Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A technique used to separate particles according to their densities in a continuous density gradient. The sample is usually mixed with a solution of known gradient materials and subjected to centrifugation. Each particle sediments to the position at which the gradient density is equal to its own. The range of the density gradient is usually greater than that of the sample particles. It is used in purifying biological materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, organelles, and cell types.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
A solute for density gradient centrifugation offering higher maximum solution density without the problems of increased viscosity. It is also used as a resorbable, non-ionic contrast medium.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Condition wherein the force of gravity is greater than or is increased above that on the surface of the earth. This is expressed as being greater than 1 g.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Triiodo-substituted derivatives of BENZOIC ACID.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.
Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The application of high intensity ultrasound to liquids.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC 1.7.3.3.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.
The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is widely distributed in TICKS and various mammals throughout the world. Infection with this genus is particularly prevalent in CATTLE; SHEEP; and GOATS.
Techniques used in microbiology.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Extracellular vesicles generated by the shedding of CELL MEMBRANE blebs.
Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)
The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
A sucrose polymer of high molecular weight.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE whose species cause a variety of diseases in vertebrates including humans, mice, and swine. Chlamydia species are gram-negative and produce glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.

Nuclear chromatin variations in human spermatozoa undergoing swim-up and cryopreservation evaluated by the flow cytometric sperm chromatin structure assay. (1/1626)

The sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) is a flow cytometric (FCM) technique which exploits the metachromatic properties of Acridine Orange to monitor the susceptibility of sperm chromatin DNA to in-situ acid denaturation. SCSA was used to study the chromatin structure variations of human spermatozoa in semen, both before and after swim-up and after cryopreservation. Semen samples were provided by 19 healthy normozoospermic subjects attending pre-marriage checks. Each sample was divided into three aliquots: the first aliquot was evaluated without further treatment, the second underwent swim-up, and the third was stored according to standard cryopreservation techniques in liquid nitrogen at -196 degrees C. Samples were also analysed by light and fluorescence microscopy (after Acridine Orange staining to evaluate the number of green fluorescent sperm heads), and by computer-assisted semen analysis. The results showed that post-rise spermatozoa represent a subpopulation characterized by a general improvement of the morphological (reduction of the percentage of abnormal forms and heads, increase of the green head sperm percentage) and kinetic parameters. This subpopulation also exhibited improved chromatin structure properties, confirming that these cells have the best structural and functional characteristics, indicative of optimal fertilizing ability. On the other hand, overall sperm quality deteriorates after cryopreservation. When thawed spermatozoa underwent an additional swim-up round, a general improvement of nuclear maturity was seen in the post-rise spermatozoa.  (+info)

Mechanically induced c-fos expression is mediated by cAMP in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. (2/1626)

In serum-deprived MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, mechanical stimulation caused by mild (287 x g) centrifugation induced a 10-fold increase in mRNA levels of the proto-oncogene, c-fos. Induction of c-fos was abolished by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor H-89, suggesting that the transient c-fos mRNA increase is mediated by cAMP. Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity by chronic TPA treatment failed to significantly reduce c-fos induction, suggesting that TPA-sensitive isoforms of PKC are not responsible for c-fos up-regulation. In addition, 287 x g centrifugation increased intracellular prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels 2.8-fold (P<0. 005). Since we have previously shown that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) can induce c-fos expression via a cAMP-mediated mechanism, we asked whether the increase in c-fos mRNA was due to centrifugation-induced PGE2 release. Pretreatment with the cyclooxygenase inhibitors indomethacin and flurbiprofen did not hinder the early induction of c-fos by mechanical stimulation. We conclude that c-fos expression induced by mild mechanical loading is dependent primarily on cAMP, not PKC, and initial induction of c-fos is not necessarily dependent on the action of newly synthesized PGE2.  (+info)

A novel strategy for the preparation of liposomes: rapid solvent exchange. (3/1626)

During the preparation of multi-component model membranes, a primary consideration is that compositional homogeneity should prevail throughout the suspension. Some conventional sample preparation methods pass the lipid mixture through an intermediary, solvent-free state. This is an ordered, solid state and may favor the demixing of membrane components. A new preparative method has been developed which is specifically designed to avoid this intermediary state. This novel strategy is called rapid solvent exchange (RSE) and entails the direct transfer of lipid mixtures between organic solvent and aqueous buffer. RSE liposomes require no more than a minute to prepare and manifest considerable entrapment volumes with a high fraction of external surface area. In phospholipid/cholesterol mixtures of high cholesterol content, suspensions prepared by more conventional methods reveal evidence of artifactual demixing, whereas samples prepared by rapid solvent exchange do not. The principles which may lead to artifactual demixing during conventional sample preparation are discussed.  (+info)

Chromosome-membrane association in Bacillus subtilis. IV. Further purification of DNA-membrane complex by using a combination of centrifugation and electrophoresis. (4/1626)

We have developed a simple procedure to purify a DNA-membrane complex from Bacillus subtilis by using a combination of centrifugation and electrophoresis. Several unique proteins were detected in the purified complex.  (+info)

Vasopressin regulates apical targeting of aquaporin-2 but not of UT1 urea transporter in renal collecting duct. (5/1626)

In the renal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD), vasopressin regulates two key transporters, namely aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and the vasopressin-regulated urea transporter (VRUT). Both are present in intracellular vesicles as well as the apical plasma membrane. Short-term regulation of AQP2 has been demonstrated to occur by vasopressin-induced trafficking of AQP2-containing vesicles to the apical plasma membrane. Here, we have carried out studies to determine whether short-term regulation of VRUT occurs by a similar process. Cell surface labeling with NHS-LC-biotin in rat IMCD suspensions revealed that vasopressin causes a dose-dependent increase in the amount of AQP2 labeled at the cell surface, whereas VRUT labeled at the cell surface did not increase in response to vasopressin. Immunoperoxidase labeling of inner medullary thin sections from Brattleboro rats treated with 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) for 20 min revealed dramatic translocation of AQP2 to the apical region of the cell, with no change in the cellular distribution of VRUT. In addition, differential centrifugation of inner medullary homogenates from Brattleboro rats treated with DDAVP for 60 min revealed a marked depletion of AQP2 from the low-density membrane fraction (enriched in intracellular vesicles) but did not alter the quantity of VRUT in this fraction. Finally, AQP2-containing vesicles immunoisolated from a low-density membrane fraction from renal inner medulla did not contain immunoreactive VRUT. Thus vasopressin-mediated regulation of AQP2, but not of VRUT, depends on regulated vesicular trafficking to the plasma membrane.  (+info)

Evidence that the co-chaperone p23 regulates ligand responsiveness of the dioxin (Aryl hydrocarbon) receptor. (6/1626)

The dioxin (aryl hydrocarbon) receptor is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that induces expression of a number of genes encoding drug metabolizing enzymes. In the absence of ligand the dioxin receptor is present in the cytoplasmic compartment of the cell associated with the molecular chaperone hsp90, which has been implicated in regulating the correct folding of the ligand binding domain of the receptor. In this study we have examined a potential role of the hsp90-associated p23 protein in the activation process of the dioxin receptor to a DNA binding form. In an in vitro model we show that addition of ligand alone to the dioxin receptor fails to induce release of hsp90 from the dioxin receptor. In the presence of ligand, this release was, however, induced upon addition of purified preparations of Arnt. Interestingly, p23 was also found to be associated with the nonactivated form of the dioxin receptor. Following fractionation on sucrose gradients p23 was dissociated from the receptor-hsp90 complex generating a receptor form, which showed ligand-independent release of hsp90 by Arnt and, consequently, ligand-independent activation of the DNA binding activity of the dioxin receptor. Ligand dependence was reconstituted in the presence of molybdate, a transition metal ion known to stabilize the interaction between the molecular chaperone hsp90 and p23. Taken together these experiments suggest a role of p23 in modulating ligand responsiveness in the activation process of the dioxin receptor.  (+info)

Visualizing ion relaxation in the transport of short DNA fragments. (7/1626)

Ion relaxation plays an important role in a wide range of phenomena involving the transport of charged biomolecules. Ion relaxation is responsible for reducing sedimentation and diffusion constants, reducing electrophoretic mobilities, increasing intrinsic viscosities, and, for biomolecules that lack a permanent electric dipole moment, provides a mechanism for orienting them in an external electric field. Recently, a numerical boundary element method was developed to solve the coupled Navier-Stokes, Poisson, and ion transport equations for a polyion modeled as a rigid body of arbitrary size, shape, and charge distribution. This method has subsequently been used to compute the electrophoretic mobilities and intrinsic viscosities of a number of model proteins and DNA fragments. The primary purpose of the present work is to examine the effect of ion relaxation on the ion density and fluid velocity fields around short DNA fragments (20 and 40 bp). Contour density as well as vector field diagrams of the various scalar and vector fields are presented and discussed at monovalent salt concentrations of 0.03 and 0.11 M. In addition, the net charge current fluxes in the vicinity of the DNA fragments at low and high salt concentrations are briefly examined and discussed.  (+info)

Characterization of Fus3 localization: active Fus3 localizes in complexes of varying size and specific activity. (8/1626)

The MAP kinase Fus3 regulates many different signal transduction outputs that govern the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid cells to mate. Here we characterize Fus3 localization and association with other proteins. By indirect immunofluorescence, Fus3 localizes in punctate spots throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus, with slightly enhanced nuclear localization after pheromone stimulation. This broad distribution is consistent with the critical role Fus3 plays in mating and contrasts that of Kss1, which concentrates in the nucleus and is not required for mating. The majority of Fus3 is soluble and not bound to any one protein; however, a fraction is stably bound to two proteins of approximately 60 and approximately 70 kDa. Based on fractionation and gradient density centrifugation properties, Fus3 exists in a number of complexes, with its activity critically dependent upon association with other proteins. In the presence of alpha factor, nearly all of the active Fus3 localizes in complexes of varying size and specific activity, whereas monomeric Fus3 has little activity. Fus3 has highest specific activity within a 350- to 500-kDa complex previously shown to contain Ste5, Ste11, and Ste7. Ste5 is required for Fus3 to exist in this complex. Upon alpha factor withdrawal, a pool of Fus3 retains activity for more than one cell cycle. Collectively, these results support Ste5's role as a tether and suggest that association of Fus3 in complexes in the presence of pheromone may prevent inactivation in addition to enhancing activation.  (+info)

Paper microfluidic devices allow passive transport of fluids through capillary force, and carry intrinsic advantages such as low-cost, flexible, and simple fabrication and easiness to store, transport, and dispose. Liquid transport in paper depends on the structure and material of the pre-manufactured paper, and controlling the flow in a continuous and active manner appears rather difficult. This paper presents a novel concept for active control of the flow in paper using a centrifugal force by integrating a paper strip into a disc-shaped centrifugal microfluidic platform and rotating it with various spin speeds. The flow in the paper under different strength of the centrifugal force is characterized. The paper demonstrates the ability to control the flow rate in a programmable manner as well as reverse the flow direction. ...
F3088-14 Standard Test Method for Use of a Centrifugation Method to Quantify/Study Cell-Material Adhesive Interactions cell adhesion~ cell-to-material interaction~
Cytomegalovirus infection remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in marrow transplant recipients. Results of a rapid centrifugation viral culture of bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from 33 marrow transplant recipients with pneumonia were compared with those for conventional viral culture of concurrently or subsequently obtained lung tissue. The centrifugation culture results were also compared to results of cytologic and immunochemical examination of these specimens. Centrifugation culture was positive within 16 hours of inoculation in 22 of 23 (96%) specimens from patients with positive conventional culture of lung tissue. Detection of cells positive for cytomegalovirus by immunofluorescent antibody staining or cytologic identification was less sensitive (59% and 29%, respectively). There was no evidence of cytomegalovirus in specimens from patients without evidence of cytomegalovirus pulmonary infection by any technique. The sensitivity (96%) and specificity (100%) of centrifugation ...
A prototype CFSM will be further developed to facilitate single-molecule manipulation. A sealed gasket encloses the sample chamber, which will be mounted on a spinning compact disk (see figure). A ds-DNA library, containing important transcription initiation and termination sequences, will be spotted on the lower surface of the sample chamber using DNA microarray technology. Each ds-DNA, prepared with biotin at its distal end, will bind a strepavidin-coated fluorescent microsphere. The centrifugal force will push (when viewed in a rotating frame of reference) these microspheres radially and so cause the attached ds-DNA to stretch. The laser on a modified compact disk player will be used to track the bead displacement. The centrifugal force on each microsphere can be calculated based on their size, density and radial velocity. The centrifugal force plotted against microsphere displacement will provide information about the physical properties (persistence length, overstretching transition, etc) ...
Medical Low Speed Centrifuge, centrifuge, Find details about China (mainland) Medical Low Speed Centrifuge, centrifuge, centrifuge, from Centrifuges suppliers and Centrifuges manufacturers provide by Jiangsu Zhengji Instruments Co.,Ltd.
TY - GEN. T1 - Magnetic assistance for suppressing cross-reactions between biomolecules in immunoassay. AU - Hong, Chin Yih. AU - Yang, Shieh Yueh. AU - Horng, Herng Er. AU - Yang, Hong Chang. PY - 2010/12/1. Y1 - 2010/12/1. N2 - A method involving the use of magnetic nanoparticles to suppress the cross-reactions in immunoassay is developed. Antibodies are coated onto magnetic nanoparticles. These antibodies bind with target and non-target molecules. Once an alternative-current magnetic field is applied, magnetic nanoparticles oscillate with the magnetic field. The target and non-target molecules attached onto magnetic nanoparticles via antibodies experience a centrifugal force, which is against the association between antibodies and target/non-target molecules. Theoretically, the centrifugal force is proportional to the square of the frequency of the applied magnetic field. Thus, the strength of the centrifugal force can be manipulated by changing the frequency of the applied magnetic field. By ...
Thus, we see that the centripetal force acting on a body is always provided by some other type of force -- centripetal force, thus, is simply a name to indicate the force that provides this circular motion. This centripetal force is always acting inward toward the center. You will know this if you swing an object in a circular motion. If you notice carefully, you will see that you have to continuously pull inward. We know that an opposite force should exist for this centripetal force(by Newtons 3rd Law of Motion). This is the centrifugal force, which exists only if we study the body from a non-inertial frame of reference(an accelerating frame of reference, such as in circular motion). This is a so-called pseudo-force, which is used to make the Newtons law applicable to the person who is inside a non-inertial frame. e.g. If a driver suddenly turns the car to the left, you go towards the right side of the car because of centrifugal force. The centrifugal force is equal and opposite to the ...
New Special Purpose Centrifuges | GMI, GMI Inc. provides brand new centrifuges for a wide range of applications such as cellular and clinical biology, proteomics, biochemistry, and nanotechnology. These high-performance centrifuges are built with innovative features that also guarantee the safety of your valuable assets. Maximize your budget as these centrifuges are long-term investments offering unparalleled and efficient results in your lab. Having trouble finding the most suitable Laboratory Centrifuge for your industry? Download the new GMI Lab Centrifuge Purchasing Guide PDF heretoday and get tips on: How to choose the right centrifuge type for your workspace. Purchasing a centrifuge unit at any price point. Finding the correct centrifuge model for your application area. Choosing between Swinging Bucket or Fixed Angle Rotors. Download the Lab Centrifuge Purchasing Guide and centrifugation will be a breeze, Click Here.
Specimens submitted for the detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) were inoculated into conventional cell-culture tubes and fresh MRC-5 shell vials. The shell vial centrifugation cultures (SVCs) were examined at 16 hr postinoculation for HSV by using type-specific monoclonal antibodies (SVC-FA); th …
Centrifugation is the process which involves the separation of heterogeneous mixture by means of spinning and this involves the application of centripetal force for the separation of liquids-liquid and liquid-solid mixtures. Centrifugation works on the principle of sedimentation that can be achieved by rapid rotation. Centrifuges are the devices which are used in separation of genetic materials, virulent substances, blood cell components, and others. The next generation centrifuges provides precise temperature control, wide range of relative centrifugal force (RCF), acceleration, and time. All the aforementioned parameters must be maintained and achieved for greater separation of quality components. Continuous flow centrifuges functions at relatively higher speeds as compared to the normal centrifugation devices. Such devices are very well known for their capability to isolate particles similar in nature. Whereas conventional centrifugation process separate molecules in batches, liquid flows ...
Neuation offers a wide range of next generation Centrifuges for various Research lab applications. From personal centrifuge to Universal laboratory centrifuges the range of Micro centrifuges and Lab centrifuges are widely used in microbiology, tissue culture, molecular biology, clinical and blood banking, drug discovery, genomics and proteomics. Neuation products are designed and developed by it own R & D team. Employing a User Centric Design Process to develop simple, Safe, easy of use and high performance laboratory centrifuges. The products are CE certified and approved for IVD use.
Neuation offers a wide range of next generation Centrifuges for various Research lab applications. From personal centrifuge to Universal laboratory centrifuges the range of Micro centrifuges and Lab centrifuges are widely used in microbiology, tissue culture, molecular biology, clinical and blood banking, drug discovery, genomics and proteomics. Neuation products are designed and developed by it own R & D team. Employing a User Centric Design Process to develop simple, Safe, easy of use and high performance laboratory centrifuges. The products are CE certified and approved for IVD use.
It is true that centrifugal force on earth has its counterpart in centripetal force, in gravity, but it would be pure foolishness to presume that centrifugal force -- i.e., fleeing away from the center of mass -- holds the wheat-stalk upright, or allows trees to dance lithely in the air, or causes millions of other plants, grasses and climbing vines to writhe ecstatically toward the heavens. Human ingenuity cannot produce the miracle of the wheat-stalk, the spiralling morning glory vine, or a massive sequoia tree. In terms of engineering these are living design miracles that defy both gravity and mechanical law. Nothing constructed by human skill could be so supple and yet so stable. Constructed on terrestrial principles, the wheat stalk is nevertheless incapable of standing tall and steady due to terrestrial laws alone. It needs the co-emergence of Andromedan physics. The plant-world on earth mirrors the physics of beauty, the aesthetic laws that prevail on Andromeda. Van Goghs sunflowers grow ...
Define centrifugal. centrifugal synonyms, centrifugal pronunciation, centrifugal translation, English dictionary definition of centrifugal. adj. 1. Moving or directed away from a center or axis. 2. Operated by means of centrifugal force. 3. Physiology Transmitting nerve impulses away from the...
A device for analysis used for transferring a solution to a measurement spot 38 by a centrifugal force and reading in which a reaction liquid located at the measurement spot 38 is optically accessed. An operation cavity 30 and a receiving cavity 32 are arranged from the upstream side to the downstream side of the transfer. The operation cavity 30 and the receiving cavity 32 communicate with each other via a connection section 59 to transfer the solution of the operation cavity 30 to the receiving cavity 32. The connection section 59 is located inside the liquid level of a diluted solution retained in the operation cavity 30, relative to a rotation axis 102.
Rotea performance and applications data highlight high T-cell and PBMC recovery and viability, with high cell concentrations in low output volumes.
Mechanically Operated Centrifugal Switch - An electric switch that operates using the centrifugal force created from a rotating shaft. The switch is designed to activate or de-activate as a function of the rotational speed of the shaft. In single-phase, split-phase induction motors, the switch is used to disconnect the starting winding of the motor once the motor approaches its normal operating speed. The centrifugal switch consists of weights mounted to the shaft of the motor and held near the shaft by spring force. At rest, levers attached to the weights press a low-friction, non-conductive plate against a set of electrical contacts mounted to the motor housing, closing the contacts and connecting the starting winding to the power source. When the motor approaches its normal operating speed, centrifugal force overcomes the spring force and the weights swing out, raising the plate away from the electrical contacts. This allows the contacts to open and disconnects the starting winding from the ...
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Synonyms for Centrifugal acceleration in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Centrifugal acceleration. 1 antonym for centrifugal force: centripetal force. What are synonyms for Centrifugal acceleration?
Centrifugation is the use of the centrifugal forces generated in a spinning rotor to separate biological particles, such as cells, viruses, sub‐cellular organelles, macromolecules (principally proteins and nucleic acids) and macromolecular complexes (such as ribonucleoproteins and lipoproteins)
Cyclones are not as efficient (99.5%) as bag filters but several can be placed in series. Air enters at tangent at high velocity into a cylinder or cone which has a much larger cross section. Air velocity is decreased in the cone permitting settling of solids by gravity. Centrifugal force is important in removing particles from the air stream. High air velocity is needed to separate small diameter and light materials from air; velocities may approach 100 ft/sec (70 MPH). Higher centrifugal force can be obtained by using small diameter cyclones, several of which may be placed in parallel; losses may range from 0.5-2%. A rotary airlock is used to remove powder from the cyclone. (An example of a rotary airlock is a revolving door at a hotel lobby which is intended to break the outside and inside environments).. ...
Coupling greases, unlike bearing or general purpose grease, must withstand the centrifugal forces created by a rotating coupling. These greases - KSG and KHP - are specifically formulated to resist the heavy centrifugal forces associated with all applications. These forces can cause the all-important base oil to separate from the soap thickeners and additives. Unlike greases with lithium-based thickeners, KSG and KHP greases use polyethylene thickeners, with a density closer to that of the base oil, and therefore much less susceptible to separation ...
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New page: Entry by Yuhang Jin, AP225 Fall 2011 == Reference == Hyundoo Hwang, Seung-Hoon Kim, Tae-Hyeong Kim, Je-Kyun Parkb and Yoon-Kyoung Cho, Lab Chip, 2011, 11, 3404.) ...
A centrifugal machine, also known as a centrifuge, is an important part of any hospital, health care or testing laboratory. These essential pieces of equipment are used daily to generate extremely high rotating speeds, creating a centrifugal force that forces materials of different densities to separate. Of course these materials do need to be in a suspension for the process to work, but they are perfect for separating the solids from the liquids and distinguishing between materials of different weights and densities within the suspension.
China Fuyi Decanter Centrifuge Machine Separation for Fatty Acids, Find details about China Decanter Centrifuge, Centrifuge Separator from Fuyi Decanter Centrifuge Machine Separation for Fatty Acids - Guangzhou Fuyi Liquid Separation Technology Co., Ltd.
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New Lab Centrifuge Rotors | GMI, GMI Inc. provides brand new centrifuges for a wide range of applications such as cellular and clinical biology, proteomics, biochemistry, and nanotechnology. These high-performance centrifuges are built with innovative features that also guarantee the safety of your valuable assets. Maximize your budget as these centrifuges are long-term investments offering unparalleled and efficient results in your lab. Having trouble finding the most suitable Laboratory Centrifuge for your industry? Download the new GMI Lab Centrifuge Purchasing Guide PDF heretoday and get tips on: How to choose the right centrifuge type for your workspace. Purchasing a centrifuge unit at any price point. Finding the correct centrifuge model for your application area. Choosing between Swinging Bucket or Fixed Angle Rotors. Download the Lab Centrifuge Purchasing Guide and centrifugation will be a breeze, Click Here.
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is nowadays widely applied in different clinical scenarios, such as orthopedics, ophthalmology and healing therapies, as a growth factor pool for improving tissue regeneration. Studies into its clinical efficiency are not conclusive and one of the main reasons for this is that different PRP preparations are used, eliciting different responses that cannot be compared. Platelet quantification and the growth factor content definition must be defined in order to understand molecular mechanisms behind PRP regenerative strength. Standardization of PRP preparations is thus urgently needed. PRP was prepared by centrifugation varying the relative centrifugal force, temperature, and time. Having quantified platelet recovery and yield, the two-step procedure that rendered the highest output was chosen and further analyzed. Cytokine content was determined in different fractions obtained throughout the whole centrifugation procedure. Our method showed reproducibility when applied to
These Centrifugal Ultrafiltration Devices for protein concentration remove proteins from difficult to filter samples, even whole blood or cell lysate samples.
The industry study on global Centrifugal Fans market provides comprehensive review of ongoing market trends, drivers, opportunities, challenges and issues, latest news and events including Centrifugal Fans strategic corporate developments and Centrifugal Fans product innovations. Overall assessments of the global Centrifugal Fans market share from different countries and regions is covered in the report. The competitive landscaping mapping of the current trends are also included in Centrifugal Fans report.. Global Centrifugal Fans Market analyzed the Industry region, including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and Centrifugal Fans industry growth rate etc. Furthermore, Centrifugal Fans report features tables and figures that render a clear perspective of the Centrifugal Fans industry. In the end, the Centrifugal Fans market report introduced investment feasibility analysis, and investment return analysis to 2022.. To view complete report ...
The microfluidic device includes a rotatable platform, a plurality of connection ports disposed at a portion of the platform proximate to a shaft connection hole, the plurality of connection ports capable of being connected to an external connector for selectively injecting and discharging fluid and being closed by the connector, a trap chamber disposed at a portion of the platform further away from the shaft connection hole than the plurality of connection ports, the trap chamber including an inlet connected with at least one connection port of the plurality of connection ports, an outlet connected with another connection port of the plurality of connection ports and structures which enlarge a contact area with the fluid and a temporary storage including an inlet connected with the outlet of the trap chamber and an outlet connected with another connection port of the plurality of connection ports.
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A self-priming, portable utility electric centrifugal pump can speed up the draining process. Increase pressure China factory high quality centrifugal portable lpg transfer pump in city mains or maximize filtration operations in pond electric centrifugal pump systems with a booster China factory high quality centrifugal portable lpg transfer pump. When electric centrifugal pumps time for a new centrifugal electric centrifugal pump for water, sewage and China factory high quality centrifugal portable lpg transfer pump chemical processing systems,China factory high quality centrifugal portable lpg transfer pump got you covered.
Preparation of thick and thin blood films Thick blood films Thin blood films Combination thick and thin blood films (on the same slide) Combination thick and thin blood films (can be stained as either) Buffy coat blood films Staining blood films Giemsa stain Wright's stain General notes on staining procedures Proper examination of thin and thick blood films Thin blood films Thick blood films Determination of parasitemia Diagnosis of malaria: review of alternatives to conventional microscopy QBC microhematocrit centrifugation method ParaSight F test NOW malaria test Flow anti-pLDH Plasmodium monoclonal antibodies Molecular testing Automated blood cell analyzers Diagnosis of leishmaniasis: review of alternatives to conventional microscopy ICT for detection of anti-rK-39 antibodies Concentration procedures Cytocentrifugation technique Knott concentration procedure Membrane filtration technique Gradient centrifugation technique Triple-centrifugation method for trypanosomes Special stain for
Oberdorfer™ centrifugal pumps have a single rotating metal impeller. Liquid enters at the center and is thrown outward radically by centrifugal force. The impeller is not in contact with other pump parts resulting in quiet, efficient, pumping action. The flow produced is not positive which permits the discharge line to be shut off completely without danger of overloading motors or bursting lines. Consequently a relief valve is not required.. The liquid flow varies directly as the pump speed--the higher the speed the greater the flow. Horsepower required varies directly as flow and pressure. Maximum horsepower is required with a wide open discharge line. This is the point of maximum flow. With a throttled discharge, the flow decreases at a greater rate than the pressure increases thereby requiring less horsepower at the higher pressures. This is known as an unloading feature of the pump.. Silent, efficient, centrifugal pumping is ideal for convenient equipment location in offices, ...
High Speed Centrifuge, centrifugal machine, Low Speed Centrifuge, High-speed Refrigerated Centrifuge, low-speed Refrigerated Centrifuge
Glass Culture Tubes found in: Borosilicate Glass Culture Tubes, PYREX® Screw Cap Culture Tubes with PTFE Lined Phenolic Caps, Culture Tube, Borosilicate..
0063]A high density state means a density almost equivalent to the density at which a tissue is constructed, for example, in the case of the cell masses, 5×107 to 1×109 cells/ml at the time of cell positioning, preferably 1×108 to 1×109 cells/ml to ensure the cell-cell interaction without impairing the cell activity, and most preferably 2×108 to 8×108 cells/ml. In order to prepare a cell mass having such a cell density, it is preferred to mass and precipitate cells by centrifugation since this conveniently enables achievement of the high density without impairing the cell activity. Such centrifugation may be carried out at a revolution speed equivalent to a centrifugal force of 300 to 1200×g, which will not adversely affect the survival of the cells, and preferably 500 to 1000×g, for 3 to 10 minutes. Centrifugation at lower than 300×g may lead to insufficient precipitation of the cells and the cell density may become low, while centrifugation at higher than 1200×g may cause damage to ...
A centrifuge filter for removing soot from engine oil. The centrifuge filter includes a rotor adapted to be rotated inside a centrifuge housing by an electric motor or other means. The rotor preferably includes a reusable aluminum support casing and a disposable plastic cartridge. The plastic cartridge includes a trap with partition walls to prevent wave formation in the rotating liquid contained in the trap. The cartridge includes an annular inlet through its top end, a winding flow path through the cartridge and an outlet at the bottom enc. The centrifuge housing includes an isolated sealed rotor chamber. Using the venturi effect, air is evacuated from the rotor chamber to provide a partial vacuum to reduce air drag on the rotor. Resilient rubber vibration isolators are used to reduce vibrations and engine induced shock loads from reaching the rotating element. A side oil inlet is provided in the cartridge to receive unfiltered oil at a location offset from the axis of rotation. Oil is feed in through
Self Priming Centrifugal Pumps Centrifugal pumps which have the capability to pump mixtures of liquids with entrained gas, as well as liquids which have the ability to vent the suction line, are deemed to be self-priming pumps. Learn more about Self Priming Pumps from North Ridge Pumps. : Self Priming - Power Water Pumps / Water Pumps AMT Pump 2855-95 Self-Priming Centrifugal Pump, Cast Iron, 1 HP, 1 Phase, 115/230 V, Curve D, 1-1/4 NPT Female Suction & Discharge Ports 2.2 out of 5 stars 5 2855-95 : Self Priming Water Pump OMMO 12V DC Fresh Water Pump, 60W RV Diaphragm Pump with 2 Hose Clamps, 4.5 L/Min 1.2 GPM 85 PSI Self Priming Sprayer Pump with Pressure Switch for RV Marine Boat Lawn 4.5 out of 5 CA Self Priming Centrifugal Pump - Azcue Pumps USA CA Self Priming Centrifugal Pump The CA is a close coupled centrifugal pump that is self-priming and is designed to handle a myriad of liquids. The primary benefits of the CA include a back pull out design, flexible executions, a heavy ...
0073] Description of another method of producing product via gaseous reaction will now be made with reference to FIG. 3B. Gaseous feed 315 is introduced into catalytic centrifuge 310 via feed inlet line 320. The feed gas is introduced via inlet line 320 into interior space 322A contained within the walls of inner porous catalytic rotor 385A. In embodiments, the feed gas is introduced to a vertically central portion of interior space 322A. The feed gas is introduced into interior region 322A proximal axis of rotation 303. Motor 345 causes rotation of inner porous catalytic rotor 385A about axis of rotation 303. The porous catalytic rotor may be rotated at a rotational frequency of up to at least 5-, 7-, 7.5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, 25-, 30-, 40-, 50-, 60-, 70-, 80-, or 90-thousand RPM. Reactive centrifugal force is applied to the gas introduced into catalytic centrifuge 310, forcing the gas into the pores of inner porous catalytic rotor 385A. As discussed hereinabove inner porous catalytic ...
The other one is ensure hydrocyclone can regular work. When drill middle and deep well, gas well and gas oil well must be matched vacuum degasser.. The degassers are used to clean the gas in the drilling fluid, to ensure the drilling fluid property relatively stable, to guarantee the steady operation of swirlers.. The degassers can be grouped into two kinds: ordinary pressure type and vacuum type. The ordinary pressure degasser is to use the centrifugal to take out gas to invade the mud, with the help of centrifugal force to make the mud spraying in the jet tanks and striking on the wall to make gas releasing. The vacuum degasser is to use the suction of the centrifugal, forming negative pressure in the vacuum tanks, under the action of drilling fluid at atmospheric pressure, through the suction pipe into the hollow shaft, then by umbrella piece of around the hollow shaft assembly, they jet to the skin of tank.. ...
Kupffer cells were isolated from H-2Kb-tsA58 transgenic mice, which stably express a thermolabile mutant of the Simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumor antigen under the control of a histocompatibility gene promoter (H-2Kb). Cells isolated from this mouse grow continuously at the permissive temperature of 33 °C, at which the mutant tsA58 is active, but dont grow, or there is less growth under the normal culture temperature of 37 °C. Growth is initiated by the incubation of cells with interferon-γ, which activates histocompatibility genes.. In the present project, we harvested Kupffer cells by collagenase perfusion of the liver, gradient centrifugation and subsequent counterflow centrifugation. Four lines were generated by culture at 33 C,in a medium containing interferon-γ and conditioned media from a hepatocyte and an endothelial cell line. In the absence of these paracrine growth factors, we observed a gradual loss of phenotype and secretory function.. One out of 4 clones (KC13-2) obtained by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cationic lipids delay the transfer of plasmid DNA to lysosomes. AU - Wattiaux, R.. AU - Jadot, M.. AU - Laurent, N.. AU - Dubois, F.. AU - Wattiaux-De Coninck, Simone. N1 - Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document.. PY - 1996/10/14. Y1 - 1996/10/14. N2 - Plasmid S DNA, naked or associated with different cationic lipid preparations was injected to rats. Subcellular distribution of radioactivity in the liver one hour after injection, was established by centrifugation methods. Results show that at that time, S DNA has reached lysosomes. On the contrary, when S DNA was complexed with lipids, radioactivity remains located in organelles whose distribution after differential and isopycnic centrifugation, is clearly distinct from that of arylsulfatase, a lysosome marker enzyme. Injection of Triton WR 1339, a specific density perturbant of lysosomes, four days before S DNA injection causes a density decrease of radioactivity bearing structures, apparent one hour after ...
A sulfur purification process is provided. Ash-containing molten sulfur is fed to a centrifuge and subjected to centrifugation under controlled conditions at G forces at least about 4,000 times that of gravity. The centrifugation generates a purified sulfur product and a high-solids sulfur waste stream. A solid bowl disc centrifuge provided with conical discs is used to effect the centrifugal separation of solids from liquids at G forces of at least about 4,000. The centrifuge and related piping system are equipped with heating means so as to maintain the temperature of the sulfur above about 250.degree. F. If large volumes of sulfur are to be treated, e.g., 40 or more long tons per hour, a pretreatment step, where the molten sulfur is first subjected to centrifugation at G forces at least about 4,000 times that of gravity in one or more nozzle bowl centrifuges, is added in order to obtain satisfactory results. In another aspect of the sulfur
Serum samples from 100 RA patients, treated with either leflunomide (n = 50) or methotrexate (n = 50), were collected at baseline, after 12 weeks and after 1 year of treatment. In these samples, serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were determined by ELISA. The effects of the active metabolite of leflunomide (A77-1726; 0-200 μM) on IL-6 and IFN-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy volunteers (n = 6) and RA patients (n = 3) were studied by ELISA after activation (with phytohemagglutinin, lipopolysaccharide, and αCD3/αCD28) by ELISA. In addition, monocytes and lymphocytes were isolated from two healthy volunteers by density-gradient centrifugation methods, and effects of A77-1726 on IL-6 production after activation (with phytohemagglutinin or lipopolysaccharide) were measured by ELISA and PCR. Effects on cell proliferation (3H-thymidine incorporation), were measured as well. ...
BACKGROUND: In aviation, vestibular-induced spatial disorientation is a significant cause of accidents. Recreating flight-like vestibular stimuli in simulators might be a means for training pilots to respond adequately in disorienting situations. Due to the physical constraints of land-based simulators, the question arises whether a given illusion may be created in different ways. For instance, is it possible to induce sensations of tilt by rotary stimuli? The present study concerns the relationship between sensations of rotation and tilt during complex vestibular stimulation.. METHODS: The visual sensation of roll rotation was quantified by means of a velocity-matching procedure. In a large gondola centrifuge eight subjects underwent four runs (2 G, 2 min) with different heading positions (forward, backward, centripetally, and centrifugally). The inclination of the gondola persistently corresponded with the vector sum of the Earth gravity force and the centrifugal force (60 degrees at 2 G). ...
The chemical-carcinogen-induced detachment of ribosomes from rat liver endoplasmic reticulum was studied in vitro. Incubation of postmitochondrial supernatant with 0.2 mM-diethylnitrosamine or N-2-acetylaminofluorene removed approx. 16% of membrane-bound ribosomes, measured as differences in RNA/protein values of membrane separated from unbound ribosomes by flotation. These ribosomes are also detached by exposure to high centrifugal forces (160000g) and are among those removed by NADPH-catalysed lipid peroxidation. Extensive lipid peroxidation prohibits any measurement. The ribosomes (polyribosomes) removed are not those detached from the membrane by exposure to high KC1 concentrations (loosely bound) or high KC1 concentrations in the presence of puromycin (tightly bound). It is concluded then that centrifugally labile and carcinogen-sensitive represent a previously unreported sub-population of membrane-bound ribosomes. ...
Pall Corporation is a filtration, separation and purification leader providing solutions to meet the critical fluid management needs of customers across the broad spectrum of life sciences and industry. Pall works with customers to advance health, safety and environmentally responsible technologies. The Companys engineered products enable process and product innovation and minimize emissions and waste.. ...
Tabletop Centrifuge can act as different model to meet all your application needs: micro centrifuge for DNA precipitations, high-capacity and low-to-high speed general-purpose centrifuge for cell application.
100% Raw & Certified Organic Raw Centrifuge Coconut Oil is extracted by centrifuge creating the purest oil available anywhere. It is first cold pressed from the fresh coconut and then finished with centrifuge. Unlike any other coconut oil out there, the maximum temperature that the coconut oi
AccessGUDID - COM.TEC (04086000860154)- The COM.TEC Blood Cell Separator is a blood cell separator which utilizes centrifugal force as the basis for operation. The fields of application are as follows: - Plasma exchange - Plasma treatment
The second Ecuador health tip is use gravity to improve your health.. We stayed an entire winter in this tiny bit of virgin jungle living with a yatchak and his apprentices. Ecuador has its ups and downs but one fact never changes. The Andes at the equator has special energy. You can feel it. You can even see it on the scales. You weigh less on the equator because of the earths centrifugal force. This aspect of Ecuador seems to add a special health benefit that brings me to the first important Ecuador health tip that Merri and I often use.. The lymph is one of our bodys most important immune and purification systems and it is driven very much by gravity. The Shamans place importance on the altered state of gravity for improving health.. This brings me to the rebounder, an excellent health tool for those who dont want to travel to the equator to have their lymph system cleared. The rebounder is a mini trampoline that is amazingly effective for many health purposes.. Modern science has not been ...
An apparatus for high-throughput combinatorial syntheses of organic molecules including a reaction vessel for containing a combinatorial-chemistry synthetic reaction, a liquid dispenser for dispensing the liquid, a liquid aspirator and an adjustment mechanism. The reaction vessel includes an ingress aperture allowing a liquid to enter into an interior of the vessel and an egress aperture for aspirating the liquid from the vessel. The liquid dispenser dispenses liquid through the ingress aperture. The liquid aspirator aspirates liquid through the egress aperture and includes a rotor for carrying the vessel and orbiting the vessel about an axis of rotation. The rotor is oriented generally in a horizontal plane and includes an adjustment mechanism for adjusting the angle of the vessel relative to the horizontal plane in response to the centrifugal force generated by orbiting the vessel about the axis of rotation. A method of combinatorial synthesis of organic molecules is also disclosed.
A way to attach a coating of live enzymes onto plastic and other materials could lead to clothes that digest stains as soon as they occur, or kitchen surfaces able to kill bacteria.. US researchers have shown they can make plastic films containing active enzymes like those in biological clothes detergents. The process used is based on one typically used to produce thin, flat plastic products such as CDs, DVDs and flat-screen displays.. Known as spin coating, it involves placing a large dollop of a liquid onto a flat surface which is then rotated at great speed. This generates powerful centrifugal forces that push the solution towards the surface edges and cause some liquid to evaporate, leaving behind a thin, solid film over the entire surface.. The thickness of the film depends on the properties of the original solution, such as its viscosity, and the spinning speed.. ...
The spinning cone is comprised of two sets of inverted cones, one fixed against the wall of the steel container, the other set on a rotating rod and parallel to the fixed cones. The wine is fed into the assembly from the top and flows from fixed cone to parallel rotating cone where the centrifugal force spins it out towards the center as a thin film which then falls on to the next lower fixed cone. This pattern is repeated until the liquid reaches the bottom. Simultaneously, a low temperature vapor is introduced into the assembly from the bottom and flows up the core stripping volatiles from the thin film on its way up. This volatile-impregnated vapor flows out of the top of the assemblage and into a condensing system where the volatiles are captured in a condensed liquid form. The cones provide a large surface area for evaporation of the volatiles into the vapor ...
Isolated animal halves of a germ will produce a larva with a large apical tuft, but without gut and skeleton; isolated vegetative halves will grow into a larva with a large gut, and an irregular skeleton, but without either apical tuft or band of cilia (Fig. 15). Evidently, the potency 50 POLARITY AND SYMMETRY; for the formation of a gut decreases from the vegetative to- wards the animal pole, whereas that for the formation of an apical tuft decreases in the opposite direction. When cell groups from different parts of the germ are brought together, more or less normal larvae will result even from highly abnormal combinations of blastomeres, so long as cells with animal and cells with vegetative potencies are present in balanced proportions. Such a disturb- ance can be caused by centrifuging the egg. Under the in- fluence of the centrifugal force, the materials of the egg are arranged according to their specific gravity. The lighter substances (especially the fats) are accumulated at the centri- ...
These planets must, somehow, have survived the star passing through a Red Giant phase, something that scientists were not certain was possible prior to this discovery (and which they shall probably argue about for some time to come). The most likely explanation is that they were formerly large, gas giant type planets further out in the system, and that they were swallowed by the star in its expansive phase, had their outer layers stripped away and fell towards the star as friction with the gas giants corona slowed them down (orbiting planets are in a dynamic relationship with their star, held in place by a combination of centrifugal force and gravity; if they are for some reason slowed down they fall towards the star, if they speed up they move away). Somehow this process caused the star to shed its outer layers, leaving the B-type subdwarf at the centre, being orbited by the two reduced planets. Gas giants that have lost their outer layers are called Cthonian Planets; these also were only a ...
MEDICAL CHALLENGE. This is not a simple leap in the sky. People may not understand how dangerous skydiving at such heights is. The air density is so low that it cannot brake movements as drag becomes poorer up there.. Therefore, a position mistake can make the human body tumble violently or spin very fast. High rotation speeds involve high-G forces due to the centrifugal force, and may lead to G-LOC (G-force induced Loss Of Consciousness), and even to the rupture of blood vessels.. Moreover, if a spacesuit were to leak (due to a dormant seal failure or a cracked/crazed faceplate, for instance), the blood could be boiling (ebullism at 37°C above 63,000 ft or 19 km) because of the very low air pressure, and the body could be swelling, and actually freezing to death as the external temperature can reach down to -70°C, and even lower, not to mention the risk of pulmonary barotrauma.. The current record is held by Joseph Kittinger (a former USAF pilot who is curently advising Felix Baumgartner on ...
MEDICAL CHALLENGE. This is not a simple leap in the sky. People may not understand how dangerous skydiving at such heights is. The air density is so low that it cannot brake movements as drag becomes poorer up there.. Therefore, a position mistake can make the human body tumble violently or spin very fast. High rotation speeds involve high-G forces due to the centrifugal force, and may lead to G-LOC (G-force induced Loss Of Consciousness), and even to the rupture of blood vessels.. Moreover, if a spacesuit were to leak (due to a dormant seal failure or a cracked/crazed faceplate, for instance), the blood could be boiling (ebullism at 37°C above 63,000 ft or 19 km) because of the very low air pressure, and the body could be swelling, and actually freezing to death as the external temperature can reach down to -70°C, and even lower, not to mention the risk of pulmonary barotrauma.. The current record is held by Joseph Kittinger (a former USAF pilot who is curently advising Felix Baumgartner on ...
HiPIMS stands for High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering. This physical process produces extremely dense and smooth PVD coatings. Advantages of the insert coating: Less friction and build-up on the cutting edge, higher resistance to flank face wear and very stable cutting edges. The benefit for the user: Maximum metal removal rates and long tool life! With cutting depths of 15 or 20 mm, the HiPIMS-coated inserts are ideal for ramping and pocket milling.. The M2131 is impressive due to its high level of concentricity. The inserts are provided with integrated protection against centrifugal force. Inner coolant channels, which are suitable for both emulsion and minimum quantity lubrication, complete the precisely designed tool features. Increases in tool life of up to 200 percent can therefore be effortlessly achieved. The M2131 ramping milling cutter from Walter AG is particularly suitable for the HSC machining of aluminium materials, as well as for current aluminium-lithium alloys.. ...
Two-stroke chainsaws require about 2-5% of oil in the fuel to lubricate the engine, while the motor in electrical chain-saws is normally lubricated for life. Most modern gas operated saws today require a fuel mix of 2% (1:50). Regular gas from most gas stations contain 5 to 10% ethanol which can result in problems of the equipment. Ethanol dissolves plastic, rubber and other material.[9] This leads to problems especially on older equipment. A workaround of this problem is to run fresh fuel only and run the saw dry at the end of the work. Separate chain oil or bar oil is used for the lubrication of the bar and chain on all types of chain-saw. The chain oil is depleted quickly because it tends to be thrown off by chain centrifugal force, and it is soaked up by sawdust. On two-stroke chainsaws the chain oil reservoir is usually filled up at the same time as refuelling. The reservoir is normally large enough to provide sufficient chain oil between refuelling. Lack of chain-oil, or using an oil of ...
Two-stroke chainsaws require about 2-5% of oil in the fuel to lubricate the engine, while the motor in electrical chain-saws is normally lubricated for life. Most modern gas operated saws today require a fuel mix of 2% (1:50). Regular gas from most gas stations contain 5 to 10% ethanol which can result in problems of the equipment. Ethanol dissolves plastic, rubber and other material.[8] This leads to problems especially on older equipment. A workaround of this problem is to run fresh fuel only and run the saw dry at the end of the work.. Separate chain oil or bar oil is used for the lubrication of the bar and chain on all types of chain-saw. The chain oil is depleted quickly because it tends to be thrown off by chain centrifugal force, and it is soaked up by sawdust. On two-stroke chainsaws the chain oil reservoir is usually filled up at the same time as refuelling. The reservoir is normally large enough to provide sufficient chain oil between refuelling. Lack of chain-oil, or using an oil of ...
You have additional body force terms when the reference coordinates (fixed to the tank) moves or rotates in a non-inertial manner. You just add the source terms in the corresponding momentum equations, and youll see the sloshing in the tank. For your case (cyclic rotation), centrifugal force, Coriolis force, and inertia due to angular acceration will comprise the source terms ...
In brief, the theory is that when the earth had cooled, from its molten condition sufficiently to have a crust of solidified matter something like thirty miles thick over its entire surface, it was revolving so rapidly that gravitational attraction and centrifugal force practically balanced each other. For some reason, perhaps some vast and sudden cataclysm, a large portion of this crust was thrown off the earth, and by tidal action was forced gradually outward in a spiral path. In order to form the moon, a mass of this crust about thirty miles thick and of area nearly equal to the combined areas of the present oceans on the earth must have been thrown off. It is supposed that this immense amount of crust was largely taken from the present basin of the Pacific, and that the remaining parts of the earths crust, while it still floated on a liquid interior, split along an irregular line into two pieces which floated apart, and the gap between these two parts was later filled with the waters of the ...
Because of the arrangement of the rats throat, true choking is rare. If your rat appears to be choking the most likely cause is a piece of food or other substance stuck in her throat. This can cause gagging and drooling. A rat who is gagging will open her mouth wide and pull her ears back. As long as the rat can breathe, dont do anything accept try to comfort her. Anything you try to do to stop the gagging may make the situation worse. The offending food will eventually pass down in most cases. You might try offering your rat a small piece of bread to see if that will help push the food down, but do not use doughy bread which might make things worse.. If your rat is having real trouble breathing, and not just labored breathing, you can try doing the Heimlich maneuver, by pressing sharply up and in underneath your rats ribcage. Or you can do a procedure called the fling which uses centrifugal force. Hold your rat firmly around the neck with one hand, and by the base of the tail with the ...
Aprll 24, 1962 A. E. RAYMOND 3,030,743 REINFORCED ROTATIVE ABRASIVE STRUCTURES Original Filed June 14, 1956 @Imxke abras/i/e sfrucfure IN V EN TOR. ,gzafrffiflrwa/vp W MQ G fan United States Patent Ofiice 3,030,743 REINFORCED ROTATIVE ABRASIVE STRUCTURES Albert E. Raymond, St. Paul, Minn, assignor to Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, St. Paul, Minn, a corporation of Delaware Continuation of application Ser. No. 591,357, June 14, 1956. This application Aug. 6, 1958, Ser. No. 753,862 Claims. (Cl. 51-207) application Serial No. 400,565, filed December 28, 1953,. now abandoned. Abrasive wheels, discs, and the like, are required to operate at high rotative speeds and accordingly are subject to failure occasioned by the high centrifugal force developed. Failure may occur through cracking of the entire wheel, or by throwing out of edge segments of the wheel, or in other ways. These abrasive articles are also subject to flexural failure caused by flexing of the disc or wheel under pressures ...
The carousel is believed to have been built around 1876 by the Charles W. Dare Company of New York. This is about the same time attributed to the construction of the Flying Horses Carousel in Oak Bluffs, Massachusetts, although both dates are based on inferences and lack certainty. It consists of twenty horses in two sizes which are suspended by chains from sweeps radiating out from the center of the carousel under its canopy. The bodies of the horses are believed to have been carved from single blocks of wood, with the legs carved separately and attached. The horses still have their original agate eyes; other trappings have been replaced, including manes and reins. The chains holding the horses are attached to the rump and to an iron bar added to the pommel, apparently a modification. When the carousel rotates, centrifugal force drives the horses outward, giving rise to the name flying horses. The horses in the Oak Bluffs carousel are fixed to columns between spreader panels above and a ...
The work principle of Raymond Mill is that the roller is rolled tightly in the grinding ring under the centrifugal force, shovel from the shovel material to the grinding rollers and grinding ring, the material under the action of crushing into powder, and then in the role of the fan into the powder blown up through the analysis machine, to achieve fineness requirements of the material through .... ...
Planetary Ball Mills are used wherever the highest degree of fineness is required.In addition to well-proven mixing and size reduction processes, these mills also meet all technical requirements for colloidal grinding and provide the energy input necessary for mechanical alloying.The extremely high centrifugal forces of a planetary ball mill result in very high pulverization energy and Get Details ...
Many physicists regarded centrifugal force less as a force than a fiction. Then a Polish astrophysicist discovered that black holes wont work without it--without it working in reverse, that is.
The 3M™ Rubber Slotted Expander Wheel utilizes centrifugal force to grip abrasive belts while grinding. Use this wheel on a 3M™ Inline Sander or 3M™ Match & Finish Tool. It comes in three diameters and two center hole diameters.
Centrifugation Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Mar 4, 2004, pp. 247-267. "Svedberg Lecture". Retrieved 2019-02-18. "Beckman ... Analytical ultracentrifugation Gas centrifuge Theodor Svedberg Differential centrifugation Buoyant density ultracentrifugation ...
Centrifugation". Biophysical Chemistry of Proteins. New York, Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London: Springer. pp. 237-249. doi:10.1007 ...
Centrifugation Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Mar 4, 2004, pp. 247-267. Frothingham, R (February 1999). "Centrifugation without a ... There are various types of centrifugation: Differential centrifugation, often used to separate certain organelles from whole ... Another potential hazard is the aerosolization of hazardous samples during centrifugation. To prevent contamination of the ... often used to isolate nucleic acids such as DNA Sucrose gradient centrifugation, often used to purify enveloped viruses and ...
"Basics of Centrifugation". Cole-Parmer. Retrieved 11 March 2012. "Plasmid DNA Separation: Fixed-Angle and Vertical Rotors in ... Centrifugation Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Mar 4, 2004, pp. 247-267. Vogel-Prandtl, Johanna Ludwig Prandtl: A Biographical ... Centrifugal force Centrifugation Clearing factor Honey extractor Hydroextractor Lamm equation Sedimentation coefficient ... Protocols for centrifugation typically specify the amount of acceleration to be applied to the sample, rather than specifying a ...
accessed 12 October 2013) Orris E. A, Eugene E.G. (1969). Centrifugation of Waste Sludges. Journal Water Pollution Control ...
Sedimentation Centrifugation Helmenstine, Todd. "What is decanting?". ThoughtCo. Retrieved 1 March 2018. "Separation and ...
Centrifugation is the preferred method. Several preventives are available by prescription from a veterinarian to prevent dogs ...
The extract is obtained by centrifugation. The salinity can more easily be measured, without centrifugation, in a 2:1 or 5:1 ...
Chromatography, centrifugation, and filtration techniques can be used to separate nanoparticles by size or other physical ... Mechanical separation techniques utilize membranes and/or centrifugation. Chemical separation techniques are liquid-liquid ...
After centrifugation and washing, the starch is dried. Co-products account for 34% of wet-milled yield. In fact, 23% of corn ...
This is most easily done by centrifugation, which packs the denser blood cells and platelets to the bottom of the centrifuge ... Plasma is obtained by centrifugation before clotting occurs. The type of test required dictates what type of sample is used. A ...
They can use centrifugation or centrifugation-free methods. The red cells can be re-suspended in saline or other types of ...
... generally carried out by centrifugation or ultra-centrifugation. If the product is biomass, then it is recovered for processing ... Ultra filtration is an alternative to the centrifugation. Cell disruption: If the desired product is intra cellular the cell ... The solid-liquid is separated by centrifugation or filtration and cell debris is discarded. Concentration of broth: The spent ...
This is done by filtration, centrifugation or dialysis. A method that does not require separation is the scintillation ...
The insoluble protein can be collected by centrifugation. One of the very effective ways for carrying out this process is the ...
... centrifugation refers to a method wherein a density gradient is either pre-formed or forms during high speed ... isopycnic centrifugation Isosteric v t e v t e. ... centrifugation. After this gradient is formed particles move ...
In fine sediments, extraction efficiency is improved with centrifugation. With both methodologies repeated extractions should ...
For this application, bed side centrifugation is commonly used. Again, these techniques produce a very dilute MSC population, ...
Then, The tube goes through a centrifugation to filter cell debris and non motile cells. After the centrifugation, healthy ... Migration (swim-up). Firstly, centrifugation takes place and seminal plasma is eliminated. Then, 0.5 -1 ml of culture medium is ...
WCO defines NCS as "cane sugar obtained without centrifugation". It also states that "the product contains only natural ...
The two main ways are centrifugation and filtration methods. This procedure can be performed with microfiltration devices like ...
The DNA fragments extracted by the gradient centrifugation were later termed "isochores", which was subsequently defined as " ... "An analysis of eukaryotic genomes by density gradient centrifugation". Journal of Molecular Biology. 108 (1): 219-235. doi: ... uncovered the compositional non-uniformity within vertebrate genomes using thermal melting and density gradient centrifugation ...
The separation is facilitated by using amyl alcohol and centrifugation. The fat content is read directly via a special ... by concentrated sulfuric acid and the separation of the oil from the aqueous phase by centrifugation in special glassware, ...
Mechanical acceleration, including vibration, centrifugation and agitation, are sometimes used. They subject the product to ... Moreover, segregation of different populations of particles have been highlighted when using centrifugation and vibration. " ...
Centrifugation, extraction, and filtration are examples of methods which separate material in different phases. Centrifugation ...
Counterflow centrifugation elutriation is a related technique to separate cells. An air elutriator is a simple device which can ... Air classifier Counterflow centrifugation elutriation G. Uhlig, H. Thiel, J. S. Gray (May 1973). "The quantitative separation ...
Post centrifugation the supernatant above and the cushion below is removed, leaving a concentrated sperm pellet in the conical ... Factors impacting equine sperm recovery rate and quality following cushioned centrifugation. Theriogenology. 2008;70:704-714 ... products used during the centrifugation of stallion semen. It is layered underneath the extended stallion semen allowing for a ...
He also developed techniques for the separation of mitochondria by centrifugation. Bensley was born in Hamilton, Ontario to a ...
Sludge dewatering can be achieved by electro-osmosis or centrifugation process. Prior to dewatering, the thickened sludge is ... is a type of centrifuge that has a series of conical discs which provides a parallel configuration of centrifugation spaces. ... which can act as a post treatment to the conical plate centrifugation process. Further elaboration on these post treatment are ...
Purification before culturing can be accomplished by CsCl density gradient centrifugation. Renaudin, J; Aullo, P; Vignault, JC ...
Sanderson, Richard (April 1976). "Design principles for a counterflow centrifugation cell separation chamber". Analytical ...
Buoyant density centrifugation (also isopycnic centrifugation or equilibrium density-gradient centrifugation) uses the concept ...
Industrial Centrifugation Technology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0070371911. *Regel, Liya L. and William R. Wilcox. 2001. ... Centrifugation is a process that involves the use of the centrifugal force for the separation of mixtures, used in industry and ... Protocols for centrifugation typically specify the amount of acceleration to be applied to the sample, rather than specifying a ... Biological Centrifugation: The Basics. Oxford, UK: Bios. ISBN 1859960375. *Leung, Wallace Woon-Fong. 1998. ...
Differential CentrifugationEdit. Differential Centrifugation is a type of centrifugation in which one selectively spins down ... "Centrifugation Basics". Sigma-Aldrich. Retrieved 10 May 2016.. *^ Article on "Centrifugation" retrieved on 15 October 2013 from ... Density Gradient CentrifugationEdit. Density gradient centrifugation is considered one of the more efficient methods of ... Main articles: Differential centrifugation, Isopycnic centrifugation, and ultracentrifugation. Ultracentrifugation makes use of ...
Centrifugation is the use of the centrifugal forces generated in a spinning rotor to separate biological particles, such as ... Figure 2. Differential centrifugation of a homogenate: (a) before centrifugation and (b) after centrifugation. ... Many centrifugation purification procedures involve sequential centrifugation steps, often a size separation followed by ... centrifugation and isopycnic centrifugation. The first two methods separate particles primarily on the basis of size while ...
Browse Sigma-Aldrichs Labnet Centrifugation to find products in Labnet Minifuge, Labnet Slide Spinner, Labnet Spectrafuge 16M ...
... John Graham School of Biomolecular Sciences, ... John Graham, "Preparation of Crude Subcellular Fractions by Differential Centrifugation," TheScientificWorldJOURNAL, vol. 2, pp ...
Focus on Fisherbrand for your complete centrifugation needs. With our compact and versatile centrifuges, a wide selection of ... centrifugation, Electrochemistry and many more. Its the smart way to achieve cost savings over branded products without having ...
Laboratory equipment supplier for research and industry needs. Access now to the largest scientific products database in our online store.
The aim of the study was to compare the new density gradient centrifugation system OncoQuick with the standard density gradient ... centrifugation system Ficoll for improved tumor cell enrichment in... ... Density gradient centrifugation of tumor cell-spiked blood samples with OncoQuick and Ficoll led to similar tumor cell recovery ... Circulate Tumor Cell Minimal Residual Disease Density Gradient Centrifugation Disseminate Tumor Cell Tumor Cell Density These ...
Proteomics/Protein Separations - Centrifugation/CENTRIFUGATION. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... Reference: Centrifugation in Biology and Medical Science==Author Phillip sheeler, dept of biology , california state university ... Centrifugation is one of the most important and widely applied research techniques in biochemistry, in cellular and molecular ... Density gradient centrifugation: Preparing gradients and measuring density. *Density Gradient centrifuation: Rate and isopynic ...
... can identify intestinal parasites in cats and dogs, and can help determine the right treatment ... What Are the Benefits of Fecal Centrifugation Testing?. Fecal centrifugation testing for parasites helps identify zoonotic ... To perform fecal centrifugation, your veterinarian places a small amount of fecal material into a test tube and mixes it with a ... How Is Fecal Centrifugation Performed?. To test for intestinal parasites, your veterinarian needs a stool sample from your pet ...
Differential centrifugation, rate zonal centrifugation, and equilibrium sucrose gradient centrifugation of rat liver ... Gene context of Centrifugation, Zonal. *Rate zonal centrifugation suggested such complexes are more likely to involve MUC5B ... High impact information on Centrifugation, Zonal. *Low density lipoprotein (LDL) was isolated by zonal centrifugation from the ... Biochemical and physicochemical determinations in a premyelin fraction obtained by zonal centrifugation in normal mouse and in ...
... *Download PDF Copy ... Porvair Sciences extends range of impact support mats to protect microplates during centrifugation. News-Medical. 13 August ... Porvair Sciences extends range of impact support mats to protect microplates during centrifugation. News-Medical, viewed 13 ... 2019, June 20). Porvair Sciences extends range of impact support mats to protect microplates during centrifugation. News- ...
Performing centrifugation in a stepwise fashion, in which the centrifugation speed is increased each time, allows the ... Differential centrifugation is a method used to separate the different components of a cell on the basis of mass. The cell ... After centrifugation typically for an hour at about 100,000 x g, disks of cellular components residing due to the change in ... The rather dense nucleus is most likely to be found after the first centrifugation step, followed by the mitochondria, then ...
The Cytospin uses centrifugation to separate and deposit a thin-layer of cells/microorganisms into a clearly-defined area on a ...
centrifugation of fresh hemocytes - (Jan/27/2014 ). Hello everyone,. A simple question, but im fed up with this.. I work with ... Centrifugation at high RCF provides a lot of stress too - imagine being squashed to the walls of a tube at several hundred ... Here is my problem: after centrifugation ( I tried 5 min at 300g, 10 min at 300g and 5 min at 1000g, in eppendorf and with 96- ... Anyway, this does not explain why after centrifugation, when i discard the supernatant and resuspend with PBS, i cant see any ...
Human short-radius centrifugation (SRC) is being investigated as a volume-efficient means of delivering intermittent doses of " ... Cross plane transfer of vestibular adaptation to human centrifugation. Research and Teaching Output of the MIT Community. ...
1. A centrifugation tube which, prior to centrifugation of said tube, comprises: a tube adapted for centrifugation having a ... 9 illustrates the centrifugation syringe after the centrifugation step has been performed. As shown, the handle 16 has been ... Such centrifugation is preferably carried out in a cell-trap centrifugation tube, as described in Section 5.3. Following ... After the first round of centrifugation and collection of enriched cells, a second round of centrifugation including density ...
DNA Extraction from 0.22 μM Sterivex Filters and Cesium Chloride Density Gradient Centrifugation, Protocol for Isolation of ... Isolation of Human Monocytes by Double Gradient Centrifugation and Their Differentiation to Macrophages in Teflon-coated Cell ... Isolation of Intact Mitochondria from Skeletal Muscle by Differential Centrifugation for High-resolution Respirometry ... Characterization and Isolation of Mouse Primary Microglia by Density Gradient Centrifugation, ...
... centrifugation of the suspected organism in a hypertonic solution. There were 176 positive cultures. The centrifugation ... Blood culture technique based on centrifugation: clinical evaluation.. G L Dorn, G G Burson, J R Haynes ... Blood culture technique based on centrifugation: clinical evaluation. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... The centrifugation technique showed an increased isolation rate for Pseudomonas, fungi, and gram-positive cocci. In general, ...
Observations of crystal growth by centrifugation can also be used to measure several crystal growth parameters. Measurements of ... Observations of crystal growth by centrifugation can also be used to measure several crystal growth parameters. Measurements of ...
M. E. Terry and B. A. Bonner, "An examination of centrifugation as a method of extracting an extracellular solution from peas, ... Quantitative Evaluation of E1 Endoglucanase Recovery from Tobacco Leaves Using the Vacuum Infiltration-Centrifugation Method. ... G. Lohaus, K. Pennewiss, B. Sattelmacher, M. Hussmann, and K. H. Muehling, "Is the infiltration-centrifugation technique ...
Density-Gradient Separation of Organic and Inorganic Particles by Centrifugation Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
Centrifugation at 2,000 r.p.m. for 30 minutes, immediately after mixture of urine and antiserum, yielded positive reactions in ... Pneumococcal Capsular Polysaccharide in Urine; Detection by Precipitation and Centrifugation. Paul F. de Gara, Samuel C. ... Pneumococcal Capsular Polysaccharide in Urine; Detection by Precipitation and Centrifugation. Paul F. de Gara, Samuel C. ... Pneumococcal Capsular Polysaccharide in Urine; Detection by Precipitation and Centrifugation. Paul F. de Gara, Samuel C. ...
The centrifugation generates a purified sulfur product and a high-solids sulfur waste stream. A solid bowl disc centrifuge ... where the molten sulfur is first subjected to centrifugation at G forces at least about 4,000 times that of gravity in one or ... Ash-containing molten sulfur is fed to a centrifuge and subjected to centrifugation under controlled conditions at G forces at ... Centrifugation in this fashion generates a product stream of purified sulfur and a waste stream of high-solids sulfur. A ...
To create accurate centrifugation conditions, you must subtract the bottom thickness of the adapter from rmax. ...
Pelleting cells by gentle centrifugation for addition to media - posted in Microbiology: Hi,I am trying to do enrichments from ... There are a number of reports of centrifugation injury of bacteria - loss of viability due to centrifugation. For filtration, ... There are a number of reports of centrifugation injury of bacteria - loss of viability due to centrifugation. For filtration, ... Loss of salt-tolerance and transformation efficiency in Escherichia coli associated with sub-lethal injury by centrifugation.. ...
  • Flow chart of a typical differential centrifugation of a cell or tissue homogenate. (els.net)
  • Differential centrifugation of a homogenate: (a) before centrifugation and (b) after centrifugation. (els.net)
  • Differential centrifugation is a method used to separate the different components of a cell on the basis of mass. (wikibooks.org)
  • It is used to purify the differential centrifugation. (wikibooks.org)
  • See DIFFERENTIAL CENTRIFUGATION , ULTRACENTRIFUGE , EQUILIBRIUM CENTRIFUGATION . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1. Homogenates were prepared from sphaeroplasts of aerobically grown glucose-de-repressed Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and the distributions of marker enzymes were investigated after differential centrifugation. (biochemj.org)
  • Specific g-force/k factor usage during differential centrifugation greatly influences the purity and yield of exosomes. (exosome-rna.com)
  • Ns by differential centrifugation. (socialhelponline.com)
  • B and C. Immunoblot analysis of soluble/ insoluble fractions separated by differential centrifugation. (socialhelponline.com)
  • Cell lysates were separated by differential centrifugation. (socialhelponline.com)
  • Defective mRNA splicing caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and/or splice site mutatio.Ns by differential centrifugation. (socialhelponline.com)
  • The equipment used for centrifugation is called a centrifuge , and the vessel that spins the samples is called a rotor . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Ash-containing molten sulfur is fed to a centrifuge and subjected to centrifugation under controlled conditions at G forces at least about 4,000 times that of gravity. (patentgenius.com)
  • Unlike standard centrifugation, which in effect crushes the particles against the bottom of the centrifuge tube, the sucrose cushion method causes no mechanical stress and allows the collection of morphologically intact particles. (chemeurope.com)
  • NF 024 Bench Top Centrifuge is especially designed for the high speed centrifugation requirements. (nuve.com.tr)
  • A machine in which centrifugation is performed is called a centrifuge. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The three main methods of separation are differential pelleting, rate‐zonal centrifugation and isopycnic centrifugation. (els.net)
  • Particles can be separated on the basis of their size using differential pelleting or rate‐zonal centrifugation. (els.net)
  • 2. Zonal centrifugation indicated complex density distributions of the sedimentable portions of these enzymes and of adenosine triphosphatases and suggested the presence of two mitochondrial populations, as well as a bimodal distribution of peroxisomes and heterogeneity of the acid p -nitrophenyl phosphatase-containing particles. (biochemj.org)
  • Centrifugation is a process that involves the use of the centrifugal force for the separation of mixtures, used in industry and in laboratory settings. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The choice of centrifugation method depends on the nature of the particles and often more than one separation technique is required. (els.net)
  • Many centrifugation purification procedures involve sequential centrifugation steps, often a size separation followed by purification using isopycnic gradient centrifugation. (els.net)
  • I would like to find the answers related to my questions in separation by centrifugation as I am troulbed by the absence of results! (biology-online.org)
  • the separation of the components of an homogenate by a process of CENTRIFUGATION where each component is moved to a level equivalent to its density in the solute gradient used. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Isopycnic centrifugation is also known as equilibrium or buoyant separation. (hugecount.com)
  • Shape separation of gold nanorods using centrifugation. (cicciopanza.it)
  • Standard protocols for autologous fat transfer involve centrifugation of the lipoaspirate for better separation. (pubpdf.com)
  • Centrifugation is a technique which involves the application of centrifugal force to separate particles from a solution according to their size, shape, density, viscosity of the medium and rotor speed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The particles' settling velocity in centrifugation is a function of their size and shape, centrifugal acceleration, the volume fraction of solids present, the density difference between the particle and the liquid, and the viscosity . (wikipedia.org)
  • Centrifugation is the use of the centrifugal forces generated in a spinning rotor to separate biological particles, such as cells, viruses, sub‐cellular organelles, macromolecules (principally proteins and nucleic acids) and macromolecular complexes (such as ribonucleoproteins and lipoproteins). (els.net)
  • The first two methods separate particles primarily on the basis of size while isopycnic centrifugation separates particles on the basis of their density. (els.net)
  • Depending on the centrifugation force used, particles from cells to those as small as macromolecules can be separated. (els.net)
  • Alternatively, particles can be separated on the basis of their density using isopycnic centrifugation. (els.net)
  • b-d) With increasing centrifugation time, the particles in the sample zone move down through the gradient as discrete bands. (els.net)
  • 3)isolate viruses and macromolecules, including DNA,RNA,proteins, and lipids or establish physical parameters of these particles fron their observed behavior during centrifugation. (wikibooks.org)
  • The present work aims to design and fabricate a chip with single channel to achieve continuous flow centrifugation of particles in water sample with integrated capability of droplet based particle collection and particle transport to downstream functional modules on the same chip, such as a cell sorter or a PCR system. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • While using isopycnic centrifugation, the particles can never sediment to the bottom of the tube regardless of the time. (hugecount.com)
  • Upon centrifugation, some particles of specific density sediment until their density is the same as the gradient media. (hugecount.com)
  • Lube oil centrifugation uses a centrifugal force 5,000 times stronger than gravity to separate particles of different densities and continually directs cleaned oil back into your process. (alfalaval.com)
  • There are various methods used to do this, such as chromatography, centrifugation, filtration and precipitation. (labmate-online.com)
  • extraction , filtration (through centrifugation) and winterization . (cannabiscentrifuges.com)
  • Centrifugation may be carried out by settling or by filtration. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • F. If large volumes of sulfur are to be treated, e.g., 40 or more long tons per hour, a pretreatment step, where the molten sulfur is first subjected to centrifugation at G forces at least about 4,000 times that of gravity in one or more nozzle bowl centrifuges, is added in order to obtain satisfactory results. (patentgenius.com)
  • 2. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein said centrifugation is conducted in one or more desludger centrifuges. (patentgenius.com)
  • 4. A process as claimed in claim 3, wherein said centrifugation is conducted in two or more nozzle bowl centrifuges, said two or more nozzle bowl centrifuges are operated in parallel under a G force of between about 4,000 and 12,000, and saidcentrifugation is conducted at a temperature of at least 240.degree. (patentgenius.com)
  • 5. A process as claimed in claim 3, further comprising subjecting the separated underflow stream of solid impurities to centrifugation in one or more desludger centrifuges. (patentgenius.com)
  • iii) subjecting said first impurity-loaded underflow stream to centrifugation in one or more desludger centrifuges at a temperature of at least 250.degree. (patentgenius.com)
  • NF 400/400R bench top centrifuges are designed for daily routine centrifugation requirements. (grinstruments.com)
  • Percoll density-gradient centrifugation method could be used to assess economic value and led to greater ease of use [27]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sexing using Percoll density-gradient centrifugation method for 5 and 7 min was applied in this research. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The centrifugation technique showed an increased isolation rate for Pseudomonas, fungi, and gram-positive cocci. (asm.org)
  • Here, we describe two extracellular vesicle isolation protocols, ultrafiltration centrifugation and ultracentrifugation with density gradient centrifugation, to isolate extracellular vesicles from murine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples. (jove.com)
  • The diagnosis was established by isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans using the Isolator blood culture lysis-centrifugation system. (ebscohost.com)
  • Is the infiltration-centrifugation technique appropriate for the isolation of apoplastic fluid? (nih.gov)
  • Isolation of interstitial fluid from rat mammary tumors by a centrifugation method. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The standard isolation method for exosomes is centrifugation of fluid samples, typically at 100,000×g or above. (exosome-rna.com)
  • Isolation and partial characterization of high-density lipoprotein HDL1 from rat plasma by gradient centrifugation. (uchicago.edu)
  • With increasing centrifugation force, hexosephosphate isomerase (HPI) activity in the AWF, which was taken as an indication for cytoplasmic contamination, increased. (nih.gov)
  • As reported previously, albumin (Alb) concentration and colloid osmotic pressure in tendon fluid (TF) expelled by repeated centrifugations fell progressively at increasing centrifugation force (G = 600, 2,400, and 13,100), suggesting either molecular sieving in compressed tendon or mobilization of protein-free (excluded) fluid. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The guanine-plus-cytosine (G+C) ratio of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was determined for 7 Acholeplasma and 24 Mycoplasma species by a new method that combines a micro-scale preparation of DNA with isopycnic gradient centrifugation. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • 1.1 This test method covers a centrifugation cell adhesion assay that can be used to detect changes in adhesive characteristics of cells with passage or treatments. (astm.org)
  • To this end, using Triton X-114 phase partition, co-immunoprecipitation, and sucrose density gradient centrifugation approaches, we report coexistence of GDI with Rac1 in insulin-secreting β-cells (INS cells). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Evaluation of OncoQuick and Ficoll density gradient centrifugation was performed by flow-cytometry and immunocytochemistry using 10 ml unspiked and tumor cell-spiked blood samples of tumor-free probands. (springer.com)
  • X and Y spermatozoa can be separated using sorting methods such as flow cytometry, albumin sedimentation, and Percoll density-gradient centrifugation [13, 25]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Rate‐zonal or sedimentation velocity density gradient centrifugation. (els.net)
  • Zone-spreading of a major component by non-ideal sedimentation in density-gradient centrifugation can cause zone spreading of a minor component that the major component overlaps. (unl.edu)
  • The tube allows the desired cell population to be collected by decantation after centrifugation to minimize cell loss and maximize efficiency. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Buoyant density centrifugation (also isopycnic centrifugation or equilibrium density-gradient centrifugation) uses the concept of buoyancy to separate molecules in solution by their differences in density. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barry, "Use of potassium tartrate for equilibrium density-gradient centrifugation of animal viruses," Nature, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Centrifugation of protein solution, for example, allows elimination of impurities into the supernatant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anyway, this does not explain why after centrifugation, when i discard the supernatant and resuspend with PBS, i can't see any cells remaining… Even with small number of cells, at 400 g for 5 min, the cells should stick to the bottom and not go out when taking off the supernant and performing washing step, isn't it? (protocol-online.org)
  • I lysed the cells by lysis buffer first and then centrifuged it at 500g for 10 min in cold room to take supernatant use another centrifugation at 5000g for 10 min in cold room. (biology-online.org)
  • In this work, researchers from Chungnam National University compared the use of repeated cycles of centrifugation at conventional speeds for enrichment of exosomes from human serum compared to the use of ultracentrifugation. (exosome-rna.com)
  • After removal of cells and cell debris, a speed of 110000(g or 40000(g was used for the ultracentrifugation or centrifugation enrichment process, respectively. (exosome-rna.com)
  • It was found that a five cycle repetition of ultracentrifugation or centrifugation is necessary for successful removal of non-exosomal proteins in the enrichment of exosomes from human serum. (exosome-rna.com)
  • More significantly, 5×centrifugation enrichment was found to provide similar or better performance than 5×ultracentrifugation enrichment in terms of enriched exosome protein amount, Western blot band intensity for detection of CD-63 and numbers of identified exosome-related proteins and CD proteins. (exosome-rna.com)
  • The following different centrifugation forces were evaluated in vitro in terms of fat decantation: 3,000 rpm (1,500×g), 1,300 rpm (250×g), and 500 rpm (50×g). (pubpdf.com)
  • Gertler R., Rosenberg R., Fuehrer K., Dahm M., Nekarda H., Siewert J.R. (2003) Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells in Blood Using an Optimized Density Gradient Centrifugation. (springer.com)
  • Studies have shown that fecal centrifugation permits the detection of more parasite eggs than some other forms of fecal analysis. (vetstreet.com)
  • In general, for each organism the time required for the detection of a positive culture was shortest for the centrifugation technique. (asm.org)
  • Rapid detection of cytomegalovirus in MRC-5 cells inoculated with urine specimens by using low-speed centrifugation and monoclonal antibody to an early antigen. (asm.org)
  • A commercially available monoclonal antibody directed against an early nuclear protein of cytomegalovirus was used with low-speed centrifugation for the rapid detection of this virus from urine specimens inoculated onto MRC-5 cells. (asm.org)
  • Figure 2: It's resulted in homogenous mixture after the centrifugation process for 10 minutes under 1,300 rpm, no formation of any floating materials and precipitation of pellet. (bartleby.com)
  • The formation of floating material (casein) The formation of floating material (casein) Figure 3: The formation of floating material and in chalky colour media with no pellet precipitation after the centrifugation process under 5,000 rpm for 15 minutes. (bartleby.com)
  • For each patient presenting fever, a pair of blood cultures was collected and processed by using a commercial lysis-centrifugation system. (scielo.br)
  • Comparison of the Lysis Centrifugation Method with the Conventional Blood Culture Method in Cases of Sepsis in a Tertiary Care Hospital. (ebscohost.com)
  • He informs about Isolator lysis centrifugation system, a manual blood. (ebscohost.com)
  • Comments on the study "Blood Culture Bottles are Superior to Lysis-Centrifugation Tubes for Bacteriological Diagnosis of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis," by P. D. Siersema, S. De Marie, J. H. van Zeijl and colleagues. (ebscohost.com)
  • lysis-centrifugation. (ebscohost.com)
  • Lymphocyte thymidine uptake in leucocytes prepared by NH 4 Cl induced RBC lysis was compared with that of lymphocytes obtained following Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation using polynomial regression dose response curves which adjusted for inherent subject variability. (elsevier.com)
  • The rather dense nucleus is most likely to be found after the first centrifugation step, followed by the mitochondria , then smaller organelles, and finally the cytoplasm, which may contain soluble proteins. (wikibooks.org)
  • The buoyant density of isolated mitochondria and glyoxysomes obtained from Neurospora crassa grown under different conditions was investigated by density-gradient centrifugation on Percoll. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Laboratory Procedure Manual - Centers for Disease , Laboratory Procedure Manual Analyte: Urinary Albumin Matrix: Urine Method: Fluorometer, Sequoia-Turner model 450, , SUMMARY OF TEST PRINCIPLE AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE , antibody and other proteins are removed by centrifugation The fluorescence of the stable solid-phase. (project4.nl)
  • A total of 478 proteins were identified in the LC-MS/MS analyses of exosome proteins obtained from 5×ultracentrifugations and 5×centrifugations including many important CD membrane proteins. (exosome-rna.com)
  • Protocols for centrifugation typically specify the amount of acceleration to be applied to the sample, rather than specifying a rotational speed such as revolutions per minute. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Buoyant density gradient centrifugation in a continuous gradient. (els.net)
  • Centrifugation is the most common method used for uranium enrichment , relying on the slight mass difference between atoms of U238 and U235 in uranium hexafluoride gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Isolator system was compared with the large-volume centrifugation method for processing and recovering organisms from body fluids other than blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine. (nih.gov)
  • The Isolator system was found to be a more sensitive alternative than the conventional large-volume centrifugation method. (nih.gov)
  • The suitability of the infiltration-centrifugation method for collection of apoplastic fluid from intact leaves was evaluated for different plant species. (nih.gov)
  • The infiltration-centrifugation method was also suitable to determine apoplastic air volume (Vair) and apoplastic water volume (Vwater), which are necessary for the calculation of the ion concentration in the leaf apoplast. (nih.gov)
  • Demonstration of altered signaling responses in bone marrow extracellular fluid during increased hematopoiesis in rats using a centrifugation method. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Two methods of integrated continuous flow centrifugation, namely the Point Capture method and the Distributed Surface Capture method, have been proposed and investigated. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Download Full Text Article: Effects of a new centrifugation method on adipose cell viability for autologous fat grafting. (pubpdf.com)
  • Effect of centrifugation and washing on adipose graft viability: a new method to improve graft efficiency. (pubpdf.com)
  • Here, we describe and compare three methods (batch, free interface diffusion (FID) and FID centrifugation) for growth of nano/microcrystals for time-resolved SFX experiments using the large membrane protein complex photosystem II as a model system. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Lesson-28 - National Institute of Open Schooling centrifugation and this principle is widely used in biological laboratory, in fact it is one of the most essential instrumentation in design of a laboratory 2. (project4.nl)
  • In chemistry and biology , centrifugation increases the effective gravitational force on a mixture in a test tube, to rapidly and completely bring the precipitate ("pellet") to the bottom of the tube. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Where the cell pellet would be on a specific tube, depends on the tube, the size of the cells and the type of rotor used for the centrifugation - if using a fixed angle rotor then the cell pellet should be on the wall of the tube. (protocol-online.org)
  • Conventional methods require centrifugation to pellet the sample, followed by removal of the buffer and recovery of beads. (labmate-online.com)
  • The aim of the study was to compare the new density gradient centrifugation system OncoQuick with the standard density gradient centrifugation system Ficoll for improved tumor cell enrichment in blood of tumor patients. (springer.com)
  • From 10 ml blood, OncoQuick density gradient centrifugation separated a cell fraction which consisted of a mean cell number of 9.5×l0 4 mononuclear cells compared to 1.8×l0 7 cells by Ficoll. (springer.com)
  • Density gradient centrifugation of tumor cell-spiked blood samples with OncoQuick and Ficoll led to similar tumor cell recovery rates, between 70% and 90% for both methods. (springer.com)
  • Density gradient centrifugation with OncoQuick results in higher relative tumor cell enrichment than Ficoll density gradient centrifugation. (springer.com)
  • Two centrifugation steps (spins) were analyzed for the influence of centrifugal acceleration, time, processed volume, and platelet gradient. (hindawi.com)
  • In particular, the present invention relates to the use of a cell-trap centrifugation tube containing a specific density gradient solution adjusted to the specific density of a desired cell population to enrich for the desired cell from a cell source. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER MEDICAL CENTER HIC , Ficoll-Hypaque Density Gradient Centrifugation , Principle: Human Mononuclear cells and platelets have a lower density than Ficoll-Hypaque (1077 g/L) and are separated from higher density granulocytes and red blood cells when centrifuged after , Microsoft Word - HIC-1-0020Approveddoc. (project4.nl)
  • Apoptotic-like changes in equine spermatozoa separated by density-gradient centrifugation or after cryopreservation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Effect of density-gradient centrifugation on quality and recovery rate of equine spermatozoa. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Early attempts at purifying nucleic acids relied on density-gradient centrifugation , an expensive process that requires multiple steps and dangerous chemicals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Density-gradient centrifugation as an aid to sorting planktonic organisms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A small amount of southern bean mosaic virus was contained in a narrow zone after density-gradient centrifugation, but in a much wider zone after centrifugation with a large amount of a second virus. (unl.edu)
  • The sample reservoir design of many centrifugal devices induces formation of a concentration gradient during centrifugation which leads to excessively high sample concentrations at the bottom of the reservoir. (labmate-online.com)
  • Sucrose gradient centrifugation is a type of centrifugation often used to purify enveloped viruses (with densities 1.1-1.2 g/cm³) and ribosomes , and also to separate cell organelles from crude cellular extracts. (chemeurope.com)
  • It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Sucrose_gradient_centrifugation" . (chemeurope.com)
  • Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (uchicago.edu)
  • During centrifugation, Leukocytes, lymphocytes and PBMCs are separated from unwanted erythrocytes and granulocytes, depending on the density gradient media. (pluriselect.com)
  • For example, membrane fractionation often involves first making an enriched fraction from a cell homogenate by differential pelleting followed by isopycnic centrifugation to obtain purified fractions. (els.net)
  • The Cytospin uses centrifugation to separate and deposit a thin-layer of cells/microorganisms into a clearly-defined area on a microscope slide or into a tissue cassette, while maintaining cell integrity. (scientistlive.com)
  • Here a convenient and effective strategy of two-step centrifugation-assisted single-cell trapping (CAScT) based on an addressable truncated cone-shaped microwell array (TCMA) chip is developed for cell pairing. (rsc.org)
  • Three-Dimensional Human Cardiac Tissue Engineered by Centrifugation of Stacked Cell Sheets and Cross-Sectional Observation of Its Synchronous Beatings by Optical Coherence Tomography. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Recently, we reported the rapid fabrication technique of a double-layered cell sheet-tissue by the combination of cell sheet stacking technology and centrifugation [9]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Due to different results with regard to adipose cell damage and the level of survival of the transferred tissue in clinical practice, the authors aimed to investigate the effects of centrifugation on fat aspirates to optimize the centrifugal force for fat transplantation and to obtain an increased number of intact adipose progenitor cells. (pubpdf.com)
  • Influence of decantation, washing and centrifugation on adipocyte and mesenchymal stem cell content of aspirated adipose tissue: a comparative study. (pubpdf.com)
  • We compared the two-step centrifugation protocol to a single-step protocol at 5,000 g for 20 minutes. (utwente.nl)
  • The single-step protocol at 5,000 g (i) is less laborious and approximately ten minutes faster, (ii) removes platelets as effective as the two-step centrifugation protocol, and (iii) has a ~ 10% higher plasma yield, whereas (iv) the recovery of platelet-derived EVs is comparable. (utwente.nl)
  • Results of a rapid centrifugation viral culture of bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from 33 marrow transplant recipients with pneumonia were compared with those for conventional viral culture of concurrently or subsequently obtained lung tissue. (annals.org)
  • Centrifugation culture was positive within 16 hours of inoculation in 22 of 23 (96%) specimens from patients with positive conventional culture of lung tissue. (annals.org)
  • The sensitivity (96%) and specificity (100%) of centrifugation culture of specimens from marrow transplant recipients approach that of viral culture of lung tissue. (annals.org)
  • We studied the effect of centrifugation on fat grafts, and we propose an optimised protocol for the improvement of adipose tissue viability. (pubpdf.com)
  • Adipose tissue was subjected to different centrifugations, and the volumes of interstitial liquid and oil released were measured to choose the optimal condition. (pubpdf.com)
  • This clinical and experimental study compared adipose tissue transplant behavior after two different techniques of purifying: centrifugation at 3400 rpm for 3 min and serum lavage without centrifugation. (pubpdf.com)
  • All possible precautions should be taken to prevent any leakage into the rotor cavity during centrifugation. (beckman.com)
  • The rate of centrifugation is specified by the angular velocity usually expressed as revolutions per minute (RPM), or acceleration expressed as g . (wikipedia.org)
  • The three key variables we studied were: (a) the temperature at which the precipitate is allowed to form, (b) the concentration of the RNA and the lithium chloride used and, (c) the time and speed of centrifugation used to collect the precipitated RNA. (thermofisher.com)
  • After centrifugation typically for an hour at about 100,000 x g, disks of cellular components residing due to the change in density can be observed from one layer to the next. (wikibooks.org)
  • Blood culture technique based on centrifugation: clinical evaluation. (asm.org)
  • The centrifugation technique recovered 73% of the positive cultures. (asm.org)
  • In conclusion, centrifugation of stallion spermatozoa through a single layer of colloid is a useful technique for selecting the best spermatozoa from an ejaculate and, moreover, sperm quality is maintained during storage. (diva-portal.org)
  • From the composition of the AWF, it is concluded that, if centrifugation force does not exceed 1 000 g, cytoplasmic contamination is negligible and that the infiltration-centrifugation technique reveals an easy and inexpensive way to study apoplastic solutes. (nih.gov)
  • The technique has a huge advantage over normal centrifugation, in that several components of different density can be separated in the same tube. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A similar technique is sucrose cushion centrifugation, in which a particle mixture is pelleted through a 20% sucrose layer, coming to rest at the interface with a 70% solution. (chemeurope.com)
  • Lube oil centrifugation enables you to discard waste without the need to buy disposables such as filter cartridges. (alfalaval.com)
  • There are a number of reports of centrifugation injury of bacteria - loss of viability due to centrifugation. (protocol-online.org)
  • The objective was to investigate the changes in stallion sperm quality (sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity and chromatin integrity) occurring during cool storage, and to study the effect of sperm selection by single layer colloidal centrifugation on these parameters of sperm quality. (diva-portal.org)
  • Centrifugation at 2,000 r.p.m. for 30 minutes, immediately after mixture of urine and antiserum, yielded positive reactions in the full expected range. (jimmunol.org)
  • Fecal diagnostic testing, such as fecal centrifugation, is an important part of this process. (vetstreet.com)
  • 8. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein said centrifugation is conducted at a temperature of at least 240.degree. (patentgenius.com)
  • The clotting process as well as the subsequent centrifugation influence the epitheliotrophic character of blood products and have to be standardised for future clinical trials. (arvojournals.org)
  • Centrifugation is a process that separates solids from liquids and liquids of different densities from each other by using centrifugal force. (reference.com)
  • The centrifugation culture results were also compared to results of cytologic and immunochemical examination of these specimens. (annals.org)
  • Clinical and experimental study of autologous fat grafting after processing by centrifugation and serum lavage. (pubpdf.com)