Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A technique used to separate particles according to their densities in a continuous density gradient. The sample is usually mixed with a solution of known gradient materials and subjected to centrifugation. Each particle sediments to the position at which the gradient density is equal to its own. The range of the density gradient is usually greater than that of the sample particles. It is used in purifying biological materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, organelles, and cell types.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
A solute for density gradient centrifugation offering higher maximum solution density without the problems of increased viscosity. It is also used as a resorbable, non-ionic contrast medium.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Condition wherein the force of gravity is greater than or is increased above that on the surface of the earth. This is expressed as being greater than 1 g.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Triiodo-substituted derivatives of BENZOIC ACID.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.
Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The application of high intensity ultrasound to liquids.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC 1.7.3.3.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.
The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is widely distributed in TICKS and various mammals throughout the world. Infection with this genus is particularly prevalent in CATTLE; SHEEP; and GOATS.
Techniques used in microbiology.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Extracellular vesicles generated by the shedding of CELL MEMBRANE blebs.
Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)
The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
A sucrose polymer of high molecular weight.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE whose species cause a variety of diseases in vertebrates including humans, mice, and swine. Chlamydia species are gram-negative and produce glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
Centrifugation fluids. The high density of the caesium ion makes solutions of caesium chloride, caesium sulfate, and caesium ...
BEA Westfalia separator Group, 2013, Chamber Bowl separator Berk, Z. (2013). Centrifugation. Food Process Engineering and ...
Centrifugation Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Mar 4, 2004, pp. 247-267. "Svedberg Lecture". Retrieved 2019-02-18. "Beckman ... Analytical ultracentrifugation Gas centrifuge Theodor Svedberg Differential centrifugation Buoyant density ultracentrifugation ...
Centrifugation". Biophysical Chemistry of Proteins. New York, Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London: Springer. pp. 237-249. doi:10.1007 ...
Centrifugation Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Mar 4, 2004, pp. 247-267. Frothingham, R (February 1999). "Centrifugation without a ... There are various types of centrifugation: Differential centrifugation, often used to separate certain organelles from whole ... Another potential hazard is the aerosolization of hazardous samples during centrifugation. To prevent contamination of the ... often used to isolate nucleic acids such as DNA Sucrose gradient centrifugation, often used to purify enveloped viruses and ...
"Basics of Centrifugation". Cole-Parmer. Retrieved 11 March 2012. "Plasmid DNA Separation: Fixed-Angle and Vertical Rotors in ... Centrifugation Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Mar 4, 2004, pp. 247-267. Vogel-Prandtl, Johanna Ludwig Prandtl: A Biographical ... Centrifugal force Centrifugation Clearing factor Honey extractor Hydroextractor Lamm equation Sedimentation coefficient ... Protocols for centrifugation typically specify the amount of acceleration to be applied to the sample, rather than specifying a ...
The gas centrifugation process uses a unique design that allows gas to constantly flow in and out of the centrifuge. Unlike ... "Basics of Centrifugation." Cole-Parmer Technical Lab. 14 Mar. 2008 "Gas Centrifuge Uranium Enrichment." Global Security.Org. 27 ... The output lines take these separations to other centrifuges to continue the centrifugation process. The process begins when ...
accessed 12 October 2013) Orris E. A, Eugene E.G. (1969). Centrifugation of Waste Sludges. Journal Water Pollution Control ...
Sedimentation Centrifugation Helmenstine, Todd. "What is decanting?". ThoughtCo. Retrieved 1 March 2018. "Separation and ...
By glycerol gradient centrifugation. By a DNA column. By an ion chromatography column. And also combinations of the above ...
For blood samples, these include centrifugation followed by examination of the buffy coat; mini anion-exchange/centrifugation; ... For other samples, such as spinal fluid, concentration techniques include centrifugation followed by examination of the ...
Centrifugation is the preferred method. Several preventives are available by prescription from a veterinarian to prevent dogs ...
Separates by centrifugation No. Yes. Yes Separates by decantation No. No. Yes ...
The extract is obtained by centrifugation. The salinity can more easily be measured, without centrifugation, in a 2:1 or 5:1 ...
The lysis-centrifugation method was introduced in 1917 by Mildred Clough, but it was rarely used in clinical practice until ... "History of Lysis-Centrifugation Blood Culture Methods". Murray, PR; Masur, H (2012). "Current approaches to the diagnosis of ... While lysis-centrifugation offers greater sensitivity than conventional blood culture methods, it is prone to contamination ... A technique called the lysis-centrifugation method can be used for improved isolation of slow-growing or fastidious organisms, ...
... this separation may be achieved by centrifugation. Precipitation by ammonium sulfate is a result of a reduction in solubility ...
Phytoliths must be concentrated using density centrifugation. Sodium polytungstate is a common substance used to aid in this ...
Continuous flow centrifugation: Two venous lines are used. This method requires slightly less blood volume out of the body at ... Discontinuous flow centrifugation: One venous catheter line is required. Typically, a 300 ml batch of blood is removed at a ...
Chromatography, centrifugation, and filtration techniques can be used to separate nanoparticles by size or other physical ... Mechanical separation techniques utilize membranes and/or centrifugation. Chemical separation techniques are liquid-liquid ...
Purification is accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, and bleaching. Carnauba wax can produce a glossy finish and as such ...
After centrifugation and washing, the starch is dried. Co-products account for 34% of wet-milled yield. In fact, 23% of corn ...
This is most easily done by centrifugation, which packs the denser blood cells and platelets to the bottom of the centrifuge ... Plasma is obtained by centrifugation before clotting occurs. The type of test required dictates what type of sample is used. A ...
They can use centrifugation or centrifugation-free methods. The red cells can be re-suspended in saline or other types of ...
Isolation may be achieved by filtration or centrifugation. For some polymers it was demonstrated that thermoresponsive behavior ...
Similarly, so-called swim-up techniques apply a centrifugation step and then sperm is allowed to swim up into a medium, thus ... Density gradient centrifugation (in a continuous or discontinuous gradient) can concentrate semen samples with low ... However, use of sperm centrifugation is detrimental to the sperm viability and elicits production of reactive oxygen species. ... Several conventional techniques of centrifugation or swim-up. Newly applied methods such as flow cytometry expand the ...
Carr, Dr Steven M. "CsCl density-gradient centrifugation". www.mun.ca. Retrieved 2017-04-03. Martinez, Lluis. "Magnetic DNA ...
... generally carried out by centrifugation or ultra-centrifugation. If the product is biomass, then it is recovered for processing ... Ultra filtration is an alternative to the centrifugation. Cell disruption: If the desired product is intra cellular the cell ... The solid-liquid is separated by centrifugation or filtration and cell debris is discarded. Concentration of broth: The spent ...
This is done by filtration, centrifugation or dialysis. A method that does not require separation is the scintillation ...
The insoluble protein can be collected by centrifugation. One of the very effective ways for carrying out this process is the ...
Another common step in most lab workflows: Centrifugation. The centrifuges used in todays labs range from small ...
Oil extracted continuously in a second centrifugation line from olive paste that has already been centrifuged once. ...
I recommend changing the terminology for http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85021937 from "Centrifugation" to: ...
multiple-ejaculate resuspension and centrifugation answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound ... "Multiple-ejaculate Resuspension and Centrifugation." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 24th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2021. Tabers ... Multiple-ejaculate resuspension and centrifugation. In: Venes DD, ed. Tabers Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company; 2021. ... multiple-ejaculate resuspension and centrifugation is a topic covered in the Tabers Medical Dictionary. To view the entire ...
Bio-Rad® Protein Expression and Purification Series: Centrifugation Purification Process Educational Materials Biology ...
"Centrifugation, Density Gradient" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Centrifugation, Density Gradient" by people in this website by ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Centrifugation, Density Gradient" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Centrifugation, Density Gradient". ...
Get your basic centrifugation operating questions answered and learn the fundamentals of separations using centrifugal force ... Principles of Centrifugation. You may have operated a centrifuge before. Or perhaps this is your first day on a new job at a ... We hope to provide an overview of basic centrifugation operating principles. We think youll be a better centrifuge operator if ...
a) Analis Academy - Education session centrifugation. b) Training for best user practices can be organized in your or our ... BECKMAN COULTER Centrifugation & Ultracentrifugation. The guarantee of satisfaction throughout the life of your investment.. ... Advice on the choice of rotors / tubes / accessories and optimization of centrifugation parameters. - Our centrifuge product ... Analis offers the following services linked to centrifugation:. - Prevention Program - FRIP: Field Rotor Inspection Program. - ...
Centrifugation. With centrifugation, material is dewatered by centrifugal force - a force that draws particles in inertia away ... Dewatering most often occurs through processes such as wet classification, centrifugation, filtration or similar liquid-solid ...
Stair-stepping and squats during centrifugation: feasibility, biomechanics, and fitness benefits. (Abstract and poster). Title ... Stair Stepping And Squats During Centrifugation Feasibility Biomechanics And Fitness Benefits. ... Stair-stepping and squats during centrifugation: feasibility, biomechanics, and fitness benefits. (Abstract and poster). ...
Density gradient centrifugation (DGC) and swim-up are useful techniques for separation of spermatozoa with longer telomeres. ... Density gradient centrifugation (DGC) and swim-up are useful techniques for separation of spermatozoa with longer telomeres. ... However, one of the disadvantages of this technique is sperm exposure to shear forces during centrifugation which is believed ... A. Comparison of absolute and B. Relative of STL among washed semen samples, density gradient centrifugation (DGC), and zeta- ...
Layer Centrifugation (SLC) through a colloid (Androcoll-P) selects good quality spermatozoa. However, it has not. been ... Single layer centrifugation-selected boar spermatozoa are capable of fertilization in vitro ... Brandt, Ylva and Morrell, Jane and Gonzalez Herrero, Raquel (2013). Single layer centrifugation-selected boar spermatozoa are ... METHODS: The semen was prepared either by SLC or by standard centrifugation (control) and used for in vitro. fertilization (IVF ...
... ; find -Z720186 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
Centrifugation. Sorvall RC5C PLUS superspeed refrigerated centrifuge. Beckman L8-80M ultracentrifuge. Chromatography ...
The protein fraction is concentrated by additional centrifugation. The protein concentrate is then washed and dried to obtain ...
Withstand centrifugation up to 2980 RCF. *With conical shaped bottom. *Tubes are made from borosilicate glass in compliance ...
Chapter 14: Centrifugation. Chapter 15: Electrophoresis. Chapter 16: Microscopy. Reviews. Any typical laboratory possesses a ...
Chapter 14: Centrifugation. Chapter 15: Electrophoresis. Chapter 16: Microscopy. Reviews. Any typical laboratory possesses a ...
Chapter 14: Centrifugation. Chapter 15: Electrophoresis. Chapter 16: Microscopy. Reviews. Any typical laboratory possesses a ...
Home / Mixing & Centrifugation / Gusto® Mini-Centrifuge /. 32 Place 0.2mL Tube Rotor for Gusto®. ...
Centrifugation. Storage temperature. 18−25 °C. Scope of delivery. NucleoSpin Filters Midi. ...
The density of DNA can be calculated using density gradient centrifugation. When a DNA containing solution is spun at very high ...
Centrifugation, vacuum. Lysate clarification. Centrifugation, NucleoSpin Inhibitor Removal Plate. Automated use. No. ...
CentrifugationCentrifugation. *Centrifuges. *Incubators. *Microscopes and Objectives. *Thermometers and Hygrometers. * ...
Centrifugation, vacuum. Storage temperature. 18−25 °C. Scope of delivery. Snap Tubes 50 mL. ...
J48.00013: Large colloidal crystals grown by centrifugation onto a template. Daniel Pennachio, Katharine Jensen, David Weitz, ...
Thirty mL water is added to the flask, followed by shaking, centrifugation and two hexane rinses. The aqueous phase is passed ...
Centrifugation technology - What can it be used for in our modern world? Started by mmn1998 ...
  • Centrifugation, Density Gradient" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (childrensmercy.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Centrifugation, Density Gradient" by people in this website by year, and whether "Centrifugation, Density Gradient" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Centrifugation, Density Gradient" by people in Profiles. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Density gradient centrifugation (DGC) and swim-up are useful techniques for separation of spermatozoa with longer telomeres. (ijfs.ir)
  • The density of DNA can be calculated using density gradient centrifugation. (news-medical.net)
  • From human uterine tissue proteoglycans were extracted and purified using CsCl-density gradient centrifugation, gel and ion-exchange chromatography. (lu.se)
  • Figure 1 Isolation of PBMCs and LIMCs from peripheral blood and liver biopsy specimens in the patients with AIH and CH-C by using density gradient centrifugation. (wjgnet.com)
  • One day late in the night in our parasitology laboratory upon finishing density gradient centrifugation of Blastocystisculture, I took a layer of Blastocystisand placed over a slide and observed under 40 X objective. (isid.org)
  • The immobilized enzymes can be easily separated from the reaction solution via simples filtration or centrifugation. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Ensure that the Amylose Resin drains completely after each spin (some older centrifuge models may require a longer centrifugation time). (zymoresearch.com)
  • Centrifuge the supernatant / PEG-it mixture at 1500 × g for 30 minutes at 4 ° C. After centrifugation, the Lentivector particles may appear as a beige or white pellet at the bottom of the boat. (phrconference.org)
  • Centrifuge the residual PEGit solution by centrifugation at 1500 × g for 5 minutes. (phrconference.org)
  • With centrifugation, material is dewatered by centrifugal force - a force that draws particles in inertia away from the center of rotation. (mclanahan.com)
  • To observe the effect of the serum on tomato puree viscosity, the pellet fraction containing the particles was spun out of the tomato purees by centrifugation so that the particle fraction and the serum could be assessed separately. (bl.uk)
  • The principle of the centrifugation technique is to separate the particles suspended in liquid media under the influence of a centrifugal field. (renee-online.nl)
  • Principles of centrifugation In a solution particles whose density is higher than that of the solvent sink (sediment) and particles that are lighter than it float to the top. (renee-online.nl)
  • Discusses the various methods to harvest micro and macro algae - filtration, centrifugation, flocculation, flotation. (oilgae.com)
  • The operations involving a kinetic change are filtration , sedimentation , flotation and centrifugation . (edibon.com)
  • Layer Centrifugation (SLC) through a colloid (Androcoll-P) selects good quality spermatozoa. (slu.se)
  • The content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) will be analysed in semen samples from bulls of high and low fertility, and the effect of selecting robust spermatozoa by colloid centrifugation on their ROS-content will be investigated. (lantbruksforskning.se)
  • Sperm preparation techniques, such as colloid centrifugation, that select the best quality spermatozoa could help to reduce harmful ROS-production and aid cryosurvival, thus contributing to improved cow fertility. (lantbruksforskning.se)
  • In addition, the effect of selecting robust spermatozoa by colloid centrifugation on their ROS-content would be investigated. (lantbruksforskning.se)
  • 2021. https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/766833/all/multiple_ejaculate_resuspension_and_centrifugation. (tabers.com)
  • Centrifugation, the name given to separation applications which involve spinning around an axis to produce a centrifugal force, is a way to increase the magnitude of the gravitational field. (regiosteunpunt.nl)
  • Liquid handling (pipettes, dispensers, automated LH workstations etc.) and centrifugation products, as well as plastic consumables such as Eppendorf test tubes and pipette tips. (eppendorf.com)
  • The concentrator function enables the quick concentration of samples via vacuum (fast evaporation of the solvent) and centrifugation (prevents foaming over/sample loss) in the rotor. (eppendorf.com)
  • We hope to provide an overview of basic centrifugation operating principles. (mybeckman.com.br)
  • The protein fraction is concentrated by additional centrifugation. (fda.gov)
  • Too high temperature, centrifugation or tumble can ruin details on the garment. (casall.com)
  • Dewatering most often occurs through processes such as wet classification, centrifugation, filtration or similar liquid-solid separation processes. (mclanahan.com)
  • 3. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said centrifugation baskets are fixed at the bottom at a shaft, at the lower end of which a pulley is fixed, and said shaft in inserted and supported in such a way to freely rotate by suitable bearings, within a ring, fixed to transverse elements, which are bridging provided between said parallel transport chains. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein a tunnel is provided about part of the onward run of said transport chain supporting said centrifugation baskets, the inner walls of said tunnel collecting water ejected from the holes of said centrifugation baskets and to convey the same toward suitable lateral drainage. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Entrapment efficiency: Centrifugation of Nano-liposomes (0.5ml) was performed by using Amicon ultra filters (10kDa) at 13000 rpm for 15min. (eventscribe.com)
  • It is used to obtain the olive oil - in certified organically grown quality - by mechanical processes such as pressing and centrifugation. (robygge.se)
  • Alternatively, non-stabilized urine samples can be processed immediately after collection and centrifugation using ATL-pretreatment and automated DNA extraction as described in the corresponding Protocol Sheet. (qiagen.com)
  • Intracellular distribution and reactivity of radiolabeled chromium in Chinese-hamster cells was assessed by fractional centrifugation and a combination of anion exchange and ion pair high performance liquid chromatography. (cdc.gov)
  • Any of several methods-gaseous diffusion, gas centrifugation, liquid thermal diffusion-can be employed to separate and concentrate the fissile uranium-235 isotope into several grades, from low-enrichment (2 to 3 percent uranium-235) to fully enriched (97 to 99 percent uranium-235). (britannica.com)
  • When washing the duvet, a high centrifugation is important - it should contain the smallest amount of water possible before tumble drying. (nubie.co.uk)
  • Concentrate the virus by one cycle of high and low speed centrifugation. (dpvweb.net)
  • Thirty mL water is added to the flask, followed by shaking, centrifugation and two hexane rinses. (fda.gov)
  • 12. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said apparatus comprises water jets for cleaning said centrifugation baskets, provided under the apparatus before the end of the return run. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Harvesting takes place by centrifugation of the mix - water/microalgae. (plexiglas.de)
  • Oil extracted continuously in a second centrifugation line from olive paste that has already been centrifuged once. (internationaloliveoil.org)
  • Even when using stabilized urine, it is recommended to perform a centrifugation step immediately after stabilization to prevent the release of genomic DNA from cells. (qiagen.com)
  • *Trainings a) Analis Academy - Education session centrifugation b) Training for best user practices can be organized in your or our facilities. (analis.be)
  • 4. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said means for conferring to said centrifugation baskets a fast rotary motion about their own axis comprises a pair of belts, realizing a closed loop about two pulleys, provided side-by-side and rotating according to the same direction by two further belts, operated by two motors rotating according to the same direction. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • distribution along the sample thickness that was established during centrifugation, as pointed out by Reatto et al. (ashs.org)
  • 2008) . Juice extracted by centrifugation was collected with a reservoir cup below the base of the sample holder. (ashs.org)
  • Stair-stepping and squats during centrifugation: feasibility, biomechanics, and fitness benefits. (mit.edu)