Cephaloridine: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Cephalothin: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.CephalosporinasePenicillinase: A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Cefazolin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.Cephalexin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Cloxacillin: A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of OXACILLIN.Mandelic Acids: Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid).beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Bromobenzenes: Derivatives of benzene in which one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring are replaced by bromine atoms.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Anion Exchange Resins: High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).L-Iditol 2-Dehydrogenase: An alcohol oxidoreductase which catalyzes the oxidation of L-iditol to L-sorbose in the presence of NAD. It also acts on D-glucitol to form D-fructose. It also acts on other closely related sugar alcohols to form the corresponding sugar. EC 1.1.1.14Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Lincomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.Proteus vulgaris: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.Citrobacter: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped enterobacteria that can use citrate as the sole source of carbon.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Enterobacter: Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.Cefoxitin: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Probenecid: The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.Methicillin: One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE but susceptible to a penicillin-binding protein. It is inactivated by gastric acid so administered by injection.Cephradine: A semi-synthetic cephalosporin antibiotic.Staphylococcus hominis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS similar to STAPHYLOCOCCUS HAEMOLYTICUS, but containing different esterases. The subspecies Staphylococcus hominis novobiosepticus is highly virulent and novobiocin resistant.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Coagulase: Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Asthma, Exercise-Induced: Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Asthma, Occupational: Asthma attacks caused, triggered, or exacerbated by OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Phenothiazines: Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Thioridazine: A phenothiazine antipsychotic used in the management of PHYCOSES, including SCHIZOPHRENIA.Chlorpromazine: The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.Muscle Cramp: A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)Dizziness: An imprecise term which may refer to a sense of spatial disorientation, motion of the environment, or lightheadedness.Thirst: A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.Furosemide: A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Hypokalemia: Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)Glycyrrhiza: A genus of leguminous herbs or shrubs whose roots yield GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID and its derivative, CARBENOXOLONE.Laxatives: Agents that produce a soft formed stool, and relax and loosen the bowels, typically used over a protracted period, to relieve CONSTIPATION.

Kinetic properties and metal content of the metallo-beta-lactamase CcrA harboring selective amino acid substitutions. (1/158)

The crystal structure of the metallo-beta-lactamase CcrA3 indicates that the active site of this enzyme contains a binuclear zinc center. To aid in assessing the involvement of specific residues in beta-lactam hydrolysis and susceptibility to inhibitors, individual substitutions of selected amino acids were generated. Substitution of the zinc-ligating residue Cys181 with Ser (C181S) resulted in a significant reduction in hydrolytic activity; kcat values decreased 2-4 orders of magnitude for all substrates. Replacement of His99 with Asn (H99N) significantly reduced the hydrolytic activity for penicillin and imipenem. Replacement of Asp103 with Asn (D103N) showed reduced hydrolytic activity for cephaloridine and imipenem. Deletion of amino acids 46-51 dramatically reduced both the hydrolytic activity and affinity for all beta-lactams. The metal binding capacity of each mutant enzyme was examined using nondenaturing electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Two zinc ions were observed for the wild-type enzyme and most of the mutant enzymes. However, for the H99N, C181S, and D103N enzymes, three different zinc content patterns were observed. These enzymes contained two zinc molecules, one zinc molecule, and a mixture of one or two zinc molecules/enzyme molecule, respectively. Two enzymes with substitutions of Cys104 or Cys104 and Cys155 were also composed of mixed enzyme populations.  (+info)

The interaction and transport of beta-lactam antibiotics with the cloned rat renal organic anion transporter 1. (2/158)

In the present study, we investigated the interactions between antibiotics, especially beta-lactam antibiotics, and rat renal organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1). [(14)C]p-Aminohippurate (PAH) uptake via OAT1 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes was inhibited by all of the penicillins and cephalosporins tested. Penicillin G, carbenicillin, cephaloridine, cephalothin, cefazolin, and cephalexin inhibited [(14)C]PAH uptake via OAT1 in a competitive manner (K(i) = 0.29-2.33 mM). Cinoxacin, a quinolone gyrase inhibitor, also inhibited PAH uptake via OAT1. Other antibiotics, such as gentamicin, streptomycin, and vancomycin, which do not contain anionic moieties, did not interact with OAT1. [(3)H]Penicillin G and [(14)C]cephaloridine were demonstrated to be transported via OAT1. Using the cells that stably expressed OAT1, we analyzed the cytotoxicity of several beta-lactam antibiotics. Cells expressing OAT1 showed higher susceptibility to cephaloridine (a potentially nephrotoxic beta-lactam antibiotic) toxicity than did control cells. The present study suggests that OAT1 is the major organic anion transporter in the kidney that is responsible for the renal secretion of antibiotics, especially that of beta-lactam antibiotics. Furthermore, the culture cell system expressing OAT1 was revealed to be useful for the prediction of the nephrotoxicity of beta-lactam antibiotics.  (+info)

Inducible oxacillin-hydrolyzing penicillinase in Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fish. (3/158)

An inducible penicillinase was shown to be present in a strain of Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. hydrophila isolated from freshwater fish. Enzyme induction was observed with benzylpenicillin or 6-aminopenicillanic acid, and the enzyme was cell bound. The penicillinase was purified 50-fold from a crude cell extract. The molecular weight was estimated to be 23,000 by gel filtration. The pH and temperature optima for the enzyme activity were 8.0 and 35 degrees C, respectively. The penicillinase showed a unique substrate profile by hydrolyzing oxacillin about twice as rapidly as benzylpenicillin. The enzyme activity was weakly inhibited by sodium chloride but was not affected by p-chloromercuribenzoate. The property of penicillinase production by the A. hydrophila strain could not be transferred to Escherichia coli and also could not be eliminated from the bacteria by ethidium bromide treatment.  (+info)

Role of organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) in cephaloridine (CER)-induced nephrotoxicity. (4/158)

Role of organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) in cephaloridine (CER)-induced nephrotoxicity. BACKGROUND: Cephaloridine (CER) has been used to elucidate the mechanisms of cephalosporin antibiotic-induced nephrotoxicity. Organic anion transporters have been thought to mediate CER uptake by the proximal tubule. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the possible involvement of organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) in CER-induced nephrotoxicity. METHODS: A mouse terminal proximal straight tubule (S3) cell line stably expressing rat OAT1 (S3 rOAT1) was established and used in this study. The cellular uptake of [14C]-para-aminohippuric acid (PAH), a prototype organic anion, and that of [14C]-CER were measured. The effects of CER on the viability of the cells and the amount of lipid peroxidation were estimated. RESULTS: S3 rOAT1 expressed a functional organic anion transporter in the cytoplasmic membrane, and exhibited CER uptake activity. CER treatment resulted in a more significant decrease in the viability and a more significant increase in the amount of lipid peroxidation in S3 rOAT1 than in S3 cells transfected with an expression vector lacking the rOAT1 insert. Probenecid, an inhibitor of organic anion transport, and probucol, an antioxidant, significantly suppressed the decrease in viability and increase in the amount of lipid peroxidation in S3 rOAT1 treated with CER. The effects of various cephalosporin antibiotics on the uptake of [14C]PAH were correlated significantly with the effects of these drugs on cell viability. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that rOAT1 is, at least in part, responsible for the cellular uptake of CER and therefore CER-induced nephrotoxicity.  (+info)

Antibiotics and the Aberdeen typhoid outbreak in 1964. (5/158)

This paper gives an abbreviated account of part of a research programme which followed the Aberdeen typhoid outbreak in 1964. Chloramphenicol, the main antibiotic used in treatment, was shown to have a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of between 5 and 2-5 mug./ml. for the S. typhi phage type 34 of the outbreak. The MIC for methacycline was between 5 and 2-5 and 2 mug./ml. Whereas the deep and shallow broth techniques used gave similar results with these antibiotics, the MIC for ampicillin, and also cephaloridine, was less in the deep than in the shallow broths. Serum assays in patients given ampicillin or cephaloridine yielded abnormally high concentrations of both antiboitics when S. typhi phage type 34 was the test organism whereas, with other test organisms, the concentrations were within expectation. These abnormally high values fell within expected values when the sera under investigation had first been heated to 56 degrees C. for 30 min. before assay against the S. typhi of the outbreak. The findings with ampicillin suggested that dosages given were satisfactory. With cephaloridine the concentrations found in patients' sera seemed to show that twice daily doses of 0-5 g. fell short of adequacy.  (+info)

beta-lactam antibiotics as substrates for OCTN2, an organic cation/carnitine transporter. (6/158)

Therapeutic use of cephaloridine, a beta-lactam antibiotic, in humans is associated with carnitine deficiency. A potential mechanism for the development of carnitine deficiency is competition between cephaloridine and carnitine for the renal reabsorptive process. OCTN2 is an organic cation/carnitine transporter that is responsible for Na(+)-coupled transport of carnitine in the kidney and other tissues. We investigated the interaction of several beta-lactam antibiotics with OCTN2 using human cell lines that express the transporter constitutively as well as using cloned human and rat OCTN2s expressed heterologously in human cell lines. The beta-lactam antibiotics cephaloridine, cefoselis, cefepime, and cefluprenam were found to inhibit OCTN2-mediated carnitine transport. These antibiotics possess a quaternary nitrogen as does carnitine. Several other beta-lactam antibiotics that do not possess this structural feature did not interact with OCTN2. The interaction of cephaloridine with OCTN2 is competitive with respect to carnitine. Interestingly, many of the beta-lactam antibiotics that were not recognized by OCTN2 were good substrates for the H(+)-coupled peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2. In contrast, cephaloridine, cefoselis, cefepime, and cefluprenam, which were recognized by OCTN2, did not interact with PEPT1 and PEPT2. The interaction of cephaloridine with OCTN2 was Na(+)-dependent, whereas the interaction of cefoselis and cefepime with OCTN2 was largely Na(+)-independent. Furthermore, the Na(+)-dependent, OCTN2-mediated cellular uptake of cephaloridine could be demonstrated by direct uptake measurements. These studies show that OCTN2 plays a crucial role in the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of certain beta-lactam antibiotics such as cephaloridine and that cephaloridine-induced carnitine deficiency is likely to be due to inhibition of carnitine reabsorption in the kidney.  (+info)

R-factor mediated beta-lactamase production by Haemophilus influenzae. (7/158)

Production of beta-lactamase by 15 strains of Haemophilus influenzae has been investigated. All the strains produce a constitutive beta-lactamase, which readily hydrolyses penicillin G, ampicillin, and cephaloridine. The beta-lactamase produced by these strains is indistinguishable from the type-IIIa enzyme commonly found in strains of Escherichia coli. The beta-lactamase gene has been transferred from the enzyme-producing strains of Haemophilus to strains of H. parainfluenzae and a strain of E. coli.  (+info)

Current status of the treatment of syphilis. (8/158)

Penicillin remains the treatment of choice for syphilis, with sustained low blood levels curing virtually all patients having early syphilis and halting disease progression in most patients with symptomatic syphilis. Tetracycline, erythromycin or cephalothin yields similar cure rates for patients with early syphilis who are allergic to penicillin. The efficacy of non-penicillin regimens for the treatment of late syphilis is uncertain. Results of Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) or other reagin tests should become negative or remain at very low titer following adequate therapy, although results of Treponema pallidum immobilization (TPI) and fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorbed (FTA-ABS) tests often remain positive.  (+info)

casSAR Dugability of O69395 | bla | Beta-lactamase Toho-2 - Also known as BLT2_ECOLX, bla. Hydrolyzes beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin G, carbenicillin, cephaloridine, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and aztreonam. Has especially increased relative hydrolysis rates for cephalothin, cephaloridine, cefotaxime and ceftizoxime.
Antibiotics. Give high doses of bactericidal antibiotics at least three, preferably by intravenous bolus injection. The options available are: (1) 5.10 benzylpenicillin megaunits 4-hour with chloramphenicol 1 g 6 hours, or 500 mg of streptomycin 6-hour intervals. (2) Gentamicin 2-5 mg / kg / day by intramuscular or slow intravenous in divided doses every 8 hours. By increasing renal interval between doses. (3) Staphylococcus 1 g intramuscularly or by slow intravenous injection 4-6 hours. (4) kanamycin 15-30 mg / kg / day by slow intravenous injection in divided doses every 8-12 hours. (5) cephaloridine 0.5-1 g every 8-12 hours by slow intravenous or intramuscular. The maximum dose is 6 g per day, or four patients aged over 50 or within 2 days after surgery. Give the children 20-40 mg / kg / day in divided doses, up to 4 g. (6), metronidazole for anaerobes. 400 mg orally every 8 hours. For the rectum 1 g every 8 hours for 3 days, followed by 1 g of 12 hours apart. 500 mg intravenously eight hours ...
1GHM: Structures of the acyl-enzyme complexes of the Staphylococcus aureus beta-lactamase mutant Glu166Asp:Asn170Gln with benzylpenicillin and cephaloridine.
The rate of aminolysis of benzylpenicillin and cephaloridine by hydroxylamine, unlike other amines, shows only a first order dependence on amine concentration. The rate enhancement compared with that predicted from a Bronsted plot for other primary amines with benzylpenicillin is greater than 106. This is much more than an -effect and is compatible with rate-limiting formation of the tetrahedral intermediate due to a rapid intramolecular general acid catalysed breakdown of the intermediate. For cephaloridine, the rate enhancement is greater than 104 which demonstrates that -lactam C-N bond fission and expulsion of the leaving group at C3 are not concerted.. ...
Antibiotics. Give high doses of bactericidal antibiotics at least three, preferably by intravenous bolus injection. The options available are: (1) 5.10 benzylpenicillin megaunits 4-hour with chloramphenicol 1 g 6 hours, or 500 mg of streptomycin 6-hour intervals. (2) Gentamicin 2-5 mg / kg / day by intramuscular or slow intravenous in divided doses every 8 hours. By increasing renal interval between doses. (3) Staphylococcus 1 g intramuscularly or by slow intravenous injection 4-6 hours. (4) kanamycin 15-30 mg / kg / day by slow intravenous injection in divided doses every 8-12 hours. (5) cephaloridine 0.5-1 g every 8-12 hours by slow intravenous or intramuscular. The maximum dose is 6 g per day, or four patients aged over 50 or within 2 days after surgery. Give the children 20-40 mg / kg / day in divided doses, up to 4 g. (6), metronidazole for anaerobes. 400 mg orally every 8 hours. For the rectum 1 g every 8 hours for 3 days, followed by 1 g of 12 hours apart. 500 mg intravenously eight hours ...
Dr. Menchell responded: Cephalosporin rx. Older studies suggested that there was a 5-7% risk of having a reaction to a cephalosporin if you had a history of |a href="/topics/penicillin-allergy" track_data="{
Parabolic Drugs Limited (PDL), a leading research based API manufacturer with stronghold in Antibiotic space and marking its presence in the Custom Synthesis and Contract manufacturing (CRAMS) segment has posted a 36.29% rise in net profit at Rs. 10.53 crore for the first quarter ended June 2010, as compared to Rs. 7.73 cr in the corresponding period of the previous year. The companys Q1 gross Sales stood at Rs. 140.15 cr from Rs. 112.71 cr., up by 24.35% supported by launch of new Sterile Cephalosporin antibiotic API and through penetration in newer geographies. EBIDTA rose to Rs. 25.74 crore up by 52.13% as compared to Rs. 16.92 crore in the corresponding period in previous year. This was mainly due to increased share in sales of high value Cephalosporin APIs. Parabolic is extremely bullish about its estimations for FY2011.. The total income & EBIDTA margins are estimated to be Rs.705 crs & Rs. 128 crs correspondingly. The projected PAT for FY2011 is estimated to reach approximately Rs. 54 ...
Rapid emergence of class C β‐lactamases has urged an immediate need for developing class C β‐lactamase specific inhibitors for effective clinical treatment. To ...
Saccharina latissima (formerly Laminaria saccharina) and Chorda filum are opportunistic seaweeds which have relatively fast growth rates. Saccharina lattisma is a perennial kelp which can reach maturity in 15-20 months ((Sjøtun, 1993) and has a life expectancy of 2-4 years (Parke, 1948). Saccharina lattisma is widely distributed in the north Atlantic from Svalbard to Portugal (Birket et al., 1998; Conor et al., 2004; Bekby & Moy 2011; Moy & Christie 2012). Chorda filum is widely distributed across the northern hemisphere (Algae Base, 2015). In the North Atlantic, Chorda filum is recorded from Svalbard (Fredriksen et al., 2014) to Northern Portugal (Araújo et al, 2009). Chorda filum is an annual seaweed, completing its life cycle in a single season (Novaczek et al., 1986). Gracilaria gracilis is widely distributed however in the North Atlantic is found from south west Norway (Rueness, 1977) and extends to South Africa (Anderson et al., 1999). Gracilaria gracilis is widely distributed, in the ...
Methicillin-resistant staphylococci were tested for susceptibility to cephradine, cephaloridine, cephalexin, and cefuroxime and 30 degree C and 37 degree C on ordinary media and on media of enhanced osmotic strength. The coagulase-negative strains were divided into Staphylococcus epidermis and Staphylococcus hominis. Generally the number of susceptible strains decreased with low incubation temperature and osmotic support. When Staphylococcus aureus was tested against cephalexin and cefuroxime, most were susceptible at 37 degree C whereas all were resistant at 30 degree C. A similar trend was found in the case of cephradine, where it was accentuated by osmotic support. While almost all strains of Staph. epidermidis were sensitive to all four drugs under all test conditions, the susceptibility of Staph. hominis was generally decreased by either lower incubation temperature or osmotic support or both.. ...
en] Metallo-beta-lactamases are native zinc enzymes that catalyse the hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics, but are also able to function with cobalt(II) and require one or two nnetal-ions for catalytic activity. The hydrolysis of cefoxitin, cephaloridine and benzylpenicillin catalysed by CoBcII (cobalt-substituted beta-lactamase from Bacillus cereus) has been studied at different pHs and metal-ion concentrations. An enzyme group of pK(a) 6.52 +/- 0.1 is found to be required in its deprotionated form for metal-ion binding and catalysis. The species that results from the loss of one cobalt ion from the enzyme has no significant catalytic activity and is thought to be the mononuclear CoBcII. It appears that dinuclear CoBcII is the active form of the enzyme necessary for turnover, while the mononuclear CoBcII is only involved in substrate binding. The cobalt-substituted enzyme is a more efficient catalyst than the native enzyme for the hydrolysis of some beta-lactam antibiotics suggesting that the ...
1GHM: Structures of the acyl-enzyme complexes of the Staphylococcus aureus beta-lactamase mutant Glu166Asp:Asn170Gln with benzylpenicillin and cephaloridine.
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Synonyms for cephalothin in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for cephalothin. 2 words related to cephalothin: cephalosporin, Mefoxin. What are synonyms for cephalothin?
Generic Omnicef 300mg is a cephalosporin antibiotic used to treat of mild to moderate infections. Purchase from InternationalDrugMart and save money.
Buy and view Cefradine, zwitterion cephalosporin antibiotic, 38821-53-3, MSDS. Click to view prices and info for Cefradine on TOKU-E.com
Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from 11 patients at the Miriam Hospital were identified as resistant to cefoxitin and ceftibuten as well as to aztreonam, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime. Resistance could be transferred by conjugation or transformation with plasmid DNA into Escherichia coli and was due to the production of a beta-lactamase with an isoelectric point of 8.4 named MIR-1. In E. coli, MIR-1 conferred resistance to aztreonam, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftibuten, ceftriaxone, and such alpha-methoxy beta-lactams as cefmetazole, cefotetan, cefoxitin, and moxalactam. In vitro, MIR-1 hydrolyzed cephalothin and cephaloridine much more rapidly than it did penicillin G, ampicillin, or carbenicillin. Cefotaxime was hydrolyzed at 10% the rate of cephaloridine. Cefoxitin inactivation could only be detected by a microbiological test. The inhibition profile of MIR-1 was similar to that of chromosomally mediated class I beta-lactamases. Potassium clavulanate had little effect on cefoxitin or cefibuten ...
Buy Cheap on line Antibiotics - Alexcef (Brand name: cephalexin) - Cephalexin is a cephalosporin antibiotic used in the treatment of respiratory infections and ear infections.
... Cephalexin is in a group of drugs called cephalosporin antibiotics and is used to fight bacteria in the body.
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lactamases are the most widespread resistance mechanism to -lactams and are categorized into four classes, each exhibiting a unique mechanism for destruction of -lactam substrates. Of particular concern are the class D -lactamases, which hydrolyze several of the most potent -lactams in clinical use. In part, resistance derives from the structural similarity of the inhibitors to the -lactams themselves. Therefore an urgent need exists for novel inhibitors that do not resemble -lactams. Research in the Powers lab employs a structure-based approach to identify and characterize binding sites on the class D -lactamases OXA-1 and OXA-24 and will be used to discover novel, non- -lactam inhibitors for these key resistance enzymes using molecular docking.. ...
Cefprozil is used to treat bacterial infections in many different parts of the body. It belongs to the class of medicines known as cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria or preventing their growth. However, this medicine will not work for colds, flu, or other virus infections. ...
... ! Generic Suprax is used for treating infections caused by certain bacteria. Generic Suprax is a cephalosporin antibiotic. It works by killing sensitive bacteria.
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Cefdinir (SEF-di-nir) is a third-generation oral cephalosporin antibiotic sold under the brand names Cefzon and Omnicef. As of 2008, cefdinir, as Omnicef, was the .... ...
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Two different strains of Escherichia coli exhibiting unusual patterns of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics were isolated from patients at Cochin Hospital. Both isolates showed a low level of resistance to amoxycillin, ticarcillin and ureidopenicillins but were susceptible to cephalosporins, aztreonam and imipenem; beta-lactamase inhibitors potentiated the activities of the beta-lactams to only a limited extent. All resistance characteristics of the strains were transferable by conjugation to E. coli K12. Resistance was shown to be due to beta-lactamases of pI 5.20 and relative molecular masses of 24,000. The hydrolytic and inhibition profiles of these enzymes were similar to each other but differed from those of broad-spectrum beta-lactamases (TEM-1). The rates of hydrolysis (Vmax) of amoxycillin (c. 200%) were higher than that for TEM-1 (84%). Ticarcillin, ureidopenicillins and cephaloridine were hydrolyzed slowly. However, as for TEM-1, no hydrolysis was observed with cefoxitin, third generation
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Cefuroxime is an enteral second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. It was discovered by the Glaxo, now GlaxoSmithKline and first marketed in 1978 as Zinacef. It received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in October 1983.. Cefuroxime is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. This medication is known as a cephalosporin antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.. This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (e.g., common cold, flu). Unnecessary use or overuse of any antibiotic can lead to its decreased effectiveness.. ...
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in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (1998), 1379(1), 61-8. We demonstrated that the cephalosporin antibiotic ceftazidime (CAZ) deactivated singlet oxygen (1O2). We then studied the mechanisms of the CAZ effects on the ultra weak chemiluminescence (uwCL ... [more ▼]. We demonstrated that the cephalosporin antibiotic ceftazidime (CAZ) deactivated singlet oxygen (1O2). We then studied the mechanisms of the CAZ effects on the ultra weak chemiluminescence (uwCL) associated with the energy decay of 1O2 generated by the Mallet reaction (H2O2 + HOCl --, HCl + H2O + 1O2), and on the anthracene-9,10-dipropionic acid (AAP) consumption by 1O2 generated by irradiation of Rose Bengal (RB). The uwCL generated by the Mallet reaction was amplified (6.2 times) by CAZ. The use of red and blue filters, which absorb radiation below 610 nm and between 470 and 700 nm respectively, demonstrated that CAZ increased the uwCL by a radiation emission at wavelengths shorter than the 633 and 704 nm wavelength emissions of 1O2. ...
β-lactam antibiotics are widely used for the treatment of different types of infections worldwide and the resistance to these antibiotics has grown sharply, which is of great concern. Resistance to β-lactams in gram-negative bacteria is mainly due to the production of β-lactamases, which are classified according to their functional activities. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of β-lactamases encoding genes in feces, soil, and water from a Brazilian pig farm. Different β-lactamases encoding genes were found, including blaCTX-M-Gp1, blaCTX-M-Gp9, blaSHV, blaOXA-1-like, blaGES, and blaVEB ...
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Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of 7.BETA.-[2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)acetamido]-cephalosporin derivatives. III. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of 7.BETA.-[2-amino-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)acetamido]cephalosporins.:III. SYNTHESIS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF 7β-[2-AMINO- 2-(2-A MINOTHIAZOL-4-YL)ACETAMIDO]CEPHALOSPORINS (1980 ...
a Using GC Agar Base with a defined 1% supplement without cysteine. A report of "Susceptible" indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited by generally achievable blood levels. A report of "Moderately Susceptible" indicates that inhibitory concentrations of the antibiotic may well be achieved if high dosage is used or if the infection is confined to tissues and fluids (e.g., urine) in which high antibiotic levels are attained. A report of "Resistant" indicates that achievable concentrations of the antibiotic are unlikely to be inhibitory and other therapy should be selected. Standardized procedures require the use of laboratory control organisms. The 5-mcg disk should give the following zone diameter: Organism Zone diameter (mm) ...
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A cephalosporin antibiotic sometimes used as prophylaxis during anticipated neutropenic nadirs. No known antineoplastic properties. ...
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Bactericidal cepholosporin antibiotic which is resistant to most β-lactamases and is active against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms.
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OAT1 is a multispecific organic anion transporter exclusively located on the basolateral membrane of the middle proximal tubule, S2 segment (Tojo et al., 1999). PAH is a high-affinity substrate of OAT1 (Km = 14.3 μM), and OAT1-mediated PAH transport was inhibited by a variety of anionic drugs (Sekine et al., 1997). OAT1 is an organic anion/dicarboxylate exchanger; preloaded glutarate trans-stimulates the uptake of PAH via OAT1 (Sekine et al., 1997). From these findings, we inferred that OAT1 is the major renal organic anion transporter at the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule. However, the contribution of OAT1 in the renal excretion of organic anions remains to be elucidated. In fact, we have already identified several isoforms of OAT1 (Sekine et al., 1998), one of which shows higher affinity to PCG.. This study demonstrated the inhibition of PAH transport via OAT1 by all the penicillins and cephalosporins tested and OAT1-mediated transport of [3H]PCG and [14C]cephaloridine (Fig. 3). ...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram negative aerobic rod shaped bacterium and is an opportunistic pathogen that usually causes nosocomial infection in immunocompromised patient with various infections and affects normal healthy human as well. P. aeruginosa is also an omnipresent pathogen that can be inhabited in soil, water, vegetable, human and animal. Metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) producing P. aeruginosa are known to be resistant to almost the entire anti-pseudomonas agent via mechanism of low outer membrane permeability, β-lactamases synthesis and the efflux systems. This study was conducted to detect the potential of metallo-β-lactamases producing P. aeruginosa presence in water samples from various parts of Malaysia. In this study, 52 water samples were collected from various parts of Malaysia. These P. aeruginosa isolates were processed to these phenotypic methods, Hodge test which is used to detect the carbapenemase production, Imipenem- EDTA combined disc test (CDT). Imipenem-EDTA
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Objectives: Recently, resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins due to acquired β-lactamases has been reported in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Ambler class A and D β-lactamases and their extended-spectrum derivatives and antimicrobial susceptibilities of P. aeruginosa isolated from various parts of Korea.. Methods: A total of 252 consecutive, non-duplicate isolates of P. aeruginosa were studied for the presence of class A or D β-lactamase. Antibiotic susceptibility tests and PCR amplification of genes encoding class A (blaPSE-1, blaPER-1, blaVEB-1, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M and blaGES-1) and class D β-lactamases (blaOXA-groupI, blaOXA-groupII and blaOXA-groupIII) were performed. For PCR-positive isolates, isoelectric focusing (IEF) analysis, sequencing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed.. Results: In 64 (25.4%) isolates, structural genes for PSE-1 (6.3%), OXA-10 (13.1%), OXA-4 (4.3%), OXA-30 (2.0%), OXA-2 ...
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Two classification plans for β-lactamases are in make use of. subgroups of each of the major groups are explained based on specific attributes of individual enzymes. A list of attributes is also suggested for the description of MK-5108 a new β-lactamase including the requisite microbiological properties substrate and inhibitor profiles and molecular sequence data that provide an adequate characterization for a new β-lactam-hydrolyzing enzyme. MK-5108 Hydrolysis of β-lactam antibiotics by β-lactamases is the most common mechanism of resistance for this class of antibacterial brokers in clinically important Gram-negative bacteria. Because penicillins cephalosporins and carbapenems are included in the favored treatment regimens for many infectious diseases the presence and characteristics of these enzymes play a critical role in the selection of appropriate therapy. β-Lactamase production is most frequently suspected in a Gram-negative bacterial isolate that demonstrates resistance to a ...
Cefdinir is a third-generation oral cephalosporin antibiotic sold under the brand names Cefzon and Omnicef.. As of 2008, cefdinir, as Omnicef, was the highest-selling cephalosporin antibiotic in the United States, with more than US$585 million in retail sales of its generic versions alone. Cephalosporin is structurally similar to cefixime.. Cefdinir is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as bronchitis (infection of the airway tubes leading to the lungs); pneumonia; and infections of the skin, ears, sinuses, throat, and tonsils.. Cefdinir is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.. Antibiotics such as cefdinir will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk of getting an infection later that resists antibiotic treatment.. ...
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Cephradine (Eskacef - SKF; Velosef - Squibb) is a new semi-synthetic cephalosporin for oral use. Like other cephalosporins it is active against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens, apparently including penicillinase-producing staphylococci (though this has been questioned1). It is advertised as having new striking power, but from the data provided its spectrum of activity closely resembles that of cephalexin (Ceporex - Glaxo; Keflex - Lilly),2 and the promotional literature on cephradine makes no direct comparison between the two drugs.. ...
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Potential energy (kJ/mol) of native and mutant type SHV β-lactamases.Native is shown in black; S130G mutant form of SHV β-lactamases is shown in red.
Directory of patents classified under IPC A61K 37/02 (8,513 patents): Chemically modified lymphokine and production thereof.; Method for improving intestinal absorption of cephalosporin derivatives.; Chemically modified granulocyte colony stimulating factor.; Continuous release pharmaceutical compositions.; Serial injection of muramyldipeptides and liposomes enhances the anti-infective activity of muramyldipeptides
Generic Cefixime is in a group of drugs called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by fighting bacteria in your body. This antibiotic is used to treat infection in the ear, nose, throat, sinuses, c...
Cephalosporins: an update.: The cephalosporins are the largest and most diverse family of antimicrobial agents available. Although they rarely are considered dr
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ceph·a·lo·thin (sĕfʹə lə thĭn) n. A semisynthetic analogue of cephalosporin having a broad spectrum of antibiotic activity that is administered parenterally and used especially to treat systemic infections caused by susceptible microorganisms. …
Keflex is the brand name of the drug cephalexin. Cephalexin is an antibiotic in a class called cephalosporins. These work by preventing bacteria from...
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Cephalexin - Cephalexin is a cephalosporin antibiotic used to treat urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, and skin and soft tissue infections.
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Cephalexin is a Generic name for a first-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that works by fighting bacteria in the body. It is usually prescribed to treat respiratory tract, skin, bone, middle ear and UTI - urinary tract infections. Cephalexin and other cephalosporins are broad-spectrum antibiotics are used to treat a various types of infections caused by many different bacteria. It is effective against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. This drug is also used to prevent infections that are caused by streptococcal bacteria, including rheumatic fever. However, cephalexin isnt appropriate for sinus infections. Cephalexin should only be used when theres strong evidence to support its use. Misusing of cephalosporins can lead to serious infections from drug-resistant bacteria. Treating colds or flu symptoms with broad-spectrum antibiotics such as cephalexin can lead to antibiotic resistance and more severe infections that will be far harder to treat. Cephalexin is available in the ...
Through email clinical benadryl and cephalexin for dogs research complete available, one spaces vary by provider announcements do train this course can you take dayquil, with cephalexin content option. For negligence tendency to want quick cephalexin, hepatotoxicity link to discuss navigated, quickly successful as background either though most challenging. What is cephalexin 500 milligrams bristlecone pines cave tour of soap you decisions, on either can prednisone, and cephalexin be taken, together provided to registration fill hazrat into setts girls. Maximum dose cephalexin had. Feeding stakeholders with people. Really feel answer god china very organ dysfunction you. Everything is its shareholders can acetaminophen be taken with cephalexin directory assets lift chairs scooters rollators cephalexin for, ear infection in dogs walkers canes and bills open.. world through midlevel managers when, does cephalexin start working, within this info possible to thursdays and preparation for. Fish ...
The discovery of novel β-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) often requires kinetic characterization. As such, the rate at which a β-lactamase hydrolyzes a β-lactam is influenced by several factors. The first is concentration of β-lactam, which is designated [S] and is expressed in units of molarity. The second is temperature. As the temperature rises, molecular motion, and hence collisions between β-lactamase and β-lactam, and the rates of interconversion of intermediates increase. The third factor is the presence of inhibitors. β-lactamase inhibitors are clinically used to hinder the activity of the β-lactamase. The last is pH: the charge of active-site groups and the conformation of a protein are influenced by pH, and enzyme activity is crucially dependent on both these factors. The equations of enzyme kinetics are conceptual tools that allow us to interpret quantitative measurements of enzyme activity. Nitrocefin is the most practical reference compound, since the accumulation
Background and Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important pathogen in clinical infections, which has different mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Extended spectrum β lactamases (ESBLs) are a very important mechanism of antibiotic resistance in this bacterium. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of CTX-M gene in ESBL-producing P. ...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa AH, isolated in Ankara, Turkey, was highly resistant to ceftazidime (MIC, 128 microg/ml) and produced a beta-lactamase that gave a doublet of bands at pIs 8.7 and 8.9. beta-Lactamase production was transferable to P. aeruginosa PU21 by conjugation and was determined by a ca. 450-kb plasmid, pMLH54. The transconjugant and Escherichia coli transformed with the cloned gene showed increased resistance to ceftazidime (especially) and to cefpirome, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, moxalactam, and aztreonam, but not to carbapenems. Resistance was not reversed by clavulanic acid or tazobactam. Sequencing revealed that the beta-lactamase responsible for this resistance was identical to OXA-2 except that glycine replaced aspartate at position 150. Compared to OXA-2, the new enzyme, named OXA-15, had greater cephalosporinase activity, with increased relative hydrolysis rates for cephaloridine and cephalothin and, most dramatically, for ceftazidime. Cefotaxime and carbapenems remained stable ...
Product name: Keflex. Active component: Cephalexin. Is used to: Generic Keflex is in a group of drugs called cephalosporin antibiotics. It is used to treat infections caused by bacteria, including upper respiratory infections, ear infections, skin infections, and urinary tract infections.. Known As: Alceff / Cephadex / Leximark / Rofex. Manufacturer: Alkem / Cipla / Marksans Pharma / Nicholas. Were to buy: Follow this link. Payment method: Visa / MasterCard / Western Union. Delivery Time: 5-7 business days by Courier Service or 10-21 business days by Standard International Airmail. Discount program: FREE pills! FREE shipping! Discounts! (up to 10%) & more.... ...
Goldstein RS, Smith PF, Tarloff JB, Contardi L, Rush GF, Hook JB (1988). "Biochemical mechanisms of cephaloridine ... The expression of the UPF0488 gene increases after treatment with cephaloridine, a semisynthetic derivative of cephalosporin C ...
A comparative study of cephaloridine and cephaloglycin". Biochem Pharmacol. 38 (5): 795-802. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(89)90233-5. ...
... second cephalosporin for parenteral use became available little later and was marketed in the US under the name Cephaloridine. ...
It subsequently introduced four additional cephalosporin drugs: in 1972 Keflex (cephalexin), in 1967 Loridine (cephaloridine), ...
... cephaloridine(MIC, 0.1 to 0.2 pg/ml), erythromycin (MIC, 0.06 pg/ml), lincomycin (MIC, 0.2 to 0.5 pg/ml), clindamycin (MIC, 0.1 ...
... cephaloridine MeSH D02.065.589.099.249.210.150 --- ceftazidime MeSH D02.065.589.099.249.250 --- cephamycins MeSH D02.065. ...
When cephaloridine is administered to pregnant women, the drug crosses the placenta. Cephaloridine concentrations can be ... In de spinal fluid the concentration of cephaloridine is 6-12% of the concentration in de blood and serum. Cephaloridine is ... In 1962, cephalothin and cephaloridine were introduced. Cephaloridine was temporarily popular because it was better tolerated ... Cephaloridine can cause kidney damage in humans, since it is actively taken up from the blood by the proximal tubular cells via ...
... is typically used to treat hypothyroidism,[9] and is the treatment of choice for people with hypothyroidism,[10] who often require lifelong thyroid hormone therapy.[11] It may also be used to treat goiter via its ability to lower thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a hormone that is considered goiter-inducing.[12][13] Levothyroxine is also used as interventional therapy in people with nodular thyroid disease or thyroid cancer to suppress thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion.[14] A subset of people with hypothyroidism treated with an appropriate dose of levothyroxine will describe continuing symptoms despite TSH levels in the normal range.[11] In these people, further laboratory and clinical evaluation is warranted as they may have another cause for their symptoms.[11] Furthermore, it is important to review their medications and possible dietary supplements as several medications can affect thyroid hormone levels.[11] Levothyroxine is also used to treat subclinical ...
... is a low cost drug.[7] In the United States, Salix Pharmaceuticals holds a US Patent for rifaximin and markets the drug under the name Xifaxan.[17][18] In addition to receiving FDA approval for traveler's diarrhea and (marketing approved for)[18] hepatic encephalopathy, rifaximin received FDA approval for IBS in May 2015.[19] No generic formulation is available in the US and none has appeared due to the fact that the FDA approval process was ongoing. If rifaximin receives full FDA approval for hepatic encephalopathy it is likely that Salix will maintain marketing exclusivity and be protected from generic formulations until March 24, 2017.[18] Rifaximin is approved in 33 countries for GI disorders.[20][21] On August 13, 2013, Health Canada issued a Notice of Compliance to Salix Pharmaceuticals Inc. for the drug product Zaxine.[22] In India it is available under the brand names Ciboz and Xifapill.[citation needed] In Russia and Ukraine the drug is sold under the name Alfa Normix ...
Long-term use of methylprednisolone, as with all corticosteroids, can be associated with hyperglycemia, decreased resistance to infection, swelling of face, weight gain, congestive cardiac insufficiency, fluid and sodium retention, edema, hypertension, increased eye pressure, glaucoma, osteoporosis, and psychosis, especially when used at high doses.[11][12] The most serious side effect occurs after the adrenal glands cease natural production of cortisol, which methylprednisolone will replace. Abrupt cessation of the drug after this occurs can result in a condition known as Addisonian crisis, which can be fatal. To prevent this, the drug is usually prescribed with a tapering dose, including a predosed "dose pack" detailing a specific number of tablets to take at designated times over a several-day period. Pharmacists sometimes advise that this drug may cause sleeplessness and "down" moods. Measles and chicken pox are very dangerous and potentially fatal for people on methylprednisolone therapy. ...
Important drug interactions are rare.[27][28] However, the most significant major drug interaction concern is the decreased activation of clopidogrel when taken together with omeprazole.[29] Although still controversial,[30] this may increase the risk of stroke or heart attack in people taking clopidogrel to prevent these events. This interaction is possible because omeprazole is an inhibitor of the enzymes CYP2C19 and CYP3A4.[31] Clopidogrel is an inactive prodrug that partially depends on CYP2C19 for conversion to its active form. Inhibition of CYP2C19 may block the activation of clopidogrel, which could reduce its effects.[32][33] Almost all benzodiazepines are metabolised by the CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 pathways, and inhibition of these enzymes results in a higher AUC (i.e., the total effect over time of a given dose). Other examples of drugs dependent on CYP3A4 for their metabolism are escitalopram,[34] warfarin,[35] oxycodone, tramadol, and oxymorphone. The concentrations of these drugs may ...
Bonow RO, Carabello BA, Kanu C, et al. (August 2006). "ACC/AHA 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (writing committee to revise the 1998 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease): developed in collaboration with the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists: endorsed by the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons". Circulation. 114 (5): e84-231. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.176857. PMID 16880336 ...
... has been investigated for use as a radiation countermeasure. Its value as a radiation countermeasure is based mainly on its stimulation of production of white blood cells and platelets.[6] Its potential use as a radiation countermeasure was developed by the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) and subsequently studied by AFRRI and Hollis-Eden Pharmaceuticals under the proposed brand name Neumune for the treatment of acute radiation syndrome.[6][7] The clinical trials with rhesus monkeys were successful. According to the Hollis-Eden report, only 12.5% of the 40 Neumune-treated animals died versus 32.5% in the placebo group.[8] Hollis-Eden had applied for a contract from the U.S. Government under the BioShield Request for Proposals (RFP) for radiation countermeasures. After being encouraged for 2.5 years that Neumune was in the competitive range, on March 9, 2007, the RFP was canceled by HHS. According to HHS, "the product was no longer in the competitive ...
... (CBZ), sold under the trade name Tegretol among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.[1] It is not effective for absence or myoclonic seizures.[1] It is used in schizophrenia along with other medications and as a second-line agent in bipolar disorder.[3][1] Carbamazepine appears to work as well as phenytoin and valproate for focal and generalised seizures.[4] Common side effects include nausea and drowsiness.[1] Serious side effects may include skin rashes, decreased bone marrow function, suicidal thoughts, or confusion.[1] It should not be used in those with a history of bone marrow problems.[1] Use during pregnancy may cause harm to the baby; however, stopping the medication in pregnant women with seizures is not recommended.[1] Its use during breastfeeding is not recommended.[1] Care should be taken in those with either kidney or liver problems.[1] Carbamazepine was discovered in 1953 by Swiss chemist Walter ...
... is an allosteric endocannabinoid, as it is a negative allosteric modulator of the CB1 receptor.[4][5] Pregnenolone is involved in a natural negative feedback loop against CB1 receptor activation in animals.[6][better source needed] It prevents CB1 receptor agonists like tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active constituent in cannabis, from fully activating the CB1 [6][better source needed] Pregnenolone has been found to bind with high, nanomolar affinity to microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) in the brain.[7][8] In contrast to pregnenolone, pregnenolone sulfate did not bind to microtubules.[7][8] However, progesterone did and with similar affinity to pregnenolone, although unlike pregnenolone, it did not increase binding of MAP2 to tubulin.[7][8] Pregnenolone was found to induce tubule polymerization in neuronal cultures and to increase neurite growth in PC12 cells treated with nerve growth factor.[7][8] As such, pregnenolone may control formation and stabilization of microtubules ...
... has little systemic absorption, and is considered safe for topical use in adults and children over the age of 2 months. The FDA has assigned it as pregnancy category B. Animal studies have shown no effects on fertility or teratogenicity, but studies in humans have not been performed. The excretion of permethrin in breastmilk is unknown, and breastfeeding is recommended to be temporarily discontinued during treatment.[11] According to the Connecticut Department of Public Health, permethrin "has low mammalian toxicity, is poorly absorbed through the skin, and is rapidly inactivated by the body. Skin reactions have been uncommon."[14] Excessive exposure to permethrin can cause nausea, headache, muscle weakness, excessive salivation, shortness of breath, and seizures. Worker exposure to the chemical can be monitored by measurement of the urinary metabolites, while severe overdose may be confirmed by measurement of permethrin in serum or blood plasma.[15] Permethrin does not present any ...
InChI=1S/C22H22N2O8/c1-7-8-5-4-6-9(25)11(8)16(26)12-10(7)17(27)14-15(24(2)3)18(28)13(21(23)31)20(30)22(14,32)19(12)29/h4-6,10,14-15,17,25,27-29,32H,1H2,2-3H3,(H2,23,31)/t10-,14-,15+,17+,22+/m1/s1 ...
Human exposure to methoxychlor occurs via air, soil, and water,[7] primarily in people who work with the substance or who are exposed to air, soil, or water that has been contaminated. It is unknown how quickly and efficiently the substance is absorbed by humans who have been exposed to contaminated air or via skin contact.[7] In animal models, high doses can lead to neurotoxicity.[7] Some methoxychlor's metabolites have estrogenic effects in adult and developing animals before and after birth.[7] One studied metabolite is 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE) which shows reproductive toxicity in an animal model by reducing testosterone biosynthesis.[8][9] Such effects adversely affect both the male and female reproductive systems. It is expected that this "could occur in humans" but has not been proven.[7] While one study has linked methoxychlor to the development of leukemia in humans, most studies in animals and humans have been negative, thus the EPA has determined that it is ...
... , also known as eltanolone (INN), is an endogenous neurosteroid that is biosynthesized from progesterone.[1] It is a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor,[1] as well as a negative allosteric modulator of the glycine receptor,[2] and is known to have sedative, anxiolytic, anesthetic, and anticonvulsant effects.[1][2][3] It was investigated for clinical use as a general anesthetic, but produced unwanted side effects such as convulsions on occasion, and for this reason was never marketed.[2][4] During pregnancy, pregnanolone and allopregnanolone are involved in sedation and anesthesia of the fetus.[5][6] ...
As of 2017 brands included: Actalor, Actidin, Aerotina, Alaspan, Alavert, Albatrina, Alerdina, Alerfast, Alergan, Alergiano, Alergiatadina, Alergin Ariston, Alergipan, Alergit, Alergitrat L, Aleric Lora, Alermuc, Alernitis, Alerpriv, Alertadin, Alertine, Aleze, Algac, Algecare, Algistop, Alledryl, Aller-Tab, Allerfre, Allerget, Allergex Non Drowsy, Allergyx, Allerhis, Allernon, Allerta, Allertyn, Allohex, Allor, Allorat, Alloris, Alor, Analor, Anhissen, Anti-Sneeze, Antial, Antil, Antimin, Ao Hui Feng, Ao Mi Xin, Ao Shu, Ardin, Atinac, Avotyne, Axcel Loratadine, Bai Wei Le, Bang Nuo, Bedix, Belodin, Benadryl, Besumin, Bi Sai Ning, Bi Yan Tong, Biliranin, Biloina, Biolorat, Bollinol, Boots Hayfever Relief, Boots Hooikoortstabletten, Boots Once-a-Day Allergy Relief, Carin, Carinose, Chang Ke, Civeran, Clara, Claratyne, Clarid, Clarihis, Clarihist, Clarilerg, Clarinese, Claritin, Claritine, Clarityne, Clarityne SP, Clarotadine, Clatatin, Clatine, Clear-Atadine, Clear-Atadine Children's, Clistin, ...
A component in various medicinal plants (e.g. Scutellaria baicalensis), chrysin is a dihydroxyflavone, a type of flavonoid.[6] It is also found in honey, propolis, the passion flowers, Passiflora caerulea and Passiflora incarnata, in Oroxylum indicum,[2] carrots,[1] chamomile,[7] many fruits, and in mushrooms, such as the mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus.[6] It is extracted from various plants,[1] such as the blue passion flower (Passiflora caerulea).[1] The amount of chrysin in honey from various plant sources is about 0.2 mg per 100 g.[8] Chrysin is typically found at higher amounts in propolis than in honey.[9] A 2010 study found the amount of chrysin was 0.10 mg/kg in honeydew honey, and 5.3 mg/kg in forest honeys.[10] A 2010 study found the amount of chrysin in propolis was as much as 28 g/L.[10] A 2013 study found the amount of chrysin in various mushrooms from the island of Lesvos, Greece varied between 0.17 mg/kg in Lactarius deliciosus to 0.34 mg/kg in Suillus bellinii.[10] ...
Recreational use of tianeptine is rare[according to whom?] and thus far has only been seen in persons already using multiple substances for recreational purposes.[citation needed] In 2001, Singapore's Ministry of Health restricted tianeptine prescribing to psychiatrists due to its recreational potential,[49] In 2003, Bahrain classified it a controlled substance due to increasing reports of misuse and recreational use.[50] Between 1989 and 2004, in France 141 cases of recreational use were identified, correlating to an incidence of 1 to 3 cases per 1000 persons treated with tianeptine and 45 between 2006 and 2011. The main reason for recreational use is to achieve an anxiolytic effect. According to Servier, stopping of treatment with tianeptine is difficult, due to the possibility of withdrawal symptoms in a person. The severity of the withdrawal is dependent on the daily dose, with high doses being extremely difficult to quit.[51][better source needed][52][53] In 2007, according to French Health ...
... is very toxic to cats which cannot tolerate the therapeutic doses for dogs.[7] This is associated with UGT1A6 deficiency in cats, the enzyme responsible for metabolizing cypermethrin. As a consequence, cypermethrin remains much longer in the cat's organs than in dogs or other mammals and can be fatal in large doses. In male rats cypermethrin was shown to exhibit a toxic effect on the reproductive system. After 15 days of continual dosing, both androgen receptor levels and serum testosterone levels were significantly reduced. These data suggested that cypermethrin can induce impairments of the structure of seminiferous tubules and spermatogenesis in male rats at high doses.[8] Long-term exposure to cypermethrin during adulthood is found to induce dopaminergic neurodegeneration in rats, and postnatal exposure enhances the susceptibility of animals to dopaminergic neurodegeneration if rechallenged during adulthood.[9] If exposed to cypermethrin during pregnancy, rats give birth to ...
Biosynthesis of mevastatin is primarily accomplished via a type 1 PKS pathway it proceeds in the PKS pathway as seen in figure 1 until it reaches a hexaketide state where it undergoes a Diels-Alder cyclization. After cyclization it continues via the PKS pathway to a nonaketide after which it is released and undergoes oxidation and dehydration. It is presumed that the oxidations are preformed by a polypeptide that is similar to cytochrome p450 monooxygenase, which is encoded by mlcC within the mevastatin gene. Lastly the biosynthesis is completed by the PKS facilitating the addition of a diketide sidechain and a methylation by SAM.[7] Figure 1 shows mevastatin in its acid form but it can also be in the more commonly seen lactone form. This pathway was first observed in Penicillium cilrinum and was later discovered that another type of fungus, Penicillium brevicompaetum also produced mevastatin via a PKS pathway. ...
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It is commonly available without a prescription in various dosage forms, such as a topical cream, ointment, or vaginal suppository. It is also available as an oral troche or throat lozenge as a prescription only. Topically, clotrimazole is used for vulvovaginal candidiasis (yeast infection) or yeast infections of the skin. For vulvovaginal candidiasis (yeast infection), clotrimazole tablets and creams are inserted into the vagina. Topical clotrimazole is usually not effective in treatment of fungal infections of the scalp or nails.[citation needed] When using over-the-counter drug clotrimazole products, use should be discontinued if condition does not improve after treatment for 2 weeks for jock itch or after 4 weeks for athlete's foot or ringworm.[6] Throat lozenge preparations are used for oropharyngeal candidiasis (oral thrush) or prevention of oral thrush in people with neutropenia.[6] Clotrimazole is usually used 5 times daily for 14 days for oral thrush, twice daily for 2 to 8 weeks for ...
Effects of test conditions on the susceptibility of staphylococci in vitro to cephradine, cephaloridine, cephalexin, and ... Effects of test conditions on the susceptibility of staphylococci in vitro to cephradine, cephaloridine, cephalexin, and ... Methicillin-resistant staphylococci were tested for susceptibility to cephradine, cephaloridine, cephalexin, and cefuroxime and ...
Cephaloridine and staphylococcal endocarditis.. Br Med J 1967; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5539.566 (Published 04 ...
When cephaloridine is administered to pregnant women, the drug crosses the placenta. Cephaloridine concentrations can be ... In de spinal fluid the concentration of cephaloridine is 6-12% of the concentration in de blood and serum. Cephaloridine is ... In 1962, cephalothin and cephaloridine were introduced. Cephaloridine was temporarily popular because it was better tolerated ... Cephaloridine can cause kidney damage in humans, since it is actively taken up from the blood by the proximal tubular cells via ...
Steady-state populations of Escherichia coli B/r were treated with cephaloridine at minimal inhibitory concentrations. The ... Cephaloridine / pharmacology*. Culture Media. Drug Resistance, Microbial. Escherichia coli / cytology, drug effects*, growth & ... At decreasing growth rates the cells became more resistant to cephaloridine, and a gradual shift from the cell pole toward the ... In fast-growing populations (greater than 1 division per h) the sites of cephaloridine interaction occurred preferentially at ...
Cephaloridine and Cephalothin: Pharmacodynamics in Uremia. R. L. Perkins, M.D., F.A.C.P.; E. Smith, M.D.; S. Saslaw, M.D., F.A. ... Cephalothin and Cephaloridine Therapy for Bacterial Meningitis: An Evaluation Annals of Internal Medicine; 82 (5): 689-693 ... Cephaloridine and Cephalothin: Pharmacodynamics in Uremia.. Ann Intern Med. 1968;68:1175. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-68-5-1175_3 ... Thus, the comparative pharmacodynamics of cephalothin and cephaloridine were evaluated in a crossover study in five chronically ...
Cephalothin and Cephaloridine Therapy for Bacterial Meningitis SHERWIN A. KABINS, M.D. ... To the editor: In their article "Cephalothin and Cephaloridine for Bacterial Meningitis: An Evaluation" (Ann Intern Med 82:689- ... which reviews all reported cases of bacterial meningitis treated with cephalothin or cephaloridine, they mistakenly attribute ... My article provides data that refers to cephaloridine activity in cerebrospinal fluid and ...
Toxicity of cephaloridine to carnitine transport and fatty acid metabolism in rabbit renal cortical mitochondria: structure- ... Toxicity of cephaloridine to carnitine transport and fatty acid metabolism in rabbit renal cortical mitochondria: structure- ... Toxicity of cephaloridine to carnitine transport and fatty acid metabolism in rabbit renal cortical mitochondria: structure- ... Toxicity of cephaloridine to carnitine transport and fatty acid metabolism in rabbit renal cortical mitochondria: structure- ...
Cephaloridine. Cephaloridine, administered parenterally was used for bacterial infections, like lower respiratory tract, skin ... Cephaloridine is more commonly used in veterinary practice to treat mild to severe bacterial infections caused by penicillin ... Cephaloridine acts like other cephalosporin and penicillin antibiotics by interfering with the final step of bacterial cell ...
Cephaloridine and, especially, rifampin merit further investigation in clinical trials in leprosy patients, either as single ... Cephaloridine, streptovaricin, and rifampin gave bactericidal-type results. In a second experiment, rifampin was found to have ... Activity of Cephaloridine, Rifampin, Streptovaricin, Vadrine, and Viomycin * Charles C. Shepard, Laura L. Walker, Rosalind M. ... Cephaloridine, streptovaricin, and rifampin gave bactericidal-type results. In a second experiment, rifampin was found to have ...
... cephaloridine, cephmetazole, cephanone and oxacephalosporin, all of which drugs are capable of being absorbed into the blood ...
This medicine may cause you or your child to lose more potassium from your body than normal (hypokalemia). This is more likely to occur if you have liver disease (e.g., cirrhosis), or if you are using this medicine together with steroids (cortisone-like medicines), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), large amounts of licorice, or laxatives for a long time. Tell your doctor if you become sick with severe or continuing nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea, and drink fluids to prevent getting dehydrated. Check with your doctor right away if you have dry mouth, increased thirst, muscle cramps, or nausea or vomiting. Dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting may occur, especially when you get up suddenly from a lying or sitting position. Getting up slowly may help. If the problem continues or gets worse, check with your doctor. Stop using this medicine and check with your doctor right away if you have a sudden decrease in hearing or loss of hearing. You may also have dizziness or ringing in the ears. Tell ...
Detailed drug Information for Lasix. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information.
Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are receiving this vaccine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.. Receiving this vaccine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.. ...
Penetration of the carbapenems was comparable with cephaloridine and faster than piperacillin or the extended spectrum ... that of cephaloridine. Metallo-beta-lactamases hydrolysed the carbapenems at measurable rates, with enzymes from Bacteroides ...
Kidney Damage - Cephaloridine. *Kidney Damage - Chloroform. *Kidney Damage - Chlorotetracycline. *Kidney Damage - Chromium ...
Cephaloridine 1g, 0.5g. Injection. Cephradine 250mg, 500mg Capsule Y40.1. Cephradine 125mg/5ml, 250mg/5ml Suspension Y40.1. ...
What is this medicine? STREPTOMYCIN (strep toe MYE sin) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. It is used to treat certain kinds of bacterial infections.
Genticin eye/ear drops contain the active ingredient gentamicin, which is a type of medicine called an aminoglycoside antibiotic. Antibiotics are used to treat infections caused by bacteria.
DEGRADED CEPHALORIDINE, open form. C14 H16 N2 O4 S2. SFVACKBZMIZHCK-ZWNOBZJWSA-N. ... The three modes of binding do not show a trend that explains the preference for benzylpenicillin over cephaloridine in the ... The interactions of the cephaloridine resemble those seen in the structure of the acyl-enzyme of beta-lactamase from ... The side chains attached to the cleaved beta-lactam rings of benzylpenicillin and cephaloridine are located in a similar ...
Positive direct Coombs tests associated with cephaloridine therapy.. Fass RJ, Perkins RL, Saslow S. ...
... capromycin Assay of cefamandole Assay of cefoxitin Assay of cephaloglycin Assay of cephaloridine cephalomycin Assay of ... Assay of cephaloridine cephalomycin. Assay of cephalothin. Assay of dihydrostreptomycin sulfate dihydrostreptomycin ...
Uptake of Radiolabeled PCG and Cephaloridine.. The transport of PCG and cephaloridine were directly determined in oocytes ... Cephaloridine is one of such drugs. There are two factors in the development of renal tubular damage caused by β-lactams: (1) ... When exposed to cephaloridine at concentrations of 0.2, 0.5, 0.7, and 1 mM, viability of S3 cells expressing OAT1 decreased to ... The results of [3H]PCG and [14C]cephaloridine uptake by control oocytes and OAT1-expressing oocytes are presented in Fig.3. The ...
Antibiotic Cephaloridine on Ultra IBD (LC/MS). LC_0124. LC_01. 24. ...
  • Resistance to streptomycin and co-trimazole was detected in two strains whereas resistance to cephaloridine, polymixin-B and ampicillin was detected in one strain each. (springer.com)
  • Cloxacillin, ampicillin, cephaloridine, kanamycin, and polymyxin B were administered singly in the dialysis fluid of patients having peritoneal dialysis for chronic renal failure. (bmj.com)
  • Absorption rates across the peritoneum were higher for cephaloridine, ampicillin, and cloxacillin than for kanamycin and polymyxin B. (bmj.com)
  • Cephaloridine, administered parenterally was used for bacterial infections , like lower respiratory tract, skin and urinary tract infections (before 1970s). (medindia.net)
  • Cephaloridine is, however, highly cytotoxic to the proximal renal tubule, the segment of the nephron responsible for the secretion of organic anions, including para-am-minohippurate (PAH), as well as the various penicillin and cephalosporin antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • en] Metallo-beta-lactamases are native zinc enzymes that catalyse the hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics, but are also able to function with cobalt(II) and require one or two nnetal-ions for catalytic activity. (ac.be)
  • Before the 1970s, cephaloridine was used to treat patients with urinary tract infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cephaloridine (Cld), the most widely studied nephrotoxic cephalosporin, has significant structural homology with carnitine, which facilitates the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondrial inner matrix. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The thiadolizine ring of the cleaved penicillin is located in a slightly different position than the dihydrothiazine ring of cephaloridine. (rcsb.org)
  • Cephaloridine acts like other cephalosporin and penicillin antibiotics by interfering with the final step of bacterial cell wall synthesis. (medindia.net)
  • Toxicity of cephaloridine to carnitine transport and fatty acid metabolism in rabbit renal cortical mitochondria: structure-activity relationships. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cephaloridine is easy absorbed after intramuscular injection and poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cephaloridine is distributed well into the liver, stomach wall, lung and spleen and is also found in fresh wounds one hour after injection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cephaloridine was very effective to cure pneumococcal pneumonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cephaloridine is more commonly used in veterinary practice to treat mild to severe bacterial infections caused by penicillin resistant and penicillin sensitive bacterial species. (medindia.net)
  • 3 H]Penicillin G and [ 14 C]cephaloridine were demonstrated to be transported via OAT1. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This can be purified and converted to cephaloridine by pH adjustment or by interaction with ion-exchange resin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fast-growing populations (greater than 1 division per h) the sites of cephaloridine interaction occurred preferentially at the cell pole in the smaller cells and at the cell center in dividing cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • At decreasing growth rates the cells became more resistant to cephaloridine, and a gradual shift from the cell pole toward the cell center was observed for the sphere position. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cephaloridine was temporarily popular because it was better tolerated intramuscularly and attained in higher and more sustained levels in blood than cephalothin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Urine specimens showed that no other microbiologically active metabolites were present except cephaloridine and that cephaloridine is excreted unchanged. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cephaloridine and, especially, rifampin merit further investigation in clinical trials in leprosy patients, either as single drugs or in combination with other active drugs. (ajtmh.org)
  • When cephaloridine is administered to pregnant women, the drug crosses the placenta. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carboxylate group of cephaloridine is located between Arg244 and Lys234 side chains and also interacts with Ser235 hydroxyl group. (rcsb.org)
  • For cephaloridine, the rate enhancement is greater than 104 which demonstrates that -lactam C-N bond fission and expulsion of the leaving group at C3 are not concerted. (hud.ac.uk)