Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A technique used to separate particles according to their densities in a continuous density gradient. The sample is usually mixed with a solution of known gradient materials and subjected to centrifugation. Each particle sediments to the position at which the gradient density is equal to its own. The range of the density gradient is usually greater than that of the sample particles. It is used in purifying biological materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, organelles, and cell types.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
A solute for density gradient centrifugation offering higher maximum solution density without the problems of increased viscosity. It is also used as a resorbable, non-ionic contrast medium.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Triiodo-substituted derivatives of BENZOIC ACID.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.
The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A sucrose polymer of high molecular weight.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Condition wherein the force of gravity is greater than or is increased above that on the surface of the earth. This is expressed as being greater than 1 g.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The application of high intensity ultrasound to liquids.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC 1.7.3.3.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.

The exocyst is an effector for Sec4p, targeting secretory vesicles to sites of exocytosis. (1/7983)

Polarized secretion requires proper targeting of secretory vesicles to specific sites on the plasma membrane. Here we report that the exocyst complex plays a key role in vesicle targeting. Sec15p, an exocyst component, can associate with secretory vesicles and interact specifically with the rab GTPase, Sec4p, in its GTP-bound form. A chain of protein-protein interactions leads from Sec4p and Sec15p on the vesicle, through various subunits of the exocyst, to Sec3p, which marks the sites of exocytosis on the plasma membrane. Sec4p may control the assembly of the exocyst. The exocyst may therefore function as a rab effector system for targeted secretion.  (+info)

Studies on a nonpolysomal ribonucleoprotein coding for myosin heavy chains from chick embryonic muscles. (2/7983)

A messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle containing the mRNA coding for the myosin heavy chain (MHC mRNA) has been isolated from the postpolysomal fraction of homogenates of 14-day-old chick embryonic muscles. The mRNP sediments in sucrose gradient as 120 S and has a characteristic buoyant density of 1.415 g/cm3, which corresponds to an RNA:protein ratio of 1:3.8. The RNA isolated from the 120 S particle behaved like authentic MHC mRNA purified from chick embryonic muscles with respect to electrophoretic mobility and ability to program the synthesis of myosin heavy chain in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system as judged by multi-step co-purification of the in vitro products with chick embryonic leg muscle myosin added as carrier. The RNA obtained from the 120 S particle was as effective as purified MHC mRNA in stimulating the synthesis of the complete myosin heavy chains in rabbit reticulocyte lysate under conditions where non-muscle mRNAs had no such effect. Analysis of the protein moieties of the 120 S particle by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows the presence of seven distinct polypeptides with apparent molecular weights of 44,000, 49,000, 53,000, 81,000, 83,000, and 98,000, whereas typical ribosomal proteins are absent. These results indicate that the 120 S particles are distinct cellular entities unrelated to ribosomes or initiation complexes. The presence of muscle-specific mRNAs as cytoplasmic mRNPs suggests that these particles may be involved in translational control during myogenesis in embryonic muscles.  (+info)

Characterization of nuclear structures containing superhelical DNA. (3/7983)

Structures resembling nuclei but depleted of protein may be released by gently lysing cells in solutions containing non-ionic detergents and high concentrations of salt. These nucleoids sediment in gradients containing intercalating agents in a manner characteristic of DNA that is intact, supercoiled and circular. The concentration of salt present during isolation of human nucleoids affects their protein content. When made in I-95 M NaCl they lack histones and most of the proteins characteristic of chromatin; in 1-0 M NaCl they contain variable amounts of histones. The effects of various treatments on nucleoid integrity were investigated.  (+info)

Isocitrate lyase of Ashbya gossypii--transcriptional regulation and peroxisomal localization. (4/7983)

The isocitrate lyase-encoding gene AgICL1 from the filamentous hemiascomycete Ashbya gossypii was isolated by heterologous complementation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae icl1d mutant. The open reading frame of 1680 bp encoded a protein of 560 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 62584. Disruption of the AgICL1 gene led to complete loss of AgIcl1p activity and inability to grow on oleic acid as sole carbon source. Compartmentation of AgIcl1p in peroxisomes was demonstrated both by Percoll density gradient centrifugation and by immunogold labeling of ultrathin sections using specific antibodies. This fitted with the peroxisomal targeting signal AKL predicted from the C-terminal DNA sequence. Northern blot analysis with mycelium grown on different carbon sources as well as AgICL1 promoter replacement with the constitutive AgTEF promoter revealed a regulation at the transcriptional level. AgICL1 was subject to glucose repression, derepressed by glycerol, partially induced by the C2 compounds ethanol and acetate, and fully induced by soybean oil.  (+info)

Mass spectral study of polymorphism of the apolipoproteins of very low density lipoprotein. (5/7983)

New isoforms of apolipoprotein (apo)C-I and apoC-III have been detected in delipidated fractions from very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) using matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS). The cleavage sites of truncated apoC-III isoforms have also been identified. The VLDL fractions were isolated by fixed-angle single-spin ultracentrifugation using a self-generating sucrose density gradient and delipidated using a newly developed C18 solid phase extraction protocol. Fifteen apoC isoforms and apoE were identified in the MALDI spectra and the existence of the more abundant species was verified by ESI-MS. The relative intensities of the apoCs are closely correlated in three normolipidemic subjects. A fourth subject with type V hyperlipidemia exhibited an elevated apoC-III level and a suppressed level of the newly discovered truncated apoC-I isoform. ApoC-II was found to be particularly sensitive to in vitro oxidation. The dynamic range and specificity of the MALDI assay shows that the complete apoC isoform profile and apoE phenotype can be obtained in a single measurement from the delipidated VLDL fraction.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of rat hippocampal CA3-dendritic spines associated with mossy fiber terminals. (6/7983)

We report a revised and improved isolation procedure for CA3-dendritic spines, most of them still in association with mossy fiber terminals resulting in a 7.5-fold enrichment over nuclei and a 29-fold enrichment over myelin. Additionally, red blood cells, medullated fibers, mitochondria and small synaptosomes were significantly depleted. We show by high resolution electron microscopy that this subcellular fraction contains numerous dendritic spines with a rich ultrastructure, e.g. an intact spine apparatus, membranous organelles, free and membrane-bound polyribosomes, endocytic structures and mitochondria. This improved experimental system will allow us to study aspects of post-synaptic functions at the biochemical and molecular level.  (+info)

Two types of HTLV-1 particles are released from MT-2 cells. (7/7983)

The MT-2 cell line transformed by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) contains one complete provirus and seven defective proviruses. Four defective genomes have an identical structure (LTR-MA-deltaCA-pX-LTR) with an open reading frame that spans from MA to pX, giving rise to a 3.4-kb (24S) RNA transcript encoding a chimeric Gag-pX protein, p28. MT-2 cells release two distinct types of virions. The major "classic" type of particle has a buoyant density of 1.155-1.16 g/cm3 and contains the standard HTLV-I structural proteins and reverse transcriptase (RT). In addition, about 5% of particles are "light," approximately 1.12 g/cm3, and contain p28, RT activity, and the 3.4-kb RNA transcript. RT-PCR and in vitro translation indicate that some of the classic HTLV-1 particles package 3.4-kb RNA as well as full-length 8.5-kb RNA. In addition to matrix features, the p28 protein has a motif resembling a zinc finger at the C-terminal, pX0 region, which may play a role in the assembly of the defective light virions.  (+info)

Subcellular localization of oestrogen-induced uterine peroxidase. (8/7983)

The distribution of oestrogen-induced peroxidase in the resuspended 8000g pellet of rat uterine homogenates was examined by centrifugation in a sucrose density gradient. Within 10h of treatment with oestradiol, peroxidase activity was found in a region devoid of catalase or urate oxidase (peroxisomal markers) which did not overlap the fractions containing succinate dehydrogenase (mitochondrial marker) or acid phosphatase (lysosomal marker). The induced uterine enzyme was localized in reticular membrane-bound vesicles with isopycnic density of 1.28g/ml from which it could be released by treatment with detergent.  (+info)

Video articles in JoVE about centrifugation density gradient include Characterization and Isolation of Mouse Primary Microglia by Density Gradient Centrifugation, DNA Extraction from 0.22 μM Sterivex Filters and Cesium Chloride Density Gradient Centrifugation, Protocol for Isolation of Primary Human Hepatocytes and Corresponding Major Populations of Non-parenchymal Liver Cells, A New Approach for the Comparative Analysis of Multiprotein Complexes Based on 15N Metabolic Labeling and Quantitative Mass Spectrometry, Isolation of Intact Mitochondria from Skeletal Muscle by Differential Centrifugation for High-resolution Respirometry Measurements, Preparation of Liquid-exfoliated Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Nanosheets with Controlled Size and Thickness: A State of the Art Protocol, Isolation of Cellular Lipid Droplets: Two Purification Techniques Starting from Yeast Cells and Human Placentas, Cloning and Large-Scale Production of High-Capacity Adenoviral Vectors Based on the Human
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrocarbon molecular markers as indicators of the Late Cenozoic sedimentation on the Amerasian continental margin (Arctic Ocean). AU - Petrova, V. I.. AU - Batova, G. I.. AU - Kursheva, A. V.. AU - Litvinenko, I. V.. AU - Morgunova, I. P.. PY - 2020/4. Y1 - 2020/4. N2 - The main factors controlling the bulk sedimentation in the region of the Mendeleev Rise and the adjacent part of the Arctic Ocean during the late Cenozoic were studied using a complex of geomorphological, lithological, and organic geochemical data. Samples for the study were collected during the cruises of the R/V Akademik Fedorov in 2000, 2005, and 2007 and icebreaker Kapitan Dranitsyn in 2012. Analysis of the group and molecular compositions of the dispersed organic matter (DOM) in bottom sediments has shown that the input of terrigenous sediments enriched with abrasion products of lithified rocks from the eastern source province determines the Holocene-Pleistocene sedimentation on the continental slope of the ...
An investigation of the distribution of immunoglobulins in the external secretions of the hamster revealed the predominance of γA. Only γA was found in saliva, whereas colostrum and urine both contained γ2 in addition to γA. Hamster γA was present in the serum at concentrations that were insufficient to allow its visualization by routine immunoelectrophoresis. No differences in electrophoretic mobility were found between serum and secretory γA regardless of derivation. The secretory γA from saliva, colostrum and urine had sedimentation characteristics intermediate between serum γA and 19S markers in sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation studies. Similar results were obtained on Sephadex G-200 gel filtration. Isolated secretory γA had an s020,w of 15.2S. Mild reductive procedures did not appear to alter the sedimentation characteristics of this molecule. No antigenic differences were found between serum, salivary, colostral and urinary γA.. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers Sigma-D1556, OptiPrep™ Density Gradient Medium for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
Matthew Meselson, Franklin Stahl, and Jerome Vinograd, developed cesium chloride, or CsCl, density gradient centrifugation in the 1950s at the California Institute of Technology, or Caltech, in Pasadena, California. Density gradient centrifugation enables scientists to separate substances based on size, shape, and density. Meselson and Stahl invented a specific type of density gradient centrifugation, called isopycnic centrifugation that used a solution of cesium chloride to separate DNA molecules based on density alone.. Format: Articles Subject: Technologies ...
Matthew Meselson, Franklin Stahl, and Jerome Vinograd, developed cesium chloride, or CsCl, density gradient centrifugation in the 1950s at the California Institute of Technology, or Caltech, in Pasadena, California. Density gradient centrifugation enables scientists to separate substances based on size, shape, and density. Meselson and Stahl invented a specific type of density gradient centrifugation, called isopycnic centrifugation that used a solution of cesium chloride to separate DNA molecules based on density alone.. Format: Articles Subject: Technologies ...
AXIS-SHIELD Density Gradient Media - Macromolecule indexes - Isolation of cells, cell organelles, subcellular membranes, viruses and macromolecules using centrifugation techniques
mRNAs surrounded by polysomes are ready for translation into proteins (Warner et al., 1963); these mRNAs are defined as polysomal-mRNAs (Mustroph et al., 2009). The process is affected by various growth conditions or surrounding situations. Microarray analysis is a powerful tool for detecting genome-wide gene expression. Therefore, using polysomal-mRNAs for microarray analysis can reflect the gene translation information (the translatome) under different developmental stages or environmental conditions from eukaryotes. Polysomal-mRNAs can be collected from the polysomal fraction by sucrose-gradient separation for further quantitative PCR or microarray assay. We modified a protocol (Mustroph et al., 2009) for collecting polysomal-mRNAs via sucrose-gradient separation to eliminate monosomal-mRNA contamination from pLAT52:HF:RPL18 Arabidopsis. This transgenic Arabidopsis uses a pollen-specific promoter (ProLAT52) to generate epitope-tagged polysomal-RNA complexes that could be purified with a specific
Transcriptional regulation has been the main focus for gene regulation in the past. However, a tremendous amount of evidence from recent studies also indicates that translational regulation plays a key role during development, cell cycle control, and mechanisms related to acute drug resistance. Gene expression analysis on actively translated mRNA transcripts provides a unique approach to study post transcriptional regulation. Previous studies have relied on a traditional sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation procedure to isolate polysome complexes and requires a large amount of cells (up to 500 million cells). As a result, this still remains a major bottleneck for the investigation of post transcriptional regulation with limited quantities of clinical samples. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a novel approach to isolate actively translated polysomes from a small number of cells (10 to 500 cells). The new approach will allow us to systematically study potential translational ...
Blinded analyses of the concentrations of binding proteins for retinol and retinoic acid (CRABP) in homogenates of cancer and normal tissue aliquots obtained from human cervix, endometrium, ovary, breast, and lung were carried out by the sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation technique. In carcinomas of the cervix and endometrium, CRABP mean values of 50.4 and 123.2 pmol/g tissue, respectively, were detected. Such concentrations represent a 3- and 4-fold increase over the mean values of CRABP in the normal cervix (16.9 pmol/g) and normal endometrium (30.8 pmol/g), respectively. In carcinomas of the ovary, the mean CRABP level was 128.6 pmol/g compared to a maximal mean value of ≦0.46 pmol/g in the normal ovary. Elevated levels of CRABP were also found in breast and lung carcinomas compared to the amounts detected in the same patient in normal tissue aliquots of the same organ.. The differences between CRABP concentrations in cervical, endometrial, ovarian, and breast carcinomas and those in ...
Specialized tube for rapid PBMC isolation by density gradient centrifugation. Manufactured under cGMP and can be used for IVD applications.
In order to study the release of ATP from a neuronal preparation thought to be purinergic, isolated varicosities were prepared from myenteric plexus by mincing and homogenizing the longitudinal muscle of guinea pig ileum in 0.32 M sucrose. The presence of varicosities within the crude preparation (P2), isolated by differential centrifugation, was confirmed by electron microscopy and by the presence of occluded lactate dehydrogenase as a cytoplasmic marker. Varicosities were purified further from the P2 fraction on a discontinuous sucrose density gradient and characterized morphologically. Varicosities resembling cholinergic, purinergic, and adrenergic axonal terminals were identified. The release of ATP from both crude and purified varicosities was detected by monitoring the light produced when the released ATP reacted with firefly luciferin-luciferase which was present in the incubation medium. Elevated extracellular K+ or Rb+ caused the release of ATP, whereas elevated Na+ and Li+ did not. ...
Assays detecting antigen (Ag)-specific T-cell responses in immune-mediated processes are increasingly employed to understand disease pathogenesis and immune staging. The quantity and quality of starting peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) preparations are important factors in the performance of such assays. We therefore compared final PBMC yield and function by modifying parameters at the blood drawing, storage and processing steps. While drawing blood in vacuum-driven tubes or syringes and separating PBMCs on density gradients using standard or membrane (Leucosep (R)) tubes made no difference, storing tubes for 18 h without any agitation led to PBMC preparations contaminated with granulocytes and decreased interferon (IFN)-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) responses. Even agitated blood showed a trend towards reduced ELISpot responses and increased human leukocyte Ag (HLA) multimer readouts when stored for 18 h compared to 3 h. These changes were reduced by diluting blood prior to ...
Constitutive secretory vesicles carrying heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) were identified in isolated rat hepatocytes by pulse-chase experiments with [35S]sulfate and purified by velocity-controlled sucrose gradient centrifugation followed by equilibrium density centrifugation in Nycodenz. Using this procedure, the vesicles were separated from plasma membranes, Golgi, trans-Golgi network (TGN), ER, endosomes, lysosomes, transcytotic vesicles, and mitochondria. The diameter of these vesicles was approximately 100-200 nm as determined by electron microscopy. A typical coat structure as described for intra-Golgi transport vesicles or clathrin-coated vesicles could not be seen, and the vesicles were not associated with the coat protein beta-COP. Furthermore, the vesicles appear to represent a low density compartment (1.05-1.06 g/ml). Other constitutively secreted proteins (rat serum albumin, apolipoprotein E, and fibrinogen) could not be detected in purified HSPG-carrying vesicles, but banded in ...
The dynamics of the flow inside an evaporating sessile droplet of water with polystyrene micro-spheres of 1.0 μm in diameter in suspension is described. The initial volume of the droplets is in the ra
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed ...
Cytochrome P-450 in rat liver nuclear membranes of untreated, PB-pretreated, or 3-MC-pretreated animals was spectrally similar to corresponding liver microsomes. Epoxide hydrase activity of liver nuclear membrane and microsomes was induced by PB administration; 3-MC did not cause any induction. The same results were obtained when either the DNase digestion method or sucrose density centrifugation technique for preparation of nuclear membranes was used.. ...
Total CD4+ Th cells from IRF4+/+ or −/− mice were purified using the first steps of the multisort kit (Miltenyi Biotec) as described previously (5). 106/ml of purified Th cells were stimulated in vitro for 72 h with 5 μg/ml of immobilized anti-CD3 mAb, 2.5 μg/ml of soluble anti-CD28 mAb (BD Biosciences), or 100 U/ml of recombinant human IL-2 as described previously (5). After a resting period of 48-72 h in the absence of anti-CD3 mAb, but in the presence of IL-2, viable cells were purified on a Ficoll density gradient and restimulated in the presence of IL-2 either with anti-CD3 (immobilized at 5 μg/ml) or with 1 μg/ml of soluble anti-Fas mAb Jo2 (Becton Dickinson) together with 2 μg/ml of protein G (Sigma-Aldrich). Apoptosis was analyzed by annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) staining as described previously (12) at the indicated times after secondary stimulation. Viable as well as dead cells were included in this analysis according to forward and side scatter characteristics. The role ...
Equilibrium sedimentation uses a gradient of a solution to separate particles based on their individual densities (mass/volume). A pivotal aspect about this type of sedimentation is that it is completely independent of the shape of the molecule. It is used to purify the differential centrifugation. A solution is prepared with the densest portion of the gradient at the bottom. Particles to be separated are then added to the gradient and centrifuged. Each particle proceeds until it reaches an environment of comparable density. Such a density gradient may be continuous or prepared in an incremental fashion. For instance, when using sucrose to prepare density gradients, one can carefully float a solution of 40% sucrose onto a layer of 45% sucrose and add further less dense layers above. The homogenate, prepared in a dilute buffer and centrifuged briefly to remove tissue and unbroken cells, is then layered on top. After centrifugation typically for an hour at about 100,000 x g, disks of cellular ...
We investigated the function of Cav1. 4 MgCl2. The intracellular alternative included (in millimeter focus) 130 beliefs < .05 were considered significant. Outcomes Sucrose-density lean fractionation of protein involved in depolarization-induced insulin release in Inches-1 Cav1 and cells.2/II-III cells The KATP funnel, made up of Kir6.2 and SUR1 subunits, has a central function in the insulin release stimulated by blood sugar and sulfonylureas. The localization was examined by us of Kir6.2, SUR1, and EPAC2 in lipid rafts by fractionating the Triton A100-insoluble part of Cav1 and Inches-1.2/II-III cell lysates in discontinuous sucrose gradients. EPAC2 is normally reported to interact straight with both Piccolo (21) and SUR1 (19), and we discovered that both EPAC2 and SUR1 are extremely focused in lipid number fractions of sucrose gradients (the user interface of 5% and 30% sucrose) in both Inches-1 cells and Cav1.2/II-III cells (Figure 1). We assessed the localization of the KATP funnel subunit ...
We investigated the function of Cav1. 4 MgCl2. The intracellular alternative included (in millimeter focus) 130 beliefs < .05 were considered significant. Outcomes Sucrose-density lean fractionation of protein involved in depolarization-induced insulin release in Inches-1 Cav1 and cells.2/II-III cells The KATP funnel, made up of Kir6.2 and SUR1 subunits, has a central function in the insulin release stimulated by blood sugar and sulfonylureas. The localization was examined by us of Kir6.2, SUR1, and EPAC2 in lipid rafts by fractionating the Triton A100-insoluble part of Cav1 and Inches-1.2/II-III cell lysates in discontinuous sucrose gradients. EPAC2 is normally reported to interact straight with both Piccolo (21) and SUR1 (19), and we discovered that both EPAC2 and SUR1 are extremely focused in lipid number fractions of sucrose gradients (the user interface of 5% and 30% sucrose) in both Inches-1 cells and Cav1.2/II-III cells (Figure 1). We assessed the localization of the KATP funnel subunit ...
Results. Western blot analysis of PKCα and PKCγ translocation. N/N 1003A cells were treated with 200 nM TPA (a conventional PKC activator) for 60 min, 10 ng/ml EGF, or 15 ng/ml bFGF. Confluent cells were taken up in ice cold 50 mM Tris, 20 mM MgCl2, 25 μg/ml aprotinin, and 25 μg/ml leupeptin, pH 7.5 and sonicated. The lysate was spun down for 60 min at 35,000 rpm (100,000x g). Western blot analysis was performed on the pellet that contained plasma membrane and the supernatant that contained cytosolic components.. Upon activation by TPA, PKCα and PKCγ should translocate from the cytosol to the plasma membrane [25]. In order to determine if PKCα and PKCγ translocate to the plasma membrane in N/N 1003A cells upon activation, TPA was added to the cell culture media for 60 min. PKCα did translocate to the membrane (pellet fraction) upon activation of the enzyme by TPA (Figure 1A, lane 2 versus lane 4). PKCγ also translocated to the membrane (pellet fraction, Figure 1B, lane 2 versus lane ...
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The present invention relates to methods of enriching for desired cell population from cell sources, such as body fluids, dispersed tissue specimens and cultured cells. In particular, the present inve
As of today, there are 39 hydrogen fueling stations in the U.S., all but four of them in the state of California. They serve roughly 39 million Californians, whereas 284 million Americans outside the state have no access to hydrogen fuel-cell cars nor stations at which to refill them. Germany, on the other hand, has 83 million residents-and 45...
Sucrose Density Gradient Centrifugation Separation of Gold - Sensor basics: Types, functions and applications Martin Rowe while the application of sensors and their associated algorithms has multiplied and changed the
Gradient Makers, C.B.S. Scientific - Each (10 ML) : Designed for use in sucrose density gradient centrifugation, gradient gel electrophoresis, and li
Sucrose density gradient centrifugation& recover fractions-,SDS-PAGE(10% gel) (GM1 would migrate with the dye front)-,electro-transfer to nitrocellulose (or PVDF) membrane -,blocking with 4% skimmilk for 30min-, incubate with Ctx-HRP in 4% skimmilk for 1h-,wash PBS-Tween x 3times-,Detection with ECL. ...
Thus, if a mixture of minerals with different densities can be placed in a liquid with an intermediate density, the grains with densities less than that of the liquid will float and grains with densities greater than the liquid will sink. Typical mineral densities range from about 2.2 g/cc to as much as 8 g/cc, but are generally between 2.5 and .... ...
Gravity currents impact significantly the environment and humans life. Understanding their internal structure and their dynamics is fundamental for modelling purposes. In this study we observe experimentally how bed porosity affects the dynamics of density currents. We will focus on density and velocity profiles of currents traveling over porous bed, sinking and entraining water from its cavities. This abstract presents the preliminary results of this study which are relative to density currents travelling over the reference substratum, a smooth impermeable bed. The tests presented will be used as a reference to observe how the water entrained from the bottom cavities can change the structure of the current and are herein used to validate the experimental techniques. Brine water is injected at constant discharge in a 7.5 m long, 0.3 m wide and 0.3 m deep flume while instantaneous velocity and density profiles are simultaneously acquired 3 m downstream of the inlet. Initial excess densities and inlet
pluriSelect separation tubes have been developed for optimal separation of leukocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from whole blood and bone marrow. pluriMate and TwinSpin prevents you from time-consuming and laborious overlaying of the sample material. During centrifugation, Leukocytes, lymphocytes and PBMCs are separated from unwanted erythrocytes and granulocytes, depending on the density gradient media ...
Find out all of the information about the Deltalab product: sedimentation analysis microplate 141746. Contact a supplier or the parent company directly to get a quote or to find out a price or your closest point of sale.
try using percol gradient centrifugation. ive forgotten the manufacturer. they do have protocols for separating live/dead cells. you will have to optimize the percol density(s) for your type of cells. you may also have to use more than one density gradient of percol to separate the layers of dead and live cells.good luck. john. ...
Definition for Bimodal Distribution: Distribution is one in which 2 values occur more frequently in data set than rest of the values.
Multiple-well natural gradient tracer tests involve injecting a tracer in an upgradient well and then monitoring downgradient wells for the tracer. ...
Adenovirus are efficient gene delivery systems. The standard method for purification of adenoviral vectors is based on using a cesium chloride (CsCl) density gradient combined with ultracentrifugation. This method is suitable for small-scale purification and is less expensive than column chromatography or commercial purification kits.
Studies on the composition and structure of plant viruses can only be attempted after their purification from infected tissue homogenates. Owing to their intrinsic differences, however, the ease with which different viruses can be purified varies considerably. A few relatively stable viruses, e.g. tobacco mosaic virus or turnip yellow mosaic virus, can be treated with high concentrations of salt and precipitated by acid or alcohol without inactivation. With less stable viruses such methods are usually unsuccessful. The particles of such viruses, however, can be sedimented by ultracentrifugation and procedures developed frequently involve two treatments: (a) differential centrifugation and concentration after initial clarification of buffered homogenates such as with organic solvents (Steere, 1956; Tomlinson, Shepherd & Walker, 1959; Wetter, 1960), (b) further fractionation by rate or equilibrium density gradient centrifugation as developed by Brakke (1960). Because of the small capacity of the
Technetium-99m-Exametazime (HMPAO) is widely used for radiolabelling leucocytes for localization of infection. The subcellular distribution of radionuclide in the labelled cells and the distribution of radioactivity among the leucocyte population are incompletely understood. Frozen section autoradiography was used to determine quantitatively the distribution of Tc-99m in leucocytes labelled with Tc-99m-Exametazime. Sections of rapidly frozen suspensions of labelled leucocytes in plasma were autoradiographed on Ilford K2 emulsion and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Neutrophils, eosinophils and mononuclear cells were separated by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Cell nuclei were isolated by a rapid cell-breakage and fractionation method. In a typical experiment mean grain densities [grains/100 mu m(2) (ESD)] over cells were: eosinophils 31.2 (18.4), neutrophils 3.5 (3.5), mononuclear cells 4.2 (5.1). Mean grain numbers per cell (ESD) were: eosinophils 13 (6.8), neutrophils 1.3 (1.3), ...
The molecular nature and replicative behavior of R factor 222 was examined in Proteus mirabilis . In deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA} from R+ P. mirabilis , R factor 222 was identified by CsCl density gradient centrifugation as 2 satellite DNA bands at densities corresponding to 50 and 58 moles percent guanine plus cytosine (% GC) . Replication of the 50 and 58% GC components of R factor 222 in P. mirabilis was analyzed during growth in the presence and absence of chloramphenicol (CAM} and after shifting exponentialand stationary- phase cells to conditions which inhibit host protein or DNA synthesis . CAM reduced the cellular growth rate but increased the amount of both R factor components relative to host chromosomal DNA . However, the 58% GC component showed a larger proportionate increase. This was inferred to indicate reduced synthesis of an inhibitor that acts on both R factor components and an initiator required for replication of the 50% GC component . Replicative patterns observed after shifting
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
On Wed, 30 Sep 1998, Patrick wrote: , Hi all. , , A request from first-time user of CsCl/EtBr for plant DNA purification: , Upon addition of ethidium bromide to my phenol/chloroform purified , Plant-DNA solution in CsCl, I observe a change of color from normal , orange-red to light cherry red. If I remember correctly this was also the case, when I have purified DNA with CsCl density gradient centrifugation. , Check http://www.biologie.uni-ulm.de/bio2/knoop/images/ethidium.jpg , for visual impression... Unfortunatly my display doesnt show the correct colours. , After centrifugation color accumulated COMPLETELY with a sluggish , material on top of the gradient. Considering the possibility that some , remaining protein/polysaccharides may be responsible for this, I have , taken the remainder of clear solution and repeated the EtBr addition. No , improvement - same color change (even after repeating this for the 4th , time!) , , Anybody ideas what is going on? , I dont know, what is going on, but ...
Abstract: t had been reported that the GCHV(Gtass Carp Hemorrhage Virus)is a new member.in Reoviri-dae and has 11 polypeptides by our laboratory,We did further experiments on the viral polypeptides.The virions(GCHV-875)were purified from the medium of infection culture cells by CsCl density gradient centrifugation,dissolved in the buffer containing Tris-HCl 250mmol/L,glycerin 25%,SDS86mmol/L,2-ME 320mmol/L(pH6.9)and then heated at 100℃for 3 min.After that,by addingan equal volume of FITC solution(2mg/M)in 1 mol/L NaHCO3,the viral polypeptides were labelledwith FITC,and analysed by SDS-PAGE. All the viral structural polypeptides(11 bands),namelyVP130,VP120,VP113,VP107,VP75,VP65,VP60,VP52,VP42,VP39 and VP31,wete visible under. UV light.These polypeptides were retrieved by cutting down each band from the gel and demonstrated kept immunological property.The method can determine 500ng protein band in gel under UVlight.. ...
A simple technique is described for the isolation of Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts from fetal ovine brain by centrifugation on a discontinuous density gradient of 30 per cent and 90 per cent Percoll (colloidal silica solution). Brain samples from 51 aborted ovine fetuses were examined by both the Percoll and mouse inoculation techniques; eight infections were detected by the Percoll technique compared to 12 by mouse inoculation. Possible reasons for this discrepancy and the scope for improving the Percoll technique are discussed.. ...
An analytical ultracentrifluge was used to characterize the behaviors of ultracentrifugal sedimentation of bovine serum albumin solutions. We obtained data both for the sedimentation velocity and for the growth rate of the sediment that accumulates during ultracentrifugation. Effects of the rotor speed, the solution concentration, and the volume of the solution contained in the cell on the sedimentation behaviors were investigated experimentally. The sedimentation behaviors and the properties of the compressible sediment were explained well in terms of the theory which has been applied with respect to particulate suspension. Finally, it was shown that such factors of the solution environment as the solution pH and the salt concentration have a large effect on the sedimentation behaviors.. ...
Mitochondria are essential for the manufacturing of major and secondary metabolites, which largely decide the standard of fruit. Nevertheless, a technique for isolating high-quality mitochondria is at present not out there in citrus fruit, stopping high-throughput characterization of mitochondrial capabilities. Right here, primarily based on differential and discontinuous Percoll density gradient centrifugation, we devised.... ...
Mitochondria are essential for the manufacturing of major and secondary metabolites, which largely decide the standard of fruit. Nevertheless, a technique for isolating high-quality mitochondria is at present not out there in citrus fruit, stopping high-throughput characterization of mitochondrial capabilities. Right here, primarily based on differential and discontinuous Percoll density gradient centrifugation, we devised.... ...
Outer-arm dynein purified from trout spermatozoa was disrupted by low-ionic-strength dialysis, and the resulting subunits were separated by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation. The intact 19 S dynein, containing the alpha- an beta-heavy chains, intermediate chains (ICs) 1-5 and light chains (LCs) 1-6, yielded several discrete particles: a 17.5 S adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) composed of the alpha- and beta-chains ICs 3-5 and LC 1; a 9.5 S complex containing ICs 1 and 2 together with LCs 2, 3, 4, and 6; and a single light chain (LC 5), which sedimented at approximately 4 S. In some experiments, ICs 3-5 also separated from the heavy chain complex and were obtained as a distinct subunit. Further dissociation of the 17.5 S particle yielded a 13.1 S ATPase that contained the beta-heavy chain and ICs 3-5. The polypeptide compositions of the complexes provide new information on the intermolecular associations that occur within dynein. Substructural features of the trout dynein polypeptides also were
Harvest cowpea plants about 2 weeks after inoculation, then homogenize at 4°C in two volumes of 0.5 M citrate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 0.1% thioglycollic acid. Express juice through cheesecloth, and add 20 ml carbon tetrachloride to every 100 ml extract. Shake the extract for 15 min, and clarify by low-speed centrifugation. Concentrate the virus by three cycles of differential centrifugation. Resuspend the pellets from high speed centrifugation in 0.01 M citrate buffer. Purify further by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation (Tsuchizaki et al., 1971).. ...
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Exosomes purification and analyses comprise a fast evolving research area; more than 70% of published research on exosomes has been done within the last six years. Challenges to researchers working with exosomes include setting up density gradients by hand, because it is tedious, time-consuming and subject to user, lab, and method variability.
Previous studies in this laboratory have allowed the formulation of a model for the molecular arrangement of C5, C6, C7, C8, and C9 on the surface of cells undergoing immune cytolysis with an assigned cumulative m.w. of 995,000. To verify directly the existence of a C5-C9 complex, serum samples containing radiolabeled terminal components were activated at 37°C with EA, antigen-antibody complexes, CVF, inulin or zymosan. Subsequent sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation showed that all treatments cited led to the formation, in varying degrees, of rapidly sedimenting material which incorporated C5, C6, C7, C8, and C9, but not C3. The reaction was inhibited by 0.01 M EDTA and 0°C. The complex had a sedimentation coefficient of 22.4S, a diffusion coefficient of 1.98 × 10-7 cm2 sec-1 and thus a calculated m.w. of 1.04 × 106.. ...
Purification of mitochondria and mitochondrial subfractionation. Mitochondria were purified from brain tissue using the discontinuous sucrose gradient method. Briefly, brain homogenate was made in ice-cold homo-buffer (0.32 M sucrose, 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4) and spun at 900 g, 4°C, for 10 minutes. The supernatant was transferred to another clean tube and spun at 10,000 g, 4°C, for 10 minutes. The resultant pellet, enriched for mitochondria, was resuspended in 2 ml homo-buffer, loaded on top of a sucrose gradient (1.2 M, 0.8 M, and 0.32 M sucrose; 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4) and spun at 53,000 g, 4°C, for 2 hours. The white band at the interface between medium (0.8 M) and heavy (1.2 M) solutions was collected as highly purified mitochondria. Mitochondria from cultured cells were isolated using a kit (catalog no. 89874) from Pierce. Mitochondrial subfractionation was carried out as described by Hovius et al. (40). Briefly, purified mitochondria (1 mg) were resuspended in 500 μl ice-cold buffer (10 ...
Cells. The Raji control cell line and the cell lines expressing either DC-SIGN (Raji-DC-SIGN) or L-SIGN (Raji-L-SIGN) were cultured as previously described (4). PBMCs were isolated from buffy coats by standard Ficoll-Hypaque density centrifugation, activated with phytohemagglutinin (3 μg/ml), and cultured in RPMI medium containing 10% FCS, penicillin (100 units/ml), and streptomycin (100 units/ml). On day 3 the cells underwent CD4+ enrichment by incubation with CD8 immunomagnetic beads (Dynal Biotech) and were negatively selected according to the manufacturers instructions and cultured with IL-2 (100 U/ml). DCs for the single-cycle transmission assay were generated from fresh PBMCs with cells layered on a standard Percoll gradient (Amersham Pharmacia). The light fraction with predominantly monocytes was collected, washed, and seeded in 24-well or 6-well culture plates at a density of 5 × 105 cells or 2.5 × 106 per well, respectively. After 60 minutes at 37°C, the adherent cells were ...
Cells. The Raji control cell line and the cell lines expressing either DC-SIGN (Raji-DC-SIGN) or L-SIGN (Raji-L-SIGN) were cultured as previously described (4). PBMCs were isolated from buffy coats by standard Ficoll-Hypaque density centrifugation, activated with phytohemagglutinin (3 μg/ml), and cultured in RPMI medium containing 10% FCS, penicillin (100 units/ml), and streptomycin (100 units/ml). On day 3 the cells underwent CD4+ enrichment by incubation with CD8 immunomagnetic beads (Dynal Biotech) and were negatively selected according to the manufacturers instructions and cultured with IL-2 (100 U/ml). DCs for the single-cycle transmission assay were generated from fresh PBMCs with cells layered on a standard Percoll gradient (Amersham Pharmacia). The light fraction with predominantly monocytes was collected, washed, and seeded in 24-well or 6-well culture plates at a density of 5 × 105 cells or 2.5 × 106 per well, respectively. After 60 minutes at 37°C, the adherent cells were ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
Centrifugation is the use of the centrifugal forces generated in a spinning rotor to separate biological particles, such as cells, viruses, sub‐cellular organelles, macromolecules (principally proteins and nucleic acids) and macromolecular complexes (such as ribonucleoproteins and lipoproteins)
The growth of a mouse leukemia virus in an established mouse cell line was examined after the line became contaminated with an unidentified Mycoplasma species. The contaminated cultures grew well in small plastic cultures dishes, but they could not be propagated in larger roller bottles unless the growth medium was changed frequently. Cells from Mycoplasma-contaminated and Mycoplasma-free cultures were exposed to 3H-labeled uridine for 24 hr. Culture fluids were harvested 2 or 24 hr after labeling and purified by centrifugation through discontinuous sucrose gradients. Considerably less uridine-3H-labeled virus was recovered from supernatant fluids of Mycoplasma-contaminated cultures than from Mycoplasma-free cultures. Equilibrium sedimentation in sucrose gradients of uridine-3H-labeled material from culture supernatants of contaminated cultures produced 3H peaks at buoyant densities of 1.20 to 1.24 and 1.16 to 1.18 g/ml. Virus titers in culture fluids from Mycoplasma-contaminated cultures were ...
The present invention generally encompasses the control of the release rate of agents from a polymeric matrix. This control over the release rate of agents provides for control over, inter alia, the therapeutic, prophylactic, diagnostic, and ameliorative effects that are realized by a patient in need of such treatment. In addition, the control of the release rate of agents also has an effect upon the mechanical integrity of the polymeric matrix, as well as a relationship to a subjects absorption rate of the absorbable polymers.
In the real world rarely a problem can be solved using just a single algorithm, more often a solution is a chain of algorithms where the output of the former i…
제조사  : 영국 Ray-Ran가    격  : 전화문의 [02-3143-2740]       ASTM D1505 & ISO 1183 Method D 에 의해 small solid materials, in various forms, Pellets, Granules, film 등의 밀도를 측정합니다.Using the Gradient Column Method, the Ray-Ran Density Gradient Apparatus can calulate the density of a specimen to 6 decimal places and become the worlds benchmark fore accurate density measurementThe Advanced Auto Density Gradient Apparatus from Ray-Ran has become the world’s benchmark for accurate density measurement of small solid specimens using the column method. Built with operator simplicity in mind, its ease of operation and high accuracy makes it ideal for product development and quality control within production, research and development labs and teaching institutions.Offered as a 3 or 6 column version, the built-in on-board Microprocessor System accurately calculates the specimen’s density to a resolution of 0.001g
Ns by differential centrifugation. B and C. Immunoblot analysis of soluble/ insoluble fractions separated by differential centrifugation. FKIPS DCARD stable
If you have ever been to a community meeting you likely know the word density can be very scary to many people. Density is associated with congestion and parking issues. The word causes images of a high rises and other people who are not really part of the community to pop into the heads of those…
Plasma membrane(PM) protein accounts for a small fraction of total cellular protein in plants but performs a very critical role in plant physiology. Isolation and purification of PM protein from plant tissues have been traditionally done by sucrose density ultracentrifugation and aqueous two-phase partitioning. These methods, while relatively effective, require ultracentrifugation and large amount of starting material. The procedures are usually tedious and time consuming.To overcome the shortcomings, we have developed this PM isolation kit. Plant tissues are first sensitized by buffer A, homogenized, and pass through a specialized filter cartridge that allows homogenates to pass through with a zigzag path. The cell membranes are ruptured into a range of predefined size during the process. Native plasma membranes are separated from a mixture of un-ruptured cells, nuclei, cytosol and organelles by subsequent differential centrifugation and density centrifugation without using ...
I am having trouble isolating mtDNA using CsCl gradients. Is there an easier way to isolate mtDNA? I was wondering if anyone could give me some help! This is becoming a really big problem!!!!! Thank oyu very much, Rodney Earl Pettway Rodney Earl Pettway Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843 Pettway at ppserver.tamu.edu ...
Density marker beads are small colored microspheres of known density that are used for calibrating density gradients and determining density in gradient columns
StraightFrom® Whole Blood MicroBeads for cell isolation directly from whole blood without the need for density gradient centrifugation. - 日本
Find a potocol and data for the isolation of exosomes without density gradient centrifugation and fast screening of isolated exosomes by flow cytometry. | Ireland
JML-135-2007-105-114. This paper contains the results of a new experimental study of the effect of temperature on density, refractive index on mixing and ultrasonic velocity for a number of linear n-alkanes conbined with ethanol. A perusal of deviations between the experimental and calculated derived magnitudes shows that the predictive procedures give a qualitative estimation for the studied mixtures due to their high nonideality.. ...
2014.1-2015.12 Academy of Mathematics & Systems Science Postdoc within the research center NCMIS, working with Prof. Ping Zhang on density patch problem ...
View Notes - ps_2 from CHEMICAL E 20.410j at MIT. DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING Problem Set #2 Problem 1 A key to understanding centrifugation is understanding the equations that describe it. One can
The classical procedure for estimating the approximate size of a protein is by its sedimentation coefficient, determined either using an analytical ultr...
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Carr, Dr Steven M. "CsCl density-gradient centrifugation". www.mun.ca. Retrieved 2017-04-03. Martinez, Lluis. "Magnetic DNA ... With high speed buoyant density ultracentrifugation, a density gradient is created with caesium chloride in water. DNA will go ... to the density that reflects its own, and ethidium bromide is then added to enhance the visuals the nucleic acid band provides ...
Timonen T, Saksela E (1980). "Isolation of human NK cells by density gradient centrifugation". Journal of Immunological Methods ... The demonstration that density gradient-isolated large granular lymphocytes were responsible for human NK activity, made by ... Using discontinuous density centrifugation, and later monoclonal antibodies, natural killing ability was mapped to the subset ...
Forster, Mark; Flenley, John R. (1993). "Pollen purification and fractionation by equilibrium density gradient centrifugation ...
"An analysis of eukaryotic genomes by density gradient centrifugation". Journal of Molecular Biology. 108 (1): 219-235. doi: ... The DNA fragments extracted by the gradient centrifugation were later termed "isochores", which was subsequently defined as " ... uncovered the compositional non-uniformity within vertebrate genomes using thermal melting and density gradient centrifugation ...
OptiPrep™: The ideal density gradient medium, Axis-Shield Density Gradient Media. Accessed on line Nov. 19, 2015. Waite J.A, ... Post centrifugation the supernatant above and the cushion below is removed, leaving a concentrated sperm pellet in the conical ... It is sold under the trade name Visipaque; it is also sold as a density gradient medium under the name OptiPrep. Visipaque is ... 2008;70:704-714 https://web.archive.org/web/20160825063320/http://www.cosmobiousa.com/axis-shield-density-gradient-optiprep. ...
Purification before culturing can be accomplished by CsCl density gradient centrifugation. Renaudin, J; Aullo, P; Vignault, JC ... SpV1 buoyant densities are 1.39 g/cm3 in CsCl and 1.21 g/cm3 in metrizamide. Spiroplasma phages affect members of the genus ...
"Purification of plant mitochondria by isopycnic centrifugation in density gradients of Percoll". Arch Biochem Biophys. (1982) ...
It is also a density gradient medium for the centrifugation of biological particles.[citation needed] Historically metrizamide ...
Isolate the mRNA-ribosome complexes using sucrose gradient density centrifugation or specialized chromatography columns. Phenol ... These sites of slow or paused translation are demonstrated by an increase in ribosome density and these pauses can link ...
Hadjiolov AA, Venkov PV, Tsanev RG (November 1966). "Ribonucleic acids fractionation by density-gradient centrifugation and by ...
Density gradients. In this technique, a tube is filled with layers of liquids of different densities and semen is placed on the ... Then, The tube goes through a centrifugation to filter cell debris and non motile cells. After the centrifugation, healthy ... There are different techniques to perform the capacitation step: simple washing, migration (swim-up), density gradients, and ... "Density gradient capacitation is the most suitable method to improve fertilization and to reduce DNA fragmentation positive ...
"Separation and concentration of living dinoflagellate resting cysts from marine sediments via density-gradient centrifugation ... Another method, rarely used, uses a sucrose gradient. Recent times have brought about the possibility to get molecular ... calibration as annual density proxy and first evidence of pseudo-cryptic speciation". Journal of Quaternary Science. 27 (7): ...
Ycf4 co-fractionates with a protein complex larger than PSI upon sucrose density gradient centrifugation of solubilised ...
Density gradient centrifugation (in a continuous or discontinuous gradient) can concentrate semen samples with low ... comparison with density gradient centrifugation". Human Reproduction. 23 (12): 2646-2651. doi:10.1093/humrep/den330. ISSN 0268- ... which in combination with density gradient centrifugation in single sperm preparation protocols results in spermatozoa with ... "Selection of sperm based on combined density gradient and Zeta method may improve ICSI outcome". Human Reproduction. 24 (10): ...
... by density gradient centrifugation. The tube contains an insert that prevents the mixing of the density gradient medium and ... These immunorosettes pellet when centrifuged over a density gradient medium, leaving untouched target cells at the plasma: ... density gradient medium interface. SepMate is a tube that allows for the isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC ...
... for density gradient centrifugation and for separating mixtures. Common applications of heavy liquids include: Density gradient ... A heavy liquid is a solution or liquid chemical substance with a high density and a relatively low viscosity. Heavy liquids are ... centrifugation Separating mixtures and sink/swim analysis Flotation process Determination of density The classical heavy ... With this relatively new heavy liquid densities up to 3.1 g·cm−3 can be adjusted . Adding parts of pulverulent Tungsten carbide ...
... or other substances on the basis of their density. Isopycnic centrifugation refers to a method wherein a density gradient is ... After this gradient is formed particles move within the gradient to the position having a density matching their own (this is ... Unless there is a flux of mass into or out of a control volume, a process which occurs at a constant density also occurs at a ... It may also be applied to other situations where a continuous medium has smoothly varying density, such as in the case of an ...
Sperm may be washed by density gradient centrifugation or by a "direct swim-up" technique that does not involve centrifugation ... In normal semen samples, centrifugation causes no more DNA damage to spermatozoa than a direct swim-up technique. Washed sperm ...
Such an "equilibrium" centrifugation can allow extensive purification of a given particle. Sucrose gradient centrifugation - a ... Centrifugation is a process that uses centrifugal force to separate mixtures of particles of varying masses or densities ... However, when the proteins are moving through a sucrose gradient, they encounter liquid of increasing density and viscosity. A ... Samples separated by these gradients are referred to as "rate zonal" centrifugations. After separating the protein/particles, ...
These studies utilized the method of density gradient centrifugation that was developed for the test of the semiconservative ...
These nuclei can then be removed using cytochalasin B to disrupt the cytoskeleton and centrifugation in a density gradient to ...
... and density gradient centrifugation. It has significant advantages when compared to zinc chloride solution or the toxic ... density 3.1 g/cm3), SPT is widely used as to produce "heavy liquid" for gravity separation (sink /float analysis) ...
Density gradient centrifugation is also another method for selecting flakes based on lateral size, where a density gradient is ... In the case of sorting MXenes, a sucrose and water density gradient can be used from 10 to 66 w/v %. Using density gradients ... differential centrifugation, and density gradient centrifugation procedures. Post processing methods rely heavily on the as- ... Differential centrifugation, also known as cascading centrifugation, can be used to select flakes based on lateral size by ...
... "density-gradient") centrifugation. It is isostructural with potassium salt. Coordination sphere of one of two types of Cs+ site ...
... and allowed them to be isolated as sealed structures by the combination of differential and density gradient centrifugation. He ... shock he subsequently showed that intact synaptic vesicles of high purity can be isolated by density gradient centrifugation ... an electron-microscopic study of cell fragments derived by homogenization and centrifugation". J Anat. 96 (Pt. 1): 79-88. PMC ...
... and TEM-8 in colorectal carcinoma patients using OncoQuick density gradient centrifugation system". J. Surg. Res. 155 (2): 183- ... 2007). "Relationship between vascular invasion and microvessel density and micrometastasis". World J. Gastroenterol. 13 (46): ...
... coli through sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation. Cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation biosystems are proposed as ... Zhu Z, Kin Tam T, Sun F, You C, Percival Zhang YH (2014). "A high-energy-density sugar biobattery based on a synthetic ... reticulocytes have been lysed in a solution of MgCl2 and had the extract filtered away from the membranes by centrifugation. ...
... anticoagulated blood sample that contains most of the white blood cells and platelets following density gradient centrifugation ... Some refer to the buffy coat when separating cells by Ficoll density gradients. This usage of the expression buffy coat is ... After centrifugation, one can distinguish a layer of clear fluid (the plasma), a layer of red fluid containing most of the red ...
Blevins, B.A., de la Rey, M. and Loskutoff, N.M. (2008) Effect of density gradient centrifugation with trypsin on the ...
Density Gradient CentrifugationEdit. Density gradient centrifugation is considered one of the more efficient methods of ... Density gradient centrifugation can be used both as a separation technique and as a method of measuring the densities of ... which in fact have little to no density gradient.[7]. Differential CentrifugationEdit. Differential Centrifugation is a type of ... They used density gradient centrifugation to determine which isotope or isotopes of nitrogen were present in the DNA after ...
The critical mass for 85% highly enriched uranium is about 50 kilograms (110 lb), which at normal density would be a sphere ... These aerodynamic separation processes depend upon diffusion driven by pressure gradients, as does the gas centrifuge. They in ... gaseous diffusion and gas centrifugation. Both enrichment processes involve the use of uranium hexafluoride and produce ... allow nuclear weapon designs that use less than what would be one bare-sphere critical mass at normal density. The presence of ...
Another applicable technique is cofractionation in sucrose (or other material) gradients using isopycnic centrifugation.[49] ... While this technique does not prove colocalization of a compartment of known density and the protein of interest, it does ...
Timonen T, Saksela E (1980). "Isolation of human NK cells by density gradient centrifugation". Journal of Immunological Methods ... Using discontinuous density centrifugation, and later monoclonal antibodies, natural killing ability was mapped to the subset ... The demonstration that density gradient-isolated large granular lymphocytes were responsible for human NK activity, made by ...
Kit, S. (1961). "Equilibrium sedimentation in density gradients of DNA preparations from animal tissues". J. Mol. Biol. 3 (6): ... "satellite" DNA refers to the early observation that centrifugation of genomic DNA in a test tube separates a prominent layer ... "satellite" DNA refers to the early observation that centrifugation of genomic DNA in a test tube separates a prominent layer ...
Another applicable technique is cofractionation in sucrose (or other material) gradients using isopycnic centrifugation.[45] ... While this technique does not prove colocalization of a compartment of known density and the protein of interest, it does ...
Centrifugation fluids. The high density of the caesium ion makes solutions of caesium chloride, caesium sulfate, and caesium ... 3)) useful in molecular biology for density gradient ultracentrifugation.[85] This technology is used primarily in the ... density, levelling, and thickness gauges.[94] It has also been used in well logging devices for measuring the electron density ... The high density of the caesium formate brine (up to 2.3 g/cm3, or 19.2 pounds per gallon),[73] coupled with the relatively ...
... density-gradient centrifugation.[17][7] ... "A high-energy-density sugar biobattery based on a synthetic ... reticulocytes have been lysed in a solution of MgCl2 and had the extract filtered away from the membranes by centrifugation.[15 ...
The gel mobility is defined as the rate of migration traveled with a voltage gradient of 1V/cm and has units of cm2/sec/V.[7] ... Thus polypeptides after treatment become rod-like structures possessing a uniform charge density, that is same net negative ... including various types of filtration and centrifugation - may be used to separate different cell compartments and organelles ... This gel material can also withstand high voltage gradients, is amenable to various staining and destaining procedures, and can ...
Different types of EVs may be separated based on density[8]:Table 1 (by gradient differential centrifugation), size, or surface ... can be isolated by precise high-speed centrifugation in the density gradient. Using osmotic shock, it is possible temporarily ... Applying ionophores like valinomycin can create electrochemical gradients comparable to the gradients inside living cells. ... Big fragments of the crushed cells can be discarded by low-speed centrifugation and later the fraction of the known origin ( ...
Hinton H & Dobrota N 1978, 'Density gradient centrifugation', in TS Work & E Work (eds), Laboratory techniques in biochemistry ... Solid flerovium should have a face-centered cubic structure and be a rather dense metal, with a density of around 14 g/cm3. ... It should be a very dense metal, with its density of 28.7 g/cm3 surpassing all known stable elements. Roentgenium chemistry is ... Solid copernicium is expected to crystallise in a close-packed body-centred cubic structure and have a density of about 14.7 g/ ...
... s can be purified from plant cells using a combination of differential and gradient centrifugation.[14] Disruption of ... They form stacks of parallel sheets close to the cytoplasmic membrane with a low packing density.[26] The relatively large ... the 10,000 fold proton concentration gradient across the thylakoid membrane is much higher compared to a 10 fold gradient ... In this manner, the light-dependent reactions are coupled to the synthesis of ATP via the proton gradient.[citation needed] ...
... centrifugation, and vibration.[21] Centrifugation recreates Earth's gravitational force on the space station, in order to ... In a micro-g environment, with the loss of a hydrostatic gradient, some fluid quickly redistributes toward the chest and upper ... decreased bone mineral density, and increased fracture risks. Bone resorption leads to increased urinary levels of calcium, ... Centrifugation can be performed with centrifuges or by cycling along the inner wall of the space station.[20] Whole body ...
... is using a glycerol/mannitol density step gradient, which is fast and simple. This allows for transformation through ... "Preparation of highly efficient electrocompetent Escherichia coli using glycerol/mannitol density step centrifugation". ...
This increased pressure gradient means high driving force for filtration, so does much efficient filtration. Moreover filtrate ... A centrifuge follows on the principle of centrifugal force to separate solids from liquids by density difference. High rotation ... BEA Westfalia separator Group, 2013, Chamber Bowl separator Berk, Z. (2013). Centrifugation. Food Process Engineering and ... Peeler centrifuge operates on the principle of centrifugal force to separate solids from liquids by density difference. And ...
... ρ is the density of the fluid, μ is the dynamic viscosity, ∇ is the gradient operator, and ∇2 is the Laplace operator. The ... centrifugation or ultracentrifugation of suspensions, colloids, and blood through isolation of tumors and antigens. The fluid ... A vessel of diameter of 10 µm with a flow of 1 millimetre/second, viscosity of 0.02 poise for blood, density of 1 g/cm3 and a ... The liquid is modeled as an incompressible fluid (i.e. with constant density), and being stationary means that its velocity ...
... is the density gradient of the wetting phase Γ n w {\displaystyle \Gamma _{nw}} is the density gradient of the non-wetting ... During the centrifugation process, a given amount of brine is expelled from the plug at certain centrifugal rates of rotation. ... density gradient difference) x (cross-sectional area) x (height of the capillary rise in the tube)}}} These forces can be ... density gradient difference) x (cross-sectional area) x (height of the capillary rise in the tube) {\displaystyle {\text{force ...
Density gradient centrifugation is known to be one of the most efficient methods for separating suspended particles, and is ... They used density gradient centrifugation to determine which isotope or isotopes of nitrogen were present in the DNA after ... Over a long or fast centrifugation, particles travel to locations in the gradient where the density of the medium is the same ... "Centrifugation Separations". Sigma-Aldrich. Retrieved 23 November 2020. Brakke, Myron K. (April 1951). "Density Gradient ...
... that uses cycloheximide to arrest translation and a sucrose gradient to separate the resulting cell extract by centrifugation. ... to cultured cells and tissues to track the translational status of an identified mRNA as well as measure ribosome density. This ... Several peaks corresponding to mRNA are revealed by the measurement of total protein across the gradient. The corresponding ... The presence of mRNA across the gradient reveals the translation of the mRNA. Polysomal profiling is optimally applied ...
Centripetal and diffusive forces establish a density gradient that allow separation of mixtures on the basis of their molecular ... H2 Caesium chloride is widely used in centrifugation in a technique known as isopycnic centrifugation. ... This technique allows separation of DNA of different densities (e.g. DNA fragments with differing A-T or G-C content). This ... For teletherapy sources, however, the radioactive density (Ci in a given volume) needs to be very high, which is not possible ...
In contrast, the density gradient centrifugation is usually performed with just one centrifugation speed. Buoyant density ... Differential centrifugation, on the other hand, does not utilize a density gradient, and the centrifugation is taken in ... but more fine grained purifications may be done on the basis of density through equilibrium density-gradient centrifugation. ... a more specialized equilibrium density-gradient centrifugation produces a separation profile dependent on particle-density ...
The supernatant is discarded and the ion exchange chromatography can be carried out, with a linear gradient of 100mM (Na+) and ... "Density functional treatment of interactions and chemical reactions at surfaces". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2018-10-20. Deeb ZL, ... Chymopapain precipitates and can be retrieved through another centrifugation, again at 11000g for 30min. ...
50 amino acids were expressed from vaccinia recombinants and purified by immunoaffinity chromatography and sucrose gradient ... Centrifugation, Density Gradient * Humans * Microscopy, Electron * Protein Conformation * Respiratory Syncytial Viruses* * ... were expressed from vaccinia recombinants and purified by immunoaffinity chromatography and sucrose gradient centrifugation. ...
Separation of Penaeus vannamei haemocyte subpopulations by iodixanol density gradient centrifugation João José Pereira Dantas ...
This virus has NOT been Purified (with Filtration and Density Gradient Centrifugation), and has NOT been Identified (a ... Wondering if 5G + population density are factors like they are with those with EMF sensitivity. ...
The GFP-positive bodies were purified by a combination of differential and density gradient centrifugation and their protein ... The GFP-positive bodies were purified by a combination of differential and density gradient centrifugation and their protein ...
... ultracentrifugation or density gradient centrifugations). For details, see the kit data sheet. ...
For harvesting and nuclear export restrictions, and density gradient centrifugation. Talon is somewhat important to turn red. ... stockpiling its members are a qualified rna extraction methods involving density gradient centrifugation. ... Bc mefs continued through bold, which was hospitalized at many communities about two centrifugation steps involved with ...
PBMCs were isolated by FicollCPaque density-gradient centrifugation (Eurobio, Courtaboeuf, France). Remaining reddish cells and ... platelets were eliminated having a hypotonic remedy and centrifugation. When indicated, PBMCs were freezing in DMSO:FCS 1:9. ...
Centrifugation (AB3.4.3) 1. Preparation of gradient sucrose density for centrifugation medium The gradient density has to ... Chapter 3 Centrifugation. Under centrifugal force, the particles will begin sedimenting through the gradient in separate zones ... Separation by Centrifugation - GeeksforGeeks. 19.07.2021 · Centrifugation is a mechanical technique for separation which ... To allow density based separations, a centrifugal field is applied by either a mechanical action or by accelerating the ...
... density gradient centrifugation. Enriched-mononuclear cells were collected from the interphase. BM cells were flushed out from ...
Current methods reaching from density gradient centrifugation to size-exclusion chromatography are often carried out in a ... The acoustic field generated by these IDT pairs is driving a pressure gradient in the microchannel fluid by which cells can be ... density, shape or compressibility. The layout design was verified by measuring the SAW amplitude distribution in the open ...
... by density gradient centrifugation. CD14+ cells were prepared from isolated mononuclear cells by positive selection using CD14+ ... by density gradient centrifugation. CD14+ cells were prepared from isolated mononuclear cells by positive selection using CD14+ ...
062 healthy adult donors were isolated using density gradient centrifugation with Ficoll-Paque (GE Healthcare). To generate ...
... density gradient centrifugation (30 min at 3200 x g at 4 °C) was used to separate the different cellular fractions. The turbid ... Following centrifugation, the cell pellets were either lysed in Trizol at room temperature for 15 min and stored at − 80 °C ... fraction containing NSCs (second fraction with lowest density) was collected and washed in complete DMEM (Gibco, Life ...
... of Density Enrichment Fraction of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Stromal Vascular Fraction by Gradient Centrifugation Method. ...
... were prepared from peripheral blood of normal adult donors by centrifugation on a Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient. CD8+ T cells ... CFSE-labelled CD8+ T cells at a density of 2 105 cells/well were co-cultured with allogeneic BMSCs at a CD8 : BMSC ratio of 1 1 ... After centrifugation, the collected cells were resuspended in RPMI-1640 medium (HyClone) that was supplemented with 10% FBS ( ... at a density of 1 1 105 cells per well) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) (5 g/ml) were added at different CD8/BMSC ratios. After 5 ...
For these experiments, DNA rings were isolated from phage-infected cells by CsCl-ethidium bromide equilibrium density gradient ... centrifugation and prepared for electron-microscopic examination by a modification of the Kleinschmidt technique. DNA rings ... DNA rings were isolated from phage-infected cells by CsCl-ethidium bromide equilibrium density gradient centrifugation and ...
... had been isolated in a way of density-gradient parting concepts using Ficoll-Paque? In addition (GE Health care, Uppsala, ... Membrane fractionation was then carried out at 4?C by sequential centrifugations. Three centrifugations were performed: 500 g ... Cells had been pelleted by centrifugation at 1500?rpm for 5?min in 4?C and suspended in PBS containing 2% FBS. To isolate ... Leukocytes from urine examples had been from the user interface between two Percoll levels after centrifugation at 1800?rpm, 4C ...
Sucrose Density Gradient Centrifugation * ChIP-seq * Recombinant Protein Expression * TRAP Assay * High-Throughput Sequencing ...
caesium chloride density gradient centrifugation * drying moringa leaves in the oven * lamb chops dry rub in oven ...
Animals , Humans , Mice , Kinesins/metabolism , Protein Biosynthesis , Cell Line , Centrifugation, Density Gradient , Gene ...
... density gradient centrifugation. TKIs and efflux transporter inhibitors Imatinib mesylate (Glivec?) and nilotinib (Tasigna?) ... We combined stable isotopic labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) with an established density gradient separation ... The cells were collected by centrifugation and suspended in PBS buffer (pH 7.4), and then applied to extract the enzyme by ... autophagosome-enriched samples as opposed to proteins that simply co-migrate with these vesicles during gradient centrifugation ...
Currently, exosomes are isolated by differential ultracentrifugation, density gradients or cushions [15], size exclusion [16] ... Also, several centrifugation steps are labour intensive, require costly equipment, increase risk for loss of exosomes and does ... 2012) Comparison of ultracentrifugation, density gradient separation, and immunoaffinity capture methods for isolating human ... Jurkat cells (ATCC) were seeded at a density of 0.4 x 106 cells per mL in fresh RPMI medium and grown for 3 days before harvest ...
... density, medium viscosity, and rotor speed. This instrument is used and based on centrifugal forces. With the help of an ... The solution then generates a density gradient, and the sample components occupy the density gradient places that correspond to ... The gradient mediums density must be higher than that of the particles to be separated. No matter how long the centrifugation ... ISOPYCNIC CENTRIFUGATION Particles are separated based on their density in isopycnic separation. It is also known as buoyant or ...
... developed the density gradient centrifugation experiment and successfully separated the isotope N15-labeled DNA from the N14 ... would make the old ribosomes heavier than the new ribosomes and therefore distinguishable by density gradient centrifugation. ... He walked there because the elevator would shake the tubes, destroying the gradient he had worked so hard to create. In the end ...
... or stable COS-1 cells and further provide an easily adaptable antigen purification method by sucrose gradient centrifugation. ... Measure the optical density at absorbance 450 nm using a microplate reader. ... B. For sucrose gradient centrifugation, a sucrose gradient is manually prepared in an SW41 rotor tube (14 x 89 mm) by carefully ... Keywords: Dengue virus (DENV), Virus-like particle (VLP), COS-1 cell, VLP purification, Sucrose gradient centrifugation ...
... by centrifugation over a Ficoll-Paque PLUS (Amersham) gradient. Autologous plasma was collected, heat inactivated (56C, 30 ... Cells were seeded at assay-dependent densities (1C1.5 x 106 cells/ml) in. ...
Example: Centrifugation Scale-up. You are trying to separate a cell of radius 0.4 m with a density of 1.05 g/cm3 from broth of ... External Field/Gradient Separation. These separations use external force fields or temperature gradients to separate responsive ... is the particle density, is the fluid density, and is the fluid viscosity. The volumetric flow can be estimated by ... is the density of the liquid stream, and is the density of the vapor stream. ...
F) Density of Ncad-mEos2 domains at the growth cone periphery in control and Vangl2 cKO neurons. n = 16-20 neurons. (G) ... 1992) Forces of a single-beam gradient laser trap on a dielectric sphere in the ray optics regime Biophysical Journal 61:569- ... a 1 hr centrifugation at 100.000 x g was performed on the lysate, then the pellet was re-suspended in a volume equivalent to ... Ncad-mEos2 diffusion and domain density are altered in the absence of Vangl2.. (A) Upper panel: on the left, representative ...
It violates centrifugation to learn another ultracentrifugation of bodies to our vapors of Orson Welles. In this isolated ebook ... Of stationary removal in the cholesterol of the mobile gradients has one of the larger and less low HDL slaves that is previous ... In detail, site appears rendered to put the smaller ratios along with Deplorable through the good very-low-density. Since its ... Henry Jaglom has reducing like any gradient would with specimen and diffusing particles in recommended samples, and this was ...
The cell survival was evaluated using the MTT assay (42). In short, the cells were seeded at a density of 1 × 104 cells/well in ... The processed samples were injected onto a Hyperil Gold column (100 × 2.1 mm, 1.9 µm) using a 16-min linear gradient at a flow ... the biomass was discarded by centrifugation at 10000 g for 20 min while the supernatant was harvested and extracted three times ... The EtOAc extract was prepared in ten concentration gradients of 10-100 ug/mL for antimicrobial activity assays by the agar ...
  • Full-length fusion (F) glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and a truncated anchorless mutant lacking the C-terminal 50 amino acids were expressed from vaccinia recombinants and purified by immunoaffinity chromatography and sucrose gradient centrifugation. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we describe a robust protocol for producing DENV VLPs from transiently-transformed or stable COS-1 cells and further provide an easily adaptable antigen purification method by sucrose gradient centrifugation. (bio-protocol.org)
  • The GFP-positive bodies were purified by a combination of differential and density gradient centrifugation and their protein content determined by MS/MS sequencing. (inserm.fr)
  • The established standard for exosome isolation is differential ultracentrifugation a method which cannot discriminate between exosome subpopulations or other particles with similar size and density. (itmedicalteam.pl)
  • Differential centrifugation techniques are used to separate particles of the same size based on their differences in density, whereas differential centrifugation techniques are used to separate particles of the same density. (forensicfield.blog)
  • Brain cells isolated from enzymatic or mechanical procedures were washed and subjected to discontinuous 70/30% Percoll (GE Healthcare) density gradient centrifugation. (og-l002.com)
  • Leukocytes from urine examples had been from the user interface between two Percoll levels after centrifugation at 1800?rpm, 4C for 25?min. (bio-aromatica.com)
  • PBMCs were isolated by FicollCPaque density-gradient centrifugation (Eurobio, Courtaboeuf, France). (nutlin-3.com)
  • 19.07.2021 · Centrifugation is a mechanical technique for separation which involves the usage of the centrifugal force to separate particles contained in a solution. (mikbeton.pl)
  • For these experiments, DNA rings were isolated from phage-infected cells by CsCl-ethidium bromide equilibrium density gradient centrifugation and prepared for electron-microscopic examination by a modification of the Kleinschmidt technique. (unm.edu)
  • A centrifuge is a device that separates particles from a solution based on their size, shape, density, medium viscosity, and rotor speed. (forensicfield.blog)
  • First, the cells and particles are focused in the first stage and then separated from each other in the second stage due to different in size, density, shape or compressibility. (polytec.com)
  • Particles with a higher density than the solvent sink [sediment] in a solution, while those with a lower density float to the top. (forensicfield.blog)
  • The particles stay constant if there is no difference in density [isopycnic circumstances]. (forensicfield.blog)
  • Gravity can be replaced by the far more powerful 'centrifugal force' generated by the centrifuge to take advantage of even slight changes in density to separate various particles in a solution. (forensicfield.blog)
  • Because the first centrifugation does not produce a pure pellet, the pellet portion must be centrifuged again to obtain a pure pellet. (forensicfield.blog)
  • When centrifuged over a density medium the unwanted cells pellet along with the RBCs. (pluriselect.com)
  • The components of a mixture are separated using this procedure based on their size, shape, and density. (forensicfield.blog)
  • Remaining reddish cells and platelets were eliminated having a hypotonic remedy and centrifugation. (nutlin-3.com)
  • The acoustic field generated by these IDT pairs is driving a pressure gradient in the microchannel fluid by which cells can be influenced based on their intrinsic properties. (polytec.com)
  • Isolation of Density Enrichment Fraction of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Stromal Vascular Fraction by Gradient Centrifugation Method. (e-enm.org)
  • Isolation and culture of human CD8+ T cells Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) were prepared from peripheral blood of normal adult donors by centrifugation on a Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient. (dir2013.org)
  • After centrifugation, the collected cells were resuspended in RPMI-1640 medium (HyClone) that was supplemented with 10% FBS (HyClone) and incubated at 37C for another 10 min and then washed with PBS. (dir2013.org)
  • Co-culture experiments were performed in the following manner: BMSCs were plated into a 96-well and V-bottomed microtitre plates which contained RPMI-1640 (HyClone) and 10% FBS (HyClone) for 2 h before the CFSE-labelled allogeneic CD8+ T cells (at a density of 1 1 105 cells per well) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) (5 g/ml) were added at different CD8/BMSC ratios. (dir2013.org)
  • CFSE-labelled CD8+ T cells at a density of 2 105 cells/well were co-cultured with allogeneic BMSCs at a CD8 : BMSC ratio of 1 1:1 and 5:1 in the presence of PHA (5 g/ml), whereas allogeneic BMSCs were placed in the inner Transwell chamber. (dir2013.org)
  • The purified NK cells are present as a highly enriched population at the interface between the plasma and the density medium. (pluriselect.com)
  • Current methods reaching from density gradient centrifugation to size-exclusion chromatography are often carried out in a stepwise procedure combining different techniques. (polytec.com)
  • The RNA intermediate experiment could use this approach to label bacterial ribosomes with isotopes before phage infection and resuspended in the medium without isotopes right after infection, which would make the old ribosomes heavier than the new ribosomes and therefore distinguishable by density gradient centrifugation. (ucdavis.edu)