Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Drug Resistance, Microbial
pKa calculations for class A beta-lactamases: influence of substrate binding. (1/313)Beta-Lactamases are responsible for bacterial resistance to beta-lactams and are thus of major clinical importance. However, the identity of the general base involved in their mechanism of action is still unclear. Two candidate residues, Glu166 and Lys73, have been proposed to fulfill this role. Previous studies support the proposal that Glu166 acts during the deacylation, but there is no consensus on the possible role of this residue in the acylation step. Recent experimental data and theoretical considerations indicate that Lys73 is protonated in the free beta-lactamases, showing that this residue is unlikely to act as a proton abstractor. On the other hand, it has been proposed that the pKa of Lys73 would be dramatically reduced upon substrate binding and would thus be able to act as a base. To check this hypothesis, we performed continuum electrostatic calculations for five wild-type and three beta-lactamase mutants to estimate the pKa of Lys73 in the presence of substrates, both in the Henri-Michaelis complex and in the tetrahedral intermediate. In all cases, the pKa of Lys73 was computed to be above 10, showing that it is unlikely to act as a proton abstractor, even when a beta-lactam substrate is bound in the enzyme active site. The pKa of Lys234 is also raised in the tetrahedral intermediate, thus confirming a probable role of this residue in the stabilization of the tetrahedral intermediate. The influence of the beta-lactam carboxylate on the pKa values of the active-site lysines is also discussed. (+info)
Antibiotic synergy and antagonism against clinical isolates of Klebsiella species. (2/313)Minimal inhibitory concentrations of kanamycin, gentamicin, amikacin, cephalothin, and chloramphenicol were determined in Trypticase soy broth for 70 clinical isolates of Klebsiella species. Gentamicin and amikacin were the most active on a weight basis. Chloramphenicol was more active than kanamycin, and cephalothin was the least active of all. Studies using a microtiter modification of the checkerboard technique were performed to evaluate the comparative activity of the three aminoglycosides in combination with either chloramphenicol or cephalothin. The cephalothin-aminoglycoside combinations demonstrated synergy in >80% of the isolates tested. No antagonism was noted. The chloramphenicol-aminoglycoside combinations showed antagonism in 35 to 45% of the isolates tested. The data suggest that the chloramphenicol-aminoglycoside combinations be used with caution when treating serious infections where Klebsiella is a potential pathogen. (+info)
Transferability of cephalothin to the alveolar cavity in thoroughbreds. (3/313)Five Thoroughbreds were classified into 4 groups according to the administration method used for saline solution (saline), ambroxol, and cephalothin sodium (cephalothin). In group A, cephalothin was injected intravenously after oral administration of ambroxol. In group B, cephalothin was injected intravenously after oral administration of saline. Groups C and D were used as control groups. The dose of cephalothin or ambroxol was clinically administrated. Venous blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were sampled from each group. In groups A and B, cephalothin concentrations in plasma reached their maximum level 5 min after cephalothin administration and then declined over time. In plasma obtained from groups A and B, there were no significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters (T1/2, Kel, Vd). By contrast, cephalothin concentrations in BALF reached their peak at 180 min after cephalothin administration in both groups A and B and maintained a relatively high level even after 300 min. These findings indicate that cephalothin requires a relatively long period of time to move from the blood stream to the alveolar cavity, but once transferred to the alveolar cavity, it is preserved for a long time. In groups A and B, cephalothin concentrations in BALF were approximately at the same level. However, in group A, total protein in BALF was lower at 60, 180, and 300 min than the other groups. Then, cephalothin concentration was adjusted to total protein in BALF. After adjustment to total protein in BALF, group A showed a concentration level of cephalothin approximately 1.5-fold higher than that of group B. This suggests that the transferability of cephalothin to the alveolar cavity improves as a result of the oral administration of ambroxol. (+info)
Alteration of methotrexate uptake in human leukemia cells by other agents. (4/313)The uptake of methotrexate (MTX) and the effect of drugs known to either inhibit or enhance MTX transport in L1210 murine leukemia were studied in man using blast cells from patients with acute myelogenous leukemia in vitro. MTX uptake was found to proceed slowly, requiring at least 160 min for cells to reach a "steady state" when extracellular MTX concentrations were 1 muM. Efflux of MTX from preloaded cells required 80 to 120 min and the nonexchangeable or tightly bound fraction was 40% of the total intracellular drug. Utilizing doses that are estimates of achievable peak blood levels following single i.v. injection, cephalothin (21 mug/ml) and hydrocortisone (20 mug/ml) inhibited net MTX accumulation by 20 and 28%, respectively. Vincristine sulfate at 8.3 and 0.083 mug/ml enhanced MTX uptake by 54 and 33%, respectively, by inhibiting MTX efflux, thus increasing the level of intracellular drug in excess of the tightly bound fraction. The potential clinical implications of using MTX in combination with the aforementioned drugs for cancer chemotherapy are discussed. (+info)
The exocellular DD-carboxypeptidase-endopeptidase of Streptomyces albus G. Interaction with beta-lactam antibiotics. (5/313)Kinetically, the three-step model proposed for the interaction between beta-lactam antibiotics and the exocellular DD-carboxypeptidases-transpeptidases of Streptomyces R61 and Actinomadura R39 [Frere, Ghuysen & Iwatsubo (1975) Eur. J. Biochem. 57, 343--357; Fuad, Frere, Ghuysen, Duez & Iwatsubo (1976) Biochem. J. 155, 623--629] applies to the interaction between the much less penicillin-sensitive exocellular DD-carboxypeptidase-endopeptidase of Streptomyces albus G and at least phenoxymethylpenicillin, cephalothin and cephalosporin C. The penicillin resistance of the albus G enzyme is mainly due to the low efficiency with which the first reversible complex formed with the antibiotic (complex EI) undergoes transformation into a second more stable complex EI*. Analysis of the ternary interaction between enzyme, NalphaNepsilon-diacetyl-L-lysyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine (Ac2-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala) and cephalosporin C indicates a non-competitive mechanism. (+info)
Interpretive criteria for cefamandole and cephalothin disk diffusion susceptibility tests. (6/313)A multi-center study of 1,838 clinical isolates established the accuracy of diffusion susceptibility tests with 30-mug cephalothin disks and 30-mug cefamandole disks. The same interpretive zone standards can be applied to tests with either disk but the two drugs cannot be tested interchangeably. (+info)
Helicobacter mesocricetorum sp. nov., A novel Helicobacter isolated from the feces of Syrian hamsters. (7/313)A spiral-shaped bacterium with bipolar, single, nonsheathed flagella was isolated from the feces of Syrian hamsters. The bacterium grew as a thin spreading film at 37 degrees C under microaerobic conditions, did not hydrolyze urea, was positive for catalase and alkaline phosphatase, reduced nitrate to nitrite, did not hydrolyze hippurate, and was sensitive to nalidixic acid but resistant to cephalothin. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and biochemical and phenotypic criteria indicate that the novel bacterium is a helicobacter. The novel bacterium is most closely related to the recently described mouse enteric helicobacter, Helicobacter rodentium. This is the first urease-negative Helicobacter species with nonsheathed flagella isolated from feces of asymptomatic Syrian hamsters. We propose to name this novel helicobacter Helicobacter mesocricetorum. The type strain is MU 97-1514 (GenBank accession number AF072471). (+info)
Massive pulmonary gangrene: a severe complication of Klebsiella pneumonia. (8/313)SUMMARY: Massive pulmonary gangrene developed in two patients. Review of the literature reveals 10 other case reports of pulmonary gangrene complicating lobar pneumonia. Among the total of 12 patients whose cases have now been reported, all 4 patients who were treated nonsurgically died and the 8 who underwent surgical resection of the gangrenous lung survived. The present report emphasizes the necessity of early recognition and appropriate surgical treatment for a successful outcome. (+info)
Bronchopneumonia is a serious condition that can lead to respiratory failure and other complications if left untreated. It is important for individuals with bronchopneumonia to seek medical attention promptly if they experience any worsening symptoms or signs of infection, such as increased fever or difficulty breathing.
Bronchopneumonia can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial and viral infections, and can affect individuals of all ages. It is most common in young children and the elderly, as well as those with pre-existing respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Treatment for bronchopneumonia typically involves antibiotics to treat any bacterial infections, as well as supportive care to help manage symptoms and improve lung function. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide more intensive treatment and monitoring.
In addition to antibiotics and supportive care, other treatments for bronchopneumonia may include:
* Oxygen therapy to help increase oxygen levels in the blood
* Pain management medications to relieve chest pain and fever
* Breathing exercises and pulmonary rehabilitation to improve lung function
* Rest and relaxation to help the body recover
Prevention is key in avoiding bronchopneumonia, and this can be achieved through:
* Good hand hygiene and respiratory etiquette
* Avoiding close contact with individuals who are sick
* Getting vaccinated against pneumococcal disease and the flu
* Practicing good hygiene during travel to avoid exposure to respiratory infections.
In conclusion, bronchopneumonia is a serious condition that can be caused by a variety of factors and can affect individuals of all ages. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, and prevention strategies include good hygiene practices and vaccination. With proper treatment and care, individuals with bronchopneumonia can recover and lead active lives.
Some common examples of bacterial infections include:
1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
2. Respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Skin infections such as cellulitis and abscesses
4. Bone and joint infections such as osteomyelitis
5. Infected wounds or burns
6. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea
7. Food poisoning caused by bacteria such as salmonella and E. coli.
In severe cases, bacterial infections can lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis or blood poisoning. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper diagnosis and treatment can help prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.
The symptoms of TN can vary in severity and frequency, and may include:
* Pain on one side of the face
* Episodes of sudden, intense pain that can be triggered by light touch or contact with the face
* Pain that is described as stabbing, shooting, or like an electric shock
* Spontaneous pain episodes without any apparent cause
* Pain that is worse with light sensation, such as from wind, cold, or touch
* Pain that is better with pressing or rubbing the affected area
The exact cause of TN is not known, but it is believed to be related to compression or irritation of the trigeminal nerve. The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* A blood vessel pressing on the nerve
* A tumor or cyst in the brain or face
* Multiple sclerosis or other conditions that damage the nerve
* Injury to the nerve
* Genetic mutations that affect the nerve
There is no cure for TN, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms. These may include:
* Medications such as anticonvulsants or pain relievers
* Nerve blocks or injections to reduce inflammation and relieve pain
* Surgery to decompress the nerve or remove a tumor or cyst
* Lifestyle modifications, such as avoiding triggers and using gentle, soothing touch
It is important for individuals with TN to work closely with their healthcare provider to find the most effective treatment plan for their specific needs. With proper management, many people with TN are able to experience significant relief from their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
* Stiffening or rigidity of muscles
* Loss of postural control
* Jerky movements of the arms, legs, or entire body
* Involuntary contractions
During a tonic-clonic seizure, the person may experience a variety of symptoms, including:
* Sudden loss of consciousness
* Confusion and disorientation after regaining consciousness
* Memory loss for the event
* Weakness or fatigue
* Nausea and vomiting
Tonic-clonic seizures can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Genetic mutations that affect brain function
* Infections such as meningitis or encephalitis
* Traumatic head injury
* Stroke or bleeding in the brain
* Brain tumors or cysts
* Drug and alcohol withdrawal
* Electrolyte imbalances
There are several different types of tonic-clonic seizures, including:
* Simple partial seizures: These are less severe than tonic-clonic seizures and may involve only one part of the body.
* Complex partial seizures: These are more severe than simple partial seizures and can involve both sides of the body.
* Tonic-clonic seizures with secondary generalization: This type of seizure starts as a simple or complex partial seizure and then spreads to other parts of the body.
Treatment for tonic-clonic seizures typically involves medication, such as anticonvulsants, which can help reduce the frequency and severity of seizures. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove a brain tumor or cyst that is causing the seizures.
Overall, tonic-clonic seizures are a serious medical condition that can have significant consequences if not properly treated. If you experience a seizure, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible to determine the cause and receive appropriate treatment.
There are many different types of seizures, each with its own unique set of symptoms. Some common types of seizures include:
1. Generalized seizures: These seizures affect both sides of the brain and can cause a range of symptoms, including convulsions, loss of consciousness, and muscle stiffness.
2. Focal seizures: These seizures affect only one part of the brain and can cause more specific symptoms, such as weakness or numbness in a limb, or changes in sensation or vision.
3. Tonic-clonic seizures: These seizures are also known as grand mal seizures and can cause convulsions, loss of consciousness, and muscle stiffness.
4. Absence seizures: These seizures are also known as petit mal seizures and can cause a brief loss of consciousness or staring spell.
5. Myoclonic seizures: These seizures can cause sudden, brief muscle jerks or twitches.
6. Atonic seizures: These seizures can cause a sudden loss of muscle tone, which can lead to falls or drops.
7. Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: This is a rare and severe form of epilepsy that can cause multiple types of seizures, including tonic, atonic, and myoclonic seizures.
Seizures can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as electroencephalography (EEG) or imaging studies. Treatment for seizures usually involves anticonvulsant medications, but in some cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary.
Overall, seizures are a complex and multifaceted symptom that can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life. It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone you know is experiencing seizures, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.
This definition of 'Epilepsy, Generalized' is from the Health Dictionary - a medical glossary for the layman.
Please note that this definition is an approximation and is not intended to be taken as a formal definition.
Partial epilepsy can be further divided into several subtypes based on the location of the affected brain area, including:
1. Temporal lobe partial epilepsy: This type of partial epilepsy affects the temporal lobe of the brain and can cause seizures that are accompanied by changes in mood, behavior, or cognitive function.
2. Frontal lobe partial epilepsy: This type of partial epilepsy affects the frontal lobe of the brain and can cause seizures that are accompanied by changes in personality, behavior, or movement.
3. Parietal lobe partial epilepsy: This type of partial epilepsy affects the parietal lobe of the brain and can cause seizures that are accompanied by sensory symptoms, such as numbness or tingling in the affected limbs.
4. Occipital lobe partial epilepsy: This type of partial epilepsy affects the occipital lobe of the brain and can cause seizures that are accompanied by visual disturbances, such as flashing lights or blind spots.
5. Temporomesial partial epilepsy: This type of partial epilepsy affects both the temporal and mesial (frontal) lobes of the brain and can cause seizures that are accompanied by changes in mood, behavior, or cognitive function.
Partial epilepsy is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment for partial epilepsy may involve medications, surgery, or other interventions, depending on the specific type and severity of the condition.
SmithKline Corp. v. Eli Lilly & Co.
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- showed 100% resistance to erythromycin and high resistance rates (≥ 75%) to ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. (who.int)
- Additionally, zero organic samples versus 39.7 percent of conventional samples had multidrug resistance to six antimicrobial agents: ampicillin-streptomycin-amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-cephalothin-ceftiofur-cefoxitin. (modestomilling.com)
- The effect of OligoG CF-5/20 on the inhibitory concentrations of ampicillin, erythromycin, cephalothin and lincomycin to a test panel of nine bacterial strains associated with bovine mastitis were investigated. (longdom.org)
Vancomycin and cephalothin1
- Other antibiotics that have been studied include vancomycin and cephalothin. (aaos.org)
- Taber's Online , www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/738334/all/cephalothin_sodium. (tabers.com)
- OligoG CF-5/20 was shown to inhibit growth of all strains tested, and demonstrated a 2 to 8 fold reduction in MICs for erythromycin, cephalothin and lincomycin. (longdom.org)
- A comparative study of the efficacy and safety of cefoxitin and cephalothin in the treatment of serious infections was carried out by 21 investigators. (nih.gov)
- A total of 320 patients were treated with cefoxitin, and 276 patients were treated with cephalothin. (nih.gov)
- Cefoxitin was as well tolerated as cephalothin and produced no more adverse reactions or abnormal laboratory findings than did cephalothin. (nih.gov)
- The results of this study demonstrate that cefoxitin is as effective in achieving bacteriologic and clinical cures as is cephalothin and also is effective in treatment of infections due to cephalothin-resistant bacteria. (nih.gov)
- One such standard procedure 1 which has been recommended for use with disks to test susceptibility of organisms to cefadroxil uses the cephalosporin class (cephalothin) disk. (nih.gov)
- A total of 157 strains of Staphylococcus aureus of different phage patterns and penicillinase production were investigated for their susceptibility to methicillin, oxacillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, flucloxacillin and cephalothin by an agar dilution method. (nih.gov)
- Penicillinase susceptibility divided the antibiotics into two groups: one including methicillin, oxacillin and cephalothin, and the other included dicloxacillin, cloxacillin and flucloxacillin. (nih.gov)