The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.
Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.
The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.
A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
A mode of communication concerned with inducing or urging the adoption of certain beliefs, theories, or lines of action by others.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
A province of western Canada, lying between the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Its capital is Edmonton. It was named in honor of Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p26 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p12)
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
The transmission and reception of electric impulses or signals by means of electric waves without a connecting wire, or the use of these waves for the wireless transmission of electric impulses into which sound is converted. (From Webster's 3d)
The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
The means of interchanging or transmitting and receiving information. Historically the media were written: books, journals, newspapers, and other publications; in the modern age the media include, in addition, radio, television, computers, and information networks.
A direct communication system, usually telephone, established for instant contact. It is designed to provide special information and assistance through trained personnel and is used for counseling, referrals, and emergencies such as poisonings and threatened suicides.
A province of Canada, lying between the provinces of Saskatchewan and Ontario. Its capital is Winnipeg. Taking its name from Lake Manitoba, itself named for one of its islands, the name derived from Algonquian Manitou, great spirit. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p724 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p332)
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
Lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester, nylon (polyamides), or other material impregnated with insecticide, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby offering protection against insect bite and insect-borne diseases.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
A province of eastern Canada, one of the Maritime Provinces with NEW BRUNSWICK; PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND; and sometimes NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR. Its capital is Halifax. The territory was granted in 1621 by James I to the Scotsman Sir William Alexander and was called Nova Scotia, the Latin for New Scotland. The territory had earlier belonged to the French, under the name of Acadia. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p871 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p384)
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
A territory of northwest Canada, bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the south by British Columbia, and on the west by Alaska. Its capital is Whitehorse. It takes its name from the Yukon River, the Indian yu-kun-ah, meaning big river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1367 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p608)
A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.
A federally administered division of Canada. Its capital is Yellowknife. The former northern and eastern-most parts of the Territory comprise the new territory of Nunavut, effective April 1, 1999.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A province of Canada, lying between the provinces of Alberta and Manitoba. Its capital is Regina. It is entirely a plains region with prairie in the south and wooded country with many lakes and swamps in the north. The name was taken from the Saskatchewan River from the Cree name Kisiskatchewani Sipi, meaning rapid-flowing river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1083 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p486)
A self-governing territory formed from the central and eastern portions of the Northwest Territories. It was officially established April 1, 1999. The capital is Iqaluit.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.
Occasions to commemorate an event or occasions designated for a specific purpose.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Province of Canada consisting of the island of Newfoundland and an area of Labrador. Its capital is St. John's.
The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.
The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).
Relations of an individual, association, organization, hospital, or corporation with the publics which it must take into consideration in carrying out its functions. Publics may include consumers, patients, pressure groups, departments, etc.
Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.
Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.
Termination of all transmission of infection by global extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment (From Porta, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed).
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
A systemic non-venereal infection of the tropics caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM subspecies pertenue.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Inuktitut-speakers generally associated with the northern polar region.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Individuals licensed to practice medicine.
An island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence constituting a province of Canada in the eastern part of the country. It is very irregular in shape with many deep inlets. Its capital is Charlottetown. Discovered by the French in 1534 and originally named Ile Saint-Jean, it was renamed in 1799 in honor of Prince Edward, fourth son of George III and future father of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p981 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p433)
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.
The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.
Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).
A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and west of LIBERIA. Its capital is Freetown.
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
The act of deceiving or the fact of being deceived.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.
Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
Usually organized community efforts to raise money to promote financial programs of institutions. The funds may include individual gifts.
Professional society representing the field of medicine.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
A province of eastern Canada, one of the Maritime Provinces with NOVA SCOTIA; PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND; and sometimes NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR. Its capital is Fredericton. It was named in honor of King George III, of the House of Hanover, also called Brunswick. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p828 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p375)
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
The act of cleansing the hands with water or other liquid, with or without the inclusion of soap or other detergent, for the purpose of destroying infectious microorganisms.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
The status of health in rural populations.
A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.
The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.
Transplacental infection of the fetus with rubella usually in the first trimester of pregnancy, as a consequence of maternal infection, resulting in various developmental abnormalities in the newborn infant. They include cardiac and ocular lesions, deafness, microcephaly, mental retardation, and generalized growth retardation. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A state in southeastern Australia, the southernmost state. Its capital is Melbourne. It was discovered in 1770 by Captain Cook and first settled by immigrants from Tasmania. In 1851 it was separated from New South Wales as a separate colony. Self-government was introduced in 1851; it became a state in 1901. It was named for Queen Victoria in 1851. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1295 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, p574)
The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Organizations composed of members with common interests and whose professions may be similar.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
The units based on political theory and chosen by countries under which their governmental power is organized and administered to their citizens.
An approach to health care financing with only one source of money for paying health care providers. The scope may be national (the Canadian System), state-wide, or community-based. The payer may be a governmental unit or other entity such as an insurance company. The proposed advantages include administrative simplicity for patients and providers, and resulting significant savings in overhead costs. (From Slee and Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993, p106)
A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
What a person has in mind to do or bring about.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Societies having institutional membership limited to hospitals and other health care institutions.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
Regina: Canadian Plains Research Center. Gardner, Dan (February 17, 2009). "A stealth campaign against the Queen". Vancouver ... Saskatchewan Politics into the 21st Century. ... "Honours > Order of Canada". Queen's Printer for Canada. ... "The Royal Heraldry Society of Canada > About the Royal Heraldry Society of Canada". Royal Heraldry Society of Canada. Archived ... Edmonton Canada: Jeanne Sauvé Fair Play Award Canada: Governor General Jeanne Sauvé Fellowship Canada: Jeanne Sauvé Trophy ...
ISBN 0-7524-1795-9. Jenkins, Romilly (1987). Byzantium: The Imperial Centuries, AD 610-1071. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: ... The Paulicians managed to avoid a clash, and as the campaigning season drew to a close, they began retiring towards their own ... After the talks failed, Basil led a campaign against the Paulician state in the spring of 871, but was defeated and only ... Basil followed this success by a series of campaigns in the East against the Paulician strongholds and the Arab emirates. ...
ISBN 0-7524-1795-9. Jenkins, Romilly (1987). Byzantium: The Imperial Centuries, AD 610-1071. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: ... Throughout the 1920s, Armenia suffered through an anti-religious campaign during which church property was confiscated by the ... In the 16th century, Western Armenia fell under the rule of the Ottoman Empire and Eastern Armenia became part of the Safavid ... Until the 3rd century, Armenia was predominantly Zoroastrian, as the ruling Arsacid dynasty had itself been founded by a ...
Winning Power: Canadian Campaigning in the Twenty-First Century. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press. 2014. ... Flanagan managed his leadership campaigns for the Canadian Alliance (2002) and the Conservative Party of Canada (2004). He also ... v. Canada (Attorney General), 2013 SCC 14, [2013] 1 S.C.R. 623. . Canada v. Benoit, 2003 CAF 236 (2003). Buffalo v. Canada, ... The Literary Review of Canada : Canadian Books on Culture, Politics and Society. Toronto, CA: Literary Review of Canada. ISSN ...
Campaigns for international security: Canada's defence policy at the turn of the century. McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN ... Beverly Jean Rasporich; David Taras (2001). A passion for identity: Canadian studies for the 21st century. Nelson Thomson ... David Mutimer (1999). Canadian Annual Review of Politics and Public Affairs. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-3901- ... Mutimer, David (2005). Canadian Annual Review of Politics and Public Affairs 1999. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p. 115 ...
"Canadians campaign against nuclear testing on Amchitka Island (Don't Make a Wave), 1969-1971 , Global Nonviolent Action ... But We Must Cultivate Our Garden: Twentieth Century Pioneering in Rural British Columbia. 1979. PhD Thesis, Department of ... In Convergence and Divergence in North America: Canada and the United States. Centre for Canadian Studies, Simon Fraser ... Terry Simmons speaking at the Vancouver Public Library, at a Network in Canadian History and Environment event on "The Road to ...
In 1999 Locke was named one of Canada's leaders for the 21st century by Time Magazine Canada. In 2013, he received the J.B. ... and chaired the party's 1997 election campaign. In the Summer of 2012 Locke announced he would seek the Liberal Party of Canada ... Canada's leaders for the 21st century. Time Magazine Canada. 1999. "Harkin Award". CPAWS. Retrieved October 10, 2014. CS1 maint ... In 1999, Locke was named one of Time Magazine Canada's leaders for the 21st century. In 2013, he received the J.B. Harkin Medal ...
However, in a Canadian report, 22% more men than women reported being victims of violence in their current relationship. ... Poole, Glen (2013), "10 reasons we need a campaign to end violence against men and boys…", in Poole, Glen (ed.). Equality for ... HSR (2005), "Assault on the vulnerable", in HSR (ed.). Human security report 2005: war and peace in the 21st century. New York ... "Table 1.2 Victims of self-reported spousal violence within the past 5 years, by sex, 2004, 2009 and 2014". Statistics Canada. ...
After Galhos applied for and received refugee status in Canada, she campaigned for human rights in East Timor with the East ... Transformations and Comparisons from the Anglo-World Since the Nineteenth Century. n/a: 193-226 - via Palgrave. Webster, David ... In 1994 she was selected as a participant of a youth exchange programme to Canada with Canada World Youth. There she applied ... The event caused a public outcry and the Canadian Department of External Affairs rebuked the ambassador. With the end of the ...
Canadian town halls have been forums for provincial politicians to discuss issues of the day since at least the 20th century. ... Not until the twentieth century did presidential candidates commonly campaign in person. Gradually, especially from the 1990s ... 21st century meetings Detailed article: List of significant United States town hall meetings In 2009, Tea Party groups opposed ... The introduction of television and other new media technologies in the 20th century led to a fresh flourishing of town hall ...
In the qualifying campaign for the 1994 World Cup, he scored a vital goal against Canada to level the tie on aggregate. In the ... He was named to South's team of the century in 2000. Duraković played 64 times for the Australian national team from 1990 to ... 1995 South Melbourne's Team of the Century: 2000 Darjah Ahli Mahkota Perak (Malaysia): 2018 "Trajneri nga Ulqini, Mehmet Duraku ... following Ernie Merrick's sacking during Victory's Asian Champions League campaign. Under Duraković as caretaker head coach, ...
John River Campaign (1758). Until the 18th century, Meductic was the largest settlement of the Wolastoqiyik people. In the 2016 ... "Corrections and updates". Statistics Canada. 2012-09-19. Retrieved 2012-10-11. The old Meductic Fort and the Indian chapel of ... "Fredericton , The Canadian Encyclopedia". Retrieved 2020-12-14. " ... Statistics Canada. Retrieved October 6, 2019. "Municipal Election Results". 15 May 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2012. " ...
The college was rescued after Principal William Snodgrass and other officials created a fundraising campaign across Canada. The ... During the mid 20th century, the university established several faculties and schools, and expanded its campus with the ... "Veteran Affairs Canada: John Weir Foote". Veterans Affairs Canada. 16 June 2008. Archived from the original on 24 November 2007 ... In each of the four compartments is an emblem of the university's Canadian and British origins: a pine tree for Canada, a ...
This act committed during the Anfal Campaign was led by Ali Hassan Al-Majid, under the orders of President Saddam Hussein. ... New York Oxford: Published for the Human Security Center, University if British Columbia, Canada by Oxford University Press. p ... war and peace in the 21st century. ... "Case Study: The Anfal Campaign (Iraqi Kurdistan), 1988". ... The Anfal Campaign, (Iraqi Kurdistan), 1988 - Armenian Genocide (1915-17) - Rwanda, 1994. This practice occurs since soldiers ...
The site of the 17th-century Colony of Avalon was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1953. It was also designated ... The town was destroyed by New France in the Avalon Peninsula Campaign (1696). Virtually forgotten for centuries, excavations of ... Parks Canada. Retrieved 8 July 2012. Colony of Avalon Special Preservation Area Municipal Heritage District. Canadian Register ... Map of Ferryland in 1663 Map of Ferryland in 1693 Canada portal List of lighthouses in Canada British colonization of the ...
1967 Canada's First Century, 1867-1967, 1970. Towards the Discovery of Canada: Selected Essays, 1972. Canada, the Heroic ... "Myth of Biculturalism or the Great French Canadian Sales Campaign" pages 35-40 from Saturday Night, September 1966. ... 555-558 Office of the Governor General of Canada. Order of Canada citation. Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 26 May 2010 ... Levitt, Joseph A Vision Beyond Reach: A Century of Images of Canadian Destiny, Ottawa: Deneau, 1982. Levitt, Joseph "Creighton ...
The Ramsays served in all the great campaigns of the 18th and 19th centuries on the continent, in Canada, and in India. George ... In the eleventh century a ram in the sea is believed to have been an emblem on the seal of an abbey in Huntingdon. In 1124, ... By the 13th century there were five major branches of the Clan Ramsay: the Ramsays of Dalhousie, the Ramsays of Auchterhouse, ... Raymond Ramsay is a well-known 20th-century historian. Raymond was born in Manitoba and he is author of some books and articles ...
For the San Diego Women's Vote Amendment campaign, she and other supporters campaigned at Allen's decorated automobile for a ... Robens, Alma Kathryn (1992). Charlotte Baker : first woman physician and community leader in turn of nineteenth-century San ... a biographical dictionary of contemporary women of the United States and Canada, 1914-1915. The American Commonwealth Co. pp. ... Baker was a noted suffragist and one of two civic-minded women who spearheaded the San Diego Women's Vote Amendment campaign. ...
"The Monkeys lands Canadian Club creative account - AdNews". Retrieved 2017-05-27. "Sourz kicks off UK summer campaign with ... Science, Mosaic (2015-10-28). "How We Became The Heaviest Drinkers In A Century". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2017-05-27. "Sourz ...
It was ranked 31st on Advertising Age's list of the top 100 campaigns of the 20th century. In 1936, Woodbury was one of the ... "Political advertising in Canada." in David A. Schultz, ed. Lights, camera, campaign (2004) pp. 273-299. Sivulka, Juliann. Soap ... "The Advertising Century: Top 100 Advertising Campaigns". Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising & Marketing History at Duke ... The campaign was built around the theme of a father lamenting "If only I had a son" while showing his problem: a dark-skinned, ...
The Canadian federal and the Ontario elections of 1945 were possibly the most crucial to Canada in the 20th century. They took ... In previous campaigns, the party's leader, Tommy Douglas, had to use commercial Air Canada flights to get around during the ... Toronto: Macmillan of Canada. ISBN 0-7715-9598-0. Lewis, David; Frank Scott (2001) [1943]. Make this YOUR CANADA: A Review of ... Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-17. "David Lewis C.C." Honours, Order of Canada. Governor ...
Emmanuel campaigned against the legal recognition of same-sex marriage in Canada in 2005, organizing several rallies across the ... became more involved with right-wing and socially conservative campaigns in the first decade of the twenty-first century. In ... "Canadian Political Activist Touring U.S.; Canada's Leftist Political Establishment Pursues Cultural Conflict with U.S." [press ... and an outspoken opponent of same-sex marriage in Canada. He is now the president of Freedom Press Canada Inc., a niche ...
... in Minnesota plummeted after American States launched campaigns to anglicize their population throughout the 20th century. ... The history of the French language in Minnesota is closely linked with that of Canadian settlers, such as explorer Louis ... The French language has been spoken in modern-day Minnesota since the 17th century, being the first European language to be ... As early as the mid-17th century, evidence shows the presence of French expeditions, settlements and villages in the region, in ...
In North America, 20th Century Fox devised a marketing campaign that branded the film a "strange new experience in shock". The ... The film grossed a total of $1.2 million in the North American territories of the United States and Canada. Bosley Crowther ... 20th Century Fox insisted that The Innocents be shot in CinemaScope, while Clayton wanted to shoot it in standard academy ratio ... Deborah Kerr was cast in the lead role of Miss Giddens at the counsel of the film's studio and distributor, 20th Century Fox, ...
The nineteenth century became known as the Great Century of modern religious missions. Beginning with the English missionary ... The Anti-Christian campaigns of the early 1920s, and the Northern Expedition of 1925-27 led to the unification of China under ... Englishwoman Annie Royle Taylor and Canadian Susanna Carson Rijnhart, both of whom undertook much more dangerous expeditions ... V: The twentieth century outside Europe: the Americas, the Pacific, Asia, and Africa: the emerging world Christian community.. ...
The Norman keep or Donjon was built in the 12th century. It is one of the rare surviving examples of a square keeps in Normandy ... The Battle of Chambois was the scene of some of the bitterest fighting during the Normandy campaign. In August 1944, the ... Falaise pocket (or Falaise gap) was closed when Canadian, Polish (1st Armoured Division (Polish 1 Dywizja Pancerna)) and US ( ... The town is remarkable for its 12th-century Norman keep and was involved in the closure of the Falaise pocket in 1944 during ...
More widely, Gossage was involved in some of the first environmental campaigning in the USA with the Sierra Club, and in the ... "Marshall McLuhan". The Canadian Advertising Museum. Archived from the original on 4 September 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2014. ... "Advertising Age Person of the Century". Advertising Age. "Howard Luck Gossage". Ad Age. Retrieved 20 March 2014. "The Howard ... p. 9. Rothenberg, Randall (1994). Where the Suckers Moon: The Life and Death of an Advertising Campaign. NY: Vintage Books, p. ...
In Canada, the Orange Order (of Irish Protestants) campaigned vigorously against the Catholics throughout the 19th century, ... Throughout the 19th century, well into the 20th, the Orange Order in Canada attacked and tried to politically defeat the Irish ... Hostility of native-born Canadians to competition from English immigrants in the early 20th century was expressed in signs that ... online Houston, Cecil J. and Smyth, William J. The Sash Canada Wore: A Historical Geography of the Orange Order in Canada. U. ...
1903). Types of Canadian Women and of Women who are or have been Connected with Canada. Toronto: Williams Briggs. p. 320. Grant ... Fleming, Sandford (1886). "Time-reckoning for the twentieth century". Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian ... Bartky, Ian (2007). One Time Fits All: The Campaigns for Global Uniformity. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. pp ... He qualified as a surveyor in Canada in 1849. In 1849 he created the Royal Canadian Institute with several friends, which was ...
Canada, 2005. "Testing the Effects of Campaign Finance Laws on State Legislative Elections" (Co-PI: Robert Louisiana State ... Model Testing for American State Legislative Committees in the Twentieth Century.", National Science Foundation, 1995-2000. "A ... Fulbright Chair in North American Studies, Carleton University (Ottawa, Canada), 2006. "The Impact of Election Finance Laws: ... His research focuses on legislative behavior, campaign finance, interest groups, state politics and urban politics. Keith ...
a b c Christiane Harzig, "The Role of German Women in the German-American Working-Class Movement in Late Nineteenth-Century New ... was a Christian socialist and campaigned for better education and health for poor children. A few years later the Springburn ... counting a membership of 85,000 in nearly 700 branches spread across 38 states and Canada.[18] ... See: Christiane Harzig, "The Role of German Women in the German-American Working-Class Movement in Late Nineteenth-Century New ...
On a campaign stop for the 1976 presidential election, President Gerald Ford attended a Robert E. Lee High School fall football ... The first of these was Goose Creek, named for the bayou of the same name where Canada geese wintered and whose name is still ... Other occupants include Exel, S&B Engineers, National Oilwell, GE Water, TMK-IPSCO, Century Asphalt, Samson Controls, and LS ...
Canada[edit]. Main article: List of trade unions in Canada. Canada's first trade union, the Labourers' Benevolent Association ( ... The 18th century economist Adam Smith noted the imbalance in the rights of workers in regards to owners (or "masters"). In The ... and confrontational campaigns involving large numbers of union members. Many unions are a blend of these two philosophies, and ... Prominent domestic unions in Canada include ACTRA, the Canadian Union of Postal Workers, the Canadian Union of Public Employees ...
On loan-out to 20th Century Fox, she played a wealthy widow in Claudia and David (1946). She was also loaned to Paramount to ... "Distinguished Americans & Canadians of Portuguese Descent". Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved September 19 ... During the 1952 presidential election, Astor, a lifelong Democrat, supported the campaign of Adlai Stevenson.[13] ...
"They told me if I took 1000 pills at night I should be quite another thing in the morning", an early 19th-century satire on ... Health campaign flyers, as in this example from the Food and Drug Administration, warn the public about unsafe products. ... "Medical Education in the United States and Canada Bulletin Number Four (The Flexner Report)". Boston: D. B. Updike, Merrymount ... a b c d Quack Medicine: A History of Combating Health Fraud in Twentieth-Century America, Eric W. Boyle, [1] ...
The small Canadian Communist League (Marxist-Leninist), for instance, praised his government and sent a delegation to meet with ... "one of the 20th century's most brutal and radical regimes".[450] Both the BBC News and Time magazine blamed his government for ... Sâr and Sary worked for the party during its successful election campaign;[36] conversely, Short maintains that Sâr had no ... "one of the worst mass killings of the 20th century".[451] In 2009, Deutsche Welle described Pol Pot's government as having ...
Grenke, Arthur (2005). God, Greed, and Genocide: The Holocaust Through the Centuries. New Academia Publishing. p. 92. ISBN ... "Rather, the catastrophic rate of killing was due to German persistence … and the duration of the murderous campaigns. This last ... Louis with Jewish refugees from Germany denied entry to Cuba, Canada, and the United States in mid-1939 ... Piotr Eberhardt; Jan Owsinski (2003). Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in Twentieth-century Central-Eastern Europe: History ...
"Canadian Flags of the Royal Family". Canadian Crown. Government of Canada. Retrieved 4 January 2016.. ... "Campaign Against Arms Trade. 15 January 2014. *^ "What Scandal Involving Prince Andrew Says - Al Jazeera America". Retrieved 19 ... Dukes of York and Albany (18th century). *George (1892-1910). *Albert (1920-1936) ... Canadian Monarchist News. Monarchist League of Canada. p. 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 ...
According to Global News, a Canadian online newspaper, many different regions across Canada offer unisex toilets and other ... "30 Beijing locations embrace China NGO's unisex bathroom campaign". English Sina. June 16, 2016. Retrieved April 19, 2017.. ... In the 21st century, with increased exposure of the transgender community, there have been some initiatives calling for unisex ... Canada[edit]. In April 2014, the Vancouver Park Board decided to install unisex toilets in public buildings, with different ...
2000). Visions of Technology: A Century of Vital Debate about Machines, Systems, and the Human World. Simon & Schuster, ISBN ... The Canadian Journal of Sociology. 31 (3): 351-60. doi:10.1353/cjs.2006.0050. Retrieved 16 February 2007.. ... as part of an effort to end his bombing campaign of the techno-industrial infrastructure. ... Optimism and skepticism in the 21st century. This section mainly focuses on American concerns even if it can reasonably be ...
Presidential campaigns. 2004. Main article: Dennis Kucinich 2004 presidential campaign. This section of a biography of a living ... Our Century: 'Boy Mayor' Leads Battle Into Default by Fred McGunagle. *^ The Crisis of Growth Politics: Cleveland, Kucinich, ... just as Saskatchewan did for Canada.[123] However, the Kucinich Amendment was stripped from the merged House bill. Speaker ... "Our Campaigns. March 6, 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-30.. *^ Noga, Joe (November 7, 2012). "Marcy Kaptur coasts to win in 9th ...
Canadian First Nations[edit]. The Lenape who fled United States in the late 18th century settled in what is now Ontario. Canada ... began slash and burn campaigns, often raiding in mid-winter to drive out targeted populations and despoiling their productive ... Oratam (16th century), sachem of the Hackensack. *Captain Pipe (Hopocan), (ca. 1725-ca. 1818), 18th Century chief and member of ... At the time of sustained European contact in the 16th centuries and 17th centuries, the Lenape were a powerful Native American ...
"In Romaniello, Matthew; Starks, Tricia (eds.). Tobacco in Russian History and Culture: The Seventeenth Century to the Present. ... Canadian Council for Tobacco Control. *Clearing the Air Scotland Scottish Executive site established to provide information on ... campaigns. Fearing reduced sales, the industry created a media and legislative programme that focused upon "accommodation". ... "In Romaniello, Matthew; Starks, Tricia (eds.). Tobacco in Russian History and Culture: The Seventeenth Century to the Present. ...
Other leaders of American foreign policy in the late twentieth century and early twenty-first century have acknowledged ... During that year's city election campaign, in which the Klan publicly supported several candidates, including for the office of ... All German American culture in the United States and nearby Canada came under attack for suspicion of having dual loyalties. ... Christian Century, January 7, 1926, pages 9-11), "Germany Must Be Told" (Christian Century, August 9, 1933, pages 1014-1015, ...
"Time and Change: The Ohio State Campaign strives to engage 1M supporters". Time and Change: The Ohio State Campaign strives to ... In the last quarter century,[clarification needed] 32 Ohio State faculty members have received the Guggenheim Fellowship, more ... "U.S. and Canadian 2019 NTSE Participating Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2019 Endowment Market Value, and Percentage Change ... With an initial goal of raising $850 million, the campaign's final tally was $1.23 billion, placing Ohio State among the small ...
Hilliard, Robert L; Keith, Michael C (February 18, 2010). The Broadcast Century and Beyond: A Biography of American ... John McCain's campaign stop[53]. December 7, 2008. Chicago, Illinois. Interview with president-elect Barack Obama; while taped ... Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Clinton-Yeltsin summit January 30, 1994. Atlanta, Georgia. Super Bowl XXVIII at the ... Interview with Hillary Clinton during her 2008 presidential campaign[44]. January 20, 2008. New York City, New York. Roundtable ...
"Canadian Chiropractic Association: Chiropractic in Canada". Canadian Chiropractic Association. Archived from the original on ... The charity Sense About Science launched a campaign to draw attention to this particular legal case against science writer ... Palmer helped to expand it in the early 20th century.[22] Throughout its history, chiropractic has been controversial.[24][25] ... "Canadian Chiropractic Association FAQs". Canadian Chiropractic Association. Archived from the original on 2009-08-17. Retrieved ...
Also, Snow composed the Detroit's WDIV-TV "Go 4 It!" campaign in 1980. She sang "Ancient Places, Sacred Lands," composed by ... In 1979, she toured extensively throughout the US and Canada with noted guitarist Arlen Roth as her lead guitarist and musical ... 20th-century American guitarists. *Guitarists from New Jersey. *Guitarists from New York City ... The name came from a character-dressed all in white-in an advertising campaign dating to the early 1900s, touting a train that ...
Canada[edit]. During the 2015 Canadian federal election, the Conservative party led by incumbent Prime Minister Stephen Harper ... Also in that election cycle, Obama's campaign ran an ad that said Mitt Romney was "not one of us".[33] The ad, which Washington ... "echoes a slogan that has been used as a racial code over at least the past half-century",[34] ran in Ohio, a state that is only ... "Harper's 'old-stock Canadians' line is part deliberate strategy: pollster". 18 September 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2016.. ...
"The Early 20th Century Through World War II" Clothing and Fashion: American Fashion from Head to Toe, edited by Jose Blanco, ... The #KuToo campaign in Japan collected over 150,000 signatures on a petition[9] for a ban on mandatory high heels. The ... In April 2017, the Canadian province of British Columbia amended workplace legislation to prevent employers from requiring ... 21st centuryEdit. The intricate and complex history of high heels has led to a variety of cultural thoughts and lens through ...
For the World War II military campaign, see Battle of the Caucasus. For the 19th century Russian invasion, see Caucasian War. ... Lionel Dunsterville was appointed in 1917 to lead an Allied force of under 1,000 Australian, British, Canadian and New Zealand ... The Caucasus campaign extended from the South Caucasus to the Armenian Highlands region, reaching as far as Trabzon, Bitlis, ... The Caucasus campaign comprised armed conflicts between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire, later including Armenia, ...
Statistics Canada. Retrieved 19 January 2013.. *^ "Detailed Mother Tongue, 2011 Census of Canada". Statistics ... For the next centuries, from the Peace of Amasya until the first half of the 19th century, several regions of the wide Kurdish ... The Anfal campaign led to destruction of over two thousand villages and killing of 182,000 Kurdish civilians.[221] The campaign ... Well-known examples are Hosap Castle of the 17th century,[283] Sherwana Castle of the early 18th century, and the Ellwen Bridge ...
James Taylor, The age we live in: a history of the nineteenth century, Oxford University, 1882; p. 222. ... He also campaigned against yellow fever during the construction of the Panama Canal. A previous effort of canal building by the ... The mortality rate in British garrisons in Jamaica was seven times that of garrisons in Canada, mostly because of yellow fever ... Gessner, I. (2016). Yellow Fever Years: An Epidemiology of Nineteenth-Century American Literature and Culture. Frankfurt/Main: ...
CanadaEdit. In Canada, khat is a controlled substance under Schedule IV of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA), ... Khat has been grown for use as a stimulant for centuries in the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. There, chewing khat ... Some Somali community organisations also campaigned for khat to be banned.[87] As a result of these concerns, the Home Office ... "Gangs infiltrate Canada's airports". The Christian Science Monitor. 16 December 2008. Retrieved 2 April 2010.. ...
Many continued to live on the plains, only brought to conformity by the Red River War campaign. Quanah Parker and his Quahada ... The reservation was reported at 575,000 acres (2,330 km2; 898 sq mi), most of it between Little River and the South Canadian. ... The nomadic Kickapoo were first known to inhabit Michigan, and by the 19th Century were split between Kansas, Oklahoma and ... Their acreage was reported as being part of the Potawatomi reservation, on fertile ground between the North Fork and Canadian ...
For the 15th-century Antipope, see Antipope John XXIII.. Pope John XXIII (Latin: Ioannes; Italian: Giovanni; born Angelo ... Bibliowiki has original media or text related to this article: Pope John XXIII (in the public domain in Canada) ... On 7 September 2000, the International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation launched the International Campaign for the Acknowledgement ... Across the centuries our brother Abel has lain in blood which we drew, or shed tears we caused by forgetting Thy love. Forgive ...
This migration occurred in the 17th and 18th centuries.[105] In the 17th century many Chinese men from southeastern Chinese ... The Trai made up the supporters of Le Loi in his campaign. He lived among the Trai at the border regions as their leader and ... Today, there are many Hoa communities in Australia, Canada, France, United Kingdom and the United States, where they have ... Heng, Derek (2009). Sino-Malay Trade and Diplomacy from the Tenth Through the Fourteenth Century. Ohio University Press. ISBN ...
Stuart Mitchell, "Resale price maintenance and the character of resistance in the conservative party: 1949-64," Canadian ... Retailing in the 21st Century: Current and Future Trends, pp.345-359 ... "increasingly implement promotional campaigns that will be effective in triggering consumer impulse buying behavior" to increase ...
"Ad campaign for assisted suicide banned from Canadian airwaves - The Globe and Mail". Toronto: Retrieved ... Trouble is, we have had too many centuries of religious claptrap."[60] He works mainly with older people from whom he gains ... He campaigned successfully to have a legal euthanasia law passed in Australia's Northern Territory and assisted four people in ... "Retired professor, 82, who campaigned for euthanasia to be legalised is found dead at home after 'taking suicide drugs which ...
Lipski, John M. (2005). A History of Afro-Hispanic Language: Five Centuries, Five Continents. Cambridge University Press. ISBN ... French campaigns against Samori Ture, which were met with greater resistance than usual in tribal warfare, intensified in the ... The women's football team played in the 2015 Women's World Cup in Canada. Ivory Coast notable footballers are Didier Drogba, ... From the 11th century, by which time the rulers of the Sudanic empires had embraced Islam, it spread south into the northern ...
21st Century Catholic Community Campaign (21CCC) This initiative aims to support and strengthen inter-organizational ... With the support of a research grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council in Canada, we will be creating ...
18th Century. *American Revolutionary War, 1775 - 1783 *Boston campaign, 1775 - 1776. *Canadian Theatre, 1775 - 1776 ... A harsh history of Canada in Haiti: Most Canadians are just now catching wind of the evil Canadian foreign policy in Haiti ... A harsh history of Canada in Haiti: Most Canadians are just now catching wind of the evil Canadian foreign policy in Haiti ... The evils of Canadian foreign policy or the inability of Canadian foreign policy to prevail over the interests of both ...
Canadian firm plans fracking campaign that could require 4 billion gallons of Michigan water. June 25, 2013 , Jeff Alexander ... New century brings change to Michigans gender competition. June 20, 2013 , Kurt Metzger ...
Tackle a campaign to make the world suck less.. Explore Campaigns *The Storm of the 20th Century took place in March, 1993. It ... And stretched from Canada to mid-America. The blizzard cause roughly 300 deaths and 10 million power outages. ...
The office began in the 16th and 17th centuries with the Crown-appointed governors of the French colony of Canada followed by ... Regina: Canadian Plains Research Center. Gardner, Dan (17 February 2009). "A stealth campaign against the Queen". Calgary ... MacLeod 2008, p. 35 Department of Canadian Heritage (2008). Canada: Symbols of Canada. Ottawa: Queens Printer for Canada. p. 3 ... "Canada Wide > About Us > The Order of St. John > The Order of St. John in Canada". St. John Ambulance Canada. Retrieved 2 June ...
Canada is one of the oldest continuing monarchies in the world. Initially established in the 16th century, monarchy in Canada ... Regina: Canadian Plains Research Center. Gardner, Dan (17 February 2009). "A stealth campaign against the Queen". Calgary ... Department of Canadian Heritage (2010), Canada: Symbols of Canada (PDF), Ottawa: Queens Printer for Canada, p. 3, retrieved 4 ... "Why Canada Needs the Monarchy", The Canadian Encyclopedia, Historica Canada, retrieved 18 February 2015 Department of Canadian ...
Locked-in syndrome sufferer Tony Nicklinson campaigned for years to win the right to end his life. Here is the timeline of his ... Canadian billionaire Barry Sherman and wife found dead * Play video South Africas ANC begins campaign to replace Jacob Zuma ...
Canadian billionaire Barry Sherman and wife found dead * Play video South Africas ANC begins campaign to replace Jacob Zuma ...
The Hunting of the President: The Ten-Year Campaign to Destroy Bill and Hillary Clinton. New York: St. Martins, 2000. ... The Impeachment of William Jefferson Clinton. Brookfield, Conn.: Twenty-First Century Mediacorp, 2000. ... And in 1985, to help the governor pay off a $50,000 campaign debt, James McDougal hosted a fund-raiser at Madison Guaranty. He ... In addition, McDougal held a fund-raising event for governor Clinton in 1985 to help pay off a Clinton campaign debt. ...
Queens history has been written alongside Canadas. When Canada was emerging as a nation in the 19th century, Queens ... The Initiative Campaign will help us achieve our potential and define the Queens of the future. ... Talk By White Ribbon Campaign Executive Director Looks At Ways To Stop Violence Against Women. *October 17, 2013 ... This year, for the thirteenth year in a row, Kingston will play host to the Kingston Canadian Film Festival (KCFF) ...
All shipping charges will be collected after the campaign.. Shipping: $10 US / $10 Canada / $10 EU / $20 Rest of World.. ... Electric tram appeared at the end of XIX century. To present days survived the first such cable-drawn tram, patented by Abner ... 3) Shipping cost will be charged after the end of the campaign to our account in the United States. In the questionnaire you ... 5) Buyers in the United States and Canada will receive a shipment from Miami. Consumers in the EU will receive a shipment from ...
A political history of women in Canada in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Topics include campaigns for suffrage, ... Explores election campaigns in Canada through case studies of key elements such as the selection of candidates, the building of ... An analysis and evaluation of Canadas role on the international scene; main objectives of Canadian foreign policy; security ... The Canadian Arctic is an emerging area of concern due to changes scarcely imaginable even a few years ago. Examines the nature ...
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Canada started selling war bonds in 1917 to raise money during World War I for the Allies of World War I. Five bond campaigns ... 21st century[edit]. In 2004, consultants gave the Department of Finance a report suggesting the CSB program be scrapped, giving ... Canada RIF no-fee Registered Retirement Income Fund (RRIF) designed specifically for holding the Canada Premium and Canada ... Canada Savings Bonds were investment instruments that were offered by the Government of Canada in between the years 1945 and to ...
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  • Alice Barton, Sierra Club of Canada Campaigner and Coordinator of the Campaign for Pesticide Reduction noted that: "Environmental and health organizations from across Canada will be stepping up the pressure on the new federal government to live up to its international commitment to protect children's health and to bring federal pesticide law into the 21st century. (
  • Bridgepoint Health is a global leader and the only organization in Canada solely dedicated to changing the world for people living with complex chronic disease the number one healthcare challenge of the 21st century. (
  • The academic medicine campaign aims to develop a vision and set of recommendations for reforming academic medicine in the 21st century. (
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  • With Roger & Me, Bowling for Columbine and then Fahrenheit 9/11, it was Michael Moore who would inspire 21st century documentary filmmakers with a new form, one that focused on a central character immersed in an issue. (
  • The Storm of the 20th Century took place in March, 1993. (
  • As far as reliable data are available, this international rank order of party spending levels has been fairly stable during the second half of the 20th century. (
  • After all, prior to the early 20th century, you might be treated with blood-sucking leeches to drain you of poisons, nasty concoctions that caused severe vomiting or diarrhea to purge your system, or ice-water baths to rid you of fevers or treat hysteria. (
  • So the early 20th century anti-vax argument was about freedom, government conspiracies, pseudoscience, parental anxiety and "the arbitrary pollution of children's bodies in Toronto with animal matter," while a century later it's about freedom, Big Pharma conspiracies, pseudoscience, parental anxiety and the use of minimal amounts of mercury and aluminium as adjuvants. (
  • A changing economic and retail environment in the late 20th century, along with mismanagement, culminated in the chain's bankruptcy in 1999. (
  • At the beginning of the 20th century, Eaton's conducted a large business in Western Canada through its catalogue. (
  • The Black-footed Ferret now calls Grassland National Park home for the first time since the early 20th century. (
  • However, during the early 20th century, numerous countries all over the world and specifically in Europe began what was to known as "temperance movements" which called for a total ban on alcohol consumption. (
  • Cannabis & hemp were renamed marijuana in the early part of the 20th Century in a misinformation campaign designed by and to benefit the petrochemical pharmaceutical military industrial transnational crony corporate elite ruling class (6). (
  • The reason hemp, or marijuana, was prohibited in the 20th century was to suppress hemp fuel and fiber production. (
  • The office began in the 16th and 17th centuries with the Crown-appointed governors of the French colony of Canada followed by the British governors of Canada in the 18th and 19th centuries. (
  • These succeeded in having mental "hospitals" established across the country during the latter part of the 19th century. (
  • A few 19th-century hospital records are available in hospital and historical archives, and microfilmed copies may be available through the Family History Library (FHL) in Salt Lake City. (
  • 1835 1919) Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who greatly expanded the American steel industry in the late 19th century. (
  • From the 19th century until the 1970s, more than 150,000 Indigenous children were forced to attend state-funded Christian schools, the majority of them run by Roman Catholic missionary congregations, in a campaign to assimilate them into Canadian society. (
  • In the early 19th century, several moralistic movements swept across the United States and pushed for legislations enforcing social reforms such as the abolition of slavery. (
  • Prior to Confederation, prohibition laws had been in existence in Canada in the mid-19th century with the Province of Canada passing the Dunkin Act in 1864 where any municipality was given authority to prohibit the retail sale of liquor through a majority vote. (
  • What Canada hopes to gain by waging a 19th-century style colonial campaign of 'pacification' straight out of the pages of Rudyard Kipling, against wild Pashtun tribesmen in the mountains of the Hindu Kush, remains to be satisfactorily explained. (
  • On July 19th, Prime Minister Trudeau delivered on his campaign promise by officially launching the Prime Minister's Youth Council. (
  • Early in the twentieth century, some states set up presidential primaries to choose delegates and record voter preferences among the aspiring candidates. (
  • By the end of the twentieth century the party primary system dominated the nominating process, with party conventions reduced to a merely symbolic role. (
  • By the late twentieth century, Texas, California, and the deep South emerged as major breeding grounds for presidential nominees. (
  • In the nineteenth century the nominee himself did little stumping and conducted instead a "front porch" campaign, but the twentieth century saw increased candidate involvement, often reaching a frantic pace after the middle of the century. (
  • Yet, despite interest in the cultural impact of consumption on empire, with products like tea or sugar, these twentieth century. (
  • And what can we learn from the successful efforts to eradicate bovine tuberculosis in the early twentieth century, particularly in light of contemporary efforts to combat something like Mad Cow disease? (
  • In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, Cox suggests, death lurked in the cups of thousands of Canadian children. (
  • For this reason, it found itself falling from favour over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, with the Siberian Husky and Alaskan Malamute being used as faster alternatives. (
  • In the twentieth century the situation changed. (
  • Here, she examines the rise of the buccaneer and touches on the origin of popular conceptions of pirates as depicted in nineteenth-century novels and twentieth-century film. (
  • The second half of the twentieth century saw remarkable gains in global health, spurred by rapid economic growth and unprecedented scientific advances. (
  • Inspired by his own experiences working as a physician in a bush hospital of Zaire, Jacques Pepin looks back to the early twentieth-century events in central Africa that triggered the emergence of HIV/AIDS and traces its subsequent development into the most dramatic and destructive epidemic of modern times. (
  • In the nineteenth century, generals frequently won presidential nominations, but none has since 1956. (
  • Claims that raw milk is unsafe are based on 40-year-old science and century-old experiences from distillery dairy "factory farms" in rapidly urbanizing nineteenth century America. (
  • Barbarossa and Murat Reis receive ample attention as does the use of Barbary piracy by the major European states as a weapon of foreign policy, which eventually leads to the American campaigns against the Barbary states in the early nineteenth century. (
  • In "Pirates of the Far East," she probes piracy in Japan thoroughly, yet exclusively, without paying attention to the massive fleets under the command of Chinese pirate leader Koxinga in the seventeenth century or Madame Cheng in the nineteenth century. (
  • Reid L. Neilson, "The Nineteenth-Century Euro-American Mormon Missionary Model," in Go Ye into All the World: The Growth & Development of Mormon Missionary Work , ed. (
  • Nineteenth-century members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (hereafter cited as the Church) developed a unique method of evangelism, that I have tagged the "Euro-American Mormon missionary model. (
  • The label gang has been applied to various groups including outlaws of the nineteenth-century American West, prison inmates, Mafioso and other organized criminals, motorcyclists, and groups of inner city youths. (
  • From nineteenth-century Canadian women's suffrage campaigns to recent direct actions for sustainable development in India, wherever women's movements have been established, national organizations and local grassroots groups have worked together for the interests of women and girls. (
  • The eight-man board of directors consisted of four Canadians and four Americans, as required by the bylaws. (
  • During the free silver campaign of 1896 multitudes of Americans held that British creditors, who naturally favored the maintenance of the gold standard in the United States, were using their money to interfere in the domestic affairs of the country. (
  • SAN FRANCISCO (AP) - Asian Americans, veterans and civilians in the U.S. and the Philippines are campaigning to name a Navy warship for a Filipino sailor who bravely rescued two crew members when their ship caught fire more than a century ago, earning him a prestigious and rare Medal of Honor. (
  • Next to British immigrants, immigrants from America were wanted by the canadian because americans were used to the north american climate and farming in it. (
  • Sending troops to Afghanistan was marketed to Americans -- and Canadians -- as a crusade against terrorism, with nation-building as a sub-theme. (
  • Afghans know one day the Americans, Canadians, and other foreigners will go home, just as did the Russians, British and Alexander's Greeks. (
  • And stretched from Canada to mid-America. (
  • Often cited as the oldest indigenous dog breed of North America, the Canadian Eskimo Dog is well adapted to the life it has led for many centuries in the Arctic Circle, labouring as a beast of burden and a hunter. (
  • Charles Darwin, along with many of the early Old World explorers of North America, believed the Canadian Eskimo dog to be closely related to the wolf, given the similarities in appearance between the two. (
  • Chinch bug (Blissus leucopterus), small insect found in the United States, Canada, Central America, and the West Indies. (
  • [3] Nevertheless, during the eighteenth century, the British Anglicans sent missionaries to America under the banner of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, and some Quakers and Moravians evangelized outside of Euro-American towns. (
  • After a quarter century of working with diverse partners in Canada, the United States, Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean to help protect our shared natural resources and train the next generation of conservationists, International Migratory Bird Day (IMBD) is transforming. (
  • In 2018, Environment for the Americas, IMBD's sponsor since 2007, joins the Convention on Migratory Species and the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds to create a single, global bird conservation education campaign: World Migratory Bird Day (WMBD). (
  • The monarchy of Canada is at the core of Canada's constitutional federal structure and Westminster-style parliamentary democracy. (
  • Thus, within Canada's constitutional monarchy the sovereign's direct participation in any of these areas of governance is normally limited, with the sovereign typically exercising executive authority only on the advice of the executive committee of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, and the sovereign's legislative and judicial responsibilities largely carried out through parliamentarians as well as judges and justices of the peace. (
  • With that first tactical strike, Mr. Harper opened Canada's longest official federal campaign season in at least a century, an absorbing and at times strikingly vitriolic spectacle of political calculation. (
  • Canada's voice has been one of the loudest amidst NATO's anti-Russia rhetoric as first the Conservatives, now the Liberals pander to the extremist minority among the estimated 1.2 million Canadians of Ukrainian origin. (
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  • The Wall Street bogie was even used occasionally in election campaigns to frighten patriotic Canadians, who were pictured by at least one political orator as destined to become hewers of wood and drawers of water for American capital. (
  • Initially established in the 16th century, monarchy in Canada has evolved through a continuous succession of French and British sovereigns into the independent Canadian sovereigns of today, whose institution is sometimes colloquially referred to as the Maple Crown. (
  • In accordance with the Constitution Act, 1982, any constitutional amendment that affects the Crown, including the office of Governor General, requires the unanimous consent of each provincial legislature as well as the Parliament of Canada. (
  • Bourassa discusses Canadian affairs with a wealth of knowledge which is unusual in the Parliament of Canada. (
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  • Barr is focused on the Obama administration's counterintelligence probe of the Trump campaign (FISA surveillance, confidential informants, "unmasking" of U.S. persons incidentally monitored in foreign-intelligence collection, etc. (
  • Although the post initially still represented the government of the United Kingdom (that is, the monarch in her British council), the office was gradually Canadianized until, with the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931 and the establishment of a separate and uniquely Canadian monarchy, the governor general became the direct personal representative of the independently and uniquely Canadian sovereign, the monarch in his Canadian council. (
  • The monarchy thus ceased to be an exclusively British institution and in Canada became a Canadian, or "domesticated", establishment, though it is still often denoted as "British" in both legal and common language, for reasons historical, political, and of convenience. (
  • The seven presidential campaigns between 1976 and 2000 represent a period of change in American politics, including new rules for campaigns, challenges to the two-party system, and altered electoral coalitions. (
  • During the First World War, the province of Prince Edward Island enacted a Prohibition law seen as a patriotic symbol to stand with the Canadian troops engaged in the warfare. (
  • The Queen, as a political sovereign, is shared equally with the 15 other Commonwealth realms and the 10 provinces of Canada, but she physically resides predominantly in her oldest and most populous realm, the United Kingdom. (
  • For example, in 1904, the Militia Act granted permission for the governor general to use the title of Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian militia, while Command-in-Chief remained vested in the sovereign, and in 1927 the first official international visit by a governor general was made. (
  • The sovereign will also hold an audience with the appointee and will at that time induct both the governor general-designate and his or her spouse into the Order of Canada as Companions, as well as appointing the former as a Commander of both the Order of Military Merit and the Order of Merit of the Police Forces (should either person not have already received either of those honours). (
  • While some powers are exercisable only by the sovereign, most of the monarch's operational and ceremonial duties (such as summoning the House of Commons and accrediting ambassadors) are exercised by his or her representative, the governor general of Canada. (
  • While the power for these acts stems from the Canadian people through the constitutional conventions of democracy, executive authority remains vested in the Crown and is only entrusted by the sovereign to the government on behalf of the people. (
  • The person who is the Canadian sovereign is equally shared with 15 other monarchies (a grouping, including Canada, known informally as the Commonwealth realms) in the 53-member Commonwealth of Nations. (
  • Only Canadian federal ministers of the Crown may advise the sovereign on any and all matters of the Canadian state, of which the sovereign, when not in Canada, is kept abreast by weekly communications with the federal viceroy. (
  • But Canadians have legislated support for the sovereign principle of First Nations lands. (
  • Becuase of this, populating it became important to Canada and the Canadian government.On 1896, the minister of Interior,Clifford Sifton had been enforcing a comprehensive program to attract people to Canada, and by 1900, over 45,000 immigrants came to western Canada. (
  • Clarification on the municipal role will be determined in an important case heading to the Supreme Court of Canada tomorrow. (
  • Canadian governments were hoping for immigrants from Britain, considering that Canada was part of the British Colony. (
  • CELA's legal arguments outline the respective role of municipal, provincial and federal governments under current legislation in Canada. (
  • The CDC considers water fluoridation one of the 10 top health achievements of the past century, on par with vaccines and antismoking campaigns. (
  • But the main arguments being made against vaccines on social media, message boards, blogs and fringe media publications are pretty much the same ones that have been made for over a century. (
  • This, in turn, led to forming of the aforementioned Anti-Vaccination League of Canada in 1900, which returned in force in 1919 along with the return of smallpox. (
  • Canada Savings Bonds were investment instruments that were offered by the Government of Canada in between the years 1945 and to 2017, sold between early October and December 1 of every year. (
  • Since last year, Canadian, British and U.S. soldiers began an intervention into the country consisting, in the first instance, of training the Ukrainian army and extremist paramilitaries at the so-called International Peacekeeping and Security Center in western Ukraine. (
  • While the average annual donation level may have been smaller in dollar terms than the national figure ($375 compared to $446 in 2010), Atlantic Canadians were more likely to volunteer in their communities and spend more time each year engaged in these activities. (
  • 7 Dec 18 - This parched world s landlocked basins they make up a fifth of the Earth s surface have lost at least 100 billion tonnes of water every year since the century began. (
  • UN Water's campaign for this year is called The Answer is in Nature. (
  • This time last year, young Canadians embarked on a journey of change that saw them shatter the stereotypical label of apathy and cynicism. (
  • A campaign event in Public Safety Minister Vic Toews' riding last year had all the trappings of a funding announcement, raising eyebrows among bureaucrats who thought such activities were on hold until votes were cast. (
  • An examination of the institutions and logics of Indigenous governance structures in Canada. (
  • VATICAN CITY (AP) - Pope Francis on Sunday expressed his pain over the discovery in Canada of the remains of 215 Indigenous students of church-run residential schools and pressed religious and political authorities to shed light on "this sad affair. (
  • When contrasted with the state's prior approach to Indigenous people - a centuries-long campaign of forced exclusion and assimilation that, as Coulthard puts it, aimed to eliminate Indigenous people "if not physically, then as cultural, political, and legal peoples distinguishable from the rest of Canadian society" (p. 4) - the politics of recognition might seem to be non-colonial, even modestly anti-colonial, in its orientation. (
  • they are depicted as equivalent or homologous to the Canadian nation, and settler state consultations with Indigenous communities are often described as a symmetrical "nation to nation" dialogue. (
  • Time after time, however, Indigenous people have been denied the expansive forms of authority and jurisdiction afforded to the Canadian nation and state, even within territories officially recognized as theirs. (
  • Locked-in syndrome sufferer Tony Nicklinson campaigned for years to win the right to end his life. (
  • For many years mentally- disturbed people were the victims of blatant, official, systemic discrimination in Canada. (
  • Another dynamic: After nine years in power, the Conservatives have worn out many voters, with about 70 percent of Canadians saying they want change in published polls and internal party polls. (
  • Stateside, animal-rights group and celebrities, including vegan music legend Russell Simmons, have campaigned for years to retire New York City's horse-drawn carriages but have not found success with the local government. (
  • The pedestrian crosswalk on Queen Street West, just to the west of the intersection with Yonge Street, was for years one of the busiest in Canada, as thousands of shoppers a day comparison-shopped between Eaton's and Simpson's. (
  • Take two examples which appeared casually in talk about this, that, and the other: Three years ago he read an article in the Canadian Courier on General Hertzog, who had recently left General Botha's Government in South Africa. (
  • Though it is a rare breed today, the Canadian Inuits could not have survived their Arctic environment without many of these dogs, which first travelled to the region from Asia with the migratory Thule people around 1000 years ago. (
  • For nearly ten years, authoritative and comprehensive studies prepared by environmental and health experts in both the United States and Canada have identified a wide range of health risks for children from current exposure levels to pesticides," said Dr. Nicole Bruinsma with the Canadian Association of Physicians for the Environment. (
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  • Over the next few decades, DU Canada made steady progress protecting or restoring habitat across the prairie provinces. (
  • It would be decades before all Canadians could vote - Chinese-Canadians were granted the right in 1947 while Aboriginal Peoples didn't win unconditional suffrage until 1960. (
  • The Eskimo Dog has been bred in isolation for centuries, yet retains the features typical of other members of the Spitz family. (
  • Under The Same Sun was founded in 2008 by a Canadian philanthropist who has albinism himself. (
  • upon his discharge he settled near Kingston, then the chief mercantile centre of Upper Canada. (
  • He shows how the disease was first transmitted from chimpanzees to man and then how military interventions, urbanisation, prostitution and large-scale colonial medical campaigns intended to eradicate tropical diseases combined to disastrous effect to fuel the spread of the virus from its origins in Leopoldville to the rest of Africa, the Caribbean and ultimately worldwide. (
  • Extending the turmoil of the 1960s, these campaigns witnessed regular challenges to the two-party system by divisive primaries and significant independent candidacies. (
  • Despite political careers fraught with challenges - both women served one term - the trailblazers proved themselves as viable political candidates with different campaign strategies. (
  • Articles in this theme issue (including two from the working party (pp p 787, p 789)) discuss these questions and identify the challenges facing the campaign. (
  • As a new father, and someone who has worked both with and alongside young Canadians for the majority of my life, not only do I appreciate, but I fully support the prime minister and this government's interest in meeting these challenges, including providing youth with greater opportunities, as well as giving them a more powerful voice within the walls of government. (
  • The Queen, on the advice of her Canadian prime minister, appoints a governor general to carry on the Government of Canada in her own right, and, as ex officio viceroy, most of her constitutional and ceremonial duties, that is, the royal prerogative. (
  • The letters patent constituting the office, and official publications of the Government of Canada, spell the title governor general, without a hyphen. (
  • Canadians who hoped the federal election last October 19 would usher in change to the aggressive, foreign policy of the defeated Conservative government are wondering what happened to their wishes. (
  • Cam Fenton, Canada team lead at (named for a 'safe' level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere) pointed out the regulator twice recommended the government approve the Trans Mountain expansion, but is now projecting that Prime Minister Justin 'Trudeau's own actions on climate could make the pipeline he bought unnecessary. (
  • Beginning in 1895, the Canadian government began an active campaign to rid the nation's herds of bovine tuberculosis. (
  • The Canadian government has admitted that physical and sexual abuse was rampant in the schools, with students beaten for speaking their native languages. (
  • Grassroots Palestinian boycott campaigns across the occupied West Bank to take Israeli settlement products off the shelves of local stores have made an impact on the Israeli settlement economy, to the unease of the Israeli government, noted the Israeli daily Haaretz this week (`Palestinians `adamant about continuing boycott on settlement goods`,` 8 August 2010). (
  • The intervenors in tomorrow's case hope that the Supreme Court hearing as well as necessary federal revisions to the pesticide registration process will together clarify and strengthen the respective roles of these two levels of government in the control of pesticide use in Canada. (
  • In Canada, a national government/industry AI forum in British Columbia in October 2004 had 'nothing on the agenda about animal welfare,' according to Debra Probert, Executive Director of the Vancouver Humane Society, who attended the forum. (
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  • In pre- Confederation Canada, people who had been incarcerated solely for being of unsound mind were put in prisons alongside criminals who treated them with great cruelty. (
  • For centuries African people with albinism have been stigmatized and discriminated against, but now they are being kidnapped, murdered and their body parts are sold for ritual practices. (
  • A Canadian group based in the western city of Vancouver has already been at work in Tanzania helping educate people about albinism and to dispel the myths. (
  • It's estimated that in Canada, one in 20,000 people have albinism. (
  • Despite opposition from First Nations in northern Manitoba who are concerned about the spread of COVID-19 to their communities, this week Manitoba Hydro is replacing 700 people currently at the industry worker camp at the Keeyask dam project with up to 1,200 workers from across Canada and possibly the United States. (
  • I join with the Canadian bishops and the entire Catholic Church in Canada in expressing my closeness to the Canadian people traumatized by the shocking news," Francis said. (
  • We have learned to respect the rights of original people whose cultures have lived on these lands for centuries. (
  • Officials in Montreal, Canada recently passed a ban on horse-drawn carriages (known as "caleches") that requires operators to cease the cruel practice by December 31, 2019. (
  • The ban comes after continued campaigns against caleches by animal-rights group Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and political party Projet Montreal. (
  • Montreal, Canada, witnessed a most impressive initiative in this respect, where 500 artists issued a statement this last February committing themselves to `fighting against [Israeli] apartheid` and calling upon `all artists and cultural producers across the country and around the world to adopt a similar position in this global struggle` for Palestinian rights. (
  • Thus, the preconvention campaign has become the decisive part of the nominating process. (
  • In the Saratoga campaign , his relief of Fort Stanwix and his brilliant campaigning under Horatio Gates played a decisive part in the American victory. (
  • Two Canadian newspapers, the Ottawa Post and the National Post , as well as The Press Democrat in Santa Rosa CA , reprinted this article. (
  • OTTAWA - A new report from the Canada Energy Regulator projects that if Canada strengthens its climate policies to cut more greenhouse-gas emissions, it could eliminate the need for both the Trans Mountain expansion and the new Keystone XL pipeline. (
  • Beginning on New Year's Eve 2019, horses will no longer be forced to pull passengers across the cobblestone streets of the Canadian city. (
  • Understanding who participated in the campaign, their arguments and strategies, their conflicts and coalitions, and developments on the local, state, and national levels will explain a major advance toward democracy and equality in U.S. politics. (
  • Indeed the birth of the CAW in 1985 sprang directly from the promulgation of a nationalist program that divided North American workers and gave a huge opening for the Big Three auto companies to begin their practice of "whip-sawing" contracts and jobs back and forth across the Canada-US border. (
  • While the practice has been allowed to continue for centuries in the Canadian city, recent social media attention of the cruelty involved-where horses collapse from exhaustion and are forced to work in inclement weather-have changed public opinion about horse-drawn carriages. (
  • As is our practice on Wednesdays, we will now sing O Canada, and we will be led by the hon. member for Wellington-Grey-Dufferin-Simcoe. (
  • Once chosen, the presidential candidate selects a new national party chairman and sets up his own campaign organization. (
  • We're taking the day to look back on some of the big accomplishments of the organization from the past half century -- and also to imagine. (
  • Teams of mental health workers sent out to inspect Canadian mental institutions from 1917 to 1919 encountered appalling squalor, neglect and brutality. (
  • They argued that it was an infringement on their freedom, even changing their name to the Anti-Vaccination and Medical Liberty League of Canada, and claimed that "public health officials used vaccination as a "ploy to avoid [more expensive] sanitary measures. (
  • a theme week at that features podcasts exploring a number of topics related to the interconnected histories of food, health, and the environment in Canada. (
  • How, for instance, can we understand obesity as a contemporary public health problem without understanding how rates of obesity have changed over the past century? (
  • He also serves on the Board of Trillium Health Care Products Inc., and on the Advisory Board of the Indo-Canada Chamber of Commerce. (
  • The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society of Canada (LLSC) is a voluntary health agency dedicated to blood cancers. (
  • I, to this day, continue to be grateful for those investments made into making post-secondary education more affordable, which allowed me to be the first in my family to pursue a graduate degree, to providing support to struggling families, and to making quality investments in health care that serves all Canadians. (
  • TORONTO - Stephen Harper did not get to be prime minister of Canada by persuading most of the country's voters to put him in office, and that is not how he intends to keep the job in the general elections on Monday. (
  • The emergence of this arrangement paralleled the fruition of Canadian nationalism following the end of the First World War and culminated in the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931. (
  • viceroys (the governor general of Canada in the federal sphere and a lieutenant governor in each province) are the sovereign's representatives in Canada. (
  • A far-flung Canadian province became the envy of suffragettes across the British Empire when two women were elected to the Alberta legislature on June 7, 1917. (
  • Introductory examination of a topic in Political Science with a Canadian Politics, Comparative Politics, International Relations, or Political Theory focus. (
  • An examination of institutions and political processes in Canada. (
  • With suffragettes pushing for political participation across the British Empire - in New Zealand women had won the right to vote in 1893 but the first woman wouldn't be elected to a legislature until 1933 - Alberta seemed an unlikely place to boast the first successful campaigns. (
  • Examination of these connections in democratic states focusing on Canada in comparative perspective, authoritarian regimes, transitional and hybrid regimes, and the international system. (
  • The 1976 campaign was the first conducted under new rules for selecting convention delegates and new campaign finance regulations, and by 1992 these changes had been fully assimilated by both the Democratic and Republican parties. (
  • The main opposition groups, the New Democratic Party and the Liberal Party, say they will restore Canadian traditions of progressive liberalism and roll back what they see as the Harper era's bellicose posture in foreign affairs. (
  • Despite this, Before the beginning of the First World War, Canada received 2 million immigrants that changed the Western part of Canada forever.Immigrating to Canada was not for everyone. (
  • With the help of major fundraising campaigns, including Team In Training, the world's largest endurance sports training program, and Light The Night Walk, LLSC has awarded more than $31 million in research funding since the first funding in 1955. (
  • On April 5, 2004, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) ordered 19 million birds killed to control the avian influenza (AI) found in British Columbia on February 18 th (Muhtadie). (
  • These difficult moments represent a strong call to distance ourselves from the colonial model and from today's ideological colonizing and to walk side by side in dialogue, in mutual respect and in recognizing rights and cultural values of all the daughters and sons of Canada," the pope said. (
  • The governor general of Canada (French: le gouverneur général du Canada) is the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. (
  • In the slow -, this has to fire expected the representative of the uniform film of the economic campaigns, when they lived at the web-cam of their period in every swimming of instruction. (
  • The U.S./NATO campaign is increasingly directed against warlike Pashtun tribes like the Afridi and Orokzai, and their civilians, rather than against so-called 'Taliban terrorists. (
  • Nearly half of all residents in the Toronto suburbs were born outside Canada, in China, South Asia, Africa, the Caribbean and the Middle East. (
  • Just one change is noteworthy: whereas at the turn of the century the financial means of the major parties were more balanced, recently the governing CDU/CSU has re-established its traditional lead in financial terms. (
  • In particular, they examine the Body Mass Index (BMI) for 40,000 Canadian male soldiers measured between 1914-1918 and 10000 soldiers measured between 1939-1945 in order to identify the broad contours of BMI change in Canada over time. (
  • Beyond the need to ensure that municipalities maintain their power to set pesticide by-laws, change is long overdue for federal legislation governing the registration of pesticides in Canada. (
  • It was clear that Canadian youth wanted to be listened to, and more importantly, they wanted to be given the opportunity to act as agents of change in their lives, and equal partners in their nation. (
  • Climate change will force hundreds of ocean fish and invertebrate species, including economically important species, to move northwards, disrupting U.S. and Canadian fisheries. (
  • Unifor (the former Canadian Auto Workers union, or CAW), like the US-based United Auto Workers (UAW), has joined with management time and again in demanding workers make their own particular plants more "competitive," i.e. accept speed-up and job, wage and benefit cuts. (
  • 19 Nov 18 - China, Russia and Canada s current climate policies would drive the world above a catastrophic 5deg of warming by the end of the century, according to a study that ranks the climate goals of. (
  • Canada started selling war bonds in 1917 to raise money during World War I for the Allies of World War I . Five bond campaigns were held from 1915-1919. (
  • Campaign poster from Roberta MacAdams, running for a seat in the 1917 Alberta election. (
  • The Toronto Zoo has been working on a recovery plan for the Canadian population of the Black-footed Ferret since 1992. (
  • It's a Rubik's Cube here in Canada: a three-dimensional electoral map with history, immigration and vote switching," said John Wright, a senior vice president with Ipsos Reid, a polling and marketing company. (
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  • It is high time that The National Battlefields Commission of Canada updated its procedures. (
  • This meant that basically no chinese immigrants could afford to enter Canada, because during that time, 500$ was a lot of money. (
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  • Mr. Speaker, I would like to draw attention to the archaic method used by The National Battlefields Commission of Canada to collect fines for traffic violations on federal property, particularly in Quebec City. (
  • If it is true that the trouble in Quebec is Bourassa-made, and that it menaces the future happiness of Canada, you can no more divorce the effect from the cause than you can dissociate the ear from the blade. (
  • In the Quebec campaign , he invaded Canada (1775) by way of the Maine forests. (
  • Thc Edmonton squadron operating from Resolute bay "on Cornwallis island will make 10 para- drops in the central Arctic, Including supplies to five joint United States-Canada weather stations. (
  • Indeed, the positive result of these long-term investments in our collective future is that today's young Canadians are part of the most educated and connected generation of youth the world has ever seen. (
  • As a result, the current monarch is officially titled Queen of Canada and, in this capacity, she and other members of the Canadian royal family undertake public and private functions domestically and abroad as representatives of Canada. (
  • Throughout this process of gradually increasing Canadian independence, the role of governor general took on additional responsibilities. (
  • As such, on the recommendation of his or her Canadian prime minister, the Canadian monarch appoints the governor general by commission issued under the royal sign-manual and Great Seal of Canada. (
  • Little has changed overall in the extent to which presidential campaigns emphasize general appeals and slogans rather than focus on clear-cut issues. (
  • BC and Canada in general has had a pretty good environmental track record in part because they recognize the inherent worth and dignity of First Nations communities. (
  • Lisa Cox, "The Historical Roots of Foodborne Illnesses: Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication in Canada, 1895-1960. (
  • In 1781, in the British service, he led two savage raids-against Virginia and against New London, Conn.-before going into exile in England and Canada, where he was generally scorned and unrewarded. (