The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
A DNA-binding protein that interacts with a 17-base pair sequence known as the CENP-B box motif. The protein is localized constitutively to the CENTROMERE and plays an important role in its maintenance.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A genus, Muntiacus, of the deer family (Cervidae) comprising six species living in China, Tibet, Nepal, India, the Malay Peninsula, and neighboring island countries. They are usually found in forests and areas of dense vegetation, usually not far from water. They emit a deep barklike sound which gives them the name "barking deer." If they sense a predator they will "bark" for an hour or more. They are hunted for their meat and skins; they thrive in captivity and are found in many zoos. The Indian muntjac is believed to have the lowest chromosome number in mammals and cell lines derived from them figure widely in chromosome and DNA studies. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed., p1366)
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The three-part structure of ribbon-like proteinaceous material that serves to align and join the paired homologous CHROMOSOMES. It is formed during the ZYGOTENE STAGE of the first meiotic division. It is a prerequisite for CROSSING OVER.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Metacentric chromosomes produced during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS when the CENTROMERE splits transversely instead of longitudinally. The chromosomes produced by this abnormal division are one chromosome having the two long arms of the original chromosome, but no short arms, and the other chromosome consisting of the two short arms and no long arms. Each of these isochromosomes constitutes a simultaneous duplication and deletion.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A mild form of LIMITED SCLERODERMA, a multi-system disorder. Its features include symptoms of CALCINOSIS; RAYNAUD DISEASE; ESOPHAGEAL MOTILITY DISORDERS; sclerodactyly, and TELANGIECTASIS. When the defect in esophageal function is not prominent, it is known as CRST syndrome.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny mammalian cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
The figwort plant family of the order Lamiales. The family is characterized by bisexual flowers with tubular corollas (fused petals) that are bilaterally symmetrical (two-lips) and have four stamens in most, two of which are usually shorter.
A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The mechanisms effecting establishment, maintenance, and modification of that specific physical conformation of CHROMATIN determining the transcriptional accessibility or inaccessibility of the DNA.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
CIRCULAR DNA that is interlaced together as links in a chain. It is used as an assay for the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASES. Catenated DNA is attached loop to loop in contrast to CONCATENATED DNA which is attached end to end.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.

All 16 centromere DNAs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae show DNA curvature. (1/2290)

All 16 centromere DNA regions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae including 90 bp framing sequences on either side were cloned. These 300 bp long centromere regions were analysed by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and found to display a reduced mobility indicative of DNA curvature. The degree of curvature is centromere dependent. The experimental data were confirmed by computer analysis of the 3-dimensional structure of the CEN DNAs. Altogether these data provide further evidence for a model for budding yeast centromeres in which CEN DNA structure could be important for the assembly, activity and/or regulation of the centromere protein-DNA complex.  (+info)

Localization and properties of a silencing element near the mat3-M mating-type cassette of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (2/2290)

Transcription is repressed in a segment of Schizosaccharomyces pombe chromosome II that encompasses the mat2-P and mat3-M mating-type cassettes. Chromosomal deletion analysis revealed the presence of a repressor element within 500 bp of mat3-M. This element acted in synergy with the trans-acting factors Swi6, Clr1, Clr2, Clr3, and Clr4 and had several properties characteristic of silencers: it did not display promoter specificity, being able to silence not only the M mating-type genes but also the S. pombe ura4 and ade6 genes placed on the centromere-distal side of the mat3-M cassette; it could repress a gene when placed further than 2.6 kb from the promoter and it acted in both orientations, although with different efficiencies, the natural orientation repressing more stringently than the reverse. Following deletion of this element, two semistable states of expression of the mat3-M region were observed and these two states could interconvert. The deletion did not affect gene expression in the vicinity of the mat2-P cassette, 11 kb away from mat3-M. Conversely, deleting 1.5 kb on the centromere-proximal side of the mat2-P cassette, which was previously shown to partially derepress transcription around mat2-P, had no effect on gene expression near mat3-M. A double deletion removing the mat2-P and mat3-M repressor elements had the same effect as the single deletions on their respective cassettes when assayed in cells of the M mating type. These observations allow us to refine a model proposing that redundant pathways silence the mating type region of S. pombe.  (+info)

A new X linked neurodegenerative syndrome with mental retardation, blindness, convulsions, spasticity, mild hypomyelination, and early death maps to the pericentromeric region. (3/2290)

We report on a family with an X linked neurodegenerative disorder consisting of mental retardation, blindness, convulsions, spasticity, and early death. Neuropathological examination showed mild hypomyelination. By linkage analysis, the underlying genetic defect could be assigned to the pericentromeric region of the X chromosome with a maximum lod score of 3.30 at theta=0.0 for the DXS1204 locus with DXS337 and PGK1P1 as flanking markers.  (+info)

Short DNA fragments without sequence similarity are initiation sites for replication in the chromosome of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. (4/2290)

We have previously shown that both a centromere (CEN) and a replication origin are necessary for plasmid maintenance in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica (). Because of this requirement, only a small number of centromere-proximal replication origins have been isolated from Yarrowia. We used a CEN-based plasmid to obtain noncentromeric origins, and several new fragments, some unique and some repetitive sequences, were isolated. Some of them were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and correspond to actual sites of initiation (ORI) on the chromosome. We observed that a 125-bp fragment is sufficient for a functional ORI on plasmid, and that chromosomal origins moved to ectopic sites on the chromosome continue to act as initiation sites. These Yarrowia origins share an 8-bp motif, which is not essential for origin function on plasmids. The Yarrowia origins do not display any obvious common structural features, like bent DNA or DNA unwinding elements, generally present at or near eukaryotic replication origins. Y. lipolytica origins thus share features of those in the unicellular Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in multicellular eukaryotes: they are discrete and short genetic elements without sequence similarity.  (+info)

Analysis of the 10q23 chromosomal region and the PTEN gene in human sporadic breast carcinoma. (5/2290)

We examined a panel of sporadic breast carcinomas for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in a 10-cM interval on chromosome 10 known to encompass the PTEN gene. We detected allele loss in 27 of 70 breast tumour DNAs. Fifteen of these showed loss limited to a subregion of the area studied. The most commonly deleted region was flanked by D10S215 and D10S541 and encompasses the PTEN locus. We used a combination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and single-strand conformation polymorphism analyses to investigate the presence of PTEN mutations in tumours with LOH in this region. We did not detect mutations of PTEN in any of these tumours. Our data show that, in sporadic breast carcinoma, loss of heterozygosity of the PTEN locus is frequent, but mutation of PTEN is not. These results are consistent with loss of another unidentified tumour suppressor in this region in sporadic breast carcinoma.  (+info)

Specific destruction of kinetochore protein CENP-C and disruption of cell division by herpes simplex virus immediate-early protein Vmw110. (6/2290)

Examination of cells at the early stages of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection revealed that the viral immediate-early protein Vmw110 (also known as ICP0) formed discrete punctate accumulations associated with centromeres in both mitotic and interphase cells. The RING finger domain of Vmw110 (but not the C-terminal region) was essential for its localization at centromeres, thus distinguishing the Vmw110 sequences required for centromere association from those required for its localization at other discrete nuclear structures known as ND10, promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) bodies or PODs. We have shown recently that Vmw110 can induce the proteasome-dependent loss of several cellular proteins, including a number of probable SUMO-1-conjugated isoforms of PML, and this results in the disruption of ND10. In this study, we found some striking similarities between the interactions of Vmw110 with ND10 and centromeres. Specifically, centromeric protein CENP-C was lost from centromeres during virus infection in a Vmw110- and proteasome-dependent manner, causing substantial ultrastructural changes in the kinetochore. In consequence, dividing cells either became stalled in mitosis or underwent an unusual cytokinesis resulting in daughter cells with many micronuclei. These results emphasize the importance of CENP-C for mitotic progression and suggest that Vmw110 may be interfering with biochemical mechanisms which are relevant to both centromeres and ND10.  (+info)

Dynamic repositioning of genes in the nucleus of lymphocytes preparing for cell division. (7/2290)

We show that several transcriptionally inactive genes localize to centromeric heterochromatin in the nucleus of cycling but not quiescent (noncycling) primary B lymphocytes. In quiescent cells, centromeric repositioning of inactive loci was induced after mitogenic stimulation. A dynamic repositioning of selected genes was also observed in developing T cells. Rag and TdT loci were shown to relocate to centromeric domains following heritable gene silencing in primary CD4+8+ thymocytes, but not in a phenotypically similar cell line in which silencing occurred but was not heritable. Collectively, these data indicate that the spatial organization of genes in cycling and noncycling lymphocytes is different and that locus repositioning may be a feature of heritable gene silencing.  (+info)

Probing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae centromeric DNA (CEN DNA)-binding factor 3 (CBF3) kinetochore complex by using atomic force microscopy. (8/2290)

Yeast centromeric DNA (CEN DNA) binding factor 3 (CBF3) is a multisubunit protein complex that binds to the essential CDEIII element in CEN DNA. The four CBF3 proteins are required for accurate chromosome segregation and are considered to be core components of the yeast kinetochore. We have examined the structure of the CBF3-CEN DNA complex by atomic force microscopy. Assembly of CBF3-CEN DNA complexes was performed by combining purified CBF3 proteins with a DNA fragment that includes the CEN region from yeast chromosome III. Atomic force microscopy images showed DNA molecules with attached globular bodies. The contour length of the DNA containing the complex is approximately 9% shorter than the DNA alone, suggesting some winding of DNA within the complex. The measured location of the single binding site indicates that the complex is located asymmetrically to the right of CDEIII extending away from CDEI and CDEII, which is consistent with previous data. The CEN DNA is bent approximately 55 degrees at the site of complex formation. A significant fraction of the complexes are linked in pairs, showing three to four DNA arms, with molecular volumes approximately three times the mean volumes of two-armed complexes. These multi-armed complexes indicate that CBF3 can bind two DNA molecules together in vitro and, thus, may be involved in holding together chromatid pairs during mitosis.  (+info)

Centromere function requires the proper coordination of several subfunctions, such as kinetochore assembly, sister chromatid cohesion, binding of kinetochore microtubules, orientation of sister kinetochores to opposite spindle poles, and their movement towards the spindle poles. Centromere structure appears to be organized in different, separable domains in order to accomplish these functions. Despite the conserved nature of centromere functions, the molecular genetic definition of the DNA sequences that form a centromere in the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, and in humans has revealed little conservation at the level of centromere DNA sequences. Also at the protein level few centromere proteins are conserved in all of these four organisms and many are unique to the different organisms. The recent analysis of the centromere structure in the yeast S. pombe by electron microscopy and detailed immunofluorescence microscopy of ...
The histone protein CenH3 is both necessary and sufficient to trigger the formation of centromeres and pass them on from 1 generation to the next. Centromeres are specialised regions of the genome, which can be identified under the microscope as the primary constriction in X-shaped chromosomes. The cell skeleton, which distributes the chromosomes to the two daughter cells during cell division, attaches to the centromeres. In most organisms the position of the centromere is not determined by the DNA sequence. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics in Freiburg have succeeded in demonstrating that the position, function and inheritance of the centromere are determined by the histone CenH3, a DNA packaging protein. This discovery may help to further the development of artificial human chromosomes, which could be used for gene therapies in medicine.. Centromeres provide a platform for the development of a protein complex known as the kinetochore. During cell ...
Our results show for the first time that mouse SGO2 localizes at the inner centromere domain during both meiotic and mitotic divisions, in the same way as its orthologue Sgo2 in fission yeast (Kitajima et al, 2004; Rabitsch et al, 2004). SGO2 and RAD21 colocalize and show a double cornet arrangement at the inner centromere domain below the closely associated sister kinetochores during metaphase I and anaphase I. By contrast, REC8 colocalizes only with the vertical region of the T‐shaped SGO2 signals during these stages (supplementary Fig 4 online). These results show that there are two different cohesin complexes with either RAD21 or REC8 at the inner domain of metaphase I and anaphase I centromeres, and that these complexes coexist only at the vertical region of the T‐shaped SGO2 signals. Thus, SGO2, as has been proposed for Sgo1 in Drosophila and yeast meiosis (Kitajima et al, 2004; Marston et al, 2004; Rabitsch et al, 2004; Clarke et al, 2005), could protect centromeric cohesin ...
Although their role in cell division is essential, centromeres evolve rapidly in animals, plants and yeasts. Unlike the complex centromeres of plants and aminals, the point centromeres of Saccharomcyes yeasts can be readily sequenced to distinguish amongst the possible explanations for fast centromere evolution. Using DNA sequences of all 16 centromeres from 34 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and population genomic data from Saccharomyces paradoxus, I show that centromeres in both species evolve 3 times more rapidly even than selectively unconstrained DNA. Exceptionally high levels of polymorphism seen in multiple yeast populations suggest that rapid centromere evolution does not result from the repeated selective sweeps expected under meiotic drive. I further show that there is little evidence for crossing-over or gene conversion within centromeres, although there is clear evidence for recombination in their immediate vicinity. Finally I show that the mutation spectrum at centromeres is ...
The accurate distribution of genetic information to daughter cells during cell division relies on the physical attachment of chromosomes to spindle microtubules mediated by kinetochores. Kinetochores are large protein assemblies deposited at specific chromosomal loci known as centromeres [1], [2], [3]. Defective centromere function results in chromosome segregation errors that can contribute to genomic instability implicated in cancer [4]. Hence, understanding the molecular mechanisms that promote kinetochore establishment and maintenance at centromeres is of prime importance.. The location of most eukaryotic centromeres is determined by the assembly of specialized chromatin composed of nucleosomes in which canonical histone H3 is replaced by the centromere‐specific H3 variant CENP‐A in vertebrates and Cnp1 (CENP‐ACnp1) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe [3], [5]. Thus, the establishment and maintenance of kinetochores requires CENP‐A to be recruited to and deposited at centromeres. In S. ...
Centromere DNA element II (CDEII) of budding yeast centromeres is an AT-rich sequence essential for centromere (CEN) function. Sequence analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDEIIs revealed that A(5-7)/T(5-7) tracts are statistically overrepresented at the expense of AA/TT and alternating AT. To test the hypothesis that this nonrandom sequence organization is functionally important, a CEN library in which the CDEII sequences were randomized was generated. The library was screened for functional and nonfunctional members following centromere replacement in vivo. Functional CENs contained CDEIIs with the highly biased A(n)/T(n) run distribution of native centromeres, while nonfunctional CDEIIs resembled those picked from the library at random. Run content, defined as the fraction of residues present in runs of four or more nucleotides, of the functional and nonfunctional CDEII populations differed significantly (P | 0.001). Computer searches of the genome for regions with an A + T content comparable to
We have employed a system that utilizes homologous pairs of human DNA-derived yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) as marker chromosomes to assess the specific role(s) of conserved centromere DNA elements (CDEI, CDEII and CDEIII) in meiotic chromosome disjunction fidelity. Thirteen different centromere (CEN) mutations were tested for their effects on meiotic centromere function. YACs containing a wild-type CEN DNA sequence segregate with high fidelity in meiosis I (99% normal segregation) and in meiosis II (96% normal segregation). YACs containing a 31-bp deletion mutation in centromere DNA element II (CDEII delta 31) in either a heterocentric (mutant/wild type), homocentric (mutant/mutant) or monosomic (mutant/--) YAC pair configuration exhibited high levels (16-28%) of precocious sister-chromatid segregation (PSS) and increased levels (1-6%) of nondisjunction meiosis I (NDI). YACs containing this mutation also exhibit high levels (21%) of meiosis II nondisjunction. Interestingly, significant ...
The HTR12 protein is a centromere-specific histone H3 variant in A. thaliana, and was shown to colocalize with the 180 bp repetitive sequences of all centromeres (Talbert et al., 2002). The Zea mays centromeric histone H3, CENH3 was also detected at the kinetochore regions of the centromere and colocalized with centromere-specific tandem repeat CentC and with centromeric retroelement CRM (Zhong et al., 2002). These results indicate wide conservation of CENP-A-like proteins and their close relationship to the centromeric satellites. In our study, the spatial relationship between HTR12 protein and 180 bp repetitive sequences was investigated by sequential combination of immunolabeling and FISH. In the cell cultures studied here, drastic changes in the copy numbers of 180 bp repetitive sequences had occurred, however, all chromosomes carried the 180 bp repetitive sequences despite their variation in size (Fig. 1E,F). For chromosomes with low numbers of 180 bp repetitive sequences, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Involvement of the spliceosomal U4 small nuclear RNA in heterochromatic gene silencing at fission yeast centromeres. AU - Chinen, Madoka. AU - Morita, Misato. AU - Fukumura, Kazuhiro. AU - Tani, Tokio. PY - 2010/2/19. Y1 - 2010/2/19. N2 - prp13-1 is one of the mutants isolated in a screen for defective pre-mRNA splicing at a nonpermissive temperature in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We cloned the prp13+ gene and found that it encodes U4 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) involved in the assembly of the spliceosome. The prp13-1 mutant produced elongated cells, a phenotype similar to cell division cycle mutants, and displays a high incidence of lagging chromosomes on anaphase spindles. The mutant is hypersensitive to the microtubule-destabilizing drug thiabendazole, supporting that prp13-1 has a defect in chromosomal segregation. We found that the prp13-1 mutation resulted in expression of the ura4 + gene inserted in the pericentromeric heterochromatin region and reduced ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Meiosis-Specific loading of the Centromere-Specific histone CENH3 in Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Ravi, Maruthachalam. AU - Shibata, Fukashi. AU - Ramahi, Joseph S.. AU - Nagaki, Kiyotaka. AU - Chen, Changbin. AU - Murata, Minoru. AU - Chan, Simon W L. PY - 2011/6. Y1 - 2011/6. N2 - Centromere behavior is specialized in meiosis I, so that sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes are pulled toward the same side of the spindle (through kinetochore mono-orientation) and chromosome number is reduced. Factors required for mono-orientation have been identified in yeast. However, comparatively little is known about how meiotic centromere behavior is specialized in animals and plants that typically have large tandem repeat centromeres. Kinetochores are nucleated by the centromere-specific histone CENH3. Unlike conventional histone H3s, CENH3 is rapidly evolving, particularly in its N-terminal tail domain. Here we describe chimeric variants of CENH3 with alterations in the N-terminal ...
The centromere is a specialized chromosomal region that directs the formation of the kinetochore, a huge protein assembly that acts as the attachment site for spindle microtubules and carries out chromosome movement during cell division. Centromere loss or the presence of extra centromeres adversely affect chromosome segregation and may result in aneuploidy, a condition found in many human tumors and a major cause of miscarriages and birth defects. Consequently, understanding the basis of centromere determination and propagation is of great relevance to both fundamental and clinical research. In recent years, it has become clear that centromeres are defined by the presence of a histone H3 variant known as Centromere Protein A, CENP-A, or CenH3. Much effort has been devoted to understanding the mechanisms that drive the assembly of CENP-A containing nucleosomes exclusively onto centromeric DNA, as well as the peculiar structure of these nucleosomes. We have recently developed an immunofluorescence-based
The kinetochore directs accurate chromosome segregation by controlling chromosome movements through interactions with spindle microtubules, and also by serving as a platform for various regulatory pathways. Kinetochores assemble on centromere chromatin marked by nucleosomes containing the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A (Allshire and Karpen, 2008; Earnshaw and Rothfield, 1985). The interphase centromere complex (ICEN) associates with the CENP-A nucleosome (Izuta et al., 2006; Obuse et al., 2004), and the constitutive-centromere-associated network (CCAN) forms the inner kinetochore (Basilico et al., 2014; Cheeseman and Desai, 2008; Foltz et al., 2006; Gascoigne et al., 2011; Hori et al., 2008; Okada et al., 2006). The CCAN factors CENP-C (Saitoh et al., 1992) and CENP-T act as a crucial platform for the kinetochore during mitosis (Gascoigne et al., 2011; Hori et al., 2008, 2013; Nishino et al., 2013; Przewloka et al., 2011; Rago et al., 2015). CENP-C binds to CENP-A nucleosomes ...
THE centromeres in most plants and animals contain hundreds of kilobases of simple repeats and interspersed retroelements. Such repetitive domains evolve at remarkable rates-continually expanding, contracting, and generating new arrays (Schueler et al. 2001; Henikoff 2002; Nagaki et al. 2004; Lee et al. 2005; Ma and Bennetzen 2006). This process tends to homogenize centromeres and drive out single- and low-copy sequences that are necessary for sequencing and molecular-marker-based mapping (Henikoff 2002; Dawe 2005). Two relatively simple rice centromeres have been bridged and characterized (Nagaki et al. 2004; Wu et al. 2004; Zhang et al. 2004), but as a rule centromeres fall into large and poorly resolved genetic gaps. In maize, the centromere positions are estimates based on rough interval or trisomic mapping and visual comparisons to the cytogenetic map (Weber and Helentjaris 1989; Schneerman et al. 1998; Lin et al. 2001).. Another complexity of centromere mapping is that sequence alone ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Precise centromere mapping using a combination of repeat junction markers and chromatin immunoprecipitation-polymerase chain reaction. AU - Luce, Amy C.. AU - Sharma, Anupma. AU - Mollere, Oliver S.B.. AU - Wolfgruber, Thomas K.. AU - Nagaki, Kiyotaka. AU - Jiang, Jiming. AU - Presting, Gernot G.. AU - Dawe, R. Kelly. PY - 2006/11/6. Y1 - 2006/11/6. N2 - Centromeres are difficult to map even in species where genetic resolution is excellent. Here we show that junctions between repeats provide reliable single-copy markers for recombinant inbred mapping within centromeres and pericentromeric heterochromatin. Repeat junction mapping was combined with anti-CENH3-mediated ChIP to provide a definitive map position for maize centromere 8.. AB - Centromeres are difficult to map even in species where genetic resolution is excellent. Here we show that junctions between repeats provide reliable single-copy markers for recombinant inbred mapping within centromeres and pericentromeric ...
Centromeres are unique chromatin domains that direct the site of kinetochore formation during mitosis and mediate the movement of chromosomes during cell division. Centromeres contain a unique nucleosome in which histone H3 is replaced by centromere protein A (CENP-A). Because of their unique position in chromatin, the CENP-A nucleosome was hypothesized to determine the site of centromere and kinetochore assembly. In order to test the long held assumption that CENP-A dictates the location of the centromere; we developed a novel de novo centromere formation assay, which provides a new and powerful constructive approach to studying centromeres. This system is based on a LacO array that is stably integrated into the long arm of chromosome 1, far away from the existing centromere. Targeting the CENP-A chaperone HJURP or the Mis18 complex to the LacO array, by fusing them to the LacI repressor, drove the stable recruitment of CENP-A nucleosomes to the LacO array at the non-centromeric locus. ...
The centromere facilitates the assembly of the kinetochore ensuring the accurate chromosome segregation. Active centromeres are specified epigenetically by nucleosomes containing the histone H3 variant, CENP-A, which is in place of histone H3. CENP-A is deposited by an assembly factor called HJURP in humans and Scm3 in yeast. However, homologs of HJURP/Scm3 are only present in a subset of eukaryotes. How CENP-A is deposited exclusively at centromeres in organisms that lack CENP-A chaperones remains unknown. This thesis addresses the above-mentioned gaps in the understanding of CENP-A assembly and identifies CAL1 as an essential recruiter for Drosophila CENP-A, which fulfills the function of HJURP/Scm3 in the dipteran lineage. Mis-targeting CAL1 is sufficient to trigger the formation of a functional centromere at the ectopic site, where the recruitment of centromeric proteins and microtubule attachments are detected. This additional centromere can be propagated epigenetically to the next generation and
Centromeres mediate the conserved and essential process of chromosome segregation, yet centromeric DNA and the centromeric histone, CENP-A, are rapidly evolving. The rapid evolution of loop 1 (L1) of Drosophila CENP-A is thought to modulate the DNA-binding preferences of CENP-A to suppress centromere drive, the preferential transmission of chromosomes with expanded centromeric satellites during female meiosis. Consistent with this model, CENP-A from D. bipectinata (bip) fails to localize to D. melanogaster (mel) centromeres due to amino acid differences between mel and bip L1. Here, I show that this result is, in fact, due to the inability of the mel CENP-A chaperone, CAL1, to incorporate bip CENP-A into chromatin. Co-expression of bip CENP-A and bip CAL1 in mel cells restores centromeric localization, and similar findings apply to other Drosophila species. Furthermore, two co-evolving regions, CENP-A L1 and the CAL1 N-terminus, are identified as critical for lineage-specific CENP-A incorporation.
Large-scale genome rearrangements brought about by chromosome breaks underlie numerous inherited diseases, initiate or promote many cancers and are also associated with karyotype diversification during species evolution. Recent research has shown that these breakpoints are nonrandomly distributed throughout the mammalian genome and many, termed evolutionary breakpoints (EB), are specific genomic locations that are reused during karyotypic evolution. When the phylogenetic trajectory of orthologous chromosome segments is considered, many of these EB are coincident with ancient centromere activity as well as new centromere formation. While EB have been characterized as repeat-rich regions, it has not been determined whether specific sequences have been retained during evolution that would indicate previous centromere activity or a propensity for new centromere formation. Likewise, the conservation of specific sequence motifs or classes at EBs among divergent mammalian taxa has not been determined. To
Centromeres are the differentiated chromosomal domains that specify the mitotic behavior of chromosomes. To examine the molecular basis for the specification of centromeric chromatin, we have cloned a human cDNA that encodes the 17-kD histone-like centromere antigen, CENP-A. Two domains are evident in the 140 aa CENP-A polypeptide: a unique NH2-terminal domain and a 93-amino acid COOH-terminal domain that shares 62% identity with nucleosomal core protein, histone H3. An epitope tagged derivative of CENP-A was faithfully targeted to centromeres when expressed in a variety of animal cells and this targeting activity was shown to reside in the histone-like COOH-terminal domain of CENP-A. These data clearly indicate that the assembly of centromeres is driven, at least in part, by the incorporation of a novel core histone into centromeric chromatin. ...
by Sarah N. Ruckman, Michelle M. Jonika, Claudio Casola, Heath Blackmon. Despite the fundamental role of centromeres two different types are observed across plants and animals. Monocentric chromosomes possess a single region that function as the centromere while in holocentric chromosomes centromere activity is spread across the entire chromosome. Proper segregation may fail in species with monocentric chromosomes after a fusion or fission, which may lead to chromosomes with no centromere or multiple centromeres. In contrast, species with holocentric chromosomes should still be able to safely segregate chromosomes after fusion or fission. This along with the observation of high chromosome number in some holocentric clades has led to the hypothesis that holocentricity leads to higher rates of chromosome number evolution. To test for differences in rates of chromosome number evolution between these systems, we analyzed data from 4,393 species of insects in a phylogenetic framework. We found that ...
Centromeres are the specialized chromosomal sites necessary for poleward movement during mitosis and meiosis in eukaryotes. Commonly, a centromere is evident as a prominent constriction within the heterochromatin of each metaphase chromosome. The attachment to and movement of chromosomes along the spindle is mediated by the proteinaceous kinetochores, which form at the centromeres during cell division.. Despite this highly conserved function, centromeric DNA sequences are not conserved between organisms. For example, human centromeres consist of large blocks (200 kb to several megabases) of tandemly repeated 171-bp α-satellite (Willard, 1998), but the sequences can differ from those of apes on homologous chromosomes (Haaf and Willard, 1997). Similarly, Drosophila melanogaster centromeric regions contain blocks of 5- to 12-bp satellite repeats that do not appear to be shared by homologous centromeres of sibling species (Lohe and Brutlag, 1987).. Plant centromeric regions resemble their mammalian ...
Track indicating the location of the centromere sequences. Centromeres are specialized chromatin structures that are required for cell division. These genomic regions are normally defined by long tracts of tandem repeats, or satellite DNA, that contain a limited number of sequence differences to distinguish the linear order of repeat copies. The size and repetitive nature of these regions mean they are typically not represented in reference assemblies. Unlike all previous versions of the human reference assembly, where the centromere regions have been represented by a multi-megabase gap, GRCh38 incorporates centromere reference models that provide an initial genomic description derived from chromosome-assigned whole genome shotgun (WGS) read libraries of alpha satellite. Each reference model provides an approximation of the true array sequence organization. Although the long-range repeat ordering is not expected to represent the true organization, the submissions are expected to provide a ...
Track indicating the location of the centromere sequences. Centromeres are specialized chromatin structures that are required for cell division. These genomic regions are normally defined by long tracts of tandem repeats, or satellite DNA, that contain a limited number of sequence differences to distinguish the linear order of repeat copies. The size and repetitive nature of these regions mean they are typically not represented in reference assemblies. Unlike all previous versions of the human reference assembly, where the centromere regions have been represented by a multi-megabase gap, GRCh38 incorporates centromere reference models that provide an initial genomic description derived from chromosome-assigned whole genome shotgun (WGS) read libraries of alpha satellite. Each reference model provides an approximation of the true array sequence organization. Although the long-range repeat ordering is not expected to represent the true organization, the submissions are expected to provide a ...
Track indicating the location of the centromere sequences. Centromeres are specialized chromatin structures that are required for cell division. These genomic regions are normally defined by long tracts of tandem repeats, or satellite DNA, that contain a limited number of sequence differences to distinguish the linear order of repeat copies. The size and repetitive nature of these regions mean they are typically not represented in reference assemblies. Unlike all previous versions of the human reference assembly, where the centromere regions have been represented by a multi-megabase gap, GRCh38 incorporates centromere reference models that provide an initial genomic description derived from chromosome-assigned whole genome shotgun (WGS) read libraries of alpha satellite. Each reference model provides an approximation of the true array sequence organization. Although the long-range repeat ordering is not expected to represent the true organization, the submissions are expected to provide a ...
Track indicating the location of the centromere sequences. Centromeres are specialized chromatin structures that are required for cell division. These genomic regions are normally defined by long tracts of tandem repeats, or satellite DNA, that contain a limited number of sequence differences to distinguish the linear order of repeat copies. The size and repetitive nature of these regions mean they are typically not represented in reference assemblies. Unlike all previous versions of the human reference assembly, where the centromere regions have been represented by a multi-megabase gap, GRCh38 incorporates centromere reference models that provide an initial genomic description derived from chromosome-assigned whole genome shotgun (WGS) read libraries of alpha satellite. Each reference model provides an approximation of the true array sequence organization. Although the long-range repeat ordering is not expected to represent the true organization, the submissions are expected to provide a ...
This gene product is a highly conserved protein that facilitates centromere formation. It is a DNA-binding protein that is derived from transposases of the pogo DNA transposon family. It contains a helix-loop-helix DNA binding motif at the N-terminus, and a dimerization domain at the C-terminus. The DNA binding domain recognizes and binds a 17-bp sequence (CENP-B box) in the centromeric alpha satellite DNA. This protein is proposed to play an important role in the assembly of specific centromere structures in interphase nuclei and on mitotic chromosomes. It is also considered a major centromere autoantigen recognized by sera from patients with anti-centromere antibodies. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Centromeres are the chromosomal regions that link DNA to the spindle during cell division, thus ensuring faithful segregation of genetic material. Proper centromere function is critical for eukaryotic life. Despite the fact that centromeres are essential for life, centromeric architecture is remarkably diverse. Moreover, centromeric DNA sequences and centromeric proteins evolve rapidly in diverse organisms. Despite this, the hallmark of many functional centromeres is the presence of a specialized centromeric H3 variant called CenH3. Despite being essential for chromosome segregation in most eukaryotes, CenH3 also evolves rapidly in plants and animals. I study the rapidly evolution of CenH3 in Drosophila. Specifically, I study instances in which CenH3 has duplicated and may have undergone subfunctionalization. I am intrigued by the possibility that these duplications may have arisen in response to genetic conflict such as centromere drive or due to intralocus antagonism. I use a variety of ...
The centromere-specific histone variant CENP-A (CID in Drosophila) is a structural and functional foundation for kinetochore formation and chromosome segregation. Here, we show that overexpressed CID is mislocalized into normally non-centromeric regions in Drosophila tissue culture cells and animals. Analysis of mitoses in living and fixed cells reveals that mitotic delays, anaphase bridges, chromosome fragmentation, and cell and organismal lethality are all direct consequences of CID mislocalization. In addition, proteins that are normally restricted to endogenous kinetochores assemble at a subset of ectopic CID incorporation regions. The presence of microtubule motors and binding proteins, spindle attachments, and aberrant chromosome morphologies demonstrate that these ectopic kinetochores are functional. We conclude that CID mislocalization promotes formation of ectopic centromeres and multicentric chromosomes, which causes chromosome missegregation, aneuploidy, and growth defects. Thus, CENP-A
In most eukaryotes, centromeres are epigenetically defined by nucleosomes that contain the histone H3 variant centromere protein A (CENP-A). Specific targeting of the CENP-A-loading chaperone to the centromere is vital for stable centromere propagation; however, the existence of ectopic centromeres …
The centromere is together with telomeres and origin of replications one of the essential parts of any eukaryotic chromosomes. The centromere is usually defined by specific DNA sequences which are in higher eukaryotes typical tandem repetitive sequences, often called satellite DNA. These sequences bind specific proteins called cen-Proteins. During mitosis the centromeres can be identified in particular during the metaphase stage as a constriction at the chromosome. At this centromeric constriction the two mostly identical halves of the chromosome, the sister chromatids, are held together until late metaphase. During mitotic division, a transient structure called kinetochore is formed on top of the centromeres. The kinetochores are the sites where the spindle fibers attach. Kinetochores and the spindle apparatus are responsible for the movement of the two sister chromatids to opposite poles of dividing cell nucleus during anaphase. Usually the mitosis is immediately followed by a cell ...
DNA methylation is an epigenetically imposed mark of transcriptional repression that is essential for maintenance of chromatin structure and genomic stability. Genome-wide methylation patterns are mediated by the combined action of three DNA methyltransferases: DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B. Compelling links exist between DNMT3B and chromosome stability as emphasized by the mitotic defects that are a hallmark of ICF syndrome, a disease arising from germline mutations in DNMT3B. Centromeric and pericentromeric regions are essential for chromosome condensation and the fidelity of segregation. Centromere regions contain distinct epigenetic marks, including dense DNA hypermethylation, yet the mechanisms by which DNA methylation is targeted to these regions remains largely unknown. In the present study, we used a yeast two-hybrid screen and identified a novel interaction between DNMT3B and constitutive centromere protein CENP-C. CENP-C is itself essential for mitosis. We confirm this interaction in ...
Mitotic sister chromosomes individually attach to and harness the power of dynamic MT ends while maintaining an intercentromere elastic linkage that enables them to translocate jointly on the mitotic spindle and orient facing opposite spindle poles (Shelby et al., 1996). Robust MT attachments and proper orientation facing the opposite spindle poles maximizes the elastic pull on the sister centromeres and signals the cell that anaphase may safely commence. We have found that ectopically increasing the level of MCAK activity on centromeres decreases sister centromere tension, although not to the point that the spindle checkpoint is triggered. Conversely, decreased levels of MCAK on centromeres substantially increased tension across sister centromeres. Our data contradicts two other studies that suggest that the depletion of MCAK has no effect on tension (Ganem et al., 2005) or decreases tension (Kline-Smith et al., 2004). We believe that this discrepancy may be caused by the inclusion of ...
Our lab is interested in the epigenetic inheritance and organization of centromeres. The DNA sequence independent transmission of centromere identity through many cell generations is highly relevant for proper genome regulation and when perturbed can lead to genome instability and cellular malfunction. We use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and human cells as a model organism to address the following questions: How is the epigenetic identity of centromeres regulated?. Centromeres are found at the primary constriction of chromosomes in mitosis where they remain connected before cell division. This structure is essential for an equivalent chromosomes distribution to the daughter cells. The centromere specific histone H3-variant CENP-AcenH3 is essential for kinetochore formation and centromere function. We have previously established a biosynthetic approach to target dCENP-AcenH3 to specific non-centromeric sequences such as the Lac Operator and follow the formation of functional ...
Stringent regulation of cellular levels of evolutionarily conserved centromeric histone H3 variant (CENP-A in humans, CID in flies, Cse4 in yeast) prevents its mislocalization to non-centromeric chromatin. Overexpression and mislocalization of CENP-A has been observed in cancers and leads to aneuploidy in yeast, flies, and human cells. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of Cse4 by E3 ligases such as Psh1 and Sumo-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligase (STUbL) Slx5 prevent mislocalization of Cse4. Previously, we identified Siz1 and Siz2 as the major E3 ligases for sumoylation of Cse4. In this study, we have identified lysine 65 (K65) in Cse4 as a site that regulates sumoylation and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of Cse4 by Slx5. Strains expressing cse4 K65R exhibit reduced levels of sumoylated and ubiquitinated Cse4 in vivo. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation experiments reveal reduced interaction of cse4 K65R with Slx5, leading to increased stability and mislocalization of cse4 K65R under normal physiological ...
Histone acetylation may act to mark and maintain transcriptionally active or inactive chromosomal domains through the cell cycle and in different lineages. A novel role for histone acetylation in centromere regulation has been identified. Exposure of fission yeast cells to TSA, a specific inhibitor …
KAT7/HBO1/MYST2 Regulates CENP-A Chromatin Assembly by Antagonizing Suv39h1-Mediated Centromere InactivationKAT7/HBO1/MYST2 Regulates CENP-A Chromatin Assembly by Antagonizing Suv39h1-Mediated Centromere Inactivation ...
Author Summary The centromere is a chromosome domain essential for the correct partitioning of chromosomes during mitotic and meiotic cell divisions. The characterization of the centromeric proteins and their sequential assembly have been extensively studied in mammalian mitosis, since defective chromosome segregation is associated with birth defects and cancer. However, few studies have analyzed the centromere assembly during meiosis, a special cell division leading to the production of haploid gametes. Here, we analyze the sequence of loading of several centromeric and kinetochoric proteins during male mouse meiosis. We show that during both meiotic divisions, the proteins of the chromosomal passenger complex Borealin, INCENP, and Aurora-B load sequentially to the inner centromere before Shugoshin 2 and MCAK. The outer kinetochore proteins BubR1 and CENP-E are the last ones to be assembled. We also demonstrate, using a knockout mouse for Sgol2, that the inner centromeric protein Shugoshin 2 is
Inner centromere protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the INCENP gene.[5][6][7] In mammalian cells, two broad groups of centromere-interacting proteins have been described: constitutively binding centromere proteins and passenger (or transiently interacting) proteins.[8] The constitutive proteins include CENPA (centromere protein A), CENPB, CENPC1, and CENPD. The term passenger proteins encompasses a broad collection of proteins that localize to the centromere during specific stages of the cell cycle.[9] These include CENPE; MCAK; KID; cytoplasmic dynein (e.g., DYNC1H1); CliPs (e.g. CLIP1); and CENPF/mitosin (CENPF). The inner centromere proteins (INCENPs),[5] the initial members of the passenger protein group, display a broad localization along chromosomes in the early stages of mitosis but gradually become concentrated at centromeres as the cell cycle progresses into mid-metaphase. During telophase, the proteins are located within the midbody in the intercellular bridge, where ...
This organism was chosen because it has epigenetically defined regional centromeres whose chromatin and protein compositions are similar to those of their human counterparts, to identify factors responsible for the replacement of histone H3 with CENP-A at centromeres.. In this report, the KAIST research group systematically analyzed the roles of the ATP-dependent chromatin-remodelers in the centromeric chromatin assembly of fission yeast as they serve as strong candidates for such factors ...
Centromeres are specialized chromosomal domains which are composed of centromeric DNA, often enriched in satellite repeats, and a large protein complex, the kinetochore. Proper assembly of the kinetochore complex is a prerequisite for the correct segregation of chromosomes during mitotic and meiotic divisions and, consequently, for genome stability in all eukaryotic organisms. Deposition of the centromeric histone H3 variant CenH3 at the centromeric region is a prerequisite for correct assembly and function of the kinetochore complex in most eukaryotes. CenH3 deposition depends on cenH3 assembly factors, like KNL2 (Lermontova et al., 2013; Sandmann et al., 2017), chaperones (e.g. NASPSIM3, Le Goff et al., 2020), transcription of the centromeric repeats and the epigenetic status of centromeric chromatin. Specific manipulation of the CenH3 assembly factor KNL2 yielded double haploids in Arabidopsis thaliana (I. Lermontova, WO2017/067714). The production of double haploids enables a shortcut to ...
As the spindle fiber attachment region of the chromosome, the centromere has been investigated in a variety of contexts. Here, we will review current knowledge about this unique chromosomal region and its relevance for proper cell division, speciation, and disease. Understanding the three-dimensional organization of centromeres in normal and turner cells is just beginning to emerge. Multidisciplinary research will allow for new insights into its normal and aberrant nuclear organization and may allow for new therapeutic interventions that target events linked to centromere function and cell division ...
BACKGROUND: Survivin is a mammalian protein that carries a motif typical of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP)proteins, first identified in baculoviruses. Although baculoviral IAP proteins regulate cell death, the yeast Survivin homolog Bir1 is involved in cell division. To determine the function of Survivin in mammals, we analyzed the pattern of localization of Survivin protein during the cell cycle, and deleted its gene by homologous recombination in mice. RESULTS: In human cells, Survivin appeared first on centromeres bound to a novel para-polar axis during prophase/metaphase, relocated to the spindle midzone during anaphase/telophase, and disappeared at the end of telophase. In the mouse, Survivin was required for mitosis during development. Null embryos showed disrupted microtubule formation, became polyploid, and failed to survive beyond 4.5days post coitum. This phenotype, and the cell-cycle localization of Survivin, resembled closely those of INCENP. Because the yeast homolog of INCENP, Sli15,
Following a close collaboration with the Chan lab and the demise of Simon Chan in the Summer of 2012, we have assimilated Chan lab researchers working on different aspects of centromeric function and its epigenetic determination. We are investigating the structural features, evolutionary constraints, and mechanisms that determine the interaction of centromeric histone H3 (CENH3) with the centromere and its instability in outcrosses resulting in parent-specific genome elimination. In collaboration with the Korf lab, we are investigating the mechanisms of extreme chromosome fragmentation and reassembly that are associated to chromosome elimination. ...
Following a close collaboration with the Chan lab and the demise of Simon Chan in the Summer of 2012, we have assimilated Chan lab researchers working on different aspects of centromeric function and its epigenetic determination. We are investigating the structural features, evolutionary constraints, and mechanisms that determine the interaction of centromeric histone H3 (CENH3) with the centromere and its instability in outcrosses resulting in parent-specific genome elimination. We are investigating the mechanisms of extreme chromosome fragmentation and reassembly that are associated to chromosome elimination. ...
Alignment of the centromere regions of all sixteen chromosomes. The regions include the Centromere DNA Elements I II and III (CDEI, CDEII and CDEIII). The conserved bases in all centromeres are marked in magenta. The regions with less conserved residues of CDEI and CDEIII are marked in green. The CDEII region which contains more than 90% AT residues has been left white. The multiple sequence alignment was created with PILEUP ...
GF ID Scm3 #=GF AC PF10384.8 #=GF DE Centromere protein Scm3 #=GF AU Mistry J, Wood V #=GF SE Pfam-B_19394 (release 21.0) #=GF GA 24.30 24.30; #=GF TC 24.60 24.40; #=GF NC 24.20 24.00; #=GF BM hmmbuild HMM.ann SEED.ann #=GF SM hmmsearch -Z 26740544 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq #=GF TP Family #=GF RN [1] #=GF RM 17548816 #=GF RT Scm3, an essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae centromere protein #=GF RT required for G2/M progression and Cse4 localization. #=GF RA Stoler S, Rogers K, Weitze S, Morey L, Fitzgerald-Hayes M, Baker #=GF RA RE; #=GF RL Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:10571-10576. #=GF RN [2] #=GF RM 17704645 #=GF RT Domain Architectures of the Scm3p Protein Provide Insights into #=GF RT Centromere Function and Evolution. #=GF RA Aravind L, Iyer LM, Wu C; #=GF RL Cell Cycle. 2007; [Epub ahead of print] #=GF RN [3] #=GF RM 19563746 #=GF RT Common ancestry of the CENP-A chaperones Scm3 and HJURP. #=GF RA Sanchez-Pulido L, Pidoux AL, Ponting CP, Allshire RC; #=GF RL Cell. 2009;137:1173-1174. ...
We report the interaction between a human centromere antigen and an alphoid DNA, a human centromeric satellite DNA, which consists of 170-bp repeating units. A cloned alphoid DNA fragment incubated with a HeLa cell nuclear extract is selectively immunoprecipitated by the anticentromere sera from scleroderma patients. Immunoprecipitation of the DNA made by primer extension defines the 17-bp segment on the alphoid DNA that is required for formation of DNA-antigen complex. On the other hand, when proteins bound to the biotinylated alphoid DNA carrying the 17-bp motif are recovered by streptavidin agarose and immunoblotted, the 80-kD centromere antigen (CENP-B) is detected. DNA binding experiments for proteins immunoprecipitated with anticentromere serum, separated by gel electrophoresis, and transferred to a membrane strongly suggest that the 80-kD antigen specifically binds to the DNA fragment with the 17-bp motif. The 17-bp motif is termed the CENP-B box. Alphoid monomers with the CENP-B box ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mitotic centromere-associated kinesin is a novel marker for prognosis and lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer. AU - Ishikawa, K.. AU - Kamohara, Y.. AU - Tanaka, F.. AU - Haraguchi, N.. AU - Mimori, K.. AU - Inoue, H.. AU - Mori, M.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Dr Y Nakamura, Ms T Shimooka, Ms K Ogata, Ms M Kasagi and Ms Y Nakagawa for their technical assistance and advice. This work was supported in part by the following grants and foundations: CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, grants 17109013, 17591411, 17591413, 18390367, 18590333, 18659384, 18790964, 19890336 and 19591509; The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas, Grant 18015039; Third Term Comprehensive Ten-Year Strategy for Cancer Control, Grant 16271201.. PY - 2008/6/3. Y1 - 2008/6/3. N2 - Mitotic centromere-associated kinesin (MCAK) is a ...
The organization, evolution and function of eukaryotic centromeres represent a deficiency in our understanding of genome biology. The discovery of human clinical neocentromeres and ENCs has further complicated, on one hand, our understanding of the centromere. On the other hand, neocentromeres and ENCs have allowed an initial dissection of centromere complexity. They have made evident, for instance, its epigenetic nature. The ENC analysis we have accomplished in the present study has contributed to the identification of factors that, very likely, play a crucial role in ENC progression and fixation in the population. We have provided strong evidence that the pericentromeric duplication activity is an intrinsic property of ENCs. This conclusion was mainly supported by FISH experiments using species-specific BAC clones that detected SDs around the centromere in almost all studied ENCs. A deep restructuring was particularly evident in MMU17 (human 13) and MMU2 (human 3). The latter ENC showed a ...
Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus, GGA) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica, CCO) karyotypes are very similar. They have identical chromosome number (2n = 78) and show a high degree of synt
We describe a process in meiotic cells of budding yeast in which chromosomes become joined together in pairs at their centromeres independent of chromosomal homology. These centromeric interactions depend on the synaptonemal complex component Zip1. During meiosis in wild-type diploids, centromere couples are initially nonhomologous and then undergo switching until all couples involve homologs. This transition to homologous coupling depends on Spo11, a protein required for the initiation of meiotic recombination. Regions of synaptonemal complex assembled early in meiosis are often centromere-associated. We propose that centromere coupling facilitates homolog pairing and promotes synapsis initiation. ...
P>We conducted genome-wide mapping of cytosine methylation using methylcytosine immunoprecipitation combined with Illumina sequencing. The chromosomal distribution pattern of methylated DNA is similar to the heterochromatin distribution pattern on rice chromosomes. The DNA methylation patterns of rice genes are similar to those in Arabidopsis thaliana, including distinct methylation patterns asssociated with gene bodies and promoters. The DNA sequences in the core domains of rice Cen4, Cen5 and Cen8 showed elevated methylation levels compared with sequences in the pericentromeric regions. In addition, elevated methylation levels were associated with the DNA sequences in the CENH3-binding subdomains, compared with the sequences in the flanking H3 subdomains. In contrast, the centromeric domain of Cen11, which is composed exclusively of centromeric satellite DNA, is hypomethylated compared with the pericentromeric domains. Thus, the DNA sequences associated with functional centromeres can be ...
Constitutive heterochromatin, mainly formed at the gene-poor regions of pericentromeres, is believed to ensure a condensed and transcriptionally inert chromatin conformation. Pericentromeres consist of repetitive tandem satellite repeats and are crucial chromosomal elements that are responsible for accurate chromosome segregation in mitosis. The repeat sequences are not conserved and can greatly vary between different organisms, suggesting that pericentromeric functions might be controlled epigenetically. In this review, we will discuss how constitutive heterochromatin is formed and maintained at pericentromeres in order to ensure their integrity. We will describe the biogenesis and the function of main epigenetic pathways that are involved and how they are interconnected. Interestingly, recent findings suggest that alternative pathways could substitute for well-established pathways when disrupted, suggesting that constitutive heterochromatin harbors much more plasticity than previously assumed. In
The essential histone H3 variant Cse4 plays a crucial role at the centromere in S. cerevisiae, where it replaces histone H3 in that it assembles centromere specific (Cse4-H4)2 tetrameres. We found in our study that the histone H3 variant was able to interact over its unique N-Terminus with two subunits of the histone acetyltransferase complex SAS-I: Sas2 and Sas4. Mutations within the acetyl-CoA binding site (HAT domain) or the zink-finger of Sas2 disrupted the binding to Cse4, although an indirect interaction was found with co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Additionally, the N-terminus of Cse4 interacted with Cac1, the largest subunit of the chromatin assembly factor CAF-I and Asf1 - two histone chaperones that assemble histones H3 and H4 into nucleosomes. Our findings further suggest a role of Cac1 independent of Cac2 and Cac3 as no binding to Cse4 could be detected. A role for Sas2 at the centromere was further confirmed in that a sas2 deletion (sas2 delta) disrupted the binding of Cse4 to ...
Model for heterochromatin assembly and spreading at S. pombecentromeric outer repeats. Heterochromatic centromere sequences (yellow arrow) are transcribed by RNA Polymerase II. These centromere transcripts are targeted by RITS via siRNA loaded Ago1. Association of RITS with centromere heterochromatin is strengthened by binding of Chp1 to H3mK9. RITS activity can recruit both CLRC, via interactions with Stc1, and RDRC resulting in spreading of H3mK9 and amplification of siRNAs, respectively (see text for details). dsRNA generated either by bi-directional transcription from centromere promoters (black arrows) or by RDRC activity is recognized and processed by Dicer (Dcr1). The resulting centromere siRNAs are then loaded onto Ago1 first in the ARC complex and then in RITS ...
Kelly Dawe. Distinguished Research Professor What are plant centromeres made of? How are they inherited, what proteins interact with them, and how do they evolve? What are centromeres? For over twelve years our lab has been working through the answers to these questions.lab was founded with the goal of understanding plant kinetochores. We have made good progress mostly by making specific antisera and combining the power of maize cytogenetics with 3D light microscopy. Much of our effort has focused on the inner kinetochore proteins Centromeric Histone H3 (CENH3) and Centromere Protein C (CENP-C), as well as MAD2, a spindle checkpoint protein that localizes to the outer kinetochore. We have worked on a serine-50 phosphorylated form of CENH3, NDC80, and several other kinetochore proteins. Our long-term goal is to identify the complete collection of inner kinetochore proteins, and to develop a model for how these proteins are organized. We intend to pursue the tried-and-true method of identifying ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphorylation-enabled binding of SGO1-PP2A to cohesin protects sororin and centromeric cohesion during mitosis. AU - Liu, Hong. AU - Rankin, Susannah. AU - Yu, Hongtao. PY - 2013/1. Y1 - 2013/1. N2 - Timely dissolution of sister-chromatid cohesion in mitosis ensures accurate chromosome segregation to guard against aneuploidy and tumorigenesis. The complex of shugoshin and protein phosphatase 2A (SGO1-PP2A) protects cohesin at centromeres from premature removal by mitotic kinases and WAPL in prophase. Here we address the regulation and mechanism of human SGO1 in centromeric cohesion protection, and show that cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-mediated, mitosis-specific phosphorylation of SGO1 activates its cohesion-protection function and enables its direct binding to cohesin. The phospho-SGO1-bound cohesin complex contains PP2A, PDS5 and hypophosphorylated sororin, but lacks WAPL. Expression of non-phosphorylatable sororin bypasses the requirement for SGO1-PP2A in centromeric ...
Product Monkey Centromere protein R(ITGB3BP) ELISA kit From B-Gene - A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Monkey Centromere protein R(ITGB3BP) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species. Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP SOLUTION*1 vial 12. WASH SOLUTION (100 x)*1 vial 13. BALANCE SOLUTION*1 vial 14. INSTRUCTION*1
The centromere is a special region of a chromosome, usually near the middle. It is where the two identical sister chromatids stay in contact as the chromosome attaches to the spindle in mitosis. The region contains specific types of DNA, which are tandem repetitive sequences (satellite DNA). These sequences bind specific proteins called cen-proteins. During mitosis the centromeres can be seen during the metaphase stage as a constriction at the chromosome. At this centromeric constriction the two halves of the chromosome, the sister chromatids, are held together until late metaphase. ...
The centromere is a special region of a chromosome, usually near the middle. It is where the two identical sister chromatids stay in contact as the chromosome attaches to the spindle in mitosis. The region contains specific types of DNA, which are tandem repetitive sequences (satellite DNA). These sequences bind specific proteins called cen-proteins. During mitosis the centromeres can be seen during the metaphase stage as a constriction at the chromosome. At this centromeric constriction the two halves of the chromosome, the sister chromatids, are held together until late metaphase. ...
Two ZMPSTE24 mutations in the yeast to complement the (S. cerevisiae) mating defect STE24 and Ras-converting enzyme 1 (RCE1; another prenylprotein-specific endoprotease) genes [§§] (farnesylated protein-converting enzymes 1 and 2) is a significant component of the rice centromere antigens lamin A/C and B1 identified (in non-transgenic plants that go awry↩ (centromere) in cancer), the Ras…
Users of the eukaryotic phylum Apicomplexa are the cause of important human being diseases including malaria toxoplasmosis and cryptosporidiosis. transgenic parasite lines expressing epitope-tagged centromeric H3 variant CenH3 we determine the centromeres of chromosomes by hybridization of chromatin immunoprecipitations to genome-wide microarrays (ChIP-chip). We demonstrate that centromere attachment to the centrocone persists throughout the parasite cell cycle and that centromeres localize to a single apical region within the nucleus. Centromere sequestration provides a mechanism for Meloxicam (Mobic) the organization of the nucleus and the maintenance of genome integrity. tachyzoites featuring the simplest form endodyogeny bud into two daughters after each round of DNA replication (3). the causative agent of malaria divides by schizogony whereby the cell proceeds through several rounds of DNA replication and mitosis before the right now multinucleate schizont gives rise to multiple zoites at ...
Cnp1, Mis6, and Mis13 are required for localizing condensin at the kinetochore. (A) Cells cultured at 26°C in EMM2 were observed for the colocalization of Cnd1-GFP with Mis12-RFP, a centromere/kinetochore protein. The numbers in the right panels indicate time in minutes. The enlarged images of Cnd1-GFP (left), Mis12-RFP (middle), and the merged images (right) at 13 min are shown in the insets. (B) Cut14-GFP and Sad1-RFP were observed in the wild-type, mis6-302, cnp1-1, mis13-1, mis16-53, and mis18-262 mutants cultured at 26°C and were shifted to 36°C for 8 h. (C) Chromosomally integrated Cnp1/CENP-A-GFP expressed under the native promoter was observed in the wild-type and cut14-208 mutant cultured at 36°C for 2 h. (D) A ChIP assay was performed using extracts of block-released nda3-311 mutant that expressed Cut14-Flag. The probes were from the central centromere, cnt1 (c10, c9, and c7.5), imr1 (c4 and c1), the outer centromere dg, and the noncentromeric lys1+. WCE, whole cell extract; IP, ...
Saffery, Richard, Sumer, Huseyin, Hassan, Sara, Wong, Lee H, Craig, Jeffrey M, Todokoro, Kazuo, Anderson, Melissa, Stafford, Angela and Choo, KH Andy 2003, Transcription within a functional human centromere, Molecular cell, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 509-516, doi: 10.1016/S1097-2765(03)00279-X. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Mourad Sanhaji, Andreas Ritter, Hannah R Belsham, Claire T Friel, Susanne Roth, Frank Louwen, Juping Yuan].
A DNA-binding protein that interacts with a 17-base pair sequence known as the CENP-B box motif. The protein is localized constitutively to the CENTROMERE and plays an important role in its maintenance ...
A clue about what role this structure, called the PIN domain, might play in heterochromatin assembly came from scouring a protein database. The team found that other proteins that had similar structural features were associated with telomeres, the cap-like structures at the end of chromosomes. In fission yeast, telomeres are one of the locations where heterochromatin is found, another being the centromere -- the dense knob-like structure at the center of a chromosome. The team found that deleting the PIN domain from Chp1 prevented heterochromatin formation at the telomeres but didnt affect formation at the centromere. This suggests different functions of RITS proteins at centromeres vs telomeres, says Joshua-Tor. RITS might be exerting its effect at centromeres through Ago1 and the RNAi machinery, but might enforcing its function at the telomeres through Chp1 and its PIN domain. The team is now turning its focus to understanding how these various functions are regulated.. The Chp1-Tas3 ...
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TY - GEN. T1 - Distribution of centromeric proteins and PARP-1 during mitosis and apoptosis. AU - Perdoni, Federica. AU - Bottone, Maria Grazia. AU - Soldani, Cristiana. AU - Veneroni, Paola. AU - Alpini, Claudia. AU - Pellicciari, Carlo. AU - Scovassi, Anna Ivana. PY - 2009/8. Y1 - 2009/8. N2 - A large complex of proteins, called CENPs, are associated with centromeric DNA. Some of them exhibit a cell cycle-related expression (e.g., CENP-E and -F) and are required for the transition from interphase to mitosis, whereas constitutive proteins (e.g., CENP-A, -B, -C, -G, and -H) reside permanently at the centromere and are essential for the correct kinetochore assembly. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), which plays an active role in many basic processes, was described as a possible regulator of CENPs. By multicolor immunofluorescence we therefore analyzed the distribution of PARP-1 and its interaction with CENP-B, -E, and -F during mitosis and apoptosis.. AB - A large complex of proteins, ...
The human centromere protein B (CENP-B), one of the centromere components, specifically binds a 17 bp sequence (the CENP-B box), which appears in every other alpha-satellite repeat. In the present study, the crystal structure of the complex of the DNA-binding region (129 residues) of CENP-B and the CENP-B box DNA has been determined at 2.5 A resolution. The DNA-binding region forms two helix-turn-helix domains, which are bound to adjacent major grooves of the DNA. The DNA is kinked at the two recognition helix contact sites, and the DNA region between the kinks is straight. Among the major groove protein-bound DNAs, this kink-straight-kink bend contrasts with ordinary round bends (gradual bending between two protein contact sites). The larger kink (43 degrees ) is induced by a novel mechanism, phosphate bridging by an arginine-rich helix: the recognition helix with an arginine cluster is inserted perpendicularly into the major groove and bridges the groove through direct interactions with ...
ATRX is a member of the SNF2 family of helicase/ATPases that is thought to regulate gene expression via an effect on chromatin structure and/or function. Mutations in the hATRX gene cause severe syndromal mental retardation associated with alpha-thalassemia. Using indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy we have shown that ATRX protein is associated with pericentromeric heterochromatin during interphase and mitosis. By coimmunofluorescence, ATRX localizes with a mouse homologue of the Drosophila heterochromatic protein HP1 in vivo, consistent with a previous two-hybrid screen identifying this interaction. From the analysis of a trap assay for nuclear proteins, we have shown that the localization of ATRX to heterochromatin is encoded by its N-terminal region, which contains a conserved plant homeodomain-like finger and a coiled-coil domain. In addition to its association with heterochromatin, at metaphase ATRX clearly binds to the short arms of human acrocentric chromosomes, where the arrays
Structure, Function, Composition and Regulation of the Yeast Kinetochore and Mitotic Spindle. The mitotic spindle is a complex structure that must undergo a highly coordinated sequence of steps to faithfully segregate chromosomes to daughter cells. In each cell cycle the spindle must assemble, form a bipolar connection to each chromosome, segregate one copy of each chromosome to each daughter cell, and then disassemble. Using a combination of proteomics, biochemistry and genetics, we have identified many novel kinetochore and spindle proteins and sub-complexes. A particular emphasis of our work is on the kinetochore, a protein complex that joins chromosomal DNA to mitotic spindle microtubules. Although the budding yeast cell has a simple centromeric DNA sequence, the kinetochore that is assembled onto this sequence contains over 40 proteins. We would like to understand why this structure needs to contain so many subunits, how its assembly is regulated during the cell cycle, how it can associate ...
Eukaryotic centromeres and telomeres are specialized chromosomal regions that share one common characteristic: their underlying DNA sequences are assembled into heritably repressed chromatin. Silent chromatin in budding and fission yeast is composed of fundamentally divergent proteins tat assemble very different chromatin structures. However, the ultimate behaviour of silent chromatin and the pathways that assemble it seem strikingly similar among Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae), Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe) and other eukaryotes. Thus, studies in both yeasts have been instrumental in dissecting the mechanisms that establish and maintain silent chromatin in eukaryotes, contributing substantially to our understanding of epigenetic processes. In this review, we discuss current models for the generation of heterochromatic domains at centromeres and telomeres in the two yeast species.. ...
The position of a mouse DNA repeat located near the centromere of mouse chromosomes X, 11, 13, and 17 was examined in interphase nuclei of bone marrow and fibroblast cells by in situ hybridization of 3H- or biotin-labeled DNA probe 70-38. In most laboratory mouse strains this probe recognizes a single repeat cluster (DXWas70) close to the centromere of the mouse X chromosome. In a few mouse strains, a second locus (D11Was70, D13Was70, or D17Was70, depending on the mouse strain) is located near the centromere of an autosome. In interphase nuclei from mouse strains with the X-linked locus only, two distinct sites of hybridization were found in female mice and one in male mice. These two sites remained separated during the different phases of the cell cycle (G1, early S, late S, and G2) as demonstrated by in situ hybridization of the probe to flow-sorted nuclei. In interphase nuclei from mouse strains with both the X-linked locus and an autosomal locus, four distinct sites of hybridization were found in
Read Online or Download Centromeres And Kinetochores: Discovering The Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Chromosome Inheritance (progress In Molecular And Subcellular Biology) by Many In PDF. More Science Books on My TxT!
Given an estimated length of 10.8µm for chromosome 7Q and the mean percentage above, this BAC is approximately 9.6µm±0.2µm from the chromosome centromere. ...
Given an estimated length of 20.1µm for chromosome 1Q and the mean percentage above, this BAC is approximately 15.6µm±0.4µm from the chromosome centromere. ...
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We used synthetic biology approaches to design and build an artificial human chromosome whose centromere chromatin can be modified as desired by targeting chimeric protein tools. This was done in an a ongoing collaboration with Vladimir Larionov at the NIH in the USA and Hiroshi Masumoto at the Kazusa DNA Institute in Japan. Our recent studies with this system have focused on analysis of the role of transcription and open chromatin in kinetochore function. This system offers unique opportunities both for functional analysis of kinetochore epigenetics, but also for gene therapy.. ...
Major human pathologies are caused by nuclear replicative viruses establishing life-long latent infection in their host. During latency the genomes of these viruses are intimately interacting with the cell nucleus environment. A hallmark of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency establishment is the shutdown of lytic genes expression and the concomitant induction of the latency associated (LAT) transcripts. Although the setting up and the maintenance of the latent genetic program is most likely dependent on a subtle interplay between viral and nuclear factors, this remains uninvestigated. Combining the use of in situ fluorescent-based approaches and high-resolution microscopic analysis, we show that HSV-1 genomes adopt specific nuclear patterns in sensory neurons of latently infected mice (28 days post-inoculation, d.p.i.). Latent HSV-1 genomes display two major patterns, called Single and Multiple, which associate with centromeres, and with promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies ...
... acen Centromere. var: Variable region; stalk: Stalk. Gilbert F, Kauff N (2001). "Disease genes and chromosomes: disease maps of ...
... acen Centromere. var: Variable region; stalk: Stalk. Genetic Genealogy: About the use of mtDNA and Y chromosome analysis in ...
... acen Centromere. var: Variable region; stalk: Stalk. "Why men (and other male animals) die younger: It's all in the Y ...
There are six known antigens, which are all associated with the centromere; CENP-A to CENP-F. CENP-A is a 17kDa histone H3-like ... The centromere pattern shows multiple nuclear dots in interphase and mitotic cells, corresponding to the number of chromosomes ... Anti-centromere antibodies are associated with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis, also known as CREST syndrome, primary ... This allows the detection of antibodies to mitosis-specific antigens, such as centromere antibodies. They also allow ...
"2014 Centromere Biology Conference GRC". www.grc.org. Workshops, EMBO Courses &. "Comparative genomics of eukaryotic microbes: ... Sanyal, K; Carbon, J (1 October 2002). "The CENP-A homolog CaCse4p in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans is a centromere ... USA to work in the laboratory of John Carbon on the discovery of centromeres in Candida albicans. He joined JNCASR in 2005. He ... Centromere and Kinetochore: Essential Components for Chromosome Segregation. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. pp. 259-288. doi ...
Normally a chromosome has just one centromere, but in chromosome 2 there are remnants of a second centromere. The presence of ...
Finally, the interstitial regions are the parts of the p and q regions that are close to neither the centromere nor the ... Whereas if the chromosome is isobrachial (centromere at centre and arms of equal length), the p and q system is meaningless. At ... In addition to the centromere, one or more secondary constrictions can be observed in some chromosomes at metaphase. These ... The complexes containing the duplicated DNA molecules, the sister chromatids, are attached to each other by the centromere( ...
The centromere is the point of attachment for the mitotic apparatus Deletions, duplications and translocations can produce a ... Monocentric centromeres are the most common structure on highly repetitive DNA in plants and animals. Monocentric chromosomes ... The monocentric chromosome is a chromosome that has only one centromere in a chromosome and forms a narrow constriction. ... In monocentric chromosomes there is one primary constriction and the centromere its CenH3 loci at this location. Holocentric ...
Microtubules project from opposite ends of the cell, attach to the centromeres, and align the chromosomes centrally within the ... The two chromatids are joined at the centromere. Gene transcription ceases during prophase and does not resume until late ... A kinetochore is a proteinaceous microtubule-binding structure that forms on the chromosomal centromere during late prophase. A ... Chromosome duplication results in two identical sister chromatids bound together by cohesin proteins at the centromere. When ...
Rodionov, O; Lobocka, M; Yarmolinsky, M (Jan 22, 1999). "Silencing of genes flanking the P1 plasmid centromere". Science. 283 ( ...
Anti-centromere antibodies often correlate with developing portal hypertension. Anti-np62 and anti-sp100 are also found in ... January 2007). "Anti-gp210 and Anti-Centromere Antibodies Are Different Risk Factors for the Progression of Primary Biliary ...
Attention is paid to their length, the position of the centromeres, banding pattern, any differences between the sex ... Differences in the position of centromeres. These differences probably came about through translocations. Differences in ... ordered by size and position of centromere for chromosomes of the same size. The basic number of chromosomes in the somatic ... so it stains centromeres. The name is derived from centromeric or constitutive heterochromatin. The preparations undergo ...
Attention is paid to their length, the position of the centromeres, banding pattern, any differences between the sex ... ISBN 978-0-582-44496-6.[page needed] Schubert V, Ruban A, Houben A (2016). "Chromatin Ring Formation at Plant Centromeres". ...
... elegans centromeres are not made by centromere-associated retrotransposons nor centromere-associated satellite DNAs, but cenH3 ... Nagaki K, Kashihara K, Murata M (July 2005). "Visualization of diffuse centromeres with centromere-specific histone H3 in the ... Cuacos M, H Franklin FC, Heckmann S (2015-10-26). "Atypical centromeres in plants-what they can tell us". Frontiers in Plant ... The absence of a localized centromere prompted several studies to identify proteins that are involved in the sister chromatid ...
Another useful taxonomic character is the position of the centromere. Meiotic behaviour may show the heterozygosity of ...
... with two centromeres), centromeres segregating in an aberrant way, defects in the spindle pole bodies in S. cerevisiae, defects ... cerevisiae lacks heterochromatin next to centromeres, but the presence of a functional centromere induces an increase of ... In yeast, cohesin binds to preferential sites along chromosome arms, and is very abundant close to the centromeres, as it was ... At the same time that mitotic checkpoint complex is being activated, the centromere protein CENP-E activates BUBR1, which also ...
The last component is a centromere-like region called ParC. The process works using all three of these components and has been ...
An important reference point along a chromosome is the centromere; the distance from a gene to the centromere is referred to as ...
High levels of cohesin binding are observed at the centromere. Cohesin is also loaded at cohesin attachment regions (CARs) ...
Okouneva, T; Azarenko, O; Wilson, L; Littlefield, B. A; Jordan, M. A (2008). "Inhibition of centromere dynamics by eribulin ( ...
Allshire, R. C; Javerzat, J. P; Redhead, N. J; Cranston, G (1994). "Position effect variegation at fission yeast centromeres". ... Shukla M, Manu; Allshire, Robin C (2018). "Centromere DNA Destabilizes H3 Nucleosomes to Promote CENP-A Deposition during the ... Binds CENP-A and is Required for Its Deposition at Fission Yeast Centromeres". Molecular Cell. 28 (6): 1029-44. doi:10.1016/j. ... he discovered that genes are silenced when placed within fission yeast centromeres and telomeres, and then utilised this gene ...
Indeed, deletion of these genes in the fission yeast S. pombe disrupts histone methylation and centromere formation, causing ... The relevance of observations from fission yeast mating-type regions and centromeres to mammals is not clear, as ... "RNA interference is required for normal centromere function in fission yeast". Chromosome Research. 11 (2): 137-46. doi:10.1023 ...
During mitosis, spindle fibers attach to the centromere via the kinetochore. A transcription factor or promoter factor is a ... 10.1038/nmeth.3979 Published online 30 August 2016 The centromere is the part of a chromosome that links sister chromatids or a ...
However, CREST syndrome is more closely associated with anti-centromere antibodies. Scl-70 antibodies are associated with more ...
The relevance of observations from fission yeast mating-type regions and centromeres to mammals is not clear, as some evidence ... Loss of these genes in S. pombe results in abnormal heterochromatin organization and impairment of centromere function, ... "RNA interference is required for normal centromere function in fission yeast". Chromosome Res. 11 (2): 137-46. doi:10.1023/A: ... has been shown to be involved in the initiation and spreading of heterochromatin in the mating-type region and in centromere ...
During meiosis I, the centromeres are not duplicated. After meiosis I, meiosis II occurs, during which the centromeres, but not ...
In response to this, the chromosome could induce centromere inactivation to impede the formation of two centromeres, but this ... Shugoshin is a centromere protein for chromosome segregation during meiosis and mitosis. There are two types of Shugoshin ... Subtelomeres are considered to be the most distal (farthest from the centromere) region of unique DNA on a chromosome, and they ... In fission yeast, Sgo2 is localized not only in centromeres, but also in subtelomeres. Sgo2 interacts with subtelomeres during ...
Erosion of centromeres can lead to the formation of neocentromeres or the capture of new native centromeres from other ... They have functional centromeres, and telomeres when linear. They are rare overall, being found in about 3% of cancers, but are ...
Minisatellite - repeat units from about 10 to 60 base pairs, found in many places in the genome, including the centromeres. ... Satellite DNA - typically found in centromeres and heterochromatin. ...
The primary components of a YAC are the ARS, centromere, and telomeres from S. cerevisiae. Additionally, selectable marker ... Clarke L, Carbon J (October 1980). "Isolation of a yeast centromere and construction of functional small circular chromosomes ...
Centromeres were first thought to be genetic loci that direct the behavior of chromosomes. The physical role of the centromere ... "Regional centromeres" is the term coined to describe most centromeres, which typically form on regions of preferred DNA ... In regional centromeres, DNA sequences contribute to but do not define function. Regional centromeres contain large amounts of ... Point centromeres are smaller and more compact. DNA sequences are both necessary and sufficient to specify centromere identity ...
Anti-centromere antibodies (ACAs; often styled solid, anticentromere) are autoantibodies specific to centromere and kinetochore ... Anti-centromere antibodies are found in approximately 60% of patients with limited systemic scleroderma and in 15% of those ... Anti-centromere antibodies present early in the course of disease and are notably predictive of limited cutaneous involvement ... The specificity of this test is >98%. Thus, a positive anti-centromere antibody finding is strongly suggestive of limited ...
A new technique makes it much easier to study centromeres, and look for links to conditions such as Down syndrome. ... The centromere is the structure at the center of every X-shaped chromosome, where cells attached the long, thin spindles that ... The centromere is the structure at the center of every X-shaped chromosome, where cells attached the long, thin spindles that ... A new technique makes it much easier to study centromeres, and look for links to conditions such as Down syndrome. ...
Protein which binds centromeres or which is required for the assembly and movement of centromeres. Centromeres are the regions ...
The quest to understand the structure and function of the centromere dates back almost a century, when this specialized region ... Rattner, J. B. (1991). The structure of the mammalian centromere. Bioessays. 13, 51-56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Pluta, A., Cooke, C. A. and Earnshaw, W. C. (1990). Structure of the human centromere at metaphase. TIBS. 15, 181-185.PubMed ... Centromere Protein Alpha Satellite Chromosome Movement Centromeric Chromatin Indian Muntjac These keywords were added by ...
Tag: centromere. Video: Mapping Uncharted Regions of Genomes by Siva Kasinathan. Posted on April 14, 2017. by Robin Banner ...
centromere (thing). See all of centromere, there is 1 more in this node. ... During anaphase of mitosis and of the second meiotic division, the two chromatids detach at the centromere, each moving to ...
i was negative for centromere b which causes scleroderma but another test i took tested all centromere antibodies and it didnt ... my question is does anyone have symptoms of sjorgens with centromere antibodies but centromere b negative? i was negative for ... The centromere antibody test is usually run to help diagnose or rule out CREST or scleroderma and to my knowledge it is not at ... this would have to be probably centromeres a or c.. the ana was also positive around 1 :160. so i have two autoimmune diseases ...
Plant Centromere Biology is dedicated to plant centromere research. Chapters cover the structure of centromeres from several ... Chapter 12 Centromere Evolution 159. Jiming Jiang. Chapter 13 Centromere-Mediated Generation of Haploid Plants 169. ... centromere drive and centromere misdivision. Additional chapters are dedicated to epigenetic modification and evolution of ... Chapter 5 Centromere Synteny among Brachypodium, Wheat, and Rice 57. Lili Qi, Bernd Friebe, and Bikram S. Gill ...
Centromere-proximal differentiation and speciation in Anopheles gambiae. Aram D. Stump, Meagan C. Fitzpatrick, Neil F. Lobo, ... Centromere-proximal differentiation and speciation in Anopheles gambiae. Aram D. Stump, Meagan C. Fitzpatrick, Neil F. Lobo, ... Centromere-proximal differentiation and speciation in Anopheles gambiae. Aram D. Stump, Meagan C. Fitzpatrick, Neil F. Lobo, ... Centromere-proximal differentiation and speciation in Anopheles gambiae Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
... attaches to the centromeres. In most organisms the position of the centromere is not determined by the DNA sequence. Scientists ... Therefore neo-centromeres might contribute to the emergence of new species.. The insights into the central role of CenH3 for ... Centromeres are specialised regions of the genome, which can be identified under the microscope as the primary constriction in ... Centromeres provide a platform for the development of a protein complex known as the kinetochore. During cell division, the ...
The centromere is a region in the middle of the chromosome involved in cell division and the control of gene expression. ... The centromere is also where kinetochore formation takes place: proteins bind on the centromeres that form an anchor point for ... Centromere proteins are also the autoantigenic target for some anti-nuclear antibodies such as anti-centromere antibodies ... Each chromatid has its own centromere, and the spindle fibers attach to the kinetochore site. The centromere looks like a ...
Centromere-encoded RNAs are integral components of the maize kinetochore. Christopher N. Topp, Cathy X. Zhong, and R. Kelly ... Centromere-encoded RNAs are integral components of the maize kinetochore Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Here, we extend the evidence for RNA-chromatin interactions to the centromere core. The data indicate that maize centromeric ... These data provide evidence for a pool of protected, single-stranded centromeric RNA within the centromere/kinetochore complex. ...
Most plant, animal and fungal centromeres also bind a large protein, centromere protein C (CENP-C), that is characterized by a ... Adaptive evolution of centromere proteins in plants and animals.. Talbert PB1, Bryson TD, Henikoff S. ... The nucleosomes of centromeres are characterized by a special H3-like histone (CenH3), which evolves rapidly and adaptively in ... Centromeres represent the last frontiers of plant and animal genomics. Although they perform a conserved function in chromosome ...
Centromeres of mammalian chromosomes.. Willard HF1.. Author information. 1. Department of Genetics, Stanford University, CA ... The centromere is the major cis-acting genetic locus involved in chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. The mammalian ... centromere is characterized by large amounts of tandemly repeated satellite DNA and by a number of specific centromere proteins ... the data are most consistent with a structural and possibly functional role for satellite DNA in the mammalian centromere. ...
The centromere is a special region of a chromosome, usually near the middle. It is where the two identical sister chromatids ... During mitosis the centromeres can be seen during the metaphase stage as a constriction at the chromosome. At this centromeric ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Centromere&oldid=6248447" ...
2011 Point centromeres contain more than a single centromere-specific Cse4 (CENP-A) nucleosome. J. Cell Biol. 195: 573-582. ... "Point" Centromeres of Saccharomyces Harbor Single Centromere-Specific Nucleosomes Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ... "Point" Centromeres of Saccharomyces Harbor Single Centromere-Specific Nucleosomes. Steven Henikoff and Jorja G. Henikoff ... "Point" Centromeres of Saccharomyces Harbor Single Centromere-Specific Nucleosomes. Steven Henikoff and Jorja G. Henikoff ...
Small RNAs Correspond to Centromere Heterochromatic Repeats Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
Track indicating the location of the centromere sequences. Centromeres are specialized chromatin structures that are required ... Centromere Locations (. All Mapping and Sequencing tracks). Display mode: hide. dense. squish. pack. full. ... Centromere reference models for human chromosomes X and Y satellite arrays. Genome Res. 2014 Apr;24(4):697-707. PMID: 24501022 ... Unlike all previous versions of the human reference assembly, where the centromere regions have been represented by a multi- ...
Duplicated chromosomes are attached together at a region called the centromere. The centromere plays an important role in the ... Studying centromere DNA has proven a huge challenge as these sequences are neither necessary nor sufficient for kinetochore ... "Previous research identified a centromere protein called CENP-A as the key upstream factor required for specifying the site of ... Home Blog Entry New insight into chromosome segregation: Centromere-independent kinetochore assembly ...
Although the structural features of centromeres from most multicellular eukaryotes remain to be characterized, recent analyses ... Plant centromere organization: a dynamic structure with conserved functions Trends Genet. 2007 Mar;23(3):134-9. doi: 10.1016/j. ... This review article focuses on the structural and evolutionary dynamics of plant centromere organization and the potential ... Although the structural features of centromeres from most multicellular eukaryotes remain to be characterized, recent analyses ...
Same centromeres as supplied in Chromosome Simulation 10-Station BioKit® (item #171100) and Chromosome Simulation 1-Station ... Magnetic Centromeres, pack/10. Item # 171115 Magnetic Centromeres, pack/10 is rated 2.0 out of 5 by 1. ... Rated 2 out of 5 by JMG1 from These newer versions are much harder to use The older version of the centromere worked much ... Same centromeres as supplied in Chromosome Simulation 10-Station BioKit® (item #171100) and Chromosome Simulation 1-Station ...
... Author(s). Zlotina, A.; Galkina, S.A.; Krasikova, A.; Crooijmans, R.P.M ... This makes it difficult to determine centromere positions in the genome sequence assembly. Using giant lampbrush chromosomes ... allowed us to map the GGA3 centromere between BAC clones WAG38P15 and WAG54M22 located at position 2.3 and 2.5 Mb, respectively ... the centromeres at the lampbrush stage are detectable by immunostaining with antibodies against cohesin subunits. ...
Compare centromere protein P ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, ... centromere protein P ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based tool for ... Your search returned 24 centromere protein P ELISA ELISA Kit across 3 suppliers. ...
... centromere explanation free. What is centromere? Meaning of centromere medical term. What does centromere mean? ... Looking for online definition of centromere in the Medical Dictionary? ... centromere. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. centromere. [sen´tro-mēr] the clear constricted ... centromere. (1) An obsolete term for the neck of the sprematozoon. (2) Centromere; centromerus [NH3].. cen·tro·mere (sentrō- ...
The centromere is also where kinetochore formation takes place: proteins bind on the centromeres that form an anchor point for ... Centromere proteins are also the autoantigenic target for some anti-nuclear antibodies such as anti-centromere antibodies ... This must be coupled with the inactivation of the previous centromere since chromosomes with two functional centromeres ( ... Centromere (A, B, C1, C2, E, F, H, I, J, K, M, N, O, P, Q, T] ... The centromere is a region, often found in the middle of the ...
CENP-H, a constitutive centromere component, is required for centromere targeting of CENP-C in vertebrate cells. Fukagawa, T., ... Associations of Centromere with chemical compounds. *A putative centromere has been identified that has a core region of about ... Anatomical context of Centromere. *We examined the role of CENP-H in centromere function and assembly by generating a ... Psychiatry related information on Centromere. *Mouse ali1 was mapped to a locus approximately 55.3 cM from the centromere on ...
Also acts a component of the CENPA-CAD (nucleosome distal) complex, a complex recruited to centromeres which is involved in ... May be involved in incorporation of newly synthesized CENPA into centromeres via its interaction with the CENPA-NAC complex (By ... Centromere protein RAdd BLAST. 176. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. ... Centromere, Chromosome, Kinetochore, Nucleus. ,p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or ...
View mouse Cenph Chr13:100759674-100775899 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
We reconstitute tandem arrays of centromere protein A (CENP-A) nucleosomes as a substrate for centromere and kinetochore ... This protocol describes a cell-free system for studying vertebrate centromere and kinetochore formation. ... We reconstitute tandem arrays of centromere protein A (CENP-A) nucleosomes as a substrate for centromere and kinetochore ... A cell-free system for functional centromere and kinetochore assembly Nat Protoc. 2012 Oct;7(10):1847-69. doi: 10.1038/nprot. ...
  • Centromeres are the regions of replicated eukaryotic chromosomes where the two chromatids are joined together. (uniprot.org)
  • The quest to understand the structure and function of the centromere dates back almost a century, when this specialized region of the chromosome was first described in 1894 by Metzner as the site at which chromosomes attached to the spindle apparatus (Metzner, 1894). (springer.com)
  • Integration of human a- satellite DNA into simian chromosomes: Centromere protein binding and disruption of normal chromosome segregation. (springer.com)
  • Centromeres were first thought to be genetic loci that direct the behavior of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The physical role of the centromere is to act as the site of assembly of the kinetochores - a highly complex multiprotein structure that is responsible for the actual events of chromosome segregation - i.e. binding microtubules and signalling to the cell cycle machinery when all chromosomes have adopted correct attachments to the spindle, so that it is safe for cell division to proceed to completion and for cells to enter anaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is now believed that this complex is mostly released from chromosome arms during prophase, so that by the time the chromosomes line up at the mid-plane of the mitotic spindle (also known as the metaphase plate), the last place where they are linked with one another is in the chromatin in and around the centromere. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are X-shaped chromosomes, with the centromere in the middle so that the two arms of the chromosomes are almost equal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional chapters are dedicated to epigenetic modification and evolution of plant centromeres, and development and application of plant artificial chromosomes. (wiley.com)
  • Unlike other centromere-associated proteins, it is not present during interphase and first appears at the centromere region of chromosomes during prometaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Centromeres are specialised regions of the genome, which can be identified under the microscope as the primary constriction in X-shaped chromosomes. (redorbit.com)
  • The cell skeleton, which distributes the chromosomes to the two daughter cells during cell division, attaches to the centromeres. (redorbit.com)
  • A centromere functions in sister chromatid adhesion, kinetochore formation, and pairing of homologous chromosomes . (bionity.com)
  • The centromere is also where kinetochore formation takes place: proteins bind on the centromeres that form an anchor point for the spindle formation required for the pull of chromosomes toward the centrioles during the anaphase and telophase of mitosis. (bionity.com)
  • When the centromere doesn't function properly, the chromosomes don't align and separate properly, resulting in the wrong number of chromosomes in the daughter cells ( aneuploidy ), and conditions such as Down syndrome , if the cells survive at all. (bionity.com)
  • The daughter chromosomes will assemble centromeres in the same place as the parent chromosome, independent of sequence. (bionity.com)
  • Centromeres of mammalian chromosomes. (nih.gov)
  • Duplicated chromosomes are attached together at a region called the centromere. (scienceblog.com)
  • During cell division the centromeres split longitudinally, half going to each of the new daughter chromosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The centromere contains a complex system of fibres called the kinetochore which becomes duplicated when the chromosomes divide into CHROMATIDS . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Damaged chromosomes without centromeres (ACENTRIC CHROMOSOMES ) fail to move normally during nuclear division. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The centromere is together with telomeres and origin of replications one of the essential parts of any eukaryotic chromosomes. (wikidoc.org)
  • We describe a process in meiotic cells of budding yeast in which chromosomes become joined together in pairs at their centromeres independent of chromosomal homology. (sciencemag.org)
  • In prophase o mitosis, specialised regions on centromeres cried kinetochores attach chromosomes tae spindle fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Critical to successful cell division is the integrity of the centromere--a region of DNA on each chromosome where the cell division machinery attaches to segregate the chromosomes. (eurekalert.org)
  • As mitosis progresses, the microtubules align the chromosomes along the mid-line of the cell, then shorten and pull the chromosome pairs at their centromeres to opposite sides of the cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • If the chromosomes have too many or too few centromeres, or the centromeres are located in the wrong place, proper chromosome segregation fails, and the cell either dies or becomes diseased. (eurekalert.org)
  • E ukaryotic organisms show wide diversity in the manner by which they organize the centromere/kinetochore of their chromosomes. (rupress.org)
  • The chromosomes of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have a well-defined point centromere: all centromeric functions are restricted to a short stretch of DNA ∼125 bp in length (for review see Clarke, 1990 ). (rupress.org)
  • Mammalian centromeres, which contain hundreds of kilobases of repetitive, heterochromatic, α-satellite DNA, are found at the major constriction of mitotic chromosomes where they specify a trilaminar kinetochore. (rupress.org)
  • Propose that CENP-B plays a dual role in centromere formation, ensuring de novo formation on DNA lacking a functional centromere but preventing the formation of excess centromeres on chromosomes. (antibodies-online.com)
  • We conclude that CID mislocalization promotes formation of ectopic centromeres and multicentric chromosomes, which causes chromosome missegregation, aneuploidy, and growth defects. (unt.edu)
  • Chromosomes containing two centromeres are known as dicentric and often mis-segregate during cell division, resulting in aneuploidy or chromosome breakage. (springer.com)
  • Dicentric chromosome can be stabilized by centromere inactivation, a process which reestablishes monocentric chromosomes. (springer.com)
  • Centromeres, microtubules, and chromosomes in U2OS cells in the absence ( A and B ) or presence ( C-F ) of VFL. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The selection regimes that act on CENH3 and CENP-C genes have not been analyzed in organisms with holocentric chromosomes, although holocentrism is speculated to have evolved to suppress centromere drive. (muni.cz)
  • Aurora A-dependent CENP-A phosphorylation at inner centromeres protects bioriented chromosomes against cohesion fatigue. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We report that Aurora A-dependent phosphorylation of serine 7 of the centromere histone variant CENP-A (p-CENP-AS7) protects bioriented chromosomes against cohesion fatigue. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We propose that Aurora A-dependent phosphorylation of CENP-A at the inner centromere protects chromosomes against tension-induced cohesion fatigue until the last kinetochore is attached to spindle microtubules. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Centromere proteins are a group of proteins which form and/or mediate the function of centromeres, the central structures of chromosomes to which spindle fibers/microtubuli attach and pull the chromosomes apart in cell division. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Chromosomes associate premeiotically and in xylem vessel cells via their telomeres and centromeres in diploid rice (Oryza sativa). (jic.ac.uk)
  • The sister chromosomes are pulled apart from a single position called a centromere, and the nucleosomes at this position contain a histone that is different from the histones found everywhere else in the cell. (elifesciences.org)
  • Centromeres are the genetic loci that organize the proteinaceous kinetochore, which attaches to spindle microtubules to pull the chromosomes to the poles in both mitosis and meiosis. (elifesciences.org)
  • Mammalian centromeres are embedded within heterochromatin, a specialized chromatin assembled onto repetitive DNA that forms the primary constriction of chromosomes. (embopress.org)
  • In early mitosis, the bulk of cohesin dissociates from chromosomes, but a small fraction is spared at the centromere providing the ultimate linker between sister chromatid pairs, essential for their proper attachment to the mitotic spindle. (embopress.org)
  • Although centromeric heterochromatin is important for faithful segregation of chromosomes, its role in maintaining centromere integrity remains elusive. (datadryad.org)
  • The data obtained demonstrate that the rye and wheat chromosomes studied are involved in genetic regulation of centromere division in meiotic anaphase I (AI). (deepdyve.com)
  • First, they used BACs that flanked the CentO region from the minimal contig of centromere 8 as FISH probes on spreads of rice pachytene chromosomes, to confirm that the contig included the entire CentO-containing region. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Next, they performed 'fiber FISH', probing the same chromosomes in the form of stretched DNA fibers, again using the BACs from the minimal contig as probes and with CentO as a probe, to show that the predicted tiling path reflected the correct physical arrangement of the BACs around the centromere. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This could be a way for chromosomes to sustain mitosis and meiosis when the normal centromere locus is ineluctably undermined by the above mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Meiotic recombination is generally suppressed across the centromere of eukaryotic chromosomes. (oup.com)
  • The centromere is a complex structure ensuring the proper segregation of chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Centromeres are the differentiated chromosomal domains that specify the mitotic behavior of chromosomes. (rupress.org)
  • In this chromatin, the normal histone H3 is replaced with a centromere-specific variant, CENP-A in humans (Lodish et al. (bionity.com)
  • Here, we extend the evidence for RNA-chromatin interactions to the centromere core. (pnas.org)
  • Centromeres are specialized chromatin structures that are required for cell division. (ucsc.edu)
  • These chromatin substrates are immobilized on magnetic beads and then incubated in Xenopus egg extracts that provide a source for centromere and kinetochore proteins and that can be cycled between mitotic and interphase cell cycle states. (nih.gov)
  • After incubation in egg extract, reconstituted CENP-A chromatin specifically assembles centromere and kinetochore proteins, which locally stabilize microtubules and, on microtubule depolymerization with nocodazole, activate the mitotic checkpoint. (nih.gov)
  • Tethering analysis using various centromere and kinetochore factors, and chromatin modifiers reveals that CENP-C and CENP-I are key connecting factors for kinetochore and CENP-A assembly. (biologists.org)
  • This immediate activation is probably a consequence of a centromere-targeted epigenetic system that governs the chromatin architecture of the region. (asm.org)
  • These results provide direct evidence in fission yeast of a model, similar to one proposed for mammalian systems, whereby no specific sequence is necessary for centromere function but certain classes of sequences are competent to build the appropriate chromatin foundation upon which the centromere/kinetochore can be formed and activated. (asm.org)
  • It is becoming increasingly clear that the key factors for assembly and function of the centromere structure are the specialized histories and modified histones which are present in the centromeric heterochromatin and in the chromatin of the central core. (diva-portal.org)
  • Centromeric chromatin is defined by the presence of CENH3, a centromere-specific H3 variant. (plantcell.org)
  • The otr region is known to be heterochromatic and bound by the Swi6 protein whereas the central core region contains an unusual chromatin structure involving the histone H3 variant Cnp1 (S. pombe CENP-A). The central core is the base for formation of the kinetochore structure whereas the flanking region is important for sister centromere cohesion. (diva-portal.org)
  • Haspin is important for phosphorylating H3T3 at the centromeres during M phase, which is essential for the recruitment of chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) to the centromere of chromatin for the proper progression of mitosis. (ku.edu)
  • To examine the molecular basis for the specification of centromeric chromatin, we have cloned a human cDNA that encodes the 17-kD histone-like centromere antigen, CENP-A. Two domains are evident in the 140 aa CENP-A polypeptide: a unique NH2-terminal domain and a 93-amino acid COOH-terminal domain that shares 62% identity with nucleosomal core protein, histone H3. (rupress.org)
  • An epitope tagged derivative of CENP-A was faithfully targeted to centromeres when expressed in a variety of animal cells and this targeting activity was shown to reside in the histone-like COOH-terminal domain of CENP-A. These data clearly indicate that the assembly of centromeres is driven, at least in part, by the incorporation of a novel core histone into centromeric chromatin. (rupress.org)
  • Protein which binds centromeres or which is required for the assembly and movement of centromeres. (uniprot.org)
  • CENP-B: a major human centromere protein located beneath the kinetochore. (springer.com)
  • Centromere-associated protein E is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CENPE gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Centromere-associated protein E is a kinesin-like motor protein that accumulates in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics in Freiburg have succeeded in demonstrating that the position, function and inheritance of the centromere are determined by the histone CenH3, a DNA packaging protein. (redorbit.com)
  • Centromeres provide a platform for the development of a protein complex known as the kinetochore. (redorbit.com)
  • For their experiments, the researchers equipped the CenH3 histone with an artificially attached DNA binding domain so that the protein could bind to a DNA region where a centromere does not normally form. (redorbit.com)
  • The step from a DNA-identified centromere in baker's yeast, in which the position "is set in stone", to a protein-defined centromere position which is easier to change may also play a role in evolution. (redorbit.com)
  • Most plant, animal and fungal centromeres also bind a large protein, centromere protein C (CENP-C), that is characterized by a single 24 amino-acid motif (CENPC motif). (nih.gov)
  • Previous research identified a centromere protein called CENP-A as the key upstream factor required for specifying the site of kinetochore assembly," explains senior study author Dr. Iain Cheeseman from the Whitehead Institute and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (scienceblog.com)
  • Your search returned 24 centromere protein P ELISA ELISA Kit across 3 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • We reconstitute tandem arrays of centromere protein A (CENP-A) nucleosomes as a substrate for centromere and kinetochore assembly. (nih.gov)
  • This cell-free system lends itself to use in protein immunodepletion, complementation and drug inhibition as a tool to perturb centromere and kinetochore assembly, cytoskeletal dynamics, DNA modification and protein post-translational modification. (nih.gov)
  • CENPB product is a highly conserved protein that facilitates centromere formation. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Centromere Protein B Kits (47) und Centromere Protein B Proteine (8) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Centromere protein B (CENP-B) as a novel interacting partner of HBZ. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Thin protein fibers, called microtubules stretch out from points on opposite sides of the cell and latch onto a protein complex, called the kinetochore, which is anchored by CENP-A molecules at the centromere. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this paper we describe the molecular evolution of one centromere/kinetochore component, originally identified as the protein product of the Drosophila melanogaster gene l(1)zw10 , hereafter called DmZW10. (rupress.org)
  • Additionally we are shipping Centromere Protein B Antibodies (41) and Centromere Protein B Proteins (7) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • An S. pombe CENP-B-like protein, Abp1p/Cbp1p, which is required for proper chromosome segregation in vivo, binds in vitro to sites within and adjacent to the modular centromere enhancer, as well as within the centromeric central cores. (asm.org)
  • We have used two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis to analyze the replication of the chromosomal copies of yeast CEN1, CEN3, and CEN4 and determine the fate of replication forks that encounter the protein-DNA complex at the centromere. (asm.org)
  • We have analyzed the replication of plasmids containing mutant derivatives of CEN3 to determine whether the replication fork pause site is a result of an unusual structure adopted by centromere DNA or a result of the protein-DNA complex formed at the centromere. (asm.org)
  • Our findings further suggest that the centromere protein-DNA complex is present during S phase when replication forks encounter the centromere and therefore may be present throughout the cell cycle. (asm.org)
  • Also at the protein level few centromere proteins are conserved in all of these four organisms and many are unique to the different organisms. (diva-portal.org)
  • The research presented in this dissertation used N. crassa as a model to focus on characterizing different features of centromeres with an emphasis on the centromere-specific histone H3 (CenH3) protein. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The CenH3 protein, whose deposition on the genome licenses formation or maintenance of centromeres, shows highly divergent N-terminal regions and a conserved histone fold domain (HFD) in all eukaryotes. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In prokaryotes, the centromere is a specialized segment of DNA that promotes the assembly of the segrosome upon binding of the Centromere Binding Protein (CBP). (csic.es)
  • The declustering of centromeres in mis6 cells correlated with loss the Ndc80 kinetochore marker protein from the centromeres. (diva-portal.org)
  • The histone-H3 variant CENtromere-Protein-A (CENP-A) is thought to provide centromere identity and as such must be retained through each cell cycle. (washington.edu)
  • In this study for the first time, we identified a member of the centromere protein (CENP) family, CENPK, which was specifically upregulated in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines and the overexpression of which was associated with poor prognoses in patients with ovarian cancer. (peerj.com)
  • Centromere protein A (CENPA) was one of the first identified kinetochore components in humans. (peerj.com)
  • Visualization of centromere proteins CENP-B and CENP-C on a stable dicentric chromosome in cytological spreads. (springer.com)
  • Identification of a family of three related centromere proteins using autoimmune sera from patients with scleroderma. (springer.com)
  • Point centromeres" bind to specific proteins that recognize particular DNA sequences with high efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in budding yeasts the centromere region is relatively small (about 125 bp DNA) and contains two highly conserved DNA sequences that serve as binding sites for essential kinetochore proteins. (bionity.com)
  • Adaptive evolution of centromere proteins in plants and animals. (nih.gov)
  • The mammalian centromere is characterized by large amounts of tandemly repeated satellite DNA and by a number of specific centromere proteins, at least one of which has been shown to interact directly with centromeric satellite DNA sequences. (nih.gov)
  • In order to gain further insight into the mechanisms that act to direct the assembly of the remaining kinetochore proteins, the Cheeseman lab and their collaborators in the Fukagawa lab at the National Institute of Genetics in Japan analyzed CENP-C and the CENP-T/W complex, DNA-binding proteins that are present at the centromere of vertebrate cells and are required for formation of the kinetochore. (scienceblog.com)
  • Using an assay that essentially bypasses the centromere and targets the kinetochore to another area, the researchers assessed the requirement of proteins in kinetochore assembly. (scienceblog.com)
  • Also acts a component of the CENPA-CAD (nucleosome distal) complex, a complex recruited to centromeres which is involved in assembly of kinetochore proteins, mitotic progression and chromosome segregation. (uniprot.org)
  • Centromeres are specified epigenetically and contain marks such as the histone 3 variant Cenp-A. In mammalian cells, more than 20 proteins were found to associate with centromeres. (biologists.org)
  • Maintenance of the Drosophila Cenp-A ortholog, centromere-identifier (Cid), might depend on only two additional centromere proteins, Cenp-C and Cal1. (biologists.org)
  • We have identified ZW10-related proteins from widely diverse species with divergent centromere structures, including several Drosophilids, Caenorhabditis elegans , Arabidopsis thaliana, Mus musculus , and humans. (rupress.org)
  • The centromere-associated proteins that bind to centromere DNA and have been implicated in organizing centromere structure in mammals are substantially different from analogous proteins in S . cerevisiae with the possible exception of CENP-C ( Meluh and Koshland, 1995 ). (rupress.org)
  • In monocentric organisms with asymmetric meiosis, the kinetochore proteins, such as CENH3 and CENP-C, evolve adaptively to counterbalance the deleterious effects of centromere drive, which is caused by the expansion of centromeric satellite repeats. (muni.cz)
  • Thus, despite the differences in the DNA sequences and the proteins that define a centromere, there is an overall structural similarity between centromeres in evolutionarily diverse eukaryotes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Data included here represent the first study on centromere-specific proteins in Neurospora, and demonstrate that the central core of the centromeres are heterochromatic, showing enrichment of silent histone marks, which is in contrast to the centromere arrangement in fission yeast. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Currently, 9 centromere proteins are known and designated CENP-A to CENP-I. Most of the centromere proteins are targets of autoantibodies, the anti-centromere antibodies. (creativebiomart.net)
  • We sought to understand the role of TOP2A SUMOylation at the mitotic centromeres by identifying specific binding proteins for SUMOylated TOP2A CTD. (ku.edu)
  • The fraction of the repeats within the homogeneous alphoid array at which CENP-A is recruited with other proteins [ 8 ] to form the centromere has never been analysed in detail. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On the other hand, when proteins bound to the biotinylated alphoid DNA carrying the 17-bp motif are recovered by streptavidin agarose and immunoblotted, the 80-kD centromere antigen (CENP-B) is detected. (rupress.org)
  • These data provide evidence for a pool of protected, single-stranded centromeric RNA within the centromere/kinetochore complex. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, the "point" centromeres of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are specified by an ∼125-bp sequence that is occupied by a single centromeric nucleosome ( Furuyama and Biggins 2007 ) and attaches to a single spindle microtubule. (genetics.org)
  • reanalyzed the native ChIP data of Furuyama and Biggins (2007) and argued that their indirect labeling method was not sufficiently sensitive to detect low levels of centromeric nucleosomes that might randomly occupy centromere-flanking regions. (genetics.org)
  • Although the structural features of centromeres from most multicellular eukaryotes remain to be characterized, recent analyses of the complete sequences of two centromeric regions of rice, together with data from Arabidopsis thaliana and maize, have illuminated the considerable size variation and sequence divergence of plant centromeres. (nih.gov)
  • Despite the severe suppression of meiotic chromosomal exchange in centromeric and pericentromeric regions of rice, the centromere core shows high rates of unequal homologous recombination in the absence of chromosomal exchange, resulting in frequent and extensive DNA rearrangement. (nih.gov)
  • Not only is the sequence of centromeric tandem and non-tandem repeats highly variable but also the copy number, spacing, order and orientation, providing ample natural variation as the basis for selection of superior centromere performance. (nih.gov)
  • This review article focuses on the structural and evolutionary dynamics of plant centromere organization and the potential molecular mechanisms responsible for the rapid changes of centromeric components. (nih.gov)
  • However, the authors now demonstrate that, in these cells, there are five different centromere states, some of which include turnover or reduction in centromeric Cid. (biologists.org)
  • The centromere enhancer is a functionally important DNA region within the Schizosaccharomyces pombe centromeric K-type repeat. (asm.org)
  • We have previously shown that addition of the enhancer and cen2 centromeric central core to a circular minichromosome is sufficient to impart appreciable centromere function. (asm.org)
  • A more detailed analysis of the enhancer shows that it is dispensable for centromere function in a cen1-derived minichromosome containing the central core and the remainder of the K-type repeat, indicating that the critical centromeric K-type repeat, like the central core, is characterized by functional redundancy. (asm.org)
  • The centromeric enhancer is required, however, for a central core-carrying minichromosome to exhibit immediate centromere activity when the circular DNA is introduced via transformation into S. pombe. (asm.org)
  • The centromere drive model explaining rapid evolution of eukaryotic centromeres predicts higher frequency of positive selection acting on centromeric histone H3 (CenH3) in clades with asymmetric meiosis compared to the clades with only symmetric meiosis. (muni.cz)
  • The presence of two distinct types of centromeres, coupled with the boom-and-bust cycles of centromeric satellite repeats in Solanum species, suggests that repeat-based centromeres can rapidly evolve from neocentromeres by de novo amplification and insertion of satellite repeats in the CENH3 domains. (plantcell.org)
  • suggesting that the centromeric satellite repeats are intrinsic for centromere function. (plantcell.org)
  • Further, studies from humans, flies, yeast and plants have shown that the inheritance of centromeres is not strictly guided by centromeric DNA content, which is highly AT-rich, repetitive and constantly evolving. (oregonstate.edu)
  • There is general agreement in the centromere field that the central determinant of centromere identity and propagation is the special centromeric nucleosome containing the cenH3 (CENP-A in mammals and Cse4 in budding yeast) histone variant ( Quenet and Dalal, 2012 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • However, the mechanism of Haspin localization on the centromere to target centromeric H3T3 was not clearly understood. (ku.edu)
  • We determined that Haspin is enriched at the centromeres of sister chromatids with TOP2A in a SUMO-dependent manner in mitotic XEE as interruption of SUMOylation caused a reduction in Haspin's centromeric localization as well as in centromeric H3T3 phosphorylation (H3T3p). (ku.edu)
  • The two groups screened BAC libraries, created as part of the ongoing effort to sequence the rice genome, with centromere-specific elements as probes, and then 'walked' from BAC to adjacent BAC, by virtue of overlapping sequence at their ends, so as to form a minimal tiling path, or contig, spanning the genetically defined centromeric region. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A human centromere antigen (CENP-B) interacts with a short specific sequence in alphoid DNA, a human centromeric satellite. (rupress.org)
  • We report the interaction between a human centromere antigen and an alphoid DNA, a human centromeric satellite DNA, which consists of 170-bp repeating units. (rupress.org)
  • Although they perform a conserved function in chromosome segregation, centromeres are typically composed of repetitive satellite sequences that are rapidly evolving. (nih.gov)
  • The centromere is the major cis-acting genetic locus involved in chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. (nih.gov)
  • Although direct functional assays of chromosome segregation are still lacking, the data are most consistent with a structural and possibly functional role for satellite DNA in the mammalian centromere. (nih.gov)
  • The maintenance of one - and only one - functional centromere per chromosome during cell proliferation is crucial for accurate chromosome segregation. (biologists.org)
  • The centromere-specific histone variant CENP-A (CID in Drosophila) is a structural and functional foundation for kinetochore formation and chromosome segregation. (unt.edu)
  • Having one and only one centromere per chromosome is essential for proper chromosome segregation during both mitosis and meiosis. (springer.com)
  • A motorless version of MCAK that binds centromeres but not microtubules disrupts chromosome segregation during anaphase. (rupress.org)
  • The centromere is a rigid, gene-silent heterochromatin region and is essential for faithful chromosome segregation. (usc.edu)
  • Tani, Tokio 2018-01-01 00:00:00 Satellite I RNA, a noncoding (nc)RNA transcribed from repetitive regions in human centromeres, binds to Aurora kinase B and forms a ncRNP complex required for chromosome segregation. (deepdyve.com)
  • It was previously shown that interruption of SUMOylation through the addition of the dominant negative E2 SUMO conjugating enzyme Ubc9 in mitosis causes abnormal chromosome segregation in Xenopus laevis egg extract (XEE) cell-free assays, and DNA topoisomerase IIα (TOP2A) was identified as a substrate for SUMOylation at the mitotic centromeres. (ku.edu)
  • Centromeres are fundamental to eukaryotic cell division, required for establishing kinetochores tofacilitate faithful microtubule based chromosome segregation. (washington.edu)
  • The signal for formation of a regional centromere appears to be epigenetic. (wikipedia.org)
  • A particularly promising candidate for this kind of epigenetic centromere marking is a variant form of the H3 histone known as CenH3. (redorbit.com)
  • Epigenetic inheritance plays a major role in specifying the centromere in most organisms. (bionity.com)
  • This diagram depicts the epigenetic inheritance of centromeres, as it occurs in higher organisms with a cell nucleus. (mpg.de)
  • This leads to recruitment and spreading of endogenous CenH3 (blue) into neighbouring regions, an important property that allows the self-propagation of the epigenetic centromere mark. (mpg.de)
  • In some organisms, centromeres are composed of a euchromatic central core region embedded in a stretch of heterochromatin and the inheritance and maintenance of centromeres are controlled by dynamic epigenetic phenomena. (oregonstate.edu)
  • These results are the first to quantify centromere epigenetic regulation form zygote to differentiated cells and highlight that CENP-A levels can vary normally in development. (washington.edu)
  • In most eukaryotes, the centromere has no defined DNA sequence . (bionity.com)
  • In most eukaryotes, centromeres are "regional," comprising arrays of centromere histone 3 (CenH3)-containing nucleosomes that mediate attachment to multiple spindle microtubules. (genetics.org)
  • Centromeres in most higher eukaryotes are composed of long arrays of satellite repeats. (plantcell.org)
  • thus, a single repeat dominates all centromeres in most higher eukaryotes. (plantcell.org)
  • In eukaryotes, the defined loci on each chromosome, the centromeres, accomplish the critical task of correct cell division. (oregonstate.edu)
  • CenH3 nucleosomes have been shown to occupy the centromeres of nearly all eukaryotes studied, and to be necessary for kinetochore formation. (elifesciences.org)
  • The complete sequence of rice centromere 8 reveals a small amount of centromere-specific satellite sequence in blocks interrupted by retrotransposons and other repetitive DNA, in an arrangement that is strikingly similar in overall size and content to other centromeres of multicellular eukaryotes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This unusual type of organization may represent a paradigm for centromeres in T. cruzi and other primitive eukaryotes. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • THE centromere is the genetic locus that organizes the kinetochore, which attaches to spindle microtubules for regular segregation to the poles at mitosis and meiosis. (genetics.org)
  • The name 'centromere' conjures many ideas from classical biology, but genome projects have had a difficult time defining exactly what is present at the portion of the chromosome responsible for microtubule association and segregation at mitosis and meiosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Highly conserved repetitive DNA sequences are present at human centromeres. (springer.com)
  • Regional centromeres" is the term coined to describe most centromeres, which typically form on regions of preferred DNA sequence, but which can form on other DNA sequences as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Track indicating the location of the centromere sequences. (ucsc.edu)
  • Studying centromere DNA has proven a huge challenge as these sequences are neither necessary nor sufficient for kinetochore assembly. (scienceblog.com)
  • Centromeres aren't circles like they're drawn in the books, they're just repetitie DNA sequences, and they look just like any other part of the chromosome. (biology-online.org)
  • Moreover, our studies show that two entirely different DNA sequences, consisting of elements derived from two native centromeres, can display centromere function. (asm.org)
  • The repetitive sequences at the centromere require fork protector Mrc1/Claspin, S phase checkpoint kinase Cds1 and recombinase Rhp51/Rad51 to insure proper centromere reassembly. (usc.edu)
  • Despite the conserved nature of centromere functions, the molecular genetic definition of the DNA sequences that form a centromere in the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, and in humans has revealed little conservation at the level of centromere DNA sequences. (diva-portal.org)
  • By contrast, most newly formed centromeres (neocentromeres) do not contain satellite repeats and instead include DNA sequences representative of the genome. (plantcell.org)
  • Five potato centromeres ( Cen4 , Cen6 , Cen10 , Cen11 , and Cen12 ) consisted primarily of single- or low-copy DNA sequences. (plantcell.org)
  • Fission yeast (Saccharomyces pombe) centromere DNA is organized in a central core region flanked on either side by a region of outer repeat (otr) sequences. (diva-portal.org)
  • While the DNA sequence per se is not essential for centromere localisation along an array, it appears that certain sequences can be selected against. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CenH3 arises exclusively in DNA regions at the centromere in various organisms. (redorbit.com)
  • Patrick Heun's research group at the Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics and colleagues from the Helmholtz Research Center in Munich have now discovered that CenH3 alone is sufficient to trigger the formation of the centromere. (redorbit.com)
  • This ensures that sufficient CenH3 is available at the centromere after each cell division. (redorbit.com)
  • The insights into the central role of CenH3 for centromere identity could also prove important for medicine. (redorbit.com)
  • The nucleosomes of centromeres are characterized by a special H3-like histone (CenH3), which evolves rapidly and adaptively in Drosophila and Arabidopsis. (nih.gov)
  • Recent fluorescence measurements of kinetochore clusters have suggested that this sequence specifies multiple centromere histone 3 (CenH3) nucleosomes. (genetics.org)
  • However, high-resolution mapping demonstrates that there is only one CenH3 nucleosome per centromere, providing biochemical confirmation of the point centromere model. (genetics.org)
  • We have found that CenH3 has been evolving adaptively much more frequently in clades with asymmetric meiosis compared with clades displaying only symmetric meiosis which confirms the prediction of centromere drive model. (muni.cz)
  • Our findings indicate that the evolution of asymmetric meiosis required CenH3 to evolve adaptively more often to counterbalance the negative consequences of centromere drive. (muni.cz)
  • The results from this experimental approach provide good measures for (1) determining the specific regions of CenH3 required for the assembly of centromeres during meiotic and mitotic cell divisions and (2) analyzing the resistance to changes in the organization of centromeres in N. crassa. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The genetic analysis showed that the divergent N-terminal region is essential for the proper assembly of centromeres, and that the conserved carboxy-terminus of CenH3 is important for the process of meiosis but not mitotic cell division. (oregonstate.edu)
  • ChIP-seq analyses suggest that the observed loss of Podospora anserina CenH3 (PaCenH3- GFP) from certain N. crassa centromeres does not result in obvious phenotypic defects, e.g. diminished growth or evidence for aneuploidy. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Together the results presented here suggest that during meiosis more stringent structural requirements for centromere assembly apply and that these are dependent on CenH3, and that depletion of CenH3 from centromeres does not critically affect mitosis in the asynchronously dividing nuclei of Neurospora hyphae. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In budding yeast, a single cenH3 (Cse4) nucleosome occupies the ∼120-bp functional centromere, however conflicting structural models for the particle have been proposed. (elifesciences.org)
  • During anaphase of mitosis and of the second meiotic division, the two chromatids detach at the centromere, each moving to opposite sides of the dividing cell. (everything2.com)
  • Chapter 8 Is the Heterochromatin of Meiotic Neocentromeres a Remnant of the Early Evolution of the Primitive Centromere? (wiley.com)
  • To explain these remarkable evolutionary features for a single-copy gene that is needed at every mitosis, we propose that CENP-Cs, like some CenH3s, suppress meiotic drive of centromeres during female meiosis. (nih.gov)
  • Trans-Centromere Effects on Meiotic Recombination in the Zebrafish" by Demarest, Bradley L. (questia.com)
  • We report that lack of crossover along one chromosome arm is associated with high-frequency occurrence of recombination close to the opposing arm's centromere during zebrafish meiotic recombination. (questia.com)
  • The centromere is the default chromosomal region onto which the mitotic/meiotic kinetochore gradually assembles to ensure correct chromosome attachment to microtubules and equal segregation of sister chromatids ( Perpelescu & Fukagawa, 2011 ). (peerj.com)
  • Most organisms, ranging from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe to humans, have regional centromeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • A research team from the University of Edinburgh (Scotland, UK) recently discovered that the RNA interference (RNAi) orchestrated heterochromatin that flanks the central kinetochore domain at fission yeast centromeres. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Although the size of centromeres differs between organisms, its organization, and the placement of euchromatic and heterochromatic regions is conserved from the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, to humans, Homo sapiens. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Here, we found in fission yeast that heterochromatin suppresses gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs) at centromeres. (datadryad.org)
  • They proposed that each S. cerevisiae centromere includes multiple Cse4 nucleosomes, which they likened to regional centromeres. (genetics.org)
  • Finally, higher plants have yet different regional centromeres that organize kinetochores in a ball and cup-type fashion ( Bajer and Mole-Bajer, 1969 ). (rupress.org)
  • Analysis of anti-centromere autoantibodies using cloned autoantigen CENP-B. Proc. (springer.com)
  • This assay is designed for the semi-quantitative determination of anti-centromere antibodies on the BIO-FLASH system. (inovadx.com)
  • Anti-centromere antibodies are associated with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (CREST). (humpath.com)
  • Serum samples of the patients were examined for the presence of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-SS-A/Ro antibodies, anti-SS-B/La antibodies, anti-centromere antibodies (ACA), and anti-HTLV-I antibodies. (ovid.com)
  • The goal of this study was 1) to evaluate whether anti-centromere antibody(ACA) and anti-topoisomerase antibody(ATA) specific isotype expression and 2) organ involvement associate with the degree of microangiopathy in SSc. (jrheum.org)
  • Purified IgG derived from Human anti-Centromere positive serum (also known as CREST patient serum) conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate. (antibodiesinc.com)
  • Anti-Centromere Antibodies are useful as controls in ANA diagnostics and also react with other species including mouse, rat, and hamster. (antibodiesinc.com)
  • The staining pattern obtained was consistent with the pattern expected for anti-centromere staining. (antibodiesinc.com)
  • The best characterised point centromeres are those of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "point" centromere of budding yeast is genetically defined by an ∼125-bp sequence. (genetics.org)
  • The centromere is the specialized DNA sequence of a chromosome that links a pair of sister chromatids (a dyad). (wikipedia.org)
  • Any piece of DNA with the point centromere DNA sequence on it will typically form a centromere if present in the appropriate species. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most organisms the position of the centromere is not determined by the DNA sequence. (redorbit.com)
  • In most organisms the position of the centromere is not determined by the sequence of the DNA building blocks, i.e. the DNA sequence, but epigenetically. (redorbit.com)
  • The only exception to this rule is the unicellular fungus baker's yeast, in which a specific DNA sequence "encodes" the position of the centromere. (redorbit.com)
  • This makes it difficult to determine centromere positions in the genome sequence assembly. (wur.nl)
  • Without knowing the DNA sequence, the centromeres at the lampbrush stage are detectable by immunostaining with antibodies against cohesin subunits. (wur.nl)
  • Contiguous alpha satellite DNA sequence is absent from the assembled reference genome, limiting current understanding of centromere organization and function. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we review the progress in centromere genomics spanning the discovery of the sequence to its molecular characterization and the work done during the Human Genome Project era to elucidate alpha satellite structure and sequence variation. (mdpi.com)
  • We demonstrate that these reads are sufficient to resolve the linear ordering of repeats within a single satellite array on the Y chromosome, allowing the first complete sequence characterization of a human centromere. (nanoporetech.com)
  • Our results indicate that the orientation and rotational position of the stable hemisome at each yeast centromere is not specified by the functional centromere sequence. (elifesciences.org)
  • Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using centromere-specific satellite sequence as a probe reveals that their copy number among different rice and maize centromeres varies considerably - almost 30-fold in rice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Their work has resulted in the first complete sequence of a normal centromere from a multicellular organism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Repeats associated with CENP-A, where the centromere is formed, are subjected to the same evolutionary mechanisms, but constitute minor subsets that exhibit subtle sequence differences from those of the bulk repeats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A DNA region of approximately 250 kb was pinpointed as the ENC seeding region and was shown to have been deeply affected by a variety of mutational processes, including extensive duplication on both sides of the centromere, massive insertions of small stretches of alpha-satellite DNA, and microdeletions inferred by absence of specific STS (Sequence Tagged Site) amplification. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DmZW10 displays an intriguing cell cycle-dependent intracellular distribution, apparently moving from the centromere/kinetochore at prometaphase to kinetochore microtubules at metaphase, and back to the centromere/kinetochore at anaphase (Williams, B.C., M. Gatti, and M.L. Goldberg. (rupress.org)
  • In untreated cells in anaphase ( B ), sister chromatids and centromeres have separated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • MCAK overexpression induces centromere-independent bundling and eventual loss of spindle microtubule polymer suggesting that centromere-associated bundling and/or depolymerization activity is required for anaphase. (rupress.org)
  • During meiosis in wild-type diploids, centromere couples are initially nonhomologous and then undergo switching until all couples involve homologs. (sciencemag.org)
  • Regions of synaptonemal complex assembled early in meiosis are often centromere-associated. (sciencemag.org)
  • These results support the hypothesis that centromere drive occurs in Nematoda, at least in the telokinetic meiosis of Caenorhabditis. (muni.cz)
  • Further, the low enrichment of PaCenH3-GFP at certain centromeres is possibly predetermined during meiosis, which results in irreversible and progressive decreases in enrichment. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Finally, none of 28 families with a trisomy 21 child previously associated with a nullitransitional meiosis I non-disjunction event presents a recombination exchange across the centromere. (oup.com)
  • Genetic systems such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been instrumental in dissecting spindle and centromere function in vivo (for review see Hoyt and Geiser, 1996 ). (rupress.org)
  • Evaluation of Her-2/neu status in carcinomas with amplified chromosome 17 centromere locus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The centromere is the chromosomal locus essential for chromosome inheritance and genome stability. (mdpi.com)
  • On the basis of analysis of these nine markers, 34 mutants lacked evidence of any recombination between the centromere and the asm locus. (questia.com)
  • HSV-1 genome subnuclear positioning and associations with host-cell PML-NBs and centromeres regulate LAT locus transcription during latency in neurons. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • A centromere is the region where sister chromatids join in the double chromosomal structure during mitosis , prophase and metaphase . (bionity.com)
  • During mitosis the centromeres can be seen during the metaphase stage as a constriction at the chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunofluorescence combined with FISH (IF-FISH) on metaphase chromosome spreads, we demonstrate that centromere inactivation has evolved on a neo-Y chromosome fusion in the Japan Sea threespine stickleback fish ( Gasterosteus nipponicus ). (springer.com)
  • In untreated cells in metaphase ( A ), pairs of sister centromeres are present on sister chromatids. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization of fixed metaphase cells revealed that the otr regions of the centromere were still held together by cohesion even after the sister kinetochores had separated. (diva-portal.org)
  • Written by an international group of experts in the field, Plant Centromere Biology is a valuable handbook for all plant scientists working on plant genome research. (wiley.com)
  • Unlike all previous versions of the human reference assembly, where the centromere regions have been represented by a multi-megabase gap, GRCh38 incorporates centromere reference models that provide an initial genomic description derived from chromosome-assigned whole genome shotgun (WGS) read libraries of alpha satellite. (ucsc.edu)
  • Human centromeres are located at repetitive alpha satellite DNA arrays that compose approximately 5% of the genome. (mdpi.com)
  • Taken together, these results provide new insights into centromere dynamics that might help to further elucidate the mechanisms that underly genome stability. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, CENP-A mislocalization is one possible mechanism for genome instability during cancer progression, as well as centromere plasticity during evolution. (unt.edu)
  • A gene-centromere map was constructed based on 804 female-informative SNPs in 24 linkage groups (2n=48) with a total length of 1251.02cM (initial LG assignment was based on the seabass genome assembly, dicLab v1). (stir.ac.uk)
  • We find that cleavage patterns at centromeres are unique within the genome and are incompatible with symmetrical structures, including octameric nucleosomes and (Cse4/H4) 2 tetrasomes. (elifesciences.org)
  • Although genome sequencing is now complete, the nature of centromeres in these and other parasitic protozoa has not been resolved. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • The centromere antibody test is usually run to help diagnose or rule out CREST or scleroderma and to my knowledge it is not at all useful in diagnosing Sjogren's. (healingwell.com)
  • I have a question about one test, the centromere antibody test. (sclero.org)
  • If the centromere antibody test is negative, how can you have a 1:320 speckled pattern. (sclero.org)
  • Centromere antibody is detected as part of our ANA panel . (cmft.nhs.uk)
  • Centromere function requires the proper coordination of several subfunctions, such as kinetochore assembly, sister chromatid cohesion, binding of kinetochore microtubules, orientation of sister kinetochores to opposite spindle poles, and their movement towards the spindle poles. (diva-portal.org)
  • This obviates the need for any mechanism for coordination between groups of microtubules imbedded in a single S . cerevisiae centromere. (rupress.org)
  • The centromere is the chromosomal domain that directs the assembly of the proteinaceous kinetochore, which interacts with spindle microtubules to mediate chromosomal segregation. (plantcell.org)
  • Identification of novel centromere/kinetochore associated poroteins using monoclonal antibodies generated against human mitotic chromosome scaffolds. (springer.com)
  • okay so in addition to having this rare form of autoimmune epilepsy and muscle twitching caused by anti voltage gate potassium antibodies i have antibodies to centromere. (healingwell.com)
  • i was negative for centromere b which causes scleroderma but another test i took tested all centromere antibodies and it didnt tell me which ones it just said centromere and the level was 677 when normal was less than 100. (healingwell.com)
  • my question is does anyone have symptoms of sjorgens with centromere antibodies but centromere b negative? (healingwell.com)
  • i feel like with my eye problems it sounds like sjorgens more than anything else but who the hell knows maybe i just have something that nobody else has :( if anyone can advice me or if they were diagnosed sjorgens with centromere antibodies let me know. (healingwell.com)
  • Furuyama and Biggins 2007 ), and challenge the simple concept of a point centromere ( Short 2011 ). (genetics.org)
  • Cse4 enrichment is confined to the CDEs of all 16 yeast centromeres ( Figure 1 ). (genetics.org)
  • Replication forks pause at yeast centromeres. (asm.org)
  • We have shown that replication fork pause sites are coincident with each of these centromeres and therefore probably with all yeast centromeres. (asm.org)
  • Centromere cleavage patterns are compatible with a precisely positioned core structure, one in which each of the 16 yeast centromeres is occupied by oppositely oriented Cse4/H4/H2A/H2B hemisomes in two rotational phases within the population. (elifesciences.org)
  • Time course of changes in the center-to-center separation distance between a pair of sister centromeres in the absence of drug ( top trace ) and in the presence of 50 n m VFL ( bottom trace ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sustained spindle tension applied to sister centromeres during mitosis eventually leads to uncoordinated loss of sister chromatid cohesion, a phenomenon known as "cohesion fatigue. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Expression of a non-phosphorylatable version of CENP-A (CENP-AS7A) weakens sister chromatid cohesion only when sister centromeres are under tension, providing the first evidence of a regulated mechanism involved in protection against passive cohesion loss. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Brown W.R.A., Smith M.C.M., Dafhnis-Calas F., Malla S., Xu Z. (2006) Chromosome engineering in DT40 cells and mammalian centromere function. (springer.com)
  • The functional S. cerevisiae centromere consists of three centromere DNA elements (CDEs): CDEI, CDEII, and CDEIII ( Kamakaka and Biggins 2005 ). (genetics.org)
  • The satellite repeat arrays likely span the entire functional cores of these six centromeres. (plantcell.org)
  • Thus, S. pombe centromeres have two distinguishable domains even during mitosis, and our functional analyses support the previous observations that the kinetochore/central core and the heterochromatin domains have distinct functions both in interphase and mitosis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Functional mapping of a trypanosome centromere by chromosome fragmentation identifies a 16-kb GC-rich transcriptional "strand-switch" domain as a major feature. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Here, we report the functional mapping of a centromere in the American trypanosome, Trypanosoma cruzi, a parasite with an unusual mechanism of genetic exchange that involves the generation of aneuploidy by nuclear hybridization. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Heterochromatin and cohesion protection at human centromeres: the final say of a long controversy? (embopress.org)
  • Whether heterochromatin plays a role in the protection of centromere cohesion has long been controversial. (embopress.org)
  • to study the larger and more complex centromeres found in other organisms, including humans. (elifesciences.org)
  • Chapters cover the structure of centromeres from several plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, maize, wheat and beet, while other sections cover several unique characteristics associated with plant centromeres, including classical and modern neocentromeres, centromere drive and centromere misdivision. (wiley.com)
  • An unknown question in centromere evolution is how satellite repeat-based centromeres evolve from neocentromeres. (plantcell.org)
  • Thus, these five centromeres structurally resemble neocentromeres. (plantcell.org)
  • Background: Evolutionary centromere repositioning and human analphoid neocentromeres occurring in clinical cases are, very likely, two stages of the same phenomenon whose properties still remain substantially obscure. (washington.edu)
  • We reconstructed the mammalian evolutionary history of this chromosome and characterized two human neocentromeres at 13q21, in search of information that could improve our understanding of the relationship between evolutionarily new centromeres, inactivated centromeres, and clinical neocentromeres. (washington.edu)
  • Molecular cloning of cDNA for CENP-B, the major human centromere autoantigen. (springer.com)
  • His research focuses on plant molecular cytogenetics, plant centromeres, potato breeding and genomics. (wiley.com)
  • Therefore, Drosophila is an ideal model system to investigate the molecular mechanisms that underly centromere maintenance and, on page 4782 , Christian Lehner and co-workers set out to analyse the dynamics of Cid, Cenp-C and Cal1 in Drosophila S2R+ cells. (biologists.org)
  • Now work by Whitehead Institute Member Iain Cheeseman and Kara McKinley, a graduate student in Cheeseman's lab has identified the molecular controls that ensure that CENP-A deposition at centromeres occurs in the right place at precisely the right time. (eurekalert.org)
  • Although the answer to this question is currently not known, a comparison of the molecular components characterizing various centromere types will clearly be an essential part of the solution. (rupress.org)
  • During mitosis, spindle fibers attach to the centromere via the kinetochore. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each chromatid has its own centromere, and the spindle fibers attach to the kinetochore site. (bionity.com)
  • The essential histone H3 variant Cse4 plays a crucial role at the centromere in S. cerevisiae, where it replaces histone H3 in that it assembles centromere specific (Cse4-H4)2 tetrameres. (hu-berlin.de)
  • We found that the centromere derived from the ancestral Y chromosome has been inactivated. (springer.com)
  • I also found that the centromere is prone to recombination while unprotected by heterochromatin factors. (usc.edu)
  • The position of the centromere can thus be passed on from one generation to the next. (mpg.de)
  • The position of the centromere is constant for a specific chromosome and is identified as acrocentric, metacentric, submetacentric, or telocentric. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Latent HSV-1 genomes display two major patterns, called "Single" and "Multiple", which associate with centromeres, and with promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) as viral DNA-containing PML-NBs (DCP-NBs). (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Centromeres represent the last frontiers of plant and animal genomics. (nih.gov)
  • Heterochromatin that is characterized by histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation assembles on repetitive regions including centromeres. (datadryad.org)
  • These results demonstrate that heterochromatin suppresses GCRs by repressing Tfs1-dependent transcription of centromere repeats.Heterochromatin, characterized by histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation, assembles on repetitive regions including centromeres. (datadryad.org)
  • These results demonstrate that heterochromatin suppresses GCRs by repressing Tfs1-dependent transcription of centromere repeats. (datadryad.org)
  • Interestingly the declustered centromeres were still restricted to the nuclear periphery thus revealing a kinetochore-independent peripheral localization mechanism for heterochromatin. (diva-portal.org)
  • Consequently, in rare cases, a new centromere can arise as it has already occurred in a closely-related ape species. (redorbit.com)
  • Therefore neo-centromeres might contribute to the emergence of new species. (redorbit.com)
  • In Drosophila , centromere complexity is reduced. (biologists.org)
  • While some insects like Drosophila also have a regional centromere/kinetochore ( Goldstein, 1981 ), other insects and some nematodes, including Caenorhabditis elegans , organize holokinetochores with continuous trilaminar plates along the entire length of the chromosome that are visible during mitosis ( Albertson and Thomson, 1982 ). (rupress.org)
  • The recent analysis of the centromere structure in the yeast S. pombe by electron microscopy and detailed immunofluorescence microscopy of Drosophila centromeres have brought to light striking similarities at the overall structural level between these centromeres and the human centromere. (diva-portal.org)
  • Are Centromeres and Telomeres amplified using REPLI-g WGA? (qiagen.com)
  • Despite the high processivity of the Phi29 DNA Polymerase, centromeres and telomeres are at a competitive disadvantage during amplification, and drop out. (qiagen.com)
  • The centromere is a region in the middle of the chromosome involved in cell division and the control of gene expression . (bionity.com)
  • Gene-centromere map distances, calculated under the assumption of complete interference, range from 1.1 cM for Ldh4 to 50 cM for Sod1 . (genetics.org)
  • If your gene is further than 5000 bases apart from a centromere or telomere, it should be amplified just fine. (qiagen.com)
  • Why might my gene of interest drop out during WGA if it is not near a telomere or centromere? (qiagen.com)
  • Conclusion: We show that a gene-desert region at 13q21 of approximately 3.9 Mb in size possesses an inherent potential to form evolutionarily new centromeres over, at least, approximately 95 million years of mammalian evolution. (washington.edu)
  • We then determined the gene density in the ancestral domain where each evolutionary-new centromere was seeded. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are, broadly speaking, two types of centromeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • found that nucleosomes at centromeres are different from other nucleosomes in histone number and arrangement. (elifesciences.org)
  • DNA replication halves the number of CENP-A containing nucleosomes at centromeres and work in various model systems has shown that new molecules are incorporated outside of S-phaseby a unique mechanism. (washington.edu)
  • Disruption of centromere assembly during interphase inhibits kinetochore morphogenesis and function in mitosis. (springer.com)
  • 2004). The presence of CENP-A is believed to be important for the assembly of the kinetochore on the centromere. (bionity.com)
  • In light of these new findings, we offer perspectives for future studies of human centromere assembly and function. (mdpi.com)
  • This protocol describes a cell-free system for studying vertebrate centromere and kinetochore formation. (nih.gov)
  • May be involved in incorporation of newly synthesized CENPA into centromeres via its interaction with the CENPA-NAC complex (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • Deposition of new CENPA-containing nucleosomes at the centromere. (uniprot.org)
  • The CENPA -NAC complex recruits the CENPA - CAD (nucleosome distal) complex and may be involved in incorporation of newly synthesized CENPA into centromeres. (sdsc.edu)
  • Centromere B Ab ELISA Kit is an indirect solid phase enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative measurement of IgG class autoantibodies against Centromere B in human serum or plasma. (abnova.com)
  • We have previously shown that the ultrastructural domain structure of S. pombe centromeres in interphase is similar to that of human centromeres. (diva-portal.org)
  • A recent study on the evolutionary-new centromere of macaque chromosome 4 (human 6) showed that the evolutionary-new centromere domain was deeply restructured, following the seeding, with respect to the corresponding human region assumed as ancestral. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results imply that the interaction of the 80-kD centromere antigen with the CENP-B box in the alphoid repeats may play some crucial role in the formation of specified structure and/or function of human centromere. (rupress.org)
  • Human CENP-A contains a histone H3 related histone fold domain that is required for targeting to the centromere. (rupress.org)
  • In interphase, both nuf2 and mis6 caused declustering of centromeres from the spindle pole body whereas centromere clustering was normal in rik1 despite an apparent decondensation defect. (diva-portal.org)
  • In contrast, the third centromere-associated microtubule motor, MCAK, 1 (mitotic centromere-associated kinesin) is detectable on mitotic centromeres through telophase ( Wordeman and Mitchison, 1995 ). (rupress.org)
  • Our data further suggest that there have been genetic changes to this centromere in the two million years since the formation of the neo-Y chromosome, but it remains unclear whether these genetic changes are a cause or consequence of centromere inactivation. (springer.com)
  • The phenomenon implies the seeding of the novel centromere and the inactivation of the old one. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Regarding mitotic chromosome structure, centromeres represent a constricted region of the chromosome (often referred to as the primary constriction) where two identical sister chromatids are most closely in contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • The centromere is the strongest and thinnest region of the chromosome. (bionity.com)
  • A telocentric chromosome's centromere is located at the terminal end of the chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Segregation analysis in CEPH reference pedigrees shows that recombination is repressed significantly across the centromere of chromosome 21 both in male and in female but not in the most proximal 21q region in female. (oup.com)
  • The centromere enhancer mediates centromere activation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (asm.org)
  • Consistent with this observation, p-CENP-AS7 is detected at the inner centromere where it forms a discrete domain. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The novel centromere rapidly acquires the complex structure typical of eukaryote centromeres. (biomedcentral.com)