Centrifugation: Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Centrifugation, Zonal: Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Centrifugation, Isopycnic: A technique used to separate particles according to their densities in a continuous density gradient. The sample is usually mixed with a solution of known gradient materials and subjected to centrifugation. Each particle sediments to the position at which the gradient density is equal to its own. The range of the density gradient is usually greater than that of the sample particles. It is used in purifying biological materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, organelles, and cell types.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Metrizamide: A solute for density gradient centrifugation offering higher maximum solution density without the problems of increased viscosity. It is also used as a resorbable, non-ionic contrast medium.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Povidone: A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hypergravity: Condition wherein the force of gravity is greater than or is increased above that on the surface of the earth. This is expressed as being greater than 1 g.Cell SeparationFiltration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.TritiumSucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Organoids: An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Diatrizoate: A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Triiodobenzoic Acids: Triiodo-substituted derivatives of BENZOIC ACID.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Microbodies: Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.Phosphotungstic Acid: Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Blood Specimen Collection: The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Succinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Electrophoresis, Disc: Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.Pronase: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Sperm Motility: Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.ThymidineDialysis: A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Erythrocyte Aging: The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.Tissue Extracts: Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.UridineChemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.GlucuronidaseSwine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Sonication: The application of high intensity ultrasound to liquids.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Semen: The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Polyribosomes: A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Digitonin: A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Ultrafiltration: The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).Urate Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC 1.7.3.3.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Nucleic Acid Renaturation: The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.Densitometry: The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Spheroplasts: Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Hexosaminidases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Gravitation: Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Coxiella: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is widely distributed in TICKS and various mammals throughout the world. Infection with this genus is particularly prevalent in CATTLE; SHEEP; and GOATS.Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Cytochrome ReductasesCytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Semen Preservation: The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cell-Derived Microparticles: Extracellular vesicles generated by the shedding of CELL MEMBRANE blebs.Hydrolases: Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Protamines: A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)Semen Analysis: The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.MercaptoethanolMicrovilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Ficoll: A sucrose polymer of high molecular weight.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.

Morphological observation of canine natural killer cells mediated cytotoxicity. (1/379)

The cytotoxic effects of canine NK cells on CL-1 target cells were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). NK cell mediated cytotoxicity on CL-1 target cells was detected by 51Cr release assay. SEM showed that a canine NK cell extended projections to the CL-1 target cell. Furthermore, the surface of CL-1 target cells changed a mesh-like structure. Therefore, the cytotoxic effects of canine NK cells on CL-1 target cells were morphologically demonstrated.  (+info)

Purification and protein composition of PM2, the first lipid-containing bacterial virus to be isolated. (2/379)

The marine, icosahedral bacteriophage PM2 was isolated in the late 1960s. It was the first phage for which lipids were firmly demonstrated to be part of the virion structure and it has been classified as the type organism of the Corticoviridae family. The host, Pseudoalteromonas espejiana BAL-31, belongs to a common group of marine bacteria. We developed a purification method producing virions with specific infectivity approximately as high as that of the lipid-containing phages PRD1 and φ6. The sensitivity of the virus to normally used purification media such as those containing sucrose is demonstrated. We also present an alternative host, a pseudoalteromonad, that allows enhanced purification of the virus under reduced salt conditions. We show, using N-terminal amino acid sequencing and comparison with the genomic sequence, that there are at least eight structural proteins in the infectious virus.  (+info)

Synthesis of acetylcholine receptor by denervated rat diaphragm muscle. (3/379)

Acetylcholine receptor was purified by affinity chromatography from denervated rat hemidiaphragms that had been incubated in organ culture for 24 hr in medium containing [35-S] methionine. Radioactive acetylcholine receptor was identified in purified preparations by zone sedimentation in a sucrose gradient, by isoelectric focusing, and by precipitation with an antiserum to the acetylcholine receptor from electric eel. When innervated and denervated hemidiaphragms were incubated with [35-S] methionine in organ culture, and the acetylcholine receptors from each were purified separately, only the preparation from denervated muscles contained radioactive receptor as determined by zone sedimentation. We conclude that newly synthesized receptor is accumulated as a result of muscle denervation.  (+info)

Secretion granules of the rabbit parotid. Selective removal of secretory contaminants from granule membranes. (4/379)

A membrane subfraction obtained from secretion granules isolated from rabbit parotid has been shown to be contaminated by residual secretory proteins to an estimated level of 25-30% of its total protein. In the present study an additional contaminant has been identified by improved mixing experiments and by comparative peptide mapping of specific polypeptides recovered from gels of membrane and content subfractions. This contaminant coelectrophoresis with (and probably comprises the bulk of) the majority component of the membrane subfraction (mol wt approximately 40,000). The contaminating polypeptides can be removed to a large extent by treating the membranes with low concentrations of saponin in the presence of 0.3 M Na2SO4. Although this treatment disrupts the typical bilayer structure of the granule membrane, it does not appear to cause dissociation of its phospholipids or bona fide membrane proteins.  (+info)

Dye-ligand chromatographic purification of intact multisubunit membrane protein complexes: application to the chloroplast H+-FoF1-ATP synthase. (5/379)

n-Dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside was used as a detergent to solubilize the ammonium sulphate precipitate of chloroplast F(O)F(1)-ATP synthase, which was purified further by dye-ligand chromatography. Upon reconstitution of the purified protein complex into phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidic acid liposomes, ATP synthesis, driven by an artificial DeltapH/Deltapsi, was observed. The highest activity was achieved with ATP synthase solubilized in n-dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside followed by chromatography with Red 120 dye. The optimal dye for purification with CHAPS was Green 5. All known subunits were present in the monodisperse proton-translocating ATP synthase preparation obtained from chloroplasts.  (+info)

A surface antigen influenza vaccine. 1. Purification of haemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins. (6/379)

Influenza virus was centrifuged in a KII rotor through a sucrose gradient containing Triton N101, a non-ionic surfactant. The micelles of surfactant formed a band in the gradient. As virus particles passed through the surfactant, the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins were stripped from the surface and remained near the surfactant micelles. The residual virus particles sedimented into a denser region of the gradient and were thus separated from the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase antigens. Fractions containing the surface antigens were pooled and Triton was removed by phase-separation at the cloud point.  (+info)

A surface antigen influenza vaccine. 2. Pyrogenicity and antigenicity. (7/379)

Conventional influenza vaccine containing whole virus particles purified on a zonal centrifuge is pyrogenic and can cause systemic and local adverse side effects. An improved vaccine was therefore prepared which contained only the surface antigens of the virus adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide. The antigenicity of this vaccine was compared with conventional vaccine in chickens. Both vaccines induced similar titres of serum haemagglutination-inhibition and neuraminidase inhibition antibody. The dose response curves, however, were different. The surface antigens at vaccine strength without aluminium hydroxide were of negligible pyrogenicity in rabbits.  (+info)

Human bone marrow lymphocytes. I. Distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations in the bone marrow of normal individuals. (8/379)

This study was undertaken to determine the proportions and in vitro immune capacities of lymphocyte populations in the bone marrows of normal humans. Relatively pure mononuclear cell suspensions were obtained from bone marrow aspirates by linear sucrose gradient centrifugations. Simultaneous peripheral blood and bone marrow specimens from each individual were assayed for lymphocyte surface markers and mitogen responsiveness. Maximal possible contamination of bone marrow aspirates by peripheral blood was determined by performing aspirates on individuals who had received 51chromium-labeled autologous erythrocytes. Rhymus-derived (T) lymphocytes, as determined by the sheep red blood cell (E) rosette assay, comprised 8.6-(plus or minus 1.6)% of the total bone marrow lymphocyte pool. Bone marrow-derived (B) lymphocytes, as determined by the presence of a complement receptor, made up 15.4-(plus or minus 1.9)% of the lymphocyte pool whereas 74.6 (plus or minus 2.4)% of mononuclear cells lacked easily detectable surface markers. These findings could not be explained by contamination with peripheral blood lymphocytes since contamination was corrected for in the calculations. Lymphocyte-enriched suspensions of bone marrow cells responded to stimulation with phytohemagglutinin, concanalin A, and particularly pokeweed mitogen. In vitro incubations of bone marrow and peripheral blood lymphocytes with tritiated thymidine followed by determinations of E and erythrocyte antibody complement (EAC) rosettes were performed. Simultaneous rosetteradioautographs demonstrated that the proliferative potential of bone marrow B lymphocytes was greater than peripheral blood B lymphocytes (P less than 0.01). On the other hand, the proliferative potential of bone marrow T lymphocytes was the same as that of peripheral blood T lymphocytes. These findings demonstrate that in addition to containing B lymphocytes the normal bone marrow contains a small fraction of T lymphocytes similar to the mature T lymphocyte pool found in the peripheral blood. These T cells most probably enter the bone marrow parenchyma as part of the normal recirculating lymphocyte pool.  (+info)

1. Homogenates were prepared from sphaeroplasts of aerobically grown glucose-de-repressed Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and the distributions of marker enzymes were investigated after differential centrifugation. Cytochrome c oxidase and cytochrome c were sedimented almost completely at 105g-min, and this fraction also contained 37% of the catalase, 27% of the acid p-nitrophenyl phosphatase, 53 and 54% respectively of the NADH- and NADPH-cytochrome c oxidoreductases. 2. Zonal centrifugation indicated complex density distributions of the sedimentable portions of these enzymes and of adenosine triphosphatases and suggested the presence of two mitochondrial populations, as well as a bimodal distribution of peroxisomes and heterogeneity of the acid p-nitrophenyl phosphatase-containing particles. 3. Several different adenosine triphosphatases were distinguished in a post-mitochondrial supernatant that contained no mitochondrial fragments; these enzymes varied in their sensitivities to oligomycin and ...
Day, E D.; Mickey, D D.; Rigsbee, L C.; and Meier, H, "Zonal centrifugation and flotation-fractionation of msd mutant mouse brain." (1972). Subject Strain Bibliography 1972. 1757 ...
Studies on the composition and structure of plant viruses can only be attempted after their purification from infected tissue homogenates. Owing to their intrinsic differences, however, the ease with which different viruses can be purified varies considerably. A few relatively stable viruses, e.g. tobacco mosaic virus or turnip yellow mosaic virus, can be treated with high concentrations of salt and precipitated by acid or alcohol without inactivation. With less stable viruses such methods are usually unsuccessful. The particles of such viruses, however, can be sedimented by ultracentrifugation and procedures developed frequently involve two treatments: (a) differential centrifugation and concentration after initial clarification of buffered homogenates such as with organic solvents (Steere, 1956; Tomlinson, Shepherd & Walker, 1959; Wetter, 1960), (b) further fractionation by rate or equilibrium density gradient centrifugation as developed by Brakke (1960). Because of the small capacity of the
SW 41 Ti Rotor Assembly; For use in instruments classified: HRS Major Applications: Rate-zonal and isopycnic centrifugation of viruses, rate-zonal centrifugation of RNA. Includes: Part No. Description SW 41 Ti Rotor 333790; Bucket ...
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The present invention is directed to a shell type centrifuge rotor formed as a frustoconical shell having a circular rim adjacent at least one end thereof. The lower end of the shell is open, whereas the upper end has a conical recess and a central opening. The recess has an inverted frustoconical sidewall, with a plurality of apertures equally spaced therein and disposed an equal distance from the central opening. A tube holder is mounted in each of the apertures for receiving a centrifuge test tube. The tube holder has a flange configured so as to fit the surface contour of the conical recess so that the flange fully contacts the wall of the conical recess when the tube holder is mounted in the aperture. A hub is mounted in the central opening of the conical recess and couples the frustoconical shell to the centrifuge drive shaft. Means are secured to the hub for partially enclosing the lower end of the frustoconical shell to reduce the windage of the rotor to a predetermined level.
A system and method are disclosed for separating particles having different sedimentation velocities. The system includes a container containing a binding substance including first particles and ligands attached to the first particles. When the binding substance is mixed with a liquid carrying at least second and third particles, the ligands bind the first and second particles together to form groups of bound particles. The groups of bound particles are separated from the third particles in a fluid chamber configured to be mounted on a centrifuge rotor. One of the disclosed methods includes forming a saturated fluidized bed of particles to retain the particles groups in the fluid chamber. Another of the disclosed methods includes removing at least some of the first particles after the binding substance is mixed with the liquid carrying second and third particles.
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Sarcoplasmic vesicles and ß-glycogen particles 30-40 mµ in diameter were isolated from perfused rabbit skeletal muscle by the differential precipitation-centrifugation method. This microsomal fraction was subjected to zonal centrifugation on buffered sucrose gradients, in a B XIV Anderson type rotor, for 15 hr at 45,000 rpm in order to separate the two cytoplasmic organelles. Zonal profiles of absorbance at 280 mµ, proteins, glycogen, and enzymatic activities (phosphorylase b kinase, phosphorylase b, and glycogen synthetase) were performed. Whereas the entire synthetase activity was found combined with the glycogen particles, 39% of phosphorylase and 53% of phosphorylase b kinase activities, present in the microsomal fraction, were recovered in the purified vesicular fraction (d = 1.175). This latter fraction consists of vesicles, derived from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and of small particles 10-20 mµ in diameter attached to the outer surface of the membranes. These particles disappear ...
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[152 Pages Report] Laboratory Centrifuge Market Report categorizes the global Market by Application (Microbiology/Proteomics/Genomics/Diagnostic), Product (Equipment (Microcentrifuge/Ultracentrifuge), Accessories), End User (Pharmaceutical/Hospital/Biotech), Intended Use, Rotor Design & Geography
A self-loading peristaltic pump including a rotor rotatably mounted about a rotor axis, and a race having an internal surface for supporting a flexible tube in a pumping region between the rotor and the race, the surface including points that are at equal radii from the rotor axis in planes that are perpendicular to the rotor axis, the rotor including a roller for intermittently and progressively compressing the flexible tube against the race in the pumping region, the rotor including a radially extending rotor tab located outside of the pumping region for displacing the flexible tube toward the pumping region as the rotor rotates.
View Notes - ps_2 from CHEMICAL E 20.410j at MIT. DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING Problem Set #2 Problem 1 A key to understanding centrifugation is understanding the equations that describe it. One can
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No. However, a second centrifugation step helps remove traces of buffy coat that may be accidentally transferred when aspirating plasma after the first centrifugation step. ...
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The carry bag is designed to hold the Ultra-Portable Rotor System allowing for easy storage and carrying to and from installation locations. The dual pocket design allows you to separate the rotor units from the cables and accessories.. ...
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A system and method are used in connection with processing of blood components. The processing of blood components may involve centrifugal separation and/or filtering of the blood components. In some examples, at least some blood components are centrifugally separated in a chamber and then filtered via a filter rotating along with a centrifuge rotor, wherein the filter is located closer than the chamber to an axis of rotation of the rotor. The filter may include a porous filtration medium configured to filter leukocytes, platelets, and/or red blood cells. Some examples include a pressure sensor sensing pressure of pumped blood components. The sensed pressure may be used in connection with controlling the pumping of the blood products and/or in connection with determining the location of an interface associated with the blood products. Other uses of the sensed pressure are also possible.
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1. Lettrée cells were grown intraperitoneally in MF-1 mice and labelled extrinsically by the 125I/lactoperoxidase technique. 2. The cells were swollen in 1 mM-NaHCO3 and disrupted in a Dounce homogenizer. 3. Crude fractions of endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane and mitochondria were separated from a post-nuclear supernatant by sedimentation-rate gradient centrifugation in a BXIV zonal rotor. 4. Further resolution of these membranes was carried out in isopycnic sucrose gradients. 5. Bands of material from the latter were subfractionated in gradients of metrizamide. Some very pure subfractions of plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum were obtained. In addition, one subfraction containing 125I and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase but no Na++K+-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase and another containing these two enzymes but no 125I were resolved. ...
Characterization of a glucose-repressed pyruvate kinase (Pyk2p) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is catalytically insensitive to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate ...
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80 x Microlitre 0.2-2ml 24 x Blood tube 4-7mm (13mm) 16 x Blood tube 7-10ml (16mm) 8 x Conical 15ml 4 x Conical 50ml 4 x Universal 25ml ...
Aaron Equipment buys, sells, and trades USED: Sharples P-850 Super-D-Canter centrifuge pa. Submit a quote for this Centrifuge Parts or call 630-350-2200 for more information.
Yes. The QIAcube centrifuge can be operated independently if the QIAcube is not performing a protocol run. For instructions on how to operate the centrifuge, refer to the QIAcube User Manual, chapter 5 Operating Procedures, section 5.8 Operating the Centrifuge.. ...
Aaron Equipment buys, sells, and trades USED: Parts for a 48 x 30 basket centrifuge cons. Submit a quote for this Centrifuge Parts or call 630-350-2200 for more information.
Scilogex DM1424 is a digital hematocrit centrifuge that comes with a 24 place capillary tube rotor. The DM1424 can spin at a variable speed of 200-14000rpm with 100rpm increments
Centrifuges use high rotational speeds to separate different materials according to their densities. These devices are common in laboratories, dairy
The laboratory centrifuge market is expected to reach USD 1.74 Billion by 2020 from USD 1.53 Billion in 2015, growing at a CAGR of 2.5% from 2015 to 2020
HYBRID REFRIGERATED CENTRIFUGE All in one unit from micro tube rotors to multi-place swing rotors. A reliable trump card for centrifuge... read more ...
This week we extracted DNA according to the protocols listed here: [ http://www.protocol-online.org/cgi-bin/prot/view_cache.cgi?ID=2051] The amounts listed in the protocol were adjusted down by a factor of 10 in most cases (i.e. 500ml to 50ml of bacterial broth) to accommodate smaller centrifuge tubes to speed up the centrifuge procedures. We successfully precipitated DNA and are preparing to check its by simple gel electrophoresis. ...
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Our collection of Centrifuges includes high capacity, standard and refrigerated models, Micro-centrifuges, bench models, Vortexing Centrifuges and Haematocrit Laboratory centrifuges from leading manufacturers such as Hettich, Grant, Clifton, Gerber and Hawksley. A very wide selection of Rotors is available as well as Centrifuge Tubes in glass and plastic. Our range has models for routine clinical chemistry, pharmaceutical development, research and pharmacology, dairy testing and the determination of red blood cell packed volume.
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... , The operator should not leave the centrifuge until full operating speed is attained and the machine appears to be running safely without vibration. Stop the centrifuge immediately if an unusual condition (noise or vibration) begins and check load balances. After Centrifugation. Allow the centrifuge to come to a complete stop before opening.
15 Ml Centrifuge Tubes found in: High-Speed Diamond Max™ Centrifuge Tubes, 15 mL Centrifuge Test Tubes, Centrifuge Tubes, 15 and 50 mL Conical Tubes,..
... ,The IEC CL40 and FL40 Centrifuge Series from Thermo Electron combines power, safety and versatility to increase your productivity in the lab. Available with a broad array of rotors and accessories for high-volume blood tube processing and microplate applications, the IEC CL40 and FL40 Centrifuge Se,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
S.carlsbergensis. Garagardo desberdinak sailkatzean erabiltzen den lehendabiziko kriterioa, legamia azaleko edo oineko hartzidura egiten duen taldekoa den da. Halare, bi talde hauen barnean, legami "zepa" desberdin ugari dago, hauetako bakoitzak, garagardo bakoitzari ezaugarri bereizgarriak emanez. Erabiltzen den legami motak garagardoan duen garrantzia oso handia da. Garagardoen sailkapenari buruz hitz egiten dugunean sakonduko dugu gehiago legami mota ezberdinen inguruan.. ...
Looking for Centrifugation, isopycnic? Find out information about Centrifugation, isopycnic. A line on a chart connecting all points of equal or constant density. Of equal or constant density, with respect to either space or time Explanation of Centrifugation, isopycnic
Clinical Centrifuges Is Used For The Separation Of Serum, Plasma, Urea, Blood Samples And Other Routine Applications In Hospital And Research Laboratories.
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QIAprep Spin Miniprep 1. Resuspend pelleted bacterial cells in 250ul Buffer P1 an transfer to microcentrifuge tube (Ensure RNase A has been added to Buffer P1 2. Add 250ul Buffer P2 and mix thoroughly by inverting the tube 4-6 times until solution is viscous and slightly clear. Do not vortex as doing so will shear the DNA 3. Add 350ul Buffer N3 and mix the solution thorougly by inverting the tube 4-6 times. Solution should become cloudy 4. Centrifuge for 10min. at 13000rpm (~17900 x g) 5. Apply the supernatants from step 4 to the QIAprep spin column 6. Centrifuge for 30-60sec. Discard flowthrough 7. Wash QIAprep spin column by adding 0.75ml Buffer PE (w/EtOH) and centrifuge for 30-60sec. Discard flowthrough 8. Centrifuge an additional 1min. to remove residual wash buffer 9. Place QIAprep column in a clean 1.5ml microcentrifuge tube. Add 50ul dH2O to the center of each QIAprep, let stand for 1min. and centrifuge for 1min ...
A centrifuge having an automatic dispensing rotor is employed for pelleting material and automatically decanting supernatant liquid by means of gravity drainage. The automatic decanting rotor employs
I store all my media etc at 4C and then warm to room temperature or 37C, I always centrifuge at 4C and at a maximum speed of 1000rpm for 5 mins. This was how I was taught 10 years ago and as I far as I understand it, it helps preserve the cells better- like putting things on ice, any damage from DMSO or other things is slowed at the the lower temperatures. It seems from these replies that maybe it doesnt make a huge difference though.. ...
Borosilicate Glass Centrifuge Tubes are made from borosilicate glass in compliance with ASTM Specification E438, Type I, Class A or B glass requirements
Adapter snaps over the end of the reaction and is inverted into a 15mL polypropylene or glass centrifuge tube. Solvent escapes the reaction tube during...
Buy Sigma 8K Refrigerated Floor Standing Centrifuges from a leading supplier of laboratory equipment in the UK, call 01939 234222
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Converting centrifuge rotation speed [rpm] into acceleration [kg] and vice versa. For calculations you should know rotor radius (you can either measure it yourself or look up in the centrifuge manual). This program may be helpful in case you have to use another centrifuge but want to preserve experiment conditions. Programs for molecular biologists on zbio.net.
Plasma: Centrifuge at 3380 rpms (±100) for a minimum of 10 minutes. Serum: Allow to clot. Centrifuge at 3380 rpms (±100) for a minimum of 10 minutes. Centrifuge within 2 hours of collection. ...
An analytical rotor system is configured to perform a plurality of tests selected by a user. The analytical rotor comprises a plurality of rotor blocks and a rotor base. The rotor blocks are each conf
USATÎI, A.; MOLODOI, E.; CHISELIŢA, O.; TOPALĂ, L.; CHISELIŢA, N.; MOLDOVEANU, T. Activitatea biosintetică a drojdiei Saccharomyces carlsbergensis CNMN-Y-15 la cultivare în prezenţa compuşilor coordinativi ai Mn(II), Cr(II) şi Zn(II). Buletinul Academiei de Ştiinţe a Moldovei. Ştiinţele vieţii. 2009, 1(307), 142-147. ISSN 1857-064X ...
INNOVATIONS: Mixing & Blending. // Pharmaceutical Processing;Mar2009, Vol. 24 Issue 3, p66 The article evaluates several pharmaceutical equipments and devices including the Greerco pipeline mixers from Chemineer Inc. the Helical Dryer Model HD 40 from KMPT USA Inc., and the vibrating mixer ideal for preparation of sterile emulsions and solutions from BioPro International Inc. ...
Price: $1199.00; Manufacturer: Eppendorf; Item ID: 3017286; Warranty: 30-Day Money-Back Guarantee; Description: The Eppendorf 5424 is a ventilated microcentrifuge for laboratories that need high
A peristaltic pump assembly for easy loading includes a pump housing having a curved surface. A stationary tubing manifold from which a loop of tubing extends is positioned in line with the curved surface. A pump rotor rotatable about an axis is positioned adjacent to the curved surface. The rotor has a groove located above the curved surface encircling the rotor for retaining and stretching the loop of tubing in loading position between the rotor and the manifold. During loading, a notch located on the rotor progressively captures and urges the tubing downward between the curved surface and the pump rotor when the rotor is rotated.
What exactly is a couplet? Is that two PVCs occuring in a row? Are they more dangerous than single PVCs? What about 3 or 4 in a row? Last night, I was driving home from work and I felt a really...
China Fuyi Decanter Centrifuge Machine Separation for Fatty Acids, Find details about China Decanter Centrifuge, Centrifuge Separator from Fuyi Decanter Centrifuge Machine Separation for Fatty Acids - Guangzhou Fuyi Liquid Separation Technology Co., Ltd.
China Hematocrit Centrifuge for DNA and Rna Extraction, Find details about China Hematocrit Centrifuge, Mini Centrifuge from Hematocrit Centrifuge for DNA and Rna Extraction - Labmen Instrument Technology Limited
China Clinical Centrifuge for Plasma, Urea, Blood Samples, Find details about China Clinical Centrifuge, Mini Centrifuge from Clinical Centrifuge for Plasma, Urea, Blood Samples - Labmen Instrument Technology Limited
Looking for plasma centrifuge? Find out information about plasma centrifuge. A device for separating isotopes in which a cylinder of ionized matter is contained by a magnetic field and set into rotation by application of an... Explanation of plasma centrifuge
Tabletop Centrifuge can act as different model to meet all your application needs: micro centrifuge for DNA precipitations, high-capacity and low-to-high speed general-purpose centrifuge for cell application.
Beckman J6B Centrifuge that we supply at Block Scientific is a high capacity refrigerated floor centrifuge, perfect for routine clinical applications.
... ,The Durafuge 100 spins swing-out rotors at 4000 rpm and fixed-angle rotors at up to 6300 rpm.,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
Centrifuge floor standing Centurion Scientific K244RFS minimum tube size 0.2ml, maximum tube size 1000ml, maximum g force 22000, minimum temperature -9°C, maximum temperatur 40°C, run counter, no rotor included, air cooled compressor
The extensive rotor selection and 17,000 and 21,000 x g speed options give the The Sorvall Legend Micro 17 & 17R and Sorvall Legend Micro 21 & 21R series have the speed and versatility to carry out complex as well as simple protocols. ...
Frontier Micro are benchtop micro centrifuges that provide high-speed operation for a number of essential lab applications, including DNA/RNA preparation.
Disposable Borosilicate Snap Cap Centrifuge Tubes are made from borosilicate glass in compliance with ASTM Specification E438, Type I, Class A or B glass.
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The HemataStat II™ is a micro hematocrit centrifuge that provides a quantitative hematocrit reading for up to six blood samples from one 60 second spin.
Utilizing the same split core symmetric molding process used by Original Equipment manufacturers, Centrics High Carbon Plain 125 Series Rotors dissipate heat efficiently and provide better stopping power especially in repeat stopping situations. Containing an advanced metallurgy containing...
Its no secret I love spicy food. When I think of adding spice to most of my dishes, my go to ingredients are red chili flakes, red chili powder or spicy fresh chilies. Black pepper is just a "seasoning" and truly doesnt get the respect it deserves from me. So Im here to make amends to black pepper and apologize for taking it for granted. This Black Pepper Chicken Stir Fry is all about the black pepper and it hits the mark when you want something peppery and spicy ...
China Lw Series Decanter Centrifuge for Polypropylene Glycol Treatment, Find details about China Decanter Centrifuge, Centrifuge Separator from Lw Series Decanter Centrifuge for Polypropylene Glycol Treatment - Guangzhou Fuyi Liquid Separation Technology Co., Ltd.
China Sh120 Lab High Speed Microhematocrit Centrifuge with The Best Price, Find details about China Micro Hematocrit Centrifuge, Centrifuge 12000rpm from Sh120 Lab High Speed Microhematocrit Centrifuge with The Best Price - Wincom Company Ltd.
Mince 100 g C. quinoa leaves in 100 ml of a solution containing 2.5% Na2B4O7. 10 H2O, 2.69% H3BO4, 0.2% ascorbic acid and 0.2% Na2SO3 at pH 7.8. Centrifuge expressed sap at low speed. To 1 vol. of the supernatant fluid add 0.15 vol. of 0.4% silver nitrate and leave at room temperature for 2-3 h. Centrifuge at low speed and stir 1 vol. of supernatant fluid with 0.25 vol. of chloroform for 10 min. Centrifuge at low speed and add 4% (w/v) of polyethylene glycol 6000 to the supernatant fluid. Leave at 4°C overnight. Centrifuge at low speed, resuspend the pellets in 10 ml of a solution containing 2.5% Na2B4O7. 10 H2O, 2.69% H3BO4, 3% urea and 0.1% (v/v) 2-mercaptoethanol at pH 7.8. Subject the virus to 1 or 2 cycles of differential centrifugation and purify further by sucrose density gradient centrifugation (Koenig et al., 1983).. ...
Centrifuge benchtop Centurion Scientific PrO-Research K242R for general purpose, low, medium and high capacity cell culture applications, minimum tube size 0.2ml, maximum tube size 500ml, maximum g force 22000, min temperature -9°C, max temperature 40°C, run counter, no rotor included
A helical bladed conveyor for use in a centrifuge is provided with a wear-resistant outer foward edge by securing to the blade a thin band of metal having an upstanding marginal portion extending beyo
BioAssay record AID 337968 submitted by ChEMBL: Antimicrobial activity against Saccharomyces carlsbergensis at 200 ug/disk by disk diffusion assay.
A sulfur purification process is provided. Ash-containing molten sulfur is fed to a centrifuge and subjected to centrifugation under controlled conditions at G forces at least about 4,000 times that of gravity. The centrifugation generates a purified sulfur product and a high-solids sulfur waste stream. A solid bowl disc centrifuge provided with conical discs is used to effect the centrifugal separation of solids from liquids at G forces of at least about 4,000. The centrifuge and related piping system are equipped with heating means so as to maintain the temperature of the sulfur above about 250.degree. F. If large volumes of sulfur are to be treated, e.g., 40 or more long tons per hour, a pretreatment step, where the molten sulfur is first subjected to centrifugation at G forces at least about 4,000 times that of gravity in one or more nozzle bowl centrifuges, is added in order to obtain satisfactory results. In another aspect of the sulfur
Samples separated by these gradients are referred to as "rate zonal" centrifugations. After separating the protein/particles, ... Such an "equilibrium" centrifugation can allow extensive purification of a given particle. Sucrose gradient centrifugation - a ... During centrifugation in the absence of sucrose, as particles move farther and farther from the center of rotation, they ... The rate of centrifugation is determined by the angular acceleration applied to the sample, typically measured in comparison to ...
... is a centrifugation technique employed to effectively separate particles of different sizes. The tube ... Once the centrifugation is over, fractions are collected. Lodish, Harvey; Berk, Arnold; Kaiser, Chris; Krieger, Monty; ...
Zonal rotors are designed to contain a large volume of sample in a single central cavity rather than in tubes. Some zonal ... Centrifugation Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Mar 4, 2004, pp. 247-267. "Svedberg". Retrieved 2010-06-23. Joe Rosen; Lisa Quinn ... Gas centrifuge Theodor Svedberg Differential centrifugation Buoyant density ultracentrifugation Zippe-type centrifuge "Optima ...
Zonal rotors and continuous flow systems are capable of handing bulk and larger sample volumes, respectively, in a laboratory- ... "Basics of Centrifugation". Cole-Parmer. Retrieved 11 March 2012. "Plasmid DNA Separation: Fixed-Angle and Vertical Rotors in ... Centrifugation Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Mar 4, 2004, pp. 247-267. Vogel-Prandtl, Johanna Ludwig Prandtl: A Biographical ... Centrifugal force Centrifugation Clearing factor Honey extractor Hydroextractor Lamm equation Sedimentation coefficient ...
Rate-zonal centrifugation is a centrifugation technique employed to effectively separate particles of different sizes. The tube ... Once the centrifugation is over, fractions are collected. Lodish, Harvey; Berk, Arnold; Kaiser, Chris; Krieger, Monty; ...
... using zonal centrifugation on zonal rotor [23].. *By use of rate zonal centrifugation, followed by either pulsed-field agarose ... Differential centrifugation, rate zonal centrifugation, and equilibrium sucrose gradient centrifugation of rat liver ... Gene context of Centrifugation, Zonal. *Rate zonal centrifugation suggested such complexes are more likely to involve MUC5B ... High impact information on Centrifugation, Zonal. *Low density lipoprotein (LDL) was isolated by zonal centrifugation from the ...
2. Zonal centrifugation indicated complex density distributions of the sedimentable portions of these enzymes and of adenosine ... Subcellular fractionation by differential and zonal centrifugation of aerobically grown glucose-de-repressed Saccharomyces ... Subcellular fractionation by differential and zonal centrifugation of aerobically grown glucose-de-repressed Saccharomyces ... Subcellular fractionation by differential and zonal centrifugation of aerobically grown glucose-de-repressed Saccharomyces ...
Day, E D.; Mickey, D D.; Rigsbee, L C.; and Meier, H, "Zonal centrifugation and flotation-fractionation of msd mutant mouse ...
... differential centrifugation and concentration after initial clarification of buffered homogenates such as with organic solvents ... further fractionation by rate or equilibrium density gradient centrifugation as developed by Brakke (1960). Because of the ... The Use of Density Gradient Centrifugation in a Zonal Centrifuge Rotor During the Purification of a Pear Virus * J. A. ... differential centrifugation and concentration after initial clarification of buffered homogenates such as with organic solvents ...
Centrifugation is the use of the centrifugal forces generated in a spinning rotor to separate biological particles, such as ... zonal centrifugation and isopycnic centrifugation. The first two methods separate particles primarily on the basis of size ... Figure 2. Differential centrifugation of a homogenate: (a) before centrifugation and (b) after centrifugation. ... zonal centrifugation. Alternatively, particles can be separated on the basis of their density using isopycnic centrifugation. ...
Purification of DNA-origami nanostructures by rate-zonal centrifugation.. Lin C, Perrault SD, Kwak M, Graf F, Shih WM. ...
Comparison of Zonal Centrifugation With Complementary Techniques Differential Versus Zonal Centrifugation Theory of Rate-Zonal ... The publication examines fractionations in zonal rotors and the quantitative aspects of rate-zonal centrifugation. The text ... Continuous-Flow Zonal Centrifugation Design and Operation of Rotors Fractionation With B-Type Rotors Fractionation With J- and ... 3 Practical Aspects of Rate-Zonal Centrifugation Experimental Design Gradient Materials Simple Sugars Glycerol Polysaccharides ...
Major applications: Rate-zonal centrifugation of subcellular particles. Max RPM 32,000, Max RCF, 102,000, 96,500, k-Factor 481 ... Type Ti-15 Titanium Zonal Rotor and Lid with B29 Core. For use in instruments classified: HS. ...
Categories: Centrifugation, Zonal Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Separate sub-cellular organelles with rate zonal centrifugation. Sample Protection. *Maintain sample integrity by customizing ...
Rate zonal centrifugation. Samples were subjected to centrifugation on a GuHCl isokinetic density gradient to study the ... Rate zonal centrifugation indicated that the mucus samples from the bumetanide+DMA-pretreated tracheas had an abnormal ... Secretions were then subjected to rate zonal centrifugation by a 6-8 M GuHCl gradient to separate the molecular forms of MUC5B ... Studies performed with rate-zonal centrifugation and laser light-scattering. Biochem J. 1987;245(3):757-762.. View this article ...
Purification of the protein crystal from Bacillus thuringiensis by zonal gradient centrifugation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 36 ... and then crystals were harvested in 1M NaCl by centrifugation (Beckman) at 10,000 rpm for 30 minutes at 4° C. The pellet was ...
Human diploid cell rabies vaccine purified by zonal centrifugation: a controlled study of antibody response and side effects ... by zonal centrifugation in a sucrose density gradient. It is formulated for IM administration in a single-dose vial containing ...
... conventional and zonal centrifugation;. centrifugal elutriation (counter-streaming centrifugation); unit gravity separation;. ... other cells by Ficoll gradient centrifugation. Such centrifugation can follow any standard protocol for centrifugation speed, ... In one embodiment, for example, cells collected from the placenta are recovered from perfusate by centrifugation at 5000 x g ... containing 1% fetal calf serum (FBS) then separated by differential gradient density centrif-ugation through LymphoprepTM ( ...
Notkins AL, Rosenthal J, Johnson B (1971) Rate zonal centrifugation of herpes simplex virus antibody complexes. Virology 43: ...
Labeling and purification of virus by isopycnic and rate-zonal centrifugation methods.Subconfluent monolayers of C6/36 cells in ... Note that following precipitation with PEG and rate-zonal centrifugation, pr signals were relatively less intense in the ... Alterations of infectivity and virus replication.Our analysis of the extracellular particles by rate-zonal centrifugation and ... In the separation of viral particles by rate-zonal centrifugation assay, particles were first precipitated with PEG, ...
Samples separated by these gradients are referred to as "rate zonal" centrifugations. After separating the protein/particles, ... Such an "equilibrium" centrifugation can allow extensive purification of a given particle. Sucrose gradient centrifugation - a ... During centrifugation in the absence of sucrose, as particles move farther and farther from the center of rotation, they ... The rate of centrifugation is determined by the angular acceleration applied to the sample, typically measured in comparison to ...
... obtained by zonal centrifugation, J. Neurochem. 35 (2): 458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Purification of DNA-origami nanostructures by rate-zonal centrifugation. Lin, C.; Perrault, S.D.; Kwak, M.; Graf, F.; Shih, W.M ...
The virus is inactivated with b-propiolactone, then further purified and concentrated by zonal centrifugation. The vaccine is ...
The virus is inactivated with β-propiolactone, and further processed by zonal centrifugation in a sucrose density-gradient. The ...
Separation of Treponema pallidum from Tissue Substances by Continuous-Flow Zonal Centrifugation ...
For example, a purification process may involve zonal centrifugation using a linear sucrose gradient solution that includes ... After centrifugation the amount of unbound protein remaining in the supernatant was measured by gel filtration chromatography. ... The extracted antigen was separated from the delivery system by centrifugation.. For antigen extraction from PLG microparticles ... Unabsorbed antigen will remain in solution after centrifugation. For example, the adsorption capacity of calcium phosphate ...
Cleared lysates were subjected to rate-zonal centrifugation using continuous 5-30% (w/v) sucrose gradients (Fig. 8). Fractions ... A) Separation of soluble and membrane-bound marker proteins by rate-zonal centrifugation. Shown is a representative sucrose- ... we tested the oligomeric state of GM and GM with C466A/C475A substitutions by rate-zonal centrifugation. Lec-1 cells stably ... After 1 hour on ice, the lysate was cleared by centrifugation at 100,000 g for 1 hour. The supernatant was loaded on a 4 ml ...
  • These samples would be pooled and processed by using available technology to isolate virus particles en masse, recover viral nucleic acids, produce amplified shotgun libraries, carry out shotgun sequencing of the mixture of viral genomes, and reconstruct these genomes in silico with the techniques originally developed to sequence the entire human genome from random fragments. (cdc.gov)
  • Finally, the cell debris can be removed by centrifugation so that the proteins and other soluble compounds remain in the supernatant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the nature of transport proteins is known for the uptake of E 1 S, there is virtually no information on its zonal uptake within the liver acinus. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Zonal profiles of absorbance at 280 mµ, proteins, glycogen, and enzymatic activities (phosphorylase b kinase, phosphorylase b, and glycogen synthetase) were performed. (rupress.org)
  • The surface antigens, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, are obtained from the influenza virus particle by further centrifugation in the presence of nonylphenol ethoxylate, a process which removes most of the internal proteins. (rx-index.ru)
  • The choice of centrifugation method depends on the nature of the particles and often more than one separation technique is required. (els.net)
  • Using mechanical-physical forces including gravitational and centrifugal.Principal method for the separation of heterogeneous liquid-liquid emulsions is decantation or hydrocyclones.For gas-solid and gas-liquid separation i.E.Gas cleaning, gravity settling, centrifugation, filtering, washing, and electrostatic precipitation may be used. (steampot.in)
  • Moreover, the presence of zonal distribution of transporters in the liver would affect the cellular concentration and processing of E 1 S by desulfation or biliary excretion among zonal cells, thus altering the overall hepatic clearance. (aspetjournals.org)