15-kb segment of the supercluster, including six ORFs encoding known biosynthetic enzymes or regulatory proteins, two ORFs that have been reported previously but whose involvement in clavulanic acid biosynthesis is unclear, and one ORF not previously reported. Evidence for the involvement of these ORFs in clavulanic acid production was obtained by generating mutants and showing that all were defective for clavulanic acid production when grown on starch asparagine medium. However, when five of the nine mutants, including mutants defective in known clavulanic acid biosynthetic enzymes, were grown in a soy-based medium, clavulanic acid-producing ability was restored. This ability to produce clavulanic acid when seemingly essential biosynthetic enzymes have been mutated suggests that paralogous genes encoding functionally equivalent proteins exist for each of the five genes but that these paralogues are expressed only in the soy-based medium. The five genes that have paralogues encode proteins involved in the early steps of the pathway common to the biosynthesis of both clavulanic acid and the other clavam metabolites produced by this organism. No evidence was seen for paralogues of the four remaining genes involved in late, clavulanic acid-specific steps in the pathway.  (+info)

Heterogeneous distribution of lysine 6-aminotransferase during cephamycin C biosynthesis in Streptomyces clavuligerus demonstrated using green fluorescent protein as a reporter. (6/232)

The cellular distribution of the cephamycin biosynthetic enzyme lysine 6-aminotransferase (LAT) has been studied in Streptomyces clavuligerus hyphae by confocal microscopy using the S65T mutant of green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. LAT mediates the first committed step in the biosynthesis of the secondary metabolite cephamycin C by S. clavuligerus. The enzymic activity of LAT varies with time during the growth of S. clavuligerus in liquid medium. To investigate if this temporal variation occurs uniformly amongst all hyphae, S. clavuligerus was transformed with a plasmid containing the LAT-encoding gene translationally fused to the GFP-encoding gene. The LAT-GFP fusion product displayed fluorescence spectral characteristics of GFP, and showed similar temporal characteristics of LAT activity compared to the wild-type strain of S. clavuligerus. The transformed strain exhibited a heterogeneous distribution of fluorescence in mycelia grown in liquid cultures. This distribution varied significantly as the batch progressed: only a fraction of the mycelia fluoresced in the early growth phase, whereas nearly all hyphae fluoresced by the late growth phase. Thereafter, a non-uniform distribution of fluorescence was again observed in the declining growth phase. A large fraction of the non-fluorescent cells in the declining growth phase were found to be non-viable. Observations of S. clavuligerus colonies grown on solid agar also showed variation of LAT-GFP expression at different stages of growth. These observations in the solid phase can be explained in terms of nutrient deprivation and signalling molecules. The results suggest that physiological differentiation of S. clavuligerus mycelia leading to cephamycin C biosynthesis is both temporally and spatially distributed. The findings also revealed that the observed heterogeneity was independent of the position of individual cell compartments within the hypha. The potential of GFP as a reporter for the quantitative study of cephamycin biosynthesis at the cellular level has also been demonstrated.  (+info)

Ampicillin/sulbactam and cefoxitin in the treatment of cutaneous and other soft-tissue abscesses in patients with or without histories of injection drug abuse. (7/232)

A randomized, double-blind trial compared the clinical and bacteriologic efficacy of ampicillin/sulbactam (2 g/1 g) and cefoxitin (2 g) administered intravenously every 6 h to patients with (n=49) or without (n=47) histories of injection drug abuse who presented with cutaneous or other soft-tissue infections. Cure or improvement occurred in 89.8% of ampicillin/sulbactam-treated patients, compared with 93.6% of cefoxitin-treated patients. The median time to resolution of all symptoms was 10.5 days with ampicillin/sulbactam treatment and 15.5 days with cefoxitin treatment. Mixed aerobic-anaerobic infection was encountered frequently in both treatment groups. A significantly higher percentage of Streptococcus species was found in the major abscesses of the patients with histories of injection drug abuse, compared with those without such histories (37% vs. 19%, respectively; P=.0009). Overall, ampicillin/sulbactam eradicated pathogens from the major abscesses in 100% of patients, whereas the eradication rate with cefoxitin was 97.9%. The 2 drugs were well tolerated. Ampicillin/sulbactam and cefoxitin were equally effective for the empirical treatment of cutaneous or other soft-tissue infections in injection drug abusers and patients who did not inject drugs.  (+info)

Nucleotide sequence of the chromosomal ampC gene of Enterobacter aerogenes. (8/232)

The AmpC beta-lactamase gene and a small portion of the regulatory ampR sequence of Enterobacter aerogenes 97B were cloned and sequenced. The beta-lactamase had an isoelectric point of 8 and conferred cephalosporin and cephamycin resistance on the host. The sequence of the cloned gene is most closely related to those of the ampC genes of E. cloacae and C. freundii.  (+info)

Cephamycins are a subclass of cephalosporin antibiotics, which are derived from the fungus Acremonium species. They have a similar chemical structure to other cephalosporins but have an additional methoxy group on their side chain that makes them more resistant to beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by some bacteria that can inactivate other cephalosporins and penicillins.

Cephamycins are primarily used to treat infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus species, and Enterobacter species. They have a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, making them useful for treating a variety of infections.

The two main cephamycins that are used clinically are cefoxitin and cefotetan. Cefoxitin is often used to treat intra-abdominal infections, pelvic inflammatory disease, and skin and soft tissue infections. Cefotetan is primarily used for the treatment of surgical prophylaxis, gynecological infections, and pneumonia.

Like other cephalosporins, cephamycins can cause allergic reactions, including rashes, hives, and anaphylaxis. They should be used with caution in patients who have a history of allergies to penicillin or other beta-lactam antibiotics. Additionally, cephamycins can disrupt the normal gut flora, leading to secondary infections such as Clostridioides difficile (C. diff) diarrhea.

Beta-lactamases are enzymes produced by certain bacteria that can break down and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. This enzymatic activity makes the bacteria resistant to these antibiotics, limiting their effectiveness in treating infections caused by these organisms.

Beta-lactamases work by hydrolyzing the beta-lactam ring, a structural component of these antibiotics that is essential for their antimicrobial activity. By breaking down this ring, the enzyme renders the antibiotic ineffective against the bacterium, allowing it to continue growing and potentially causing harm.

There are different classes of beta-lactamases (e.g., Ambler Class A, B, C, and D), each with distinct characteristics and mechanisms for breaking down various beta-lactam antibiotics. The emergence and spread of bacteria producing these enzymes have contributed to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance, making it increasingly challenging to treat infections caused by these organisms.

To overcome this issue, researchers have developed beta-lactamase inhibitors, which are drugs that can bind to and inhibit the activity of these enzymes, thus restoring the effectiveness of certain beta-lactam antibiotics. Examples of such combinations include amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin) and piperacillin/tazobactam (Zosyn).

Cephalosporins are a class of antibiotics that are derived from the fungus Acremonium, originally isolated from seawater and cow dung. They have a similar chemical structure to penicillin and share a common four-membered beta-lactam ring in their molecular structure.

Cephalosporins work by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, which ultimately leads to bacterial death. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, meaning they are effective against a wide range of bacteria, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms.

There are several generations of cephalosporins, each with different spectra of activity and pharmacokinetic properties. The first generation cephalosporins have a narrow spectrum of activity and are primarily used to treat infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Second-generation cephalosporins have an expanded spectrum of activity that includes some Gram-negative organisms, such as Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. Third-generation cephalosporins have even broader spectra of activity and are effective against many resistant Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Fourth-generation cephalosporins have activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics. They are often reserved for the treatment of serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria.

Cephalosporins are generally well tolerated, but like penicillin, they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals. Cross-reactivity between cephalosporins and penicillin is estimated to occur in 5-10% of patients with a history of penicillin allergy. Other potential adverse effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea), neurotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity.

Cefoxitin is a type of antibiotic known as a cephamycin, which is a subclass of the larger group of antibiotics called cephalosporins. Cephalosporins are bactericidal agents that inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to and disrupting the function of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs).

Cefoxitin has a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including many strains that are resistant to other antibiotics. It is commonly used to treat infections caused by susceptible organisms such as:

* Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant S. aureus or MRSA)
* Streptococcus pneumoniae
* Escherichia coli
* Klebsiella spp.
* Proteus mirabilis
* Bacteroides fragilis and other anaerobic bacteria

Cefoxitin is available in both intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) formulations, and it is typically administered every 6 to 8 hours. The drug is generally well tolerated, but potential side effects include gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, as well as allergic reactions, including rash, pruritus, and anaphylaxis.

It's important to note that the use of antibiotics should be based on the results of bacterial cultures and susceptibility testing whenever possible, to ensure appropriate therapy and minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Cephalosporin resistance refers to the ability of bacteria to resist the antibacterial effects of cephalosporins, a group of widely used antibiotics. These drugs work by interfering with the bacterial cell wall synthesis, thereby inhibiting bacterial growth and reproduction. However, some bacteria have developed mechanisms that enable them to survive in the presence of cephalosporins.

There are several ways in which bacteria can become resistant to cephalosporins. One common mechanism is through the production of beta-lactamases, enzymes that can break down the beta-lactam ring structure of cephalosporins and other related antibiotics. This makes the drugs ineffective against the bacteria.

Another mechanism of resistance involves changes in the bacterial cell membrane or the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) that prevent the binding of cephalosporins to their target sites. These changes can occur due to genetic mutations or the acquisition of new genes through horizontal gene transfer.

Cephalosporin resistance is a significant public health concern, as it can limit the treatment options for bacterial infections and increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. The overuse and misuse of antibiotics are major drivers of antibiotic resistance, including cephalosporin resistance. Therefore, it is essential to use these drugs judiciously and follow proper infection prevention and control measures to prevent the spread of resistant bacteria.

Beta-lactams are a class of antibiotics that include penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams. They contain a beta-lactam ring in their chemical structure, which is responsible for their antibacterial activity. The beta-lactam ring inhibits the bacterial enzymes necessary for cell wall synthesis, leading to bacterial death. Beta-lactams are commonly used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infections, and bone and joint infections. However, some bacteria have developed resistance to beta-lactams through the production of beta-lactamases, enzymes that can break down the beta-lactam ring and render the antibiotic ineffective. To overcome this resistance, beta-lactam antibiotics are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors, which protect the beta-lactam ring from degradation.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

"Klebsiella pneumoniae" is a medical term that refers to a type of bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It's a gram-negative, encapsulated, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals.

"Klebsiella pneumoniae" is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause a range of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. It's a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and wound infections.

The bacterium is known for its ability to produce a polysaccharide capsule that makes it resistant to phagocytosis by white blood cells, allowing it to evade the host's immune system. Additionally, "Klebsiella pneumoniae" has developed resistance to many antibiotics, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat and a growing public health concern.

Isoelectric focusing (IEF) is a technique used in electrophoresis, which is a method for separating proteins or other molecules based on their electrical charges. In IEF, a mixture of ampholytes (molecules that can carry both positive and negative charges) is used to create a pH gradient within a gel matrix. When an electric field is applied, the proteins or molecules migrate through the gel until they reach the point in the gradient where their net charge is zero, known as their isoelectric point (pI). At this point, they focus into a sharp band and stop moving, resulting in a highly resolved separation of the different components based on their pI. This technique is widely used in protein research for applications such as protein identification, characterization, and purification.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Chlortetracycline is an antibiotic that belongs to the tetracycline class. It is primarily used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory, urinary, and skin infections. Chlortetracycline works by inhibiting the bacteria's ability to produce proteins, which are essential for their survival and growth.

The medical definition of Chlortetracycline is as follows:

Chlortetracycline (CTC): A broad-spectrum antibiotic that is derived from the actinomycete Streptomyces aureofaciens. It is used to treat various bacterial infections, including respiratory, urinary, and skin infections. Chlortetracycline is a colorless crystalline powder that is soluble in water and alcohol. It has a molecular formula of C22H24ClN2O8 and a molecular weight of 476.93 g/mol.

Chlortetracycline is usually administered orally, but it can also be given intravenously or topically. The drug is absorbed well from the gastrointestinal tract and is widely distributed throughout the body. It has a half-life of about 8 hours and is excreted primarily in the urine.

Like other tetracyclines, Chlortetracycline can cause tooth discoloration and enamel hypoplasia in children under the age of 8. It can also cause photosensitivity, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Prolonged use or high doses of Chlortetracycline can lead to bacterial resistance and may increase the risk of superinfection with fungi or other bacteria.

Chlortetracycline is no longer commonly used in human medicine due to the availability of newer antibiotics with fewer side effects. However, it is still used in veterinary medicine to treat infections in animals.

Soft tissue infections are medical conditions that involve infection of the soft tissues of the body, which include the skin, muscles, fascia (the connective tissue that surrounds muscles), and tendons. These infections can be caused by various types of bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites.

Soft tissue infections can range from mild to severe, depending on the type of organism causing the infection, the extent of tissue involvement, and the patient's overall health status. Some common types of soft tissue infections include:

1. Cellulitis: This is a bacterial infection that affects the skin and underlying tissues. It typically presents as a red, swollen, warm, and painful area on the skin, often accompanied by fever and chills.
2. Abscess: An abscess is a localized collection of pus in the soft tissues, caused by an infection. It can appear as a swollen, tender, and warm lump under the skin, which may be filled with pus.
3. Necrotizing fasciitis: This is a rare but severe soft tissue infection that involves the rapid destruction of fascia and surrounding tissues. It is often caused by a mixture of bacteria and can progress rapidly, leading to shock, organ failure, and even death if not treated promptly.
4. Myositis: This is an inflammation of the muscle tissue, which can be caused by a bacterial or viral infection. Symptoms may include muscle pain, swelling, weakness, and fever.
5. Erysipelas: This is a superficial skin infection that affects the upper layers of the skin and the lymphatic vessels. It typically presents as a raised, red, and painful rash with clear borders.

Treatment for soft tissue infections depends on the type and severity of the infection but may include antibiotics, drainage of pus or abscesses, and surgery in severe cases. Preventive measures such as good hygiene, wound care, and prompt treatment of injuries can help reduce the risk of developing soft tissue infections.

Staphylococcus intermedius is a gram-positive, coagulase-variable, facultatively anaerobic bacterium that belongs to the Staphylococcus genus and the Staphylococccaceae family. It is part of the normal flora in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract of dogs and cats, but can also cause opportunistic infections in animals and humans.

In humans, S. intermedius has been associated with various types of infections, including skin and soft tissue infections, endocarditis, septicemia, and device-related infections. These infections often occur in people with underlying medical conditions or compromised immune systems, and are frequently linked to animal contact or exposure.

It is important to note that the identification of Staphylococcus intermedius can be challenging due to its similarities with other coagulase-variable staphylococci, such as S. schleiferi and S. delphini. Therefore, molecular methods or a combination of phenotypic and genotypic tests may be necessary for accurate identification.

"Papio anubis" is the scientific name for the Olive Baboon, which is a species of Old World monkey found in savannas, open woodlands, and hills in East Africa. The term "Papio" refers to the genus of baboons, while "anubis" is the specific name for this particular species.

The Olive Baboon is named for its distinctive olive-gray fur, which can vary in color depending on the subspecies. They have a distinct dog-like face with a pink or red area around their mouths and noses. Adult males typically have a large, rough cheek pad on either side of their faces, which they use to display dominance during social interactions.

Olive Baboons are highly social animals that live in large troops consisting of several adult males, females, and their offspring. They have a complex social hierarchy based on age, size, and rank, and engage in various behaviors such as grooming, playing, and communication to maintain social bonds.

While "Papio anubis" is a medical or scientific term, it is not typically used in clinical settings. However, understanding the behavior and ecology of primates like Olive Baboons can provide valuable insights into human evolution, behavior, and disease transmission.

Streptococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, spherical bacteria that typically form pairs or chains when clustered together. These bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. They are non-motile and do not produce spores.

Streptococcus species are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. Some strains are part of the normal flora of the body, while others can cause a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections to severe and life-threatening diseases such as sepsis, meningitis, and toxic shock syndrome.

The pathogenicity of Streptococcus species depends on various virulence factors, including the production of enzymes and toxins that damage tissues and evade the host's immune response. One of the most well-known Streptococcus species is Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A streptococcus (GAS), which is responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, including pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and rheumatic fever.

It's important to note that the classification of Streptococcus species has evolved over time, with many former members now classified as different genera within the family Streptococcaceae. The current classification system is based on a combination of phenotypic characteristics (such as hemolysis patterns and sugar fermentation) and genotypic methods (such as 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus sequence typing).

Gram-negative bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method, a standard technique used in microbiology to classify and identify different types of bacteria based on their structural differences. This method was developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884.

The primary characteristic distinguishing Gram-negative bacteria from Gram-positive bacteria is the composition and structure of their cell walls:

1. Cell wall: Gram-negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer, making it more susceptible to damage and less rigid compared to Gram-positive bacteria.
2. Outer membrane: They possess an additional outer membrane that contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are endotoxins that can trigger strong immune responses in humans and animals. The outer membrane also contains proteins, known as porins, which form channels for the passage of molecules into and out of the cell.
3. Periplasm: Between the inner and outer membranes lies a compartment called the periplasm, where various enzymes and other molecules are located.

Some examples of Gram-negative bacteria include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., and Neisseria meningitidis. These bacteria are often associated with various infections, such as urinary tract infections, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Due to their complex cell wall structure, Gram-negative bacteria can be more resistant to certain antibiotics, making them a significant concern in healthcare settings.

Gram-negative bacterial infections refer to illnesses or diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria, which are a group of bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye during the Gram staining procedure used in microbiology. This characteristic is due to the structure of their cell walls, which contain a thin layer of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proteins, and phospholipids.

The LPS component of the outer membrane is responsible for the endotoxic properties of Gram-negative bacteria, which can lead to severe inflammatory responses in the host. Common Gram-negative bacterial pathogens include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Proteus mirabilis, among others.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can cause a wide range of clinical syndromes, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and soft tissue infections. The severity of these infections can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the patient's immune status, the site of infection, and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

Effective antibiotic therapy is crucial for treating Gram-negative bacterial infections, but the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern. Therefore, accurate diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial stewardship are essential to ensure optimal patient outcomes and prevent further spread of resistance.

Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of gram-negative bacteria that are commonly found in the human gut and surrounding environment. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can occur when these bacteria enter parts of the body where they are not normally present, such as the bloodstream, urinary tract, or abdominal cavity.

Enterobacteriaceae infections can cause a range of symptoms depending on the site of infection. For example:

* Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Enterobacteriaceae may cause symptoms such as frequent urination, pain or burning during urination, and lower abdominal pain.
* Bloodstream infections (bacteremia) caused by Enterobacteriaceae can cause fever, chills, and sepsis, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a whole-body inflammatory response to infection.
* Pneumonia caused by Enterobacteriaceae may cause cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Intra-abdominal infections (such as appendicitis or diverticulitis) caused by Enterobacteriaceae can cause abdominal pain, fever, and changes in bowel habits.

Enterobacteriaceae infections are typically treated with antibiotics, but the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains of these bacteria has made treatment more challenging in recent years. Preventing the spread of Enterobacteriaceae in healthcare settings and promoting good hygiene practices can help reduce the risk of infection.

Cephalosporins and cephamycins". Small animal clinical pharmacology (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Saunders/Elsevier. pp. 164-168. ISBN ...
Cefoxitin, Cefotetan, and Other Cephamycins". In M. Lindsay Grayson; Cosgrove, Sara E.; Crowe, Suzanne; Hope, William; McCarthy ... he published on the efficacies of cephamycins, including their parenteral administration, dosages and penetrations through ...
Produced by actinomycetes, cephamycins were found to display antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria, including ... Cephems are a sub-group of β-lactam antibiotics including cephalosporins and cephamycins. It is one of the most common 4- ... September 1972). "Cephamycins, a new family of beta-lactam antibiotics. I. Production by actinomycetes, including Streptomyces ...
Cephamycins are a group of β-lactam antibiotics. They are very similar to cephalosporins, and the cephamycins are sometimes ... Like cephalosporins, cephamycins are based upon the cephem nucleus. Unlike most cephalosporins, cephamycins are a very ... Cephamycins possess a methoxy group at the 7-alpha position. In addition, cephamycins have been shown to be stable against ... Cephamycins include: Cefoxitin Cefotetan Cefmetazole Oreste A. Mascaretti (2003). Bacteria Versus Antibacterial Agents: An ...
Together with cephamycins, they constitute a subgroup of β-lactam antibiotics called cephems. Cephalosporins were discovered in ...
As with the penams, the variety of cephalosporins and cephamycins come from different transamidations, as is the case for the ... This includes penicillin derivatives (penams), cephalosporins and cephamycins (cephems), monobactams, carbapenems and ...
However, HugA does not affect cephamycins or carbapenems and is inhibited by clavulanic acid. Similar to other Proteus species ...
Cephamycins (cefoxitin and cefotetan) are not hydrolyzed by majority of ESBLs, but are hydrolyzed by associated AmpC-type β- ... In general, an isolate is suspected to be an ESBL producer when it shows in vitro susceptibility to the cephamycins (cefoxitin ... Carbapenemases are a diverse group of β-lactamases that are active not only against the oxyimino-cephalosporins and cephamycins ... AmpC β-lactamases, in contrast to ESBLs, hydrolyse broad and extended-spectrum cephalosporins (cephamycins as well as to ...
... in individuals taking oxacillin that experienced a previous hypersensitivity reaction when given cephalosporins and cephamycins ...
... cephamycins MeSH D02.065.589.099.249.250.177 - cefmetazole MeSH D02.065.589.099.249.250.199 - cefotetan MeSH D02.065.589.099. ...
... is undertaken of side chain exchange and introduction of a 7-methoxyl group analogous to that which is present in cephamycins ...
Cephalosporins and cephamycins". Small animal clinical pharmacology (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Saunders/Elsevier. pp. 164-168. ISBN ...
cephamycins (cefoxitin and cefotetan). *fosfomycin. *nitrofurantoin. *beta-lactamase inhibitors (clavulanic acid, tazobactam, ...
... and cephamycins are strong AmpC beta-lactamase inducers. They are also rapidly inactivated by these beta-lactamases; thus, ... They also are usually resistant to cephamycins such as cefoxitin. Initial resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (eg, ...
Cephamycins are drugs that were originally produced by Streptomyces but are now synthetic. They are typically classed with 2nd- ... Because cephamycins are active against Bacteroides species, they can be used when anaerobes are suspected (eg, in intra- ... Subclasses include Carbapenems Cephalosporins and cephamycins (cephems) Clavams Monobactams read more . They inhibit enzymes in ... Second-generation cephalosporins and cephamycins are often used for polymicrobial infections that include gram-negative bacilli ...
Confirmed ESBL producers should be reported as resistant to all penicillins, cephalosporins (not including cephamycins such as ...
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... but usually not the carbapenems or the cephamycins, e.g. cefoxitin. In contrast, AmpC β-lactamases are intrinsic ...
A novel class C beta-lactamase (FOX-2) in Escherichia coli conferring resistance to cephamycins. (PMID 9303413) ...
Cephamycins D2.886.675.966.500.249.250 D2.886.665.74.250. D4.75.80.875.99.221.249.250. Cephapirin D2.886.675.966.500.249. ...
Cephamycins D2.886.675.966.500.249.250 D2.886.665.74.250. D4.75.80.875.99.221.249.250. Cephapirin D2.886.675.966.500.249. ...
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Oxacillin (or cefoxitin) represents all other ß-lactams (and cephamycins) and resistance to either of these predicts non- ...
Cephamycins [D02.886.665.074.250] * Heterocyclic Compounds [D03] * Heterocyclic Compounds, Fused-Ring [D03.633] * Heterocyclic ...
... and virulence genotype in relation to resistance to fluoroquinolones and/or extended-spectrum cephalosporins and cephamycins ... and virulence genotype in relation to resistance to fluoroquinolones and/or extended-spectrum cephalosporins and cephamycins ...
Greater hydrolysis of cephalosporins than benzylpenicillin; hydrolyzes cephamycins. E. coli AmpC, P99, ACT-1, CMY-2, FOX-1, MIR ... Increased hydrolysis of carbapenems, oxyimino-β-lactams, cephamycins. KPC-2, IMI-1, SME-1. ...
Cephamycins D2.886.675.966.500.249.250 D2.886.665.74.250. D4.75.80.875.99.221.249.250. Cephapirin D2.886.675.966.500.249. ...
Cephamycins are drugs that were originally produced by Streptomyces but are now synthetic. They are typically classed with 2nd- ... Because cephamycins are active against Bacteroides species, they can be used when anaerobes are suspected (eg, in intra- ... Subclasses include Carbapenems Cephalosporins and cephamycins (cephems) Clavams Monobactams read more . They inhibit enzymes in ... Second-generation cephalosporins and cephamycins are often used for polymicrobial infections that include gram-negative bacilli ...
Cephamycins / chemistry Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ...
... cephamycins). The sulfonic acid substituent in the 1-position of the ring activates the beta-lactam moiety; an aminothiazolyl ...
There is some clinical and laboratory evidence of partial cross-allergenicity between cephamycins and the other beta-lactam ...
Cephamycins,N0000011258, Dopamine Antagonists,N0000011257, Glucocorticoids,N0000011256, Transition Elements,N0000011255, ...
... but not cephamycins or carbapenems [2]. ESBL enzymes are encoded by transferable conjugative plasmids, which often code ...
Its main uses are in intensive care medicine (pneumonia, peritonitis), some diabetes-related foot infections, and empirical therapy in febrile neutropenia (e.g., after chemotherapy). The drug is administered intravenously every 6 or 8 hr, typically over 3-30 min. It may also be administered by continuous infusion over four hours. Prolonged infusions are thought to maximize the time that serum concentrations are above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the bacteria implicated in infection.[citation needed] Piperacillin-tazobactam is recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence as first-line therapy for the treatment of bloodstream infections in neutropenic cancer patients.[7] For β-lactam antipseudomonal antibiotics, including piperacillin/tazobactam, prolonged intravenous infusion is associated with lower mortality than bolus intravenous infusion in persons with sepsis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.[8] ...
Cephamycins Preferred Term Term UI T007325. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1975). ... Cephamycins. Tree Number(s). D02.065.589.099.249.250. D02.886.665.074.250. D03.633.100.300.249.250. Unique ID. D002513. RDF ... Cephamycins Preferred Concept UI. M0003831. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. Naturally occurring family of beta-lactam ...
Cephamycins Preferred Term Term UI T007325. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1975). ... Cephamycins. Tree Number(s). D02.065.589.099.249.250. D02.886.665.074.250. D03.633.100.300.249.250. Unique ID. D002513. RDF ... Cephamycins Preferred Concept UI. M0003831. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. Naturally occurring family of beta-lactam ...
Strains resistant to cephamycins have emerged in recent years. Some of these strains have become resistant by virtue of their ... reported that 0.16% of E. coli were resistant to cephamycins (3). At a local level, unpublished data from the Queen Elizabeth ... The emergence of E. coli strains resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and cephamycins should be a cause of concern to ... The ampC β-lactamase produced by E. coli hydrolyzes penicillins, cephalosporins, and cephamycins. In doing so, β-lactamase ...
Cephamycins D2.886.675.966.500.249.250 D2.886.665.74.250. D4.75.80.875.99.221.249.250. Cephapirin D2.886.675.966.500.249. ...
... cephamycins). The sulfonic acid substituent in the 1-position of the ring activates the beta-lactam moiety; an aminothiazolyl ...
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D4.75.80.875.99.221.249.190.210 Cephamycins D2.886.675.966.500.249.250 D2.886.665.74.250 D4.75.80.875.99.221.249.250 Cephapirin ...
... cephamycins, and carbapenems) by breaking down the antibiotic molecules and deactivating their antibacterial properties. ...
24 out of 47 isolates exhibited non-susceptibility to cephalosporins and cephamycins, all of which carried ß-lactamase gene, ...
Cefpodoxime, sold under the brand name Vantin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat middle ear infections, strep throat, sinusitis, urinary tract infections, and gonorrhea.[2] It is taken by mouth.[2] Common side effects include diarrhea, nausea, vaginal yeast infections, abdominal pain, and headache.[3] Other side effects may include allergic reactions and Clostridioides difficile infection.[2] While there is no evidence of harm with use in pregnancy, such use has not been well studied.[4] It is a third-generation cephalosporin and works by interfering with the bacterial cell wall.[1] Cefpodoxime was patented in 1980 and approved for medical use in 1989.[5] It is available as a generic medication.[2] In the United States 20 tablets of 200 mg costs about 36 USD as of 2021.[6] ...
Cephamycins and their Medicaments Pharmaceutical Trade: Chinese Medicines and their Raw Materials Pharmaceutical Trade: ... Cephamycins and their Medicaments: Quantity Pharmaceutical Trade: Chinese Medicines and their Raw Materials: Quantity ...
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  • Ampicillin and amoxicillin, first- and second-generation cephalosporins, and cephamycins are strong AmpC beta-lactamase inducers. (medscape.com)
  • The BIOHAZ panel concluded that ESBLs may be defined as plasmid-encoded enzymes found in the Enterobacteriaceae, frequently in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae , that confer resistance to a variety of β-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins, second, third and fourth generation cephalosporins and monobactams, e.g. aztreonam, but usually not the carbapenems or the cephamycins, e.g. cefoxitin. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Oxacillin (or cefoxitin) represents all other ß-lactams (and cephamycins) and resistance to either of these predicts non-susceptibility to all categories of ß-lactam antimicrobials i.e. all categories of penicillins, cephalosporins, ß-lactamase inhibitors and carbapenems. (cdc.gov)
  • They also are usually resistant to cephamycins such as cefoxitin. (medscape.com)
  • A novel class C beta-lactamase (FOX-2) in Escherichia coli conferring resistance to cephamycins. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Ampicillin and amoxicillin, first- and second-generation cephalosporins, and cephamycins are strong AmpC beta-lactamase inducers. (medscape.com)
  • There is some clinical and laboratory evidence of partial cross-allergenicity between cephamycins and the other beta-lactam antibiotics, penicillins and cephalosporins. (rxmed.com)
  • They also are usually resistant to cephamycins such as cefoxitin. (medscape.com)
  • reported that 0.16% of E. coli were resistant to cephamycins ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Nous en concluons que les structures de proximité pourraient être un réservoir de bactéries productrices de BLSE et de ces enzymes. (who.int)