Centrifugation: Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Centrifugation, Zonal: Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Centrifugation, Isopycnic: A technique used to separate particles according to their densities in a continuous density gradient. The sample is usually mixed with a solution of known gradient materials and subjected to centrifugation. Each particle sediments to the position at which the gradient density is equal to its own. The range of the density gradient is usually greater than that of the sample particles. It is used in purifying biological materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, organelles, and cell types.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Metrizamide: A solute for density gradient centrifugation offering higher maximum solution density without the problems of increased viscosity. It is also used as a resorbable, non-ionic contrast medium.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Hydroxyapatites: A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Povidone: A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.Cell SeparationBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Electrophoresis, Disc: Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Agarose: A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Hypergravity: Condition wherein the force of gravity is greater than or is increased above that on the surface of the earth. This is expressed as being greater than 1 g.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.SepharoseTritiumElectrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Triiodobenzoic Acids: Triiodo-substituted derivatives of BENZOIC ACID.Organoids: An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Fractional Precipitation: A method which uses specific precipitation reactions to separate or collect substances from a solution.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Glycoside HydrolasesManganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.Diatrizoate: A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Sulfhydryl Reagents: Chemical agents that react with SH groups. This is a chemically diverse group that is used for a variety of purposes. Among these are enzyme inhibition, enzyme reactivation or protection, and labelling.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Ultrafiltration: The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Dialysis: A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Pronase: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Chloromercuribenzoates: Chloride and mercury-containing derivatives of benzoic acid.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Hydrolases: Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.MercaptoethanolAntibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Dithiothreitol: A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols.Glucosidases: Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Phosphotungstic Acid: Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Hexosaminidases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Microbodies: Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Cholic Acids: The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Isomerases: A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Tissue Extracts: Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Purification and properties of the catalytic subunit". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 261 (22): 10340-7. PMID 3525543.. ... By glycerol gradient centrifugation.[43]. *By a DNA column.. *By an ion chromatography column.[44] ... Honda A, Mukaigawa J, Yokoiyama A, Kato A, Ueda S, Nagata K, Krystal M, Nayak DP, Ishihama A (April 1990). "Purification and ...
New extraction techniques have been developed using magnetic beads for the purification of nucleic acids by taking advantage of ... Carr, Dr Steven M. "CsCl density-gradient centrifugation". www.mun.ca. Retrieved 2017-04-03. Martinez, Lluis. "Magnetic DNA ...
Purification is accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, and bleaching. Carnauba wax can produce a glossy finish and as such ...
Purification before culturing can be accomplished by CsCl density gradient centrifugation. Renaudin, J; Aullo, P; Vignault, JC ...
Processes include; seed bank, media preparation, fermentation, cell harvest, centrifugation and purification including ultra ...
Centrifugation of the solution, which separates the clumped cellular debris from the DNA. DNA purification from detergents, ... Minicolumn purification that relies on the fact that the nucleic acids may bind (adsorption) to the solid phase (silica or ... After centrifugation of the sample, denaturated proteins stay in the organic phase while aqueous phase containing nucleic acid ... DNA isolation is a process of purification of DNA from sample using a combination of physical and chemical methods. The first ...
Phenol/chloroform purification of mixture to remove proteins. Size-select for previously-protected mRNA fragments. Ligate 3' ... Isolate the mRNA-ribosome complexes using sucrose gradient density centrifugation or specialized chromatography columns. ... as well as translational profiling through the affinity purification of epitope tagged ribosomes. These are useful and ...
Algae can be harvested using microscreens, by centrifugation, by flocculation and by froth flotation. Interrupting the carbon ... ". "Chitosan", a commercial flocculant, more commonly used for water purification, is far more expensive. The powdered shells ...
"Protein Expression and Purification Core Facility: Protein Purification: Extraction and Clarification". European Molecular ... For example, if only the cell membrane is lysed then gradient centrifugation can be used to collect certain organelles. Lysis ... as in protein purification, DNA extraction, RNA extraction, or in purifying organelles. Many species of bacteria are subject to ... is also used for protein purification, DNA extraction, and RNA extraction. Cell disruption Crenation Hemolysis Lysogenic Pitted ...
Nevertheless, the presence of oleic acid in the back-extraction solution demanded more purification steps (precipitation, ... centrifugation and filtration). Oleic acid was removed because it prevents crystallization of geldanamycin. Therefore, ... Capsular perstraction as a novel methodology for the recovery and purification of geldanamycin. Biotechnology progress, 27(4), ...
... without further purification. For comparison, the as-grown HiPco CNTs contain about 5-35% of metal impurities; it is therefore ... purified through dispersion and centrifugation that damages the nanotubes. Super-growth avoids this problem. Patterned highly ...
Most have had standard chemical and biochemical methods applied (methods of protein purification and centrifugation, chemical ...
The generally accepted purification method of process streams for monoclonal antibodies includes capture of the product target ... Cells, cell debris, lipids and clotted material are first removed, typically by centrifugation followed by filtration with a ... To achieve maximum purity in a single step, affinity purification can be performed, using the antigen to provide specificity ... These large particles can cause a phenomenon called membrane fouling in later purification steps. In addition, the ...
Purification is achieved by differential centrifugation - the sequential increase in gravitational force results in the ... Other uses of subcellular fractionation is to provide an enriched source of a protein for further purification, and facilitate ...
... and replaces centrifugation and bulk freezing with filtration and diafiltration. Some newer methods of albumin purification add ... He, Ying-Ying; Lee, Wei-Hui; Zhang, Yun (September 2004). "Cloning and purification of α-neurotoxins from king cobra ( ... After ion exchange there are generally further chromatographic purification steps and buffer exchange. However, chromatographic ... additional purification steps to the Cohn Process and its variations. Chromatographic albumin processing as an alternative to ...
... and replaces centrifugation and bulk freezing with filtration and diafiltration. Some newer methods of albumin purification add ... After ion exchange there are generally further chromatographic purification steps and buffer exchange. For further information ... additional purification steps to the Cohn Process and its variations, while others incorporate chromatography, with some ...
It is used as a method of purification for proteins, as well as preventing protein denaturation due to excessively diluted ... After removing the precipitate by filtration or centrifugation, the desired protein can be precipitated by altering the salt ... One demerit of salting out in purification of proteins is that, in addition to precipitating a specific protein of interest, ... Thus to obtain a purer protein of interest, additional purification methods such as ion exchange chromatography may be required ...
... generally carried out by centrifugation or ultra-centrifugation. If the product is biomass, then it is recovered for processing ... Initial purification of metabolites: According to the physico-chemical nature of the product molecule several methods for ... After product development, the next step is purification of product for desired quality. When they reach the desired density ( ... Ultra filtration is an alternative to the centrifugation. Cell disruption: If the desired product is intra cellular the cell ...
The significance of this substance in the purification of compounds stems from its ability to become more so hydrated compared ... this separation may be achieved by centrifugation. Precipitation by ammonium sulfate is a result of a reduction in solubility ... Ammonium sulfate precipitation is a common method for protein purification by precipitation. As the ionic strength of a ...
Compare this to antibody purification and GST purification, a prerequisite to which is the proper (native) folding of proteins ... Bacterial cells are harvested via centrifugation and the resulting cell pellet lysed either by physical means or by means of ... purification from higher organisms such as yeasts or other eukaryotes may require a tandem affinity purification using two tags ... Various purification kits for histidine-tagged proteins are available from Qiagen, Sigma, Thermo Scientific, GE Healthcare, ...
Fong, Baley A; Wood, David W (2010). "Expression and purification of ELP-intein-tagged target proteins in high cell density E. ... by centrifugation) and then intein and tag can be cleaved in controlled manner to release the target protein into solution. ... However, the affinity tag must be removed by proteases in the final purification step. The extra proteolysis step raises the ... This eliminates the chromatographic step needed in protein purification. The ELP tags have been used in the fusion protein of ...
After binding the separation is performed by centrifugation (density separation) or by magnetic field attraction (for magnetic ... silica beads with terminal negatively charged silanol groups or polystyrene beads and are used for isolation and purification ...
... or centrifugation removal of solvents by evaporation separating the reaction mixture into organic and aqueous layers by liquid- ... liquid extraction purification by chromatography, distillation or recrystallization For example, the Grignard reaction between ...
... usually an expression construct Purification of cells and their parts Purification may be performed using the following methods ... Separation of different organelles by centrifugation. Flow cytometry Immunoprecipitation The binding of an antibody to a target ...
Separation operations are having several different functions: Purification of raw materials and products and recovery of by- ... can be separated by mechanical separation processes like filtration or centrifugation. Homogeneous mixtures can be separated by ...
In addition to purification, analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) can be used for determination of the properties of ... Differential CentrifugationEdit. Differential Centrifugation is a type of centrifugation in which one selectively spins down ... "Centrifugation Basics". Sigma-Aldrich. Retrieved 10 May 2016.. *^ Article on "Centrifugation" retrieved on 15 October 2013 from ... Density Gradient CentrifugationEdit. Density gradient centrifugation is considered one of the more efficient methods of ...
However, the market is also likely to be curbed by the presence of competing technologies such as centrifugation, direct flow ... Tangential flow filtration is utilized in the separation and purification of a wide range of biomolecules such as antibodies, ... The system displayed the advantage of applicability to a wide range of bioprocessing domains such as purification of vaccines, ... besides its adaptability to a range of volumes for separation and purification. ...
Purification & Diafiltration, Viral Vectors and Vaccine Purification, Pharmaceutical Water Production), Region - Industry Size ... Also, the market is likely to be limited by the existence of contrasting technologies such as centrifugation, and pre-coat ... Global Purification & Diafiltration Market By Region, From 2019-2024 ( USD Million ). *Global Viral Vectors and Vaccine ... Europe Purification & Diafiltration Market By Region, From 2019-2024 ( USD Million ). *Europe Viral Vectors and Vaccine ...
Structural Biochemistry/Proteins/Purification/Differential Centrifugation. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... Performing centrifugation in a stepwise fashion, in which the centrifugation speed is increased each time, allows the ... Differential centrifugation is a method used to separate the different components of a cell on the basis of mass. The cell ... After centrifugation typically for an hour at about 100,000 x g, disks of cellular components residing due to the change in ...
The centrifugation generates a purified sulfur product and a high-solids sulfur waste stream. A solid bowl disc centrifuge ... Ash-containing molten sulfur is fed to a centrifuge and subjected to centrifugation under controlled conditions at G forces at ... In another aspect of the sulfur purification process, the nozzle bowl centrifuge underflow waste stream is further processed in ... where the molten sulfur is first subjected to centrifugation at G forces at least about 4,000 times that of gravity in one or ...
Bio-Rad® Protein Expression and Purification Series: Centrifugation Purification Process Educational Materials Biology ... Delivery information: Includes 4 modules with lab activities from protein expression and purification using spin columns to SDS ... The protein expression and purification series provides students with the opportunity to express, affinity purify, and evaluate ...
Protocol 9: Purification of rAAVs by Iodixanol Gradient Centrifugation *Protocol 10: Purification of rAAV2s by Heparin Column ... Purification of rAAVs by Iodixanol Gradient Centrifugation. (Protocol summary only for purposes of this preview site). This is ... Protocol 3: Purification of the Recombinant Adenovirus by Cesium Chloride Gradient Centrifugation *Protocol 4: Characterization ... Chapter 6: Extraction, Purification, and Analysis of RNA from Eukaryotic Cells345 *Protocol 1: Purification of Total RNA from ...
The first step after protein extraction is protein purification. Conventional methods require centrifugation to pellet the ... Purification Challenges. The ultimate goal of clinical and proteomics research laboratories is to reduce the number of steps in ... Protein purification is a complex process, which involves a number of intricate sequential steps. The separation step usually ... Protein Purification. Protein aggregation can occur during upstream operations and downstream processing, when a protein ...
Centrifugation. Centrifuge processing requires a microtiterplate centrifuge which can accommodate the NucleoSpin 96 Plasmid ... Native Purification with TALON Resin Imidazole Elution Protocol-At-A-Glance * Native Purification with TALON Resin pH Elution ... Plasmid DNA Purification-Manual Processing 96-Well Plates-NucleoSpin 96 Plasmid. The NucleoSpin 96 Plasmid Kits are designed ... Denaturing Purification with TALON Resin Protocol-At-A-Glance * ... RNA Purification Overview * Total RNA from Cells and Tissues * ...
ApoBD purification by centrifugation. To isolate ApoBDs via a traditional differential centrifugation approach, methods from ... a) Schematic diagram of ApoBD purification steps for two pre-existing centrifugation approaches, and the newly developed FACS- ... These methods (denoted here as the traditional differential centrifugation approach) often include an initial centrifugation at ... traditional differential centrifugation approach, (c) low-speed centrifugation approach, and (d) FACS-based approach (n = 3). ( ...
The Isolator system was compared with the large-volume centrifugation method for processing and recovering organisms from body ... Evaluation of Isolator System and Large-Volume Centrifugation Method for Culturing Body Fluids J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Jan;28(1 ... Bacteria / isolation & purification * Body Fluids / microbiology* * Centrifugation * Evaluation Studies as Topic * Humans ... The Isolator system was compared with the large-volume centrifugation method for processing and recovering organisms from body ...
Three centrifugation steps were carried out as specified in Müller et al. (2001). The pellet from the third centrifugation was ... Plasma Membrane Purification from a Microsomal Fraction. Plasma membranes were purified from a microsomal fraction by aqueous ... The phases were separated by centrifugation (5 min, 1,500 g, 4°C; HB 6 swinging bucket rotor; Sorvall RC-5B superspeed ... using differential centrifugation yielding a microsomal fraction (MF) which was further subjected to partitioning in an aqueous ...
Your guide to protein purification basics, tips & tricks, and more. Protein sample preparation Centrifugation. Centrifugation ... Desalting or buffer exchange can be used as a first chromatography step or, when needed, between purification steps for sample ... If the sample is still not clear after centrifugation, a filtration step can be included. For sample preparation before ... Samples such as serum can be filtered through glass wool after centrifugation to remove any remaining lipids. ...
PDF (Newcastle disease vaccines; improvement of virus purification by using high speed centrifugation) Download (1MB) , Preview ... Newcastle disease vaccines;improvement of virus purification by using high speed centrifugation ... improvement of virus purification by using high speed centrifugation. In: IIUM Research, Innovation & Invention Exhibition ( ...
Automation-Friendly DNA Purification: No Centrifugation, No Organic Solvents. The Maxwell® HT 96 gDNA Blood Isolation System ... Fast, manual purification of high-quality DNA from up to 200μl blood or body fluids. ... Maxwell HT 96 gDNA Blood Isolation System Quick Protocol for Purification of Genomic DNA from Anticoagulated Whole Blood FB213 ... The use of paramagnetic particles for DNA capture eliminates the need for centrifugation or vacuum manifolds, making the system ...
Purification and properties of the catalytic subunit". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 261 (22): 10340-7. PMID 3525543.. ... By glycerol gradient centrifugation.[43]. *By a DNA column.. *By an ion chromatography column.[44] ... Honda A, Mukaigawa J, Yokoiyama A, Kato A, Ueda S, Nagata K, Krystal M, Nayak DP, Ishihama A (April 1990). "Purification and ...
Purification of fibrillin-containing microfibrils and collagen VI microfibrils by density gradient centrifugation Journal ...
d) centrifugation;. (e) soaking in antibiotic or antimicrobial solutions;. (f) sterilization;. (g) low-level irradiation;. (h) ... cell separation, concentration or purification;. (i) filtering;. (j) lyophilisation;. (k) freezing;. (l) cryopreservation;. (m ...
Two Purification Techniques Starting from Yeast Cells and Human Placentas, Cloning and Large-Scale Production of High- ... Large-Scale Purification of Porcine or Bovine Photoreceptor Outer Segments for Phagocytosis Assays on Retinal Pigment ... Purification and Labeling of Mouse Bone Marrow Neutrophils for Functional Studies and Adoptive Transfer Experiments, Analysis ... Purification of Hepatocytes and Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells from Mouse Liver Perfusion, Generation of Induced Pluripotent ...
... differential centrifugation and concentration after initial clarification of buffered homogenates such as with organic solvents ... further fractionation by rate or equilibrium density gradient centrifugation as developed by Brakke (1960). Because of the ... Studies on the composition and structure of plant viruses can only be attempted after their purification from infected tissue ... The Use of Density Gradient Centrifugation in a Zonal Centrifuge Rotor During the Purification of a Pear Virus * J. A. ...
The combined (log reduction value) for retrovirus removal of all removal steps of the combined purification process must be at ... sample centrifugation; on-line sample preparation; diagnostic kits testing; diagnostic testing; high throughput screening; ... Since virus filtration accounts for a significant percentage of the total cost of drug purification, any approaches to increase ... affinity binding assays; purification of a liquid sample: size-based separation of the components of the fluid sample; physical ...
... can be employed following centrifugation to concentrate the products. Further purification steps primarily involve ... Centrifugation -Centrifugation can be open or closed. The adequacy of the environment must be evaluated for open centrifugation ... Purification -The purification process is primarily achieved by one or more column chromatography techniques. *Affinity ... EXTRACTION, ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION. *Introduction Once the fermentation process is completed, the desired product is ...
Beads were collected by centrifugation. The supernatant was removed, and the beads were washed extensively in TTLB. Samples ... Tandem Affinity Purification. An estimated 2.5 × 109 Hepa1c1c7 TAP-AH and TAP-GFP cell were challenged with DMSO (vehicle ... Using tandem affinity purification (TAP) and mass spectrometry we have identified several novel protein interactions with the ... After TCDD exposure, cell lysate samples underwent two rounds of purification utilizing the TAP methodology. AHR and GFP TAP- ...
Cryptosporidium oocyst purification using discontinuous gradient centrifugationexternal icon. Arrowood MJ.. Methods Mol Biol. ... Following purification, oocysts can be stored in antibiotic-supplemented buffers or in 2.5% aqueous potassium dichromate for ... Purification of oocysts can be accomplished with readily available laboratory equipment including tabletop centrifuges and ...
The sediment obtained after centrifugation was dissolved using urea. Denatured protein was obtained by one-step purification ... Purification of proteins. Synthetic genes and production of Chimera 1, Chimera 2 and αCah proteins were ordered to GenScript ( ... For purification of recombinant proteins, transformant BL21(DE3) strains were grown in Terrific Broth containing kanamycin (50 ... In addition, strong detergents are used in the purification of this class of proteins and therefore the loss of conformational ...
An affinity matrix for the small-scale immunomagnetic separation and purification of mouse IgGs. Anti-Mouse IgG is covalently ... Affinity Purification. * Properties & Usage Storage Temperature. 4°C Storage Conditions. 0.1% BSA 0.05% Tween® 20 0.02% NaN3 1 ... Monarch Nucleic Acid Purification Kits are optimized for maximum performance and minimal environmental impact. Kits are ... Monarch Nucleic Acid Purification Kits are optimized for maximum performance and minimal environmental impact. Kits are ...
  • The downstream stage in industrial biotechnology refers to recovery, isolation, and purification of the microbial products from cell debris, processing medium and contaminating biomolecules from the upstream process into a finished product such as biopharmaceuticals and vaccines. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • plant study, in the engineering principles underlying the operations and processes for the recovery and purification of biological materials. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The recovery and purification of biological products from complex sources such as fermentation or cell culture represents the major challenge for the provision of safe and effective materials, for therapeutic use and for industrial applications. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The course is concluded with a summary of how complete recovery and purification sequences may be best put together. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • NucleoBond Xtra columns: The enlarged columns lead to lower silica resin beds and enable faster flow of lysate and buffers through the columns, allowing for a fast purification. (clontech.com)
  • Here, we present a simple and standardized protocol that allows for the purification and sequencing of RNA viromes from complex biological samples with an important reduction of host DNA and RNA contaminants, while preserving the infectivity of viral particles. (plos.org)
  • Several physical characteristics of viral particles enable viral purification (e.g., capsid durability), but the wide variety of viruses' biological characteristics cause difficulties in developing a standardized protocol compatible with a broad range of particle sizes, shapes, densities, and genome types [ 18 ]. (plos.org)
  • For post-purification labeling of protein samples, several amine-reactive stable isotope-labeling reagents were developed ( 10 , 11 ), which led to perturbations in both the ionization efficiency and CID of the labeled peptides. (mcponline.org)
  • (b-d) Flow cytometry analysis of the purity of THP-1 monocyte-derived ApoBDs isolated by (b) traditional differential centrifugation approach, (c) low-speed centrifugation approach, and (d) FACS-based approach ( n = 3). (nature.com)