A cephalosporin antibiotic.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
A cephalosporin antibiotic.
Semisynthetic wide-spectrum cephalosporin with prolonged action, probably due to beta-lactamase resistance. It is used also as the nafate.
Cephalosporin antibiotic, partly plasma-bound, that is effective against gram-negative and gram-positive organisms.
Inflammation of a vein, often a vein in the leg. Phlebitis associated with a blood clot is called (THROMBOPHLEBITIS).
A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.
Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid).
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
A metabolite of BROMHEXINE that stimulates mucociliary action and clears the air passages in the respiratory tract. It is usually administered as the hydrochloride.
A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
A pyrrolidinylmethyl TETRACYCLINE.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE but susceptible to a penicillin-binding protein. It is inactivated by gastric acid so administered by injection.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.
Gram-negative, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature. Both motile and non-motile strains exist. The species is closely related to KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE and is frequently associated with nosocomial infections
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of OXACILLIN.
An antibiotic derived from penicillin similar to CARBENICILLIN in action.
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
An antibiotic similar to FLUCLOXACILLIN used in resistant staphylococci infections.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria whose organisms divide in three perpendicular planes and occur in packets of eight or more cells. It has been isolated from soil, grains, and clinical specimens.
Long-acting, broad-spectrum, water-soluble, CEPHALEXIN derivative.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with BRONCHITIS, usually involving lobular areas from TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES to the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. The affected areas become filled with exudate that forms consolidated patches.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Acids, salts, and derivatives of clavulanic acid (C8H9O5N). They consist of those beta-lactam compounds that differ from penicillin in having the sulfur of the thiazolidine ring replaced by an oxygen. They have limited antibacterial action, but block bacterial beta-lactamase irreversibly, so that similar antibiotics are not broken down by the bacterial enzymes and therefore can exert their antibacterial effects.
Broad- spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic similar in structure to the CEPHALOSPORINS except for the substitution of an oxaazabicyclo moiety for the thiaazabicyclo moiety of certain CEPHALOSPORINS. It has been proposed especially for the meningitides because it passes the blood-brain barrier and for anaerobic infections.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
A second-generation cephalosporin administered intravenously or intramuscularly. Its bactericidal action results from inhibition of cell wall synthesis. It is used for urinary tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, and soft tissue and bone infections.
A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.
An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.
A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)
A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)
Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)

pKa calculations for class A beta-lactamases: influence of substrate binding. (1/313)

Beta-Lactamases are responsible for bacterial resistance to beta-lactams and are thus of major clinical importance. However, the identity of the general base involved in their mechanism of action is still unclear. Two candidate residues, Glu166 and Lys73, have been proposed to fulfill this role. Previous studies support the proposal that Glu166 acts during the deacylation, but there is no consensus on the possible role of this residue in the acylation step. Recent experimental data and theoretical considerations indicate that Lys73 is protonated in the free beta-lactamases, showing that this residue is unlikely to act as a proton abstractor. On the other hand, it has been proposed that the pKa of Lys73 would be dramatically reduced upon substrate binding and would thus be able to act as a base. To check this hypothesis, we performed continuum electrostatic calculations for five wild-type and three beta-lactamase mutants to estimate the pKa of Lys73 in the presence of substrates, both in the Henri-Michaelis complex and in the tetrahedral intermediate. In all cases, the pKa of Lys73 was computed to be above 10, showing that it is unlikely to act as a proton abstractor, even when a beta-lactam substrate is bound in the enzyme active site. The pKa of Lys234 is also raised in the tetrahedral intermediate, thus confirming a probable role of this residue in the stabilization of the tetrahedral intermediate. The influence of the beta-lactam carboxylate on the pKa values of the active-site lysines is also discussed.  (+info)

Antibiotic synergy and antagonism against clinical isolates of Klebsiella species. (2/313)

Minimal inhibitory concentrations of kanamycin, gentamicin, amikacin, cephalothin, and chloramphenicol were determined in Trypticase soy broth for 70 clinical isolates of Klebsiella species. Gentamicin and amikacin were the most active on a weight basis. Chloramphenicol was more active than kanamycin, and cephalothin was the least active of all. Studies using a microtiter modification of the checkerboard technique were performed to evaluate the comparative activity of the three aminoglycosides in combination with either chloramphenicol or cephalothin. The cephalothin-aminoglycoside combinations demonstrated synergy in >80% of the isolates tested. No antagonism was noted. The chloramphenicol-aminoglycoside combinations showed antagonism in 35 to 45% of the isolates tested. The data suggest that the chloramphenicol-aminoglycoside combinations be used with caution when treating serious infections where Klebsiella is a potential pathogen.  (+info)

Transferability of cephalothin to the alveolar cavity in thoroughbreds. (3/313)

Five Thoroughbreds were classified into 4 groups according to the administration method used for saline solution (saline), ambroxol, and cephalothin sodium (cephalothin). In group A, cephalothin was injected intravenously after oral administration of ambroxol. In group B, cephalothin was injected intravenously after oral administration of saline. Groups C and D were used as control groups. The dose of cephalothin or ambroxol was clinically administrated. Venous blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were sampled from each group. In groups A and B, cephalothin concentrations in plasma reached their maximum level 5 min after cephalothin administration and then declined over time. In plasma obtained from groups A and B, there were no significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters (T1/2, Kel, Vd). By contrast, cephalothin concentrations in BALF reached their peak at 180 min after cephalothin administration in both groups A and B and maintained a relatively high level even after 300 min. These findings indicate that cephalothin requires a relatively long period of time to move from the blood stream to the alveolar cavity, but once transferred to the alveolar cavity, it is preserved for a long time. In groups A and B, cephalothin concentrations in BALF were approximately at the same level. However, in group A, total protein in BALF was lower at 60, 180, and 300 min than the other groups. Then, cephalothin concentration was adjusted to total protein in BALF. After adjustment to total protein in BALF, group A showed a concentration level of cephalothin approximately 1.5-fold higher than that of group B. This suggests that the transferability of cephalothin to the alveolar cavity improves as a result of the oral administration of ambroxol.  (+info)

Alteration of methotrexate uptake in human leukemia cells by other agents. (4/313)

The uptake of methotrexate (MTX) and the effect of drugs known to either inhibit or enhance MTX transport in L1210 murine leukemia were studied in man using blast cells from patients with acute myelogenous leukemia in vitro. MTX uptake was found to proceed slowly, requiring at least 160 min for cells to reach a "steady state" when extracellular MTX concentrations were 1 muM. Efflux of MTX from preloaded cells required 80 to 120 min and the nonexchangeable or tightly bound fraction was 40% of the total intracellular drug. Utilizing doses that are estimates of achievable peak blood levels following single i.v. injection, cephalothin (21 mug/ml) and hydrocortisone (20 mug/ml) inhibited net MTX accumulation by 20 and 28%, respectively. Vincristine sulfate at 8.3 and 0.083 mug/ml enhanced MTX uptake by 54 and 33%, respectively, by inhibiting MTX efflux, thus increasing the level of intracellular drug in excess of the tightly bound fraction. The potential clinical implications of using MTX in combination with the aforementioned drugs for cancer chemotherapy are discussed.  (+info)

The exocellular DD-carboxypeptidase-endopeptidase of Streptomyces albus G. Interaction with beta-lactam antibiotics. (5/313)

Kinetically, the three-step model proposed for the interaction between beta-lactam antibiotics and the exocellular DD-carboxypeptidases-transpeptidases of Streptomyces R61 and Actinomadura R39 [Frere, Ghuysen & Iwatsubo (1975) Eur. J. Biochem. 57, 343--357; Fuad, Frere, Ghuysen, Duez & Iwatsubo (1976) Biochem. J. 155, 623--629] applies to the interaction between the much less penicillin-sensitive exocellular DD-carboxypeptidase-endopeptidase of Streptomyces albus G and at least phenoxymethylpenicillin, cephalothin and cephalosporin C. The penicillin resistance of the albus G enzyme is mainly due to the low efficiency with which the first reversible complex formed with the antibiotic (complex EI) undergoes transformation into a second more stable complex EI*. Analysis of the ternary interaction between enzyme, NalphaNepsilon-diacetyl-L-lysyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine (Ac2-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala) and cephalosporin C indicates a non-competitive mechanism.  (+info)

Interpretive criteria for cefamandole and cephalothin disk diffusion susceptibility tests. (6/313)

A multi-center study of 1,838 clinical isolates established the accuracy of diffusion susceptibility tests with 30-mug cephalothin disks and 30-mug cefamandole disks. The same interpretive zone standards can be applied to tests with either disk but the two drugs cannot be tested interchangeably.  (+info)

Helicobacter mesocricetorum sp. nov., A novel Helicobacter isolated from the feces of Syrian hamsters. (7/313)

A spiral-shaped bacterium with bipolar, single, nonsheathed flagella was isolated from the feces of Syrian hamsters. The bacterium grew as a thin spreading film at 37 degrees C under microaerobic conditions, did not hydrolyze urea, was positive for catalase and alkaline phosphatase, reduced nitrate to nitrite, did not hydrolyze hippurate, and was sensitive to nalidixic acid but resistant to cephalothin. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and biochemical and phenotypic criteria indicate that the novel bacterium is a helicobacter. The novel bacterium is most closely related to the recently described mouse enteric helicobacter, Helicobacter rodentium. This is the first urease-negative Helicobacter species with nonsheathed flagella isolated from feces of asymptomatic Syrian hamsters. We propose to name this novel helicobacter Helicobacter mesocricetorum. The type strain is MU 97-1514 (GenBank accession number AF072471).  (+info)

Massive pulmonary gangrene: a severe complication of Klebsiella pneumonia. (8/313)

SUMMARY: Massive pulmonary gangrene developed in two patients. Review of the literature reveals 10 other case reports of pulmonary gangrene complicating lobar pneumonia. Among the total of 12 patients whose cases have now been reported, all 4 patients who were treated nonsurgically died and the 8 who underwent surgical resection of the gangrenous lung survived. The present report emphasizes the necessity of early recognition and appropriate surgical treatment for a successful outcome.  (+info)

Bronchopneumonia is a serious condition that can lead to respiratory failure and other complications if left untreated. It is important for individuals with bronchopneumonia to seek medical attention promptly if they experience any worsening symptoms or signs of infection, such as increased fever or difficulty breathing.

Bronchopneumonia can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial and viral infections, and can affect individuals of all ages. It is most common in young children and the elderly, as well as those with pre-existing respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Treatment for bronchopneumonia typically involves antibiotics to treat any bacterial infections, as well as supportive care to help manage symptoms and improve lung function. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide more intensive treatment and monitoring.

In addition to antibiotics and supportive care, other treatments for bronchopneumonia may include:

* Oxygen therapy to help increase oxygen levels in the blood
* Pain management medications to relieve chest pain and fever
* Breathing exercises and pulmonary rehabilitation to improve lung function
* Rest and relaxation to help the body recover

Prevention is key in avoiding bronchopneumonia, and this can be achieved through:

* Good hand hygiene and respiratory etiquette
* Avoiding close contact with individuals who are sick
* Getting vaccinated against pneumococcal disease and the flu
* Practicing good hygiene during travel to avoid exposure to respiratory infections.

In conclusion, bronchopneumonia is a serious condition that can be caused by a variety of factors and can affect individuals of all ages. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, and prevention strategies include good hygiene practices and vaccination. With proper treatment and care, individuals with bronchopneumonia can recover and lead active lives.

Some common examples of bacterial infections include:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
2. Respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Skin infections such as cellulitis and abscesses
4. Bone and joint infections such as osteomyelitis
5. Infected wounds or burns
6. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea
7. Food poisoning caused by bacteria such as salmonella and E. coli.

In severe cases, bacterial infections can lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis or blood poisoning. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper diagnosis and treatment can help prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.

The symptoms of TN can vary in severity and frequency, and may include:

* Pain on one side of the face
* Episodes of sudden, intense pain that can be triggered by light touch or contact with the face
* Pain that is described as stabbing, shooting, or like an electric shock
* Spontaneous pain episodes without any apparent cause
* Pain that is worse with light sensation, such as from wind, cold, or touch
* Pain that is better with pressing or rubbing the affected area

The exact cause of TN is not known, but it is believed to be related to compression or irritation of the trigeminal nerve. The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* A blood vessel pressing on the nerve
* A tumor or cyst in the brain or face
* Multiple sclerosis or other conditions that damage the nerve
* Injury to the nerve
* Genetic mutations that affect the nerve

There is no cure for TN, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms. These may include:

* Medications such as anticonvulsants or pain relievers
* Nerve blocks or injections to reduce inflammation and relieve pain
* Surgery to decompress the nerve or remove a tumor or cyst
* Lifestyle modifications, such as avoiding triggers and using gentle, soothing touch

It is important for individuals with TN to work closely with their healthcare provider to find the most effective treatment plan for their specific needs. With proper management, many people with TN are able to experience significant relief from their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Tonic movement:

* Stiffening or rigidity of muscles
* Loss of postural control

Clonic movement:

* Jerky movements of the arms, legs, or entire body
* Involuntary contractions

During a tonic-clonic seizure, the person may experience a variety of symptoms, including:

* Sudden loss of consciousness
* Confusion and disorientation after regaining consciousness
* Memory loss for the event
* Weakness or fatigue
* Headache
* Nausea and vomiting

Tonic-clonic seizures can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Genetic mutations that affect brain function
* Infections such as meningitis or encephalitis
* Traumatic head injury
* Stroke or bleeding in the brain
* Brain tumors or cysts
* Drug and alcohol withdrawal
* Electrolyte imbalances

There are several different types of tonic-clonic seizures, including:

* Simple partial seizures: These are less severe than tonic-clonic seizures and may involve only one part of the body.
* Complex partial seizures: These are more severe than simple partial seizures and can involve both sides of the body.
* Tonic-clonic seizures with secondary generalization: This type of seizure starts as a simple or complex partial seizure and then spreads to other parts of the body.

Treatment for tonic-clonic seizures typically involves medication, such as anticonvulsants, which can help reduce the frequency and severity of seizures. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove a brain tumor or cyst that is causing the seizures.

Overall, tonic-clonic seizures are a serious medical condition that can have significant consequences if not properly treated. If you experience a seizure, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible to determine the cause and receive appropriate treatment.

There are many different types of seizures, each with its own unique set of symptoms. Some common types of seizures include:

1. Generalized seizures: These seizures affect both sides of the brain and can cause a range of symptoms, including convulsions, loss of consciousness, and muscle stiffness.
2. Focal seizures: These seizures affect only one part of the brain and can cause more specific symptoms, such as weakness or numbness in a limb, or changes in sensation or vision.
3. Tonic-clonic seizures: These seizures are also known as grand mal seizures and can cause convulsions, loss of consciousness, and muscle stiffness.
4. Absence seizures: These seizures are also known as petit mal seizures and can cause a brief loss of consciousness or staring spell.
5. Myoclonic seizures: These seizures can cause sudden, brief muscle jerks or twitches.
6. Atonic seizures: These seizures can cause a sudden loss of muscle tone, which can lead to falls or drops.
7. Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: This is a rare and severe form of epilepsy that can cause multiple types of seizures, including tonic, atonic, and myoclonic seizures.

Seizures can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as electroencephalography (EEG) or imaging studies. Treatment for seizures usually involves anticonvulsant medications, but in some cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary.

Overall, seizures are a complex and multifaceted symptom that can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life. It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone you know is experiencing seizures, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.

This definition of 'Epilepsy, Generalized' is from the Health Dictionary - a medical glossary for the layman.

Please note that this definition is an approximation and is not intended to be taken as a formal definition.

Partial epilepsy can be further divided into several subtypes based on the location of the affected brain area, including:

1. Temporal lobe partial epilepsy: This type of partial epilepsy affects the temporal lobe of the brain and can cause seizures that are accompanied by changes in mood, behavior, or cognitive function.
2. Frontal lobe partial epilepsy: This type of partial epilepsy affects the frontal lobe of the brain and can cause seizures that are accompanied by changes in personality, behavior, or movement.
3. Parietal lobe partial epilepsy: This type of partial epilepsy affects the parietal lobe of the brain and can cause seizures that are accompanied by sensory symptoms, such as numbness or tingling in the affected limbs.
4. Occipital lobe partial epilepsy: This type of partial epilepsy affects the occipital lobe of the brain and can cause seizures that are accompanied by visual disturbances, such as flashing lights or blind spots.
5. Temporomesial partial epilepsy: This type of partial epilepsy affects both the temporal and mesial (frontal) lobes of the brain and can cause seizures that are accompanied by changes in mood, behavior, or cognitive function.

Partial epilepsy is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment for partial epilepsy may involve medications, surgery, or other interventions, depending on the specific type and severity of the condition.

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It is resistant to cephalothin and nalidixic acid. Its type strain is MIT 95-1707 (= ATCC 700285). Its name refers to the ...
Wahlig H, Dingeldein E, Mitsuhashi S, Kawabe H (1979). "Cefazedone: microbiological evaluation in comparison with cephalothin ...
It is a precursor to the antibiotics cephaloridine and cephalothin. "2-Thiopheneacetic acid". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. ...
"Susceptibility of clinical isolates of bacteria to cefoxitin and cephalothin". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 6 (3): ...
It is resistant to cephalothin and nalidixic acid, but sensitive to metronidazole. Like Helicobacter hepaticus, it colonizes ...
The isolated samples were resistant to nalidixic acid but sensitive to cephalothin. Helicobacter cetorum strains have been ...
It's "resistant to ampicillin, penicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, and cycloserine, but not tetracycline." Six strains have ...
Both Cedecea and Serratia are lipase positive and resistant to colistin and cephalothin; however, Cedecea is unable to ... Cedecea strains are resistant to the following antimicrobial agents: cephalothin, extended spectrium cephalosporins, colistin, ...
Other antibiotics with broad antibacterial spectra are cephalothin, carbenicillin, amoxicillin, cefamandole, tobramycin, and ...
... (INN) /ˌsɛfəˈloʊtɪn/ or cephalothin (USAN) /ˌsɛfəˈloʊθɪn/ is a first-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. It was the ...
In 1964 Lilly introduced the first cephalosporin antibiotic, Keflin (cephalothin), into the United States market. It ...
It is able to grow at 25 °C, is sensitive to cephalothin, and resistant to nalidixic acid. Gebhart CJ, Ward GE, Chang K, Kurtz ...
From this study, the bacteria were found to be sensitive to cephalothin and partially resistant to penicillin. The occurrence ...
"In vitro activity effects of combinations of cephalothin, dicloxacillin, imipenem, vancomycin and amikacin against methicillin- ...
"In vitro activity effects of combinations of cephalothin, dicloxacillin, imipenem, vancomycin and amikacin against methicillin- ...
... cephalothin plus kanamycin. And only one research found that tetracycline is more effective to decrease the time of fever than ...
... cephalothin, and clindamycin. Nissen, P.; Hansen, J.; Ban, N.; Moore, P.; Steitz, T. (2000). "The structural basis of ribosome ...
Cephalothin, a first generation cephalosporin for parenteral use was the first cephalosporin to become available for patients ...
... cephalothin), was launched by Eli Lilly and Company in 1964.[citation needed] "cephalosporin". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. " ...
... cephalothin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, colistin sulphate, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, fosfomycin, fusidic acid ...
... strains can be distinguished from Campylobacter concisus strains by their susceptibility to cephalothin ...
Ticarcillin Carbenicillin Ticarcillin Azlocillin Mezlocillin Piperacillin Cefazolin Cephalexin Cephalosporin C Cephalothin ...
... cephalothin MeSH D02.065.589. - cephapirin MeSH D02.065.589.099.249.200 - cephalexin MeSH D02.065.589.099. ...
The OXA-type beta-lactamases confer resistance to ampicillin and cephalothin and are characterized by their high hydrolytic ...
cephalothin sodium answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad ... "Cephalothin Sodium." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 24th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2021. Tabers Online, www.tabers.com/ ... tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/738334/all/cephalothin_sodium. Cephalothin sodium. In: Venes DD, ed. Tabers Medical ... Cephalothin Sodium [Internet]. In: Venes DD, editors. Tabers Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company; 2021. [cited 2023 June 05 ...
Cholestatic hepatitis as unusual allergic reaction in cephalothin-treatment] ... Acute interstitial nephritis during treatment with penicillin and cephalothin. Milman N. Milman N. Acta Med Scand. 1978;203(3): ... Acute interstitial nephritis during treatment with penicillin and cephalothin]. Milman N. Milman N. Ugeskr Laeger. 1978 Oct 2; ... Cholestatic hepatitis as unusual allergic reaction in cephalothin-treatment] [Article in German] ...
... flucloxacillin and cephalothin by an agar dilution method. Only strains of the 52, 52A, 80, 81 co … ... In-vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of methicillin, isoxazolyl penicillins and cephalothin against coagulase- ... Penicillinase susceptibility divided the antibiotics into two groups: one including methicillin, oxacillin and cephalothin, and ... and cephalothin against strains of Staphylococcus aureus of different phage patterns and penicillinase activity N Frimodt- ...
Link in : Cefoxitin Cephalothin. Add:1 Huagong Street, Chuangye Road, Haizhou District, Fuxin City, Liaoning, China. Sales ...
Cephalothin. 2009-2012. 0.016-256†. No CLSI or NARMS breakpoints. Folate pathway antagonists. Sulfisoxazole. 2015-present. 16- ...
The reference range of urinary 17-ketosteroids is as follows: Males: 10-20 mg (34-69 µmol)/24 h Females: 5-15 mg (17-52 µmol)/24 h
Keflin (cephalothin)." Lilly, Eli and Company (2002): * "Product Information. Cefadyl (cephapirin)." Apothecon Inc (2002): ...
Cephalothin. Tetracycline HCl. Cephaloridine. Colistimethate (Satisfactory for 4 hours). Ampicillin. Methicillin. ...
CEPHALOTHIN: Only four discrepancies were observed with cephalothin, of which three were false resistance readings with P. ... CEPHALOTHIN 32.5 ,0.125 -0.38 S ND ND ND ND 35 0.25 -0.24 S (16) TETRACYCLINE 25.5 0.5 -0.13 S ND ND ND ND 0 ,128 +1.01 R (6) ... CEPHALOTHIN 20 4 -0.03 S 0 ,128 +0.93 R 14 32 +0.78 R (16) TETRACYCLINE 0 128 +0.73 R 0 64 +0.47 R 20 1.0 -0.04 S (6) ERYTHRO- ... CEPHALOTHIN 19 32 -0.30 S 21 16 -0.46 S 0 ,128 +0.97 R (16) TETRACYCLINE 20 4 +0.13 S 19 8 +0.07 S 19 8 +0.04 S (6) ERYTHRO- ...
One or both of the following: cephalothin or cefaclor. *One or more of the following: benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, ampicillin ...
Categories: Cephalothin Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 2 ...
Standard cephalothin powder should give MIC values in the range of 0.12 mcg/mL and 0.5 mcg/mL for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC ... Reports from the laboratory giving results of the standard single-disk susceptibility test with a 30 mcg cephalothin disk ... value for cephalothin is 8 mcg/mL or less. Organisms are considered resistant if the MIC is 32 mcg/mL or greater. Organisms ... cephalothin) disk. Interpretation involves the correlation of the diameters obtained in the disk test with the minimum ...
Among all antibiotics tested for Sal-monella spp., the highest resistance was observed with ampicillin (81.2%), cepha-lothin ( ... Antibiograms of Shigella species showed that most strains were resistant to ampicillin (78.7%), cephalothin (86.7%), chloram- ... showed 100% resistance to erythromycin and high resistance rates (≥ 75%) to ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol and ... cephalothin 30 μg; chloramphenicol 30 μg; erythromycin 15 μg; gentamicin 30 μg; nalidixic acid 30μg; norfloxacin 10 μg; ...
Other antibiotics that have been studied include vancomycin and cephalothin.. Toxicity, development of resistance, and allergic ...
Cephalothin D2.886.675.966.500.249.190.210 D2.886.665.74.190.210. D4.75.80.875. Cephamycins D2.886.675.966. ...
In addition, isolates resistant to tetracyclin, nalidixic acid, amikacin, erythromycin, vancomycin and cephalothin were ... In addition, isolates resistant to tetracyclin, nalidixic acid, amikacin, erythromycin, vancomycin and cephalothin were ...
Therapeutic implications of doxycycline and cephalothin concentrations in the female genital tract.. Whelton A; Blanco LJ; ...
Sodium Cephalothin Narrower Concept UI. M0351072. Registry Number. C22G6EYP8B. Terms. Sodium Cephalothin Preferred Term Term UI ... Cephalothin Monosodium Salt Keflin Seffin Sodium Cephalothin Pharm Action. Anti-Bacterial Agents. Registry Number. R72LW146E6. ... Cephalothin Monosodium Salt Term UI T360812. Date09/13/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1999). ... Cephalothin Preferred Concept UI. M0003828. Registry Number. R72LW146E6. Related Numbers. 153-61-7. 58-71-9. C22G6EYP8B. Scope ...
For V. vulnificus isolates, resistances to cephalothin were 67%, tetracycline 29%, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ampicillin ...
Cephalothin,N0000006733, dexbrompheniramine,N0000006732, Ritodrine,N0000006731, glimepiride,N0000006730, diazolidinylurea, ...
Cytarabine 0.8 mg/mL and sodium cephalothin 1.0 mg/mL are chemically stable for 8 hours in dextrose 5% in water. ...
Sodium Cephalothin Entry term(s). Cephalothin Monosodium Salt Cephalothin, Sodium Monosodium Salt, Cephalothin Salt, ... Cephalothin, Sodium. Keflin. Monosodium Salt, Cephalothin. Salt, Cephalothin Monosodium. Seffin. Sodium Cephalothin. ... Sodium Cephalothin - Narrower Concept UI. M0351072. Preferred term. ...
Sodium Cephalothin Narrower Concept UI. M0351072. Registry Number. C22G6EYP8B. Terms. Sodium Cephalothin Preferred Term Term UI ... Cephalothin Monosodium Salt Keflin Seffin Sodium Cephalothin Pharm Action. Anti-Bacterial Agents. Registry Number. R72LW146E6. ... Cephalothin Monosodium Salt Term UI T360812. Date09/13/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1999). ... Cephalothin Preferred Concept UI. M0003828. Registry Number. R72LW146E6. Related Numbers. 153-61-7. 58-71-9. C22G6EYP8B. Scope ...
8.5.1). Cephalothin and cefox- chemistry.. para que se utiliza el medicamento viagra cialis ed vs normal Qual o viagra ...
For example, ampC codes clinically important cephalosporinases which confers resistance to cephalothin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, ...
Three isolates positive for CNF1 were resistant to cephalothin, one of which was also resistant to ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/ ... houtenae was resistant to cephalothin and ciprofloxacin. C. perfringens type A was isolated from six (7.8%) animals. C. ...
... ampicillin-streptomycin-amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-cephalothin-ceftiofur-cefoxitin. (Food Safety News MARCH 29, 2011) ...
  • showed 100% resistance to erythromycin and high resistance rates (≥ 75%) to ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. (who.int)
  • Additionally, zero organic samples versus 39.7 percent of conventional samples had multidrug resistance to six antimicrobial agents: ampicillin-streptomycin-amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-cephalothin-ceftiofur-cefoxitin. (modestomilling.com)
  • The effect of OligoG CF-5/20 on the inhibitory concentrations of ampicillin, erythromycin, cephalothin and lincomycin to a test panel of nine bacterial strains associated with bovine mastitis were investigated. (longdom.org)
  • Other antibiotics that have been studied include vancomycin and cephalothin. (aaos.org)
  • Taber's Online , www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/738334/all/cephalothin_sodium. (tabers.com)
  • OligoG CF-5/20 was shown to inhibit growth of all strains tested, and demonstrated a 2 to 8 fold reduction in MICs for erythromycin, cephalothin and lincomycin. (longdom.org)
  • A comparative study of the efficacy and safety of cefoxitin and cephalothin in the treatment of serious infections was carried out by 21 investigators. (nih.gov)
  • A total of 320 patients were treated with cefoxitin, and 276 patients were treated with cephalothin. (nih.gov)
  • Cefoxitin was as well tolerated as cephalothin and produced no more adverse reactions or abnormal laboratory findings than did cephalothin. (nih.gov)
  • The results of this study demonstrate that cefoxitin is as effective in achieving bacteriologic and clinical cures as is cephalothin and also is effective in treatment of infections due to cephalothin-resistant bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • One such standard procedure 1 which has been recommended for use with disks to test susceptibility of organisms to cefadroxil uses the cephalosporin class (cephalothin) disk. (nih.gov)
  • A total of 157 strains of Staphylococcus aureus of different phage patterns and penicillinase production were investigated for their susceptibility to methicillin, oxacillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, flucloxacillin and cephalothin by an agar dilution method. (nih.gov)
  • Penicillinase susceptibility divided the antibiotics into two groups: one including methicillin, oxacillin and cephalothin, and the other included dicloxacillin, cloxacillin and flucloxacillin. (nih.gov)

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