Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Muramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase: Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.Peptidyl Transferases: Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Cephaloridine: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Cephalothin: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Serine-Type D-Ala-D-Ala Carboxypeptidase: A carboxypeptidase that is specific for proteins that contain two ALANINE residues on their C-terminal. Enzymes in this class play an important role in bacterial CELL WALL biosynthesis.Amdinocillin: An amidinopenicillanic acid derivative with broad spectrum antibacterial action.Cephapirin: Cephalosporin antibiotic, partly plasma-bound, that is effective against gram-negative and gram-positive organisms.Cephalexin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Peptidoglycan Glycosyltransferase: A hexosyltransferase involved in the transfer of disaccharide molecules to the peptidoglycan structure of the CELL WALL SKELETON. It plays an important role in the genesis of the bacterial CELL WALL.PeptidoglycanCephalosporinaseAmpicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cefamandole: Semisynthetic wide-spectrum cephalosporin with prolonged action, probably due to beta-lactamase resistance. It is used also as the nafate.Penicillin V: A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Mandelic Acids: Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid).Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.ThiadiazolesCarboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cefazolin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.Drug Incompatibility: The quality of not being miscible with another given substance without a chemical change. One drug is not of suitable composition to be combined or mixed with another agent or substance. The incompatibility usually results in an undesirable reaction, including chemical alteration or destruction. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Penicillin Amidase: An enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of penicillin to penicin and a carboxylic acid anion. EC 3.5.1.11.Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.Acremonium: A mitosporic fungal genus with many reported ascomycetous teleomorphs. Cephalosporin antibiotics are derived from this genus.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Cephalosporin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Penicillin G Procaine: Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining penicillin G with PROCAINE.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Penicillin G Benzathine: Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining the sodium salt of penicillin G with N,N'-dibenzylethylenediamine.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Penicillinase: A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Cefuroxime: Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Ceftizoxime: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.Cefixime: A third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is stable to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases.Ceftazidime: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Cefmenoxime: A cephalosporin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. It is active against most common gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, is a potent inhibitor of Enterobacteriaceae, and is highly resistant to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases. The drug has a high rate of efficacy in many types of infection and to date no severe side effects have been noted.Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Cloxacillin: A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of OXACILLIN.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Poly(A)-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.Cefaclor: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibiotic derivative of CEPHALEXIN.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Enterobacter: Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Cephradine: A semi-synthetic cephalosporin antibiotic.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Cefonicid: A second-generation cephalosporin administered intravenously or intramuscularly. Its bactericidal action results from inhibition of cell wall synthesis. It is used for urinary tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, and soft tissue and bone infections.Penicillanic Acid: A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Carbenicillin: Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Tobramycin: An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Cefoxitin: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gonorrhea: Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.Thienamycins: Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Endocarditis, Bacterial: Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.Aztreonam: A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination: A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Lincomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Oxacillin: An antibiotic similar to FLUCLOXACILLIN used in resistant staphylococci infections.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Piperacillin: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.Azithromycin: A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.Cefoperazone: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Imipenem: Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.Amikacin: A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Methicillin: One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE but susceptible to a penicillin-binding protein. It is inactivated by gastric acid so administered by injection.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Neomycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.Cefotiam: One of the CEPHALOSPORINS that has a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.Oxytetracycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog isolated from the actinomycete STREPTOMYCES rimosus and used in a wide variety of clinical conditions.Cephamycins: Naturally occurring family of beta-lactam cephalosporin-type antibiotics having a 7-methoxy group and possessing marked resistance to the action of beta-lactamases from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Polymyxins: Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Tetracyclines: Closely congeneric derivatives of the polycyclic naphthacenecarboxamide. (Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1117)Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Tacrolimus Binding Proteins: A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Leucomycins: An antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kitasatoensis. The complex consists of a mixture of at least eight biologically active components, A1 and A3 to A9. Leucomycins have both antibacterial and antimycoplasmal activities.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Carbapenems: A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.AmidohydrolasesHaemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Netilmicin: Semisynthetic 1-N-ethyl derivative of SISOMYCIN, an aminoglycoside antibiotic with action similar to gentamicin, but less ear and kidney toxicity.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Moxalactam: Broad- spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic similar in structure to the CEPHALOSPORINS except for the substitution of an oxaazabicyclo moiety for the thiaazabicyclo moiety of certain CEPHALOSPORINS. It has been proposed especially for the meningitides because it passes the blood-brain barrier and for anaerobic infections.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Cefsulodin: A pyridinium-substituted semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial used especially for Pseudomonas infections in debilitated patients.Bacitracin: A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Poly(A)-Binding Protein I: A poly(A) binding protein that has a variety of functions such as mRNA stabilization and protection of RNA from nuclease activity. Although poly(A) binding protein I is considered a major cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein it is also found in the CELL NUCLEUS and may be involved in transport of mRNP particles.Clavulanic Acids: Acids, salts, and derivatives of clavulanic acid (C8H9O5N). They consist of those beta-lactam compounds that differ from penicillin in having the sulfur of the thiazolidine ring replaced by an oxygen. They have limited antibacterial action, but block bacterial beta-lactamase irreversibly, so that similar antibiotics are not broken down by the bacterial enzymes and therefore can exert their antibacterial effects.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Fusidic Acid: An antibiotic isolated from the fermentation broth of Fusidium coccineum. (From Merck Index, 11th ed). It acts by inhibiting translocation during protein synthesis.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Micromonospora: A genus of gram-positive bacteria that forms a branched mycelium. It commonly occurs as a saprophytic form in soil and aquatic environments.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Doxycycline: A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.Probenecid: The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Chlortetracycline: A TETRACYCLINE with a 7-chloro substitution.Clavulanic Acid: Clavulanic acid and its salts and esters. The acid is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with other beta-lactam antibiotics it prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase.Anthraquinones: Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The final transpeptidation step in the synthesis of the peptidoglycan is facilitated by penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). ... Cephalosporins are bactericidal and have the same mode of action as other β-lactam antibiotics (such as penicillins), but are ... The cephalosporin nucleus can be modified to gain different properties. Cephalosporins are sometimes grouped into "generations ... PBPs bind to the D-Ala-D-Ala at the end of muropeptides (peptidoglycan precursors) to crosslink the peptidoglycan. Beta-lactam ...
... , like other carbapenems, binds to bacterial penicillin-binding proteins and interferes with bacterial cell ... or cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor (Ceclor), cefuroxime (Ceftin), cefadroxil (Duricef), cephalexin (Keflex), and ... group streptococci, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Bacteroides fragilis ... Imipenem inhibits bacterial cell-wall synthesis by binding to penicillin-binding proteins; cilastatin prevents renal metabolism ...
Protein A, an IgG-binding protein, binds to the Fc region of an antibody. In fact, studies involving mutation of genes coding ... penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems). This allows for resistance to all β-lactam antibiotics, and obviates their ... or both groups) of the antibiotic. This changes the charge or sterically hinders the antibiotic, decreasing its ribosomal ... which codes for an altered penicillin-binding protein (PBP2a or PBP2') that has a lower affinity for binding β-lactams ( ...
... , through its β-lactam ring, covalently binds to penicillin-binding proteins, which are enzymes involved in the ... Oxacillin sodium (trade name Bactocill) is a narrow-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class developed by ... the chemical structure of oxacillin features a 6-aminopenicillanic acid nucleus with a substituent attached to the amino group ... been documented in individuals taking oxacillin that experienced a previous hypersensitivity reaction when given cephalosporins ...
... is a beta-lactam antibiotic which binds penicillin binding proteins, or transpeptidases. By binding to PBPs, ... It is often grouped with the second-generation cephalosporins. Cefoxitin requires a prescription and as of 2010 is sold under ... This gene codes for an alternative penicillin binding protein, PBP2a. This PBP has a lower binding affinity for penicillin- ... Groups of doctors at Merck, particularly Eli Lilly and his group discovered Cephamycin C while looking at penicillin-producing ...
Plus, it has a higher affinity to target penicillin-binding proteins. The reactive site is a beta-lactam nucleus, while the ... Broad-spectrum fourth generation injectable aminothiazolyl cephalosporin. Cefotaxime (1) is a potent cephalosporin antibiotic ... It is less than 5% protein bound and is excreted unchanged in the urine. Many studies have been conducted, mostly for animal ... Groups of albino mice, weighing 191 g, were dosed with 10 and 40 mg of cefquinome per kg. Blood samples were obtained from a ...
... resistance to hypersusceptibility to β-lactam antibiotics associated with loss of a low-affinity penicillin-binding protein in ... The common side groups at C-3 for first class cephalosporins are small uncharged groups like methyl. The methyl group at ... Lys-313 : Plays an important role in providing the dense hydrogen bound network at the active site and is in distance of Ser ... These proteins are often referred to as penicillin binding proteins (PBP). Opening of the β-lactam ring by a serine residue in ...
... a β-lactam antibiotic, targets cells by inhibiting transpeptidases (penicillin-binding proteins). This prevents synthesis of ... The β-lactam family of antibiotic molecules consists of four groups: cephalosporins, monobactam, penicillins, and carbapenems. ... These enzymes cleave the β-lactam ring, an essential component of β-lactam antibiotics that are recognized by and bound to PBPs ... which are also known as penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs)), enzymes that facilitate peptide cross-links during cell wall ...
... some bacteria have evolved penicillin binding proteins with novel structures. β-lactam antibiotics cannot bind as effectively ... This includes penicillin derivatives (penams), cephalosporins (cephems), monobactams, and carbapenems. Most β-lactam ... antibiotics work by inhibiting cell wall biosynthesis in the bacterial organism and are the most widely used group of ... β-lactam antibiotics (beta-lactam antibiotics) are a class of broad-spectrum antibiotics, consisting of all antibiotic agents ...
... they are members of the beta lactam class of antibiotics, which kill bacteria by binding to penicillin-binding proteins and ... Staphyloccus aureus or most enterococcal infections because carbapenems do not bind to the penicillin-binding protein used by ... They exhibit a broader spectrum of activity compared to cephalosporins and penicillins. Their effectiveness is less affected by ... and an unsaturation has been introduced-hence the name of the group, the carbapenems. The carbapenems are thought to share ...
... to penicillin or cephalosporins occurs only after it binds to proteins inside the body with some agents binding ... The most common are β-lactam antibiotics (such as penicillin) followed by aspirin and NSAIDs. Other antibiotics are implicated ... The EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines Group (August 2014). "Anaphylaxis: guidelines from the European Academy of ... If someone has a reaction to penicillins, his or her risk of a reaction to cephalosporins is greater but still less than one in ...
Thus, it is able to bind to penicillin-binding proteins and inhibit peptidoglycan crosslinking, but is not bound by or ... Flucloxacillin (INN) or floxacillin (USAN) is a narrow-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class. It is used to ... The presence of the isoxazolyl group on the side chain of the penicillin nucleus facilitates the β-lactamase resistance, since ... Flucloxacillin is contraindicated in those with a previous history of allergy to penicillins, cephalosporins, or carbapenems. ...
... which differs from other penicillin-binding proteins as its active site does not bind methicillin or other β-lactam antibiotics ... β-lactam antibiotics are a broad spectrum group which includes some penams - penicillin derivatives such as methicillin and ... Ceftaroline, a fifth-generation cephalosporin, is the first beta-lactam antibiotic approved in the US to treat MRSA infections ... PBP2a is a variant penicillin-binding protein that imparts the ability of S. aureus to be resistant to oxacillin. Antimicrobial ...
... has little clinically relevant in vitro activity against bacteria due to its reduced affinity to penicillin-binding proteins; ... This chemistry was determined to be general to the family of cephalosporin antibiotics. Key elements of the coupling reaction ... and can covalently bind to some chromosomal and plasmid-mediated bacterial beta-lactamases.[6] ... as well as an alkoximino group, providing sta-bility against many β-lactamases. Ceftolozane has a dimethylacetic acid moiety ...
... irreversibly binds to 16S rRNA and the RNA-binding S12 protein of the 30S subunit of prokaryotic ribosome and inhibits ... Another group of beta-lactams, the cephalosporins, can increase the nephrotoxicity of aminoglycoside as well as randomly ... a new semisynthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic". The Journal of Antibiotics. 25 (12): 695-708. doi:10.7164/antibiotics.25.695. ... and/or penicillins, some of which can form complexes with amikacin that deactivate it. Plumb, Donald C. (2011). "Amikacin ...
β-Lactam antibiotics such as penicillin inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan cross-links in the bacterial cell wall. The ... The periplasm contains the peptidoglycan layer and many proteins responsible for substrate binding or hydrolysis and reception ... Bacterial microcompartments are widespread, membrane-bound organelles that are made of a protein shell that surrounds and ... notably the penicillins and cephalosporins) stop bacterial infections by interfering with cell wall synthesis, while having no ...
... is a bactericidal antibiotic of the cephalosporin class of antibiotics. It can be used to treat infections caused by ... no documented resistance of Group A Streptococcus to penicillin has ever been reported, and penicillin or amoxicillin is ... Protein binding. 60% to 70%. Metabolism. Negligible. Elimination half-life. 1.7 ± 0.6 hours. ... The pediatric version of cefdinir can bind to iron in the digestive tract; in rare cases, this causes a rust or red ...
The serum protein binding of norfloxacin is between 10 and 15%." Quoting from the 2009 package insert for Noroxin. ... Norfloxacin does not bind to DNA gyrase but does bind to the substrate DNA. As noted above, under licensed use, norfloxacin is ... Susceptible groups of patients, such as children and the elderly, are at greater risk of adverse reactions during therapeutic ... Norfloxacin is a synthetic antibacterial agent that belongs to the class of fluoroquinolone antibiotics. It is used to treat ...
... binds to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome and interrupts protein synthesis. One form of resistance has ... It may be used by those who are allergic to penicillin or cephalosporins.[1] It is in the aminocyclitol class of drugs and ... This antibiotic is no longer available in the United States. Side effects[edit]. Side effects include itching, chills, stomach ... With this, products 7a and 6b can come together, removing the TDP functional group and combining with the sugar molecule to ...
... and other β-lactam antibiotics act by inhibiting penicillin-binding proteins, which normally catalyze cross-linking ... Those who are allergic to penicillin are most often given cephalosporin C because of its functional groups.[3] All penicillins ... inhibitors irreversibly bind to beta-lactamase preventing it from breaking down the beta-lactam rings on the antibiotic ... Penicillin has low protein binding in plasma, the bioavailability of penicillin depends on the type; penicillin G has a low ...
The ligands in these approaches are usually much smaller, and they bind to the target protein with weaker binding affinity than ... The classic example of an antibiotic discovered as a defense mechanism against another microbe is penicillin in bacterial ... Gertrude Elion, working mostly with a group of fewer than 50 people on purine analogues, contributed to the discovery of the ... of Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitors Discovery and development of antiandrogens Discovery and development of cephalosporins ...
In gram-negative bacteria, plasmid-mediated resistance genes produce proteins that can bind to DNA gyrase, protecting it from ... A quinolone antibiotic is any member of a large group of broad-spectrum bactericides that share a bicyclic core structure ... Finally, mutations at key sites in DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV can decrease their binding affinity to quinolones, decreasing ... cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones. Fluoroquinoline treatment is associated with risk that is similar to or less than that ...
... bound to proteins in the PDB MedlinePlus DrugInfo uspdi-202125 Pharmacy and pharmacology portal Medicine portal ... cefuroxime or penicillin) will likely lower the risk of endophthalmitis, compared to eye drops or antibiotic injections alone. ... to the hydroxyl groups on the chloramphenicol molecule. The acetylation prevents chloramphenicol from binding to the ribosome. ... Chloramphenicol is antagonistic with most cephalosporins and using both together should be avoided in the treatment of ...
The antigen, usually a protein or carbohydrate made by an infectious agent, is bound by the antibody. This binding then sets ... The most common classes of antibiotics used in medicine include penicillin, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, macrolides, ... Higher pathogen load is associated with decreased size of ethnic and religious groups in an area. This may be due high pathogen ... Sometimes, multiple antibiotics are used in case there is resistance to one antibiotic. Antibiotics only work for bacteria and ...
... outer membrane proteins to evict the antibiotics and mutations to change antibiotic targets. Presence of antibiotic-degrading ... To overcome this and regulate proper intake of iron, P. aeruginosa uses siderophores, which are secreted molecules that bind ... this leads to an overall decrease in fitness of the group, due to lack of sufficient siderophore production. These observations ... for example methylation of 16S rRNA to prevent aminoglycoside binding and modification of DNA, or topoisomerase to protect it ...
Ceftolozane exerts bactericidal activities against susceptible gram-negative and gram-positive infections by inhibiting essential penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which are required for peptidoglycan cross-linking for bacterial cell wall synthesis, resulting in inhibition of cell wall synthesis and subsequent cell death. Ceftolozane is an inhibitor of PBPs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (e.g. PBP1b, PBP1c, and PBP3) and E. coli (e.g., PBP3).[6][7] Tazobactam is a potent β-lactamase inhibitor of most common class A and C β-lactamases. Tazobactam has little clinically relevant in vitro activity against bacteria due to its reduced affinity to penicillin-binding proteins; however, it is an irreversible inhibitor of some β-lactamases (certain penicillinases and cephalosporinases) and can covalently bind to some chromosomal and plasmid-mediated bacterial ...
... has the ability to kill a wide variety of bacteria. Imipenem is the active antibiotic agent and works by interfering with their ability to form cell walls, so the bacteria break up and die. Imipenem is rapidly degraded by the renal enzyme dehydropeptidase if administered alone (making it less effective); the metabolites can cause kidney damage.[11] Imipenem is a broad-spectrum betalactam antibiotic used for severe bacterial infections caused by susceptible organisms. Because imipenem is rapidly inactivated by renal dehydropeptidase I, it is given in combination with cilastatin, a DHP-I inhibitor which increases half-life and tissue penetration of imipenem. Imipenem/cilastatin, like other carbapenems, binds to bacterial penicillin-binding proteins and interferes with bacterial cell wall integrity and synthesis. It has activity against many aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, ...
... is a bacterial infection of the prostate gland. It should be distinguished from other forms of prostatitis such as acute bacterial prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS). Chronic bacterial prostatitis is a relatively rare condition that usually presents with an intermittent UTI-type picture. It is defined as recurrent urinary tract infections in men originating from a chronic infection in the prostate. Symptoms may be completely absent until there is also bladder infection, and the most troublesome problem is usually recurrent cystitis. Chronic bacterial prostatitis occurs in less than 5% of patients with prostate-related non-BPH lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Dr. Weidner, Professor of Medicine, Department of Urology, University of Gießen, has stated: "In studies of 656 men, we seldom found chronic bacterial prostatitis. It is truly a rare disease. Most of those were E-coli." In chronic bacterial prostatitis there are bacteria in the prostate, ...
The following is a list of antibiotics. The highest division is between bactericidal antibiotics and bacteriostatic antibiotics. Bactericidals kill bacteria directly, whereas bacteriostatics prevent them from dividing. However, these classifications are based on laboratory behavior. In practice, both can effectively treat a bacterial infection. The following are lists of antibiotics for specific microbial coverage. Antibiotics that cover methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): Vancomycin Ceftobiprole(5th generation) Ceftaroline (5th generation) Clindamycin Dalbavancin Daptomycin Fusidic acid Linezolid Mupirocin (topical) Oritavancin Tedizolid Telavancin Tigecycline Antibiotics that cover ...
... is the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes which are carried on plasmids. The plasmids can be transferred between bacteria within the same species or between different species via conjugation. Plasmids often carry multiple antibiotic resistance genes, contributing to the spread of multidrug-resistance (MDR). Antibiotic resistance mediated by MDR plasmids severely limits the treatment options for the infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, especially Enterobacteriaceae family. The global spread of MDR plasmids has been enhanced by selective pressure from antibiotic usage in human and veterinary medicine. Resistance plasmids by definition carry one or more antibiotic resistance genes. They are frequently accompanied by the genes encoding virulence determinants, specific enzymes or resistance to toxic heavy metals. Multiple resistance genes are commonly arranged in the resistance cassettes. The antibiotic resistance genes found on the plasmids confer resistance ...
... (MDR), multidrug resistance or multiresistance is antimicrobial resistance shown by a species of microorganism to multiple antimicrobial drugs. The types most threatening to public health are MDR bacteria that resist multiple antibiotics; other types include MDR viruses, fungi, and parasites (resistant to multiple antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic drugs of a wide chemical variety). Recognizing different degrees of MDR, the terms extensively drug resistant (XDR) and pandrug-resistant (PDR) have been introduced. The definitions were published in 2011 in the journal Clinical Microbiology and Infection and are openly accessible. Common multidrug-resistant organisms are usually bacteria: Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBLs) producing Gram-negative bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) producing Gram-negatives Multidrug-Resistant gram negative rods ...
... is a macrocyclic peptide with antibiotic activity. It was first discovered in 1957 as a natural product isolated from Streptomyces bottropensis. It has been shown to inhibit methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) among other Gram-positive bacteria and mycoplasma. Bottromycin is structurally distinct from both vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic, and methicillin, a beta-lactam antibiotic. Bottromycin binds to the A site of the ribosome and blocks the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA, therefore inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. Although bottromycin exhibits antibacterial activity in vitro, it has not yet been developed as a clinical antibiotic, potentially due to its poor stability in blood plasma. To increase its stability in vivo, some bottromycin derivatives have been explored. The structure of bottromycin contains a macrocyclic amidine as well as a thiazole ring. The absolute stereochemistry at several chiral ...
... or antibiotic susceptibility is the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics. Because susceptibility can vary even within a species (with some strains being more resistant than others), antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) is usually carried out to determine which antibiotic will be most successful in treating a bacterial infection in vivo. Testing for antibiotic sensitivity is often done by the Kirby-Bauer method. Small wafers containing antibiotics are placed onto a plate upon which bacteria are growing. If the bacteria are sensitive to the antibiotic, a clear ring, or zone of inhibition, is seen around the wafer indicating poor growth. Other methods to test antimicrobial susceptibility include the Stokes method, Etest (also based on antibiotic diffusion), Agar and Broth dilution methods for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. The results of the test are reported on the ...
... is the relationship between concentration of antibiotic and its ability to inhibit vital processes of endo- or ectoparasites and microbial organisms. This branch of pharmacodynamics relates concentration of an anti-infective agent to effect, but specifically to its antimicrobial effect. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration are used to measure in vitro activity antimicrobial and is an excellent indicator of antimicrobial potency. They don't give any information relating to time-dependent antimicrobial killing the so-called post antibiotic effect. The post antibiotic effect (PAE) is defined as persistent suppression of bacterial growth after a brief exposure (1 or 2 hours) of bacteria to an antibiotic even in the absence of host defense mechanisms. Factors that affect the duration of the post antibiotic effect include duration of antibiotic exposure, bacterial species, culture medium and class of antibiotic. It has been ...
Antibiotics first arrived on the medical scene in 1932 thanks to Gerhard Domagk;[25] and were coined the "wonder drugs". The introduction of the sulfa drugs led to the mortality rate from pneumonia in the U.S. to drop from 0.2% each year to 0.05% by 1939.[26] Antibiotics inhibit the growth or the metabolic activities of bacteria and other microorganisms by a chemical substance of microbial origin. Penicillin, introduced a few years later, provided a broader spectrum of activity compared to sulfa drugs and reduced side effects. Streptomycin, found in 1942, proved to be the first drug effective against the cause of tuberculosis and also came to be the best known of a long series of important antibiotics. A second generation of antibiotics was introduced in the 1940s: aureomycin and ...
Antibiotics first arrived on the medical scene in 1932 thanks to Gerhard Domagk;[25] and were coined the "wonder drugs". The introduction of the sulfa drugs led to the mortality rate from pneumonia in the U.S. to drop from 0.2% each year to 0.05% by 1939.[26] Antibiotics inhibit the growth or the metabolic activities of bacteria and other microorganisms by a chemical substance of microbial origin. Penicillin, introduced a few years later, provided a broader spectrum of activity compared to sulfa drugs and reduced side effects. Streptomycin, found in 1942, proved to be the first drug effective against the cause of tuberculosis and also came to be the best known of a long series of important antibiotics. A second generation of antibiotics was introduced in the 1940s: aureomycin and ...
Antibiotics first arrived on the medical scene in 1932 thanks to Gerhard Domagk;[25] and were coined the "wonder drugs". The introduction of the sulfa drugs led to the mortality rate from pneumonia in the U.S. to drop from 0.2% each year to 0.05% by 1939.[26] Antibiotics inhibit the growth or the metabolic activities of bacteria and other microorganisms by a chemical substance of microbial origin. Penicillin, introduced a few years later, provided a broader spectrum of activity compared to sulfa drugs and reduced side effects. Streptomycin, found in 1942, proved to be the first drug effective against the cause of tuberculosis and also came to be the best known of a long series of important antibiotics. A second generation of antibiotics was introduced in the 1940s: aureomycin and ...
Antibiotics first arrived on the medical scene in 1932 thanks to Gerhard Domagk;[25] and were coined the "wonder drugs". The introduction of the sulfa drugs led to the mortality rate from pneumonia in the U.S. to drop from 0.2% each year to 0.05% by 1939.[26] Antibiotics inhibit the growth or the metabolic activities of bacteria and other microorganisms by a chemical substance of microbial origin. Penicillin, introduced a few years later, provided a broader spectrum of activity compared to sulfa drugs and reduced side effects. Streptomycin, found in 1942, proved to be the first drug effective against the cause of tuberculosis and also came to be the best known of a long series of important antibiotics. A second generation of antibiotics was introduced in the 1940s: aureomycin and ...
... amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets possess the characteristic low toxicity of the penicillin group of antibiotics, ... Protein binding: About 25% (Clavulanic acid); about 18% (Amoxicillin). Amoxicillin distributes readily into most body tissues ... Clavulanic acid has a high affinity for and binds to certain β-lactamases that generally inactivate amoxicillin by hydrolyzing ... spectrum of amoxicillin to include many bacteria normally resistant to amoxicillin and other penicillins and cephalosporins.. ...
Displacement of penicillins from plasma protein binding sites will elevate the level of free penicillin in the serum. ... Approximately 60% of penicillin G is bound to serum protein. The drug is distributed throughout the body tissues in widely ... Penicillin G exerts high in vitro activity against staphylococci (except penicillinase-producing strains), streptococci (groups ... careful inquiry should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillin, cephalosporins, and other ...
The final transpeptidation step in the synthesis of the peptidoglycan is facilitated by penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). ... Cephalosporins are bactericidal and have the same mode of action as other β-lactam antibiotics (such as penicillins), but are ... The cephalosporin nucleus can be modified to gain different properties. Cephalosporins are sometimes grouped into "generations ... PBPs bind to the D-Ala-D-Ala at the end of muropeptides (peptidoglycan precursors) to crosslink the peptidoglycan. Beta-lactam ...
University of South Carolina researchers investigated the effects of mutations altering the structure of an essential protein ... in an antibiotic-resistant strain of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. ... called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), that are responsible ... Davies group looked at the effect of those mutations on the structure of a PBP called PBP2 from a cephalosporin-resistant ... found that the mutations prevented changes in the shape of PBP2 that are necessary for the antibiotic to bind to the protein.. ...
Antibiotics - method of action - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. ... Penicillins. They bind to penicillin binding proteins on the. bacterial cell wall and inhibit transpeptidation of the ... Beta-Lactam Antibiotics. Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Carbapenems and. monobactams. In 1928, Alexander Fleming observed a ... Penicillins. The beta-lactam ring is derived from the aminoacids valine and cysteine. A secondary amino group (RNH) determines ...
This agent binds to penicillin-binding proteins and inhibits the final transpeptidation step of peptidoglycan synthesis, ... Chloramphenicol is used if patients are allergic to penicillin and cephalosporins. This agent binds to the 50S bacterial- ... Clindamycin is a semisynthetic antibiotic produced by the 7(S)-chloro-substitution of the 7(R)-hydroxyl group of the parent ... Cefuroxime binds to penicillin-binding proteins and inhibits the final transpeptidation step of peptidoglycan synthesis, ...
Antibiotics are small molecules that stop bacterial growth or cause bacterial death, depending on concentration. Antibacterial ... It is synthesized by linking peptidoglycan chains together using transpeptidases, also known as penicillin-binding proteins. ... 2005). β-Lactams are chemically similar to this d-alanyl-d-alanine group and bind well to transpeptidases. Once β-lactams bind ... β-Lactams, Cephalosporins, Carbapenems, Glycopeptides, and Lipopeptides. Cell wall structures differentiate gram-positive from ...
Imipenem/cilastatin, like other carbapenems, binds to bacterial penicillin-binding proteins and interferes with bacterial cell ... or cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor (Ceclor), cefuroxime (Ceftin), cefadroxil (Duricef), cephalexin (Keflex), and ... group streptococci, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Bacteroides fragilis ... Imipenem inhibits bacterial cell-wall synthesis by binding to penicillin-binding proteins; cilastatin prevents renal metabolism ...
... aggressive and judicious management with antibiotics is crucial. These authors discuss the recent Infectious Diseases Society ... of a team approach in managing inpatients with diabetic foot disorders and investigate the efficacy of promising new antibiotic ... ß-lactams and occurs by binding to penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) and accordingly interfering with cell wall synthesis. ... Ceftaroline: a novel cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 52 ...
... penicillin-binding proteins; AAC(2′), 2′-N-acetyltransferase; Eis2, enhanced intracellular survival protein 2; APH(3″), ... A diverse group of enzymes that differ in the aminoglycosides that they can modify as well as in the region of the antibiotic ... This repression is relieved in the presence of tetracycline and doxycycline which can bind the repressor protein thereby ... a cephalosporin) and imipenem (a carbapenem) form a part of the antibiotic arsenal for M. abscessus. Furthermore, cefoxitin and ...
Ceftolozane binds to enzymes called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and thus inhibits the formation of cell bacteria cell ... Beta-lactamases are enzymes that bacteria use to block the effect of penicillin and cephalosporin type antibiotics. Tazobactam ... a cephalosporin group antibacterial drug, and tazobactam, a beta-lactamase inhibitor.. ... Medication Class: Antibacterial drug (cephalosporin/beta-lactamase inhibitor). Manufacturer: Cubist Pharmaceuticals. FDA ...
One group of antibiotics which are clinically becoming less useful due to acquired resistance are the cephalosporins. ... The mechanism of methicillin resistance is not via β-lactamase production but via altered penicillin binding proteins ... Without wishing to be bound by any proposed mechanism for the observed advantages of the invention, the novel action of ... Agents known generically as β-lactam antibiotics share mechanisms with cephazolin, and constitute the various penicillin groups ...
Cefodox is an oral third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that was FDA-approved in 1998 for the treatment of various mild to ... Cefodoxs effect is dependent on its binding to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located in the bacterial cytoplasmic ... Cefodox Proxetil is a third generation semi-synthetic cephalosporin and a beta-lactam antibiotic with bactericidal activity. ... The deficit syndrome group had higher negative and positive scores compared to the non-deficit group. Criteria for selection of ...
Cephalosporin antibiotics bind to and inactivate penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located on the inner membrane of the ... It belongs to the family of drugs called antibiotics.. CSP Definition: group of broad spectrum antibiotics which share the ... A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam ... MSH Definition: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the ...
... eliminating the intracellular pool of free ceftazidime available to bind to penicillin-binding proteins. In contrast, imipenem ... we found a correlation between a larger size in the R1 side group of the cephalosporins and increased drug MIC values for the ... Unique Antibiotic-Resistant Phenotypes Emerge from β-Lactamase Protein Engineering. Melissa D. Barnes, Marisa L. Winkler, ... S2; Table 3). Ceftaroline, which does not have a good R2 leaving group, bound to Asp179Asn with an intact R2 group (Fig. S2). ...
Two types of antibiotic, Penicillin and Cephalosporin, have a structure made up of a ring known as a β-lactam ring. The β- ... Another well known group of antiobiotics; Tetracyclines, are Bacterialstatic, binding to the machinery within the cell that ... Prokaryotes do not contain membrane-bound nucleus like our cells and are very small, only 1-5 millionth of a meter (1-5µm) in ... reads the genetic code and interfering with protein synthesis.. What causes resistance? ...
Make research projects and school reports about antibiotic easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... known as penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). β -Lactam antibiotics. bind to the PBPs of bacterial cell walls and prevent their ... Another group, the cephalosporins (pronounced seff-uh-low-SPOR-inz), came from a bacteria group living in a drainage pipe on ... Antibiotics Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Antibiotics. Definition. Antibiotics are drugs that ...
Bacterial cell walls contain β -lactam receptors , known as penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). β -Lactam antibiotics ... biosynthetically derived penicillins with other chemical groups. All penicillins are β -lactam (see Figure 2) antibiotics and ... There are also a large number of antibiotics structurally unrelated to penicillins and cephalosporins. These compounds exert ... bind to the PBPs of bacterial cell walls and prevent their growth and repair. Widespread use of penicillin, however, has led to ...
Penicillins (general structure 11) bind to penicillin-binding proteins and inhibit the bacterial cell wall. Penicillins became ... Cephalosporin C (12), a second class of β-lactam antibiotics, was first discovered from Cephalosporium acremonium, isolated ... As resistance to β-lactam antibiotics increased because of the expression of a variety of β-lactamases, many groups focused ... Penicillin G (8) was the first penicillin that was clinically used. Penicillin G was converted easily by either chemical or ...
Bacteria develop resistance to cephalosporins by four basic mechanisms: 1) altering or acquiring penicillin binding proteins ... The active metabolite is reversibly bound to plasma proteins. Due to transportation with these proteins, the metabolite ... Phamacotherapeutic group: Antibacterials for systemic use, third generation cephalosporins.. ATCvet code: QJ01DD90 ... The bactericidal properties of cephalosporins are antagonized by simultaneous use of bacteriostatic antibiotics (macrolides, ...
The solution was applied onto the column, the PA was selectively bound to the ion-exchanger and the bulk protein with lower ... For several decades, Penicillin G acylase (E.C.3.5.1.11) has been commercially exploited to hydrolyse the acyl group of ... in terms of protein binding and almost 60-70% in terms of expressed activity. The limitation in use of poly acrylamide is the ... PROCESS FOR SYNTHESIS OF A SEMI-SYNTHETIC PENICILLIN OR CEPHALOSPORIN ANTIBIOTIC USING PENICILLIN ACYLASE BIOCATALYST FROM ...
The carboxylate group of benzylpenicillin interacts with the side chain of Gln237. The carboxylate group of cephaloridine is ... Protein Workshop , Ligand Explorer. Global Symmetry: Asymmetric - C1 Global Stoichiometry: Monomer - A Biological assembly 1& ... OPEN FORM - PENICILLIN G. C16 H20 N2 O4 S. OGFZUTGOGYUTKZ-KWCYVHTRSA-N. ... Both acyl-enzymes show similar key features, with the carbonyl carbon atom of the cleaved beta-lactam bond covalently bound to ...
... penicillin, oxacillin, amoxicillin and cephalosporins [4]. MRSA develops resistance towards antibiotics by adapting themselves ... stated that alkyl gallates could interfere in cell division [36]. Alkyl gallates bind tightly to cytoplasmic protein FtsZ and ... Freire-Moran L, Aronsson B, Manz C, Gyssens IC, So AD, Monnet DL, Cars O, Group E-EW. Critical shortage of new antibiotics in ... gallate inhibits MRSA by insertion into the bacteria cytoplasmic membrane and disruption of penicillin-binding protein 2a- ...
... classification of cephalosporins by generation -- 1st generation, 2nd generation, 3rd generation, 4th generation; side effects ... step in the synthesis of the peptidoglycan is facilitated by transpeptidases known as penicillin binding proteins (PBPs). PBPs ... The cephalosporins are the largest and most diverse family of antibiotics of the beta-lactam group. Cephalosporins are ... Cephalosporins mimic the structure of the D-Ala-D-Ala link and bind to the active site of PBPs, disrupting the cross-linking ...
All Beta-lactams possess similar chemistry, with the exception of alkyl groups that bind to the penicillin binding proteins ( ... In terms of antibiotic type, the market can be classified into penicillin, cephalosporin, carbapenem, and monobactum. Based on ... Other data published by the WHO states that tuberculosis affected over 9 million individuals (across all age groups) globally ... The global Beta-lactam drugs market can be segmented based on antibiotic type, distribution channel, and region. ...
  • In addition, it is easier to quickly grasp the strengths and weaknesses of a newly marketed antibiotic if you understand the general pharmacology of its class. (netce.com)
  • 6 As a part of this team management, one should consult an infectious diseases specialist when cultures yield multiple or antibiotic-resistant organisms, the patient has substantial renal impairment, or the infection does not respond to appropriate medical or surgical therapy in a timely manner. (podiatrytoday.com)
  • In combination with enhanced infection control practices, formal antibiotic restriction policies may play a role in controlling outbreaks attributed to these organisms. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Our aim is to acquaint readers with the general mechanism and major cellular target for each antibiotic class as a background for thinking about how metagenomic methods can advance the field. (springer.com)
  • This is thought to be due to the N-methylthiotetrazole side-chain of these cephalosporins, which blocks the enzyme vitamin K epoxide reductase (likely causing hypothrombinemia) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (causing alcohol intolerance). (wikipedia.org)
  • The serine-beta-lactamases hydrolyze beta-lactam antibiotics in a reaction that proceeds via an acyl-enzyme intermediate. (rcsb.org)
  • A method for detecting eubacteria in biological samples with catalytically inactive murein binding enzyme is presented. (google.com)
  • The biological sample may be chemically treated with alkali to cleave peptide bonds in the sample before incubating the sample with the catalytically inactive murein binding enzyme. (google.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 3, wherein said second generating enzyme is selected from the group consisting of a horse radish peroxidase, an alkaline phosphatase, a glucose oxidase, a catalase, a glucuronidase and a urease. (google.com)
  • 6. The method of claim 2, wherein said catalytically inactive enzyme polypeptide has a binding site capable of binding to said peptidoglycan with a binding affinity of about 5 10 -7 L/mol to about 5 10 -9 L/mol and wherein said conjugate is effective when bound to said eubacteria to produce a detectable signal in a diagnostic assay format. (google.com)
  • 9. The method of claim 1, wherein said incubating step suitable conditions comprise the addition of an additive selected from the group consisting of a stabilizer, a buffer, an emulsifier, an agent inactivating a catalytically active enzyme to produce said catalytically inactive enzyme and an agent for promoting interactions between said murein binding polypeptide and said murein. (google.com)
  • The crystal structure of this beta-lactamase, determined at 2.3 A resolution, shows that except for the mutation sites, the structure is very similar to that of the native protein. (rcsb.org)
  • A 2.0 Å crystal structure of S. aureus FtsZ in complex with PC190723 identifies the compound binding site, which corresponds to the predominant location of mutations conferring resistance to PC190723 (PC190723 R ). Although structural studies suggested that these drug resistance mutations may be difficult to combat through chemical modification of PC190723, combining PC190723 with the β-lactam antibiotic imipenem markedly reduced the spontaneous frequency of PC190723 R mutants. (sciencemag.org)
  • This results in the reduction of the S aureus affinity for beta-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins and cephalosporins. (uspharmacist.com)