Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A technique used to separate particles according to their densities in a continuous density gradient. The sample is usually mixed with a solution of known gradient materials and subjected to centrifugation. Each particle sediments to the position at which the gradient density is equal to its own. The range of the density gradient is usually greater than that of the sample particles. It is used in purifying biological materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, organelles, and cell types.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
A solute for density gradient centrifugation offering higher maximum solution density without the problems of increased viscosity. It is also used as a resorbable, non-ionic contrast medium.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Condition wherein the force of gravity is greater than or is increased above that on the surface of the earth. This is expressed as being greater than 1 g.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Triiodo-substituted derivatives of BENZOIC ACID.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.
Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The application of high intensity ultrasound to liquids.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC
The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is widely distributed in TICKS and various mammals throughout the world. Infection with this genus is particularly prevalent in CATTLE; SHEEP; and GOATS.
Techniques used in microbiology.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Extracellular vesicles generated by the shedding of CELL MEMBRANE blebs.
Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)
The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
A sucrose polymer of high molecular weight.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE whose species cause a variety of diseases in vertebrates including humans, mice, and swine. Chlamydia species are gram-negative and produce glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.

Nuclear chromatin variations in human spermatozoa undergoing swim-up and cryopreservation evaluated by the flow cytometric sperm chromatin structure assay. (1/1626)

The sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) is a flow cytometric (FCM) technique which exploits the metachromatic properties of Acridine Orange to monitor the susceptibility of sperm chromatin DNA to in-situ acid denaturation. SCSA was used to study the chromatin structure variations of human spermatozoa in semen, both before and after swim-up and after cryopreservation. Semen samples were provided by 19 healthy normozoospermic subjects attending pre-marriage checks. Each sample was divided into three aliquots: the first aliquot was evaluated without further treatment, the second underwent swim-up, and the third was stored according to standard cryopreservation techniques in liquid nitrogen at -196 degrees C. Samples were also analysed by light and fluorescence microscopy (after Acridine Orange staining to evaluate the number of green fluorescent sperm heads), and by computer-assisted semen analysis. The results showed that post-rise spermatozoa represent a subpopulation characterized by a general improvement of the morphological (reduction of the percentage of abnormal forms and heads, increase of the green head sperm percentage) and kinetic parameters. This subpopulation also exhibited improved chromatin structure properties, confirming that these cells have the best structural and functional characteristics, indicative of optimal fertilizing ability. On the other hand, overall sperm quality deteriorates after cryopreservation. When thawed spermatozoa underwent an additional swim-up round, a general improvement of nuclear maturity was seen in the post-rise spermatozoa.  (+info)

Mechanically induced c-fos expression is mediated by cAMP in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. (2/1626)

In serum-deprived MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, mechanical stimulation caused by mild (287 x g) centrifugation induced a 10-fold increase in mRNA levels of the proto-oncogene, c-fos. Induction of c-fos was abolished by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor H-89, suggesting that the transient c-fos mRNA increase is mediated by cAMP. Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity by chronic TPA treatment failed to significantly reduce c-fos induction, suggesting that TPA-sensitive isoforms of PKC are not responsible for c-fos up-regulation. In addition, 287 x g centrifugation increased intracellular prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels 2.8-fold (P<0. 005). Since we have previously shown that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) can induce c-fos expression via a cAMP-mediated mechanism, we asked whether the increase in c-fos mRNA was due to centrifugation-induced PGE2 release. Pretreatment with the cyclooxygenase inhibitors indomethacin and flurbiprofen did not hinder the early induction of c-fos by mechanical stimulation. We conclude that c-fos expression induced by mild mechanical loading is dependent primarily on cAMP, not PKC, and initial induction of c-fos is not necessarily dependent on the action of newly synthesized PGE2.  (+info)

A novel strategy for the preparation of liposomes: rapid solvent exchange. (3/1626)

During the preparation of multi-component model membranes, a primary consideration is that compositional homogeneity should prevail throughout the suspension. Some conventional sample preparation methods pass the lipid mixture through an intermediary, solvent-free state. This is an ordered, solid state and may favor the demixing of membrane components. A new preparative method has been developed which is specifically designed to avoid this intermediary state. This novel strategy is called rapid solvent exchange (RSE) and entails the direct transfer of lipid mixtures between organic solvent and aqueous buffer. RSE liposomes require no more than a minute to prepare and manifest considerable entrapment volumes with a high fraction of external surface area. In phospholipid/cholesterol mixtures of high cholesterol content, suspensions prepared by more conventional methods reveal evidence of artifactual demixing, whereas samples prepared by rapid solvent exchange do not. The principles which may lead to artifactual demixing during conventional sample preparation are discussed.  (+info)

Chromosome-membrane association in Bacillus subtilis. IV. Further purification of DNA-membrane complex by using a combination of centrifugation and electrophoresis. (4/1626)

We have developed a simple procedure to purify a DNA-membrane complex from Bacillus subtilis by using a combination of centrifugation and electrophoresis. Several unique proteins were detected in the purified complex.  (+info)

Vasopressin regulates apical targeting of aquaporin-2 but not of UT1 urea transporter in renal collecting duct. (5/1626)

In the renal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD), vasopressin regulates two key transporters, namely aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and the vasopressin-regulated urea transporter (VRUT). Both are present in intracellular vesicles as well as the apical plasma membrane. Short-term regulation of AQP2 has been demonstrated to occur by vasopressin-induced trafficking of AQP2-containing vesicles to the apical plasma membrane. Here, we have carried out studies to determine whether short-term regulation of VRUT occurs by a similar process. Cell surface labeling with NHS-LC-biotin in rat IMCD suspensions revealed that vasopressin causes a dose-dependent increase in the amount of AQP2 labeled at the cell surface, whereas VRUT labeled at the cell surface did not increase in response to vasopressin. Immunoperoxidase labeling of inner medullary thin sections from Brattleboro rats treated with 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) for 20 min revealed dramatic translocation of AQP2 to the apical region of the cell, with no change in the cellular distribution of VRUT. In addition, differential centrifugation of inner medullary homogenates from Brattleboro rats treated with DDAVP for 60 min revealed a marked depletion of AQP2 from the low-density membrane fraction (enriched in intracellular vesicles) but did not alter the quantity of VRUT in this fraction. Finally, AQP2-containing vesicles immunoisolated from a low-density membrane fraction from renal inner medulla did not contain immunoreactive VRUT. Thus vasopressin-mediated regulation of AQP2, but not of VRUT, depends on regulated vesicular trafficking to the plasma membrane.  (+info)

Evidence that the co-chaperone p23 regulates ligand responsiveness of the dioxin (Aryl hydrocarbon) receptor. (6/1626)

The dioxin (aryl hydrocarbon) receptor is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that induces expression of a number of genes encoding drug metabolizing enzymes. In the absence of ligand the dioxin receptor is present in the cytoplasmic compartment of the cell associated with the molecular chaperone hsp90, which has been implicated in regulating the correct folding of the ligand binding domain of the receptor. In this study we have examined a potential role of the hsp90-associated p23 protein in the activation process of the dioxin receptor to a DNA binding form. In an in vitro model we show that addition of ligand alone to the dioxin receptor fails to induce release of hsp90 from the dioxin receptor. In the presence of ligand, this release was, however, induced upon addition of purified preparations of Arnt. Interestingly, p23 was also found to be associated with the nonactivated form of the dioxin receptor. Following fractionation on sucrose gradients p23 was dissociated from the receptor-hsp90 complex generating a receptor form, which showed ligand-independent release of hsp90 by Arnt and, consequently, ligand-independent activation of the DNA binding activity of the dioxin receptor. Ligand dependence was reconstituted in the presence of molybdate, a transition metal ion known to stabilize the interaction between the molecular chaperone hsp90 and p23. Taken together these experiments suggest a role of p23 in modulating ligand responsiveness in the activation process of the dioxin receptor.  (+info)

Visualizing ion relaxation in the transport of short DNA fragments. (7/1626)

Ion relaxation plays an important role in a wide range of phenomena involving the transport of charged biomolecules. Ion relaxation is responsible for reducing sedimentation and diffusion constants, reducing electrophoretic mobilities, increasing intrinsic viscosities, and, for biomolecules that lack a permanent electric dipole moment, provides a mechanism for orienting them in an external electric field. Recently, a numerical boundary element method was developed to solve the coupled Navier-Stokes, Poisson, and ion transport equations for a polyion modeled as a rigid body of arbitrary size, shape, and charge distribution. This method has subsequently been used to compute the electrophoretic mobilities and intrinsic viscosities of a number of model proteins and DNA fragments. The primary purpose of the present work is to examine the effect of ion relaxation on the ion density and fluid velocity fields around short DNA fragments (20 and 40 bp). Contour density as well as vector field diagrams of the various scalar and vector fields are presented and discussed at monovalent salt concentrations of 0.03 and 0.11 M. In addition, the net charge current fluxes in the vicinity of the DNA fragments at low and high salt concentrations are briefly examined and discussed.  (+info)

Characterization of Fus3 localization: active Fus3 localizes in complexes of varying size and specific activity. (8/1626)

The MAP kinase Fus3 regulates many different signal transduction outputs that govern the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid cells to mate. Here we characterize Fus3 localization and association with other proteins. By indirect immunofluorescence, Fus3 localizes in punctate spots throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus, with slightly enhanced nuclear localization after pheromone stimulation. This broad distribution is consistent with the critical role Fus3 plays in mating and contrasts that of Kss1, which concentrates in the nucleus and is not required for mating. The majority of Fus3 is soluble and not bound to any one protein; however, a fraction is stably bound to two proteins of approximately 60 and approximately 70 kDa. Based on fractionation and gradient density centrifugation properties, Fus3 exists in a number of complexes, with its activity critically dependent upon association with other proteins. In the presence of alpha factor, nearly all of the active Fus3 localizes in complexes of varying size and specific activity, whereas monomeric Fus3 has little activity. Fus3 has highest specific activity within a 350- to 500-kDa complex previously shown to contain Ste5, Ste11, and Ste7. Ste5 is required for Fus3 to exist in this complex. Upon alpha factor withdrawal, a pool of Fus3 retains activity for more than one cell cycle. Collectively, these results support Ste5's role as a tether and suggest that association of Fus3 in complexes in the presence of pheromone may prevent inactivation in addition to enhancing activation.  (+info)

The signs and symptoms of CE can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but they may include:

* Lumps or swelling in the neck, underarm, or groin area
* Fever
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Pain in the affected area

CE is caused by a genetic mutation that leads to uncontrolled cell growth and division. The exact cause of the mutation is not fully understood, but it is believed to be linked to exposure to certain viruses or chemicals.

Diagnosis of CE typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT scans or PET scans, and biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for CE depend on the stage and location of the tumor, but may include:

* Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
* Radiation therapy to shrink the tumor
* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Immunotherapy to boost the immune system's ability to fight the cancer

Overall, CE is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to improve outcomes.

Differential centrifugation is the simplest method of fractionation by centrifugation, commonly used to separate organelles and ... "Centrifugation Basics". Sigma-Aldrich. Retrieved 10 May 2016. "Centrifugation". Lenntech. Retrieved 15 October 2013. Garrett, ... Centrifugation is used in many different ways in the food industry. For example, in the dairy industry, it is typically used in ... Centrifugation is a mechanical process which involves the use of the centrifugal force to separate particles from a solution ...
... , on the other hand, does not utilize a density gradient, and the centrifugation is taken in ... In biochemistry and cell biology, differential centrifugation (also known as differential velocity centrifugation) is a common ... In contrast, the density gradient centrifugation is usually performed with just one centrifugation speed. Buoyant density ... at the bottom of the centrifugation tube. After each centrifugation, the supernatant (non-pelleted solution) is removed from ...
... is a centrifugation technique employed to effectively separate particles of different sizes. The tube ... Once the centrifugation is over, fractions are collected. Lodish, Harvey; Berk, Arnold; Kaiser, Chris; Krieger, Monty; ...
... (also isopycnic centrifugation or equilibrium density-gradient centrifugation) uses the concept ...
BEA Westfalia separator Group, 2013, Chamber Bowl separator Berk, Z. (2013). Centrifugation. Food Process Engineering and ...
Centrifugation Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Mar 4, 2004, pp. 247-267. "Svedberg Lecture". Retrieved 2019-02-18. "Beckman ... Analytical ultracentrifugation Gas centrifuge Theodor Svedberg Differential centrifugation Buoyant density ultracentrifugation ...
Centrifugation". Biophysical Chemistry of Proteins. New York, Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London: Springer. pp. 237-249. doi:10.1007 ...
Centrifugation Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Mar 4, 2004, pp. 247-267. Frothingham, R (February 1999). "Centrifugation without a ... There are various types of centrifugation: Differential centrifugation, often used to separate certain organelles from whole ... Another potential hazard is the aerosolization of hazardous samples during centrifugation. To prevent contamination of the ... often used to isolate nucleic acids such as DNA Sucrose gradient centrifugation, often used to purify enveloped viruses and ...
"Basics of Centrifugation". Cole-Parmer. Archived from the original on 24 February 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2012. ""Plasmid DNA ... Centrifugal force Centrifugation Clearing factor Honey extractor Hydroextractor Lamm equation Sedimentation coefficient ... RCF Calculator and Nomograph Centrifugation Rotor Calculator Selection of historical centrifuges in the Virtual Laboratory of ... Protocols for centrifugation typically specify the amount of acceleration to be applied to the sample, rather than specifying a ...
The gas centrifugation process uses a unique design that allows gas to constantly flow in and out of the centrifuge. Unlike ... "Basics of Centrifugation." Cole-Parmer Technical Lab. 14 Mar. 2008 "Gas Centrifuge Uranium Enrichment." Global Security.Org. 27 ... The output lines take these separations to other centrifuges to continue the centrifugation process. The process begins when ...
accessed 12 October 2013) Orris E. A, Eugene E.G. (1969). Centrifugation of Waste Sludges. Journal Water Pollution Control ...
Sedimentation Centrifugation Helmenstine, Todd. "What is decanting?". ThoughtCo. Retrieved 1 March 2018. "Decantation , ...
By glycerol gradient centrifugation. By a DNA column. By an ion chromatography column. And also combinations of the above ...
For blood samples, these include centrifugation followed by examination of the buffy coat; mini anion-exchange/centrifugation; ... For other samples, such as spinal fluid, concentration techniques include centrifugation followed by examination of the ...
Centrifugation is the preferred method. Several preventives are available by prescription from a veterinarian to prevent dogs ...
The extract is obtained by centrifugation. The salinity can more easily be measured, without centrifugation, in a 2:1 or 5:1 ...
The lysis-centrifugation method was introduced in 1917 by Mildred Clough, but it was rarely used in clinical practice until ... "History of Lysis-Centrifugation Blood Culture Methods". Murray, PR; Masur, H (2012). "Current approaches to the diagnosis of ... While lysis-centrifugation offers greater sensitivity than conventional blood culture methods, it is prone to contamination ... A technique called the lysis-centrifugation method can be used for improved isolation of slow-growing or fastidious organisms, ...
... this separation may be achieved by centrifugation. Precipitation by ammonium sulfate is a result of a reduction in solubility ...
Phytoliths must be concentrated using density centrifugation. Sodium polytungstate is a common substance used to aid in this ...
Counterflow centrifugation elutriation is a related technique to separate cells. An air elutriator is a simple device which can ... Air classifier Counterflow centrifugation elutriation Uhlig, G.; Thiel, H.; Gray, J. S. (May 1973). "The quantitative ...
Continuous flow centrifugation: Two venous lines are used. This method requires slightly less blood volume out of the body at ... Discontinuous flow centrifugation: One venous catheter line is required. Typically, a 300 ml batch of blood is removed at a ...
Chromatography, centrifugation, and filtration techniques can be used to separate nanoparticles by size or other physical ... Mechanical separation techniques utilize membranes and/or centrifugation. Chemical separation techniques are liquid-liquid ...
Sedimentation can be accelerated by high speed centrifugation. The compact mass obtained so is sometimes referred to as a ' ... Thereafter, the precipitate may be easily separated by decanting, filtration, or by centrifugation. An example would be the ...
After centrifugation and washing, the starch is dried. Co-products account for 34% of wet-milled yield. In fact, 23% of corn ...
This is most easily done by centrifugation, which packs the denser blood cells and platelets to the bottom of the centrifuge ... Plasma is obtained by centrifugation before clotting occurs. The type of test required dictates what type of sample is used. A ...
They can use centrifugation or centrifugation-free methods. The red cells can be re-suspended in saline or other types of ...
Isolation may be achieved by filtration or centrifugation. For some polymers it was demonstrated that thermoresponsive behavior ...
Similarly, so-called swim-up techniques apply a centrifugation step and then sperm is allowed to swim up into a medium, thus ... Density gradient centrifugation (in a continuous or discontinuous gradient) can concentrate semen samples with low ... However, use of sperm centrifugation is detrimental to the sperm viability and elicits production of reactive oxygen species. ... Several conventional techniques of centrifugation or swim-up. Newly applied methods such as flow cytometry expand the ...
Carr, Dr Steven M. "CsCl density-gradient centrifugation". Retrieved 2017-04-03. Martinez, Lluis. "Magnetic DNA ...
... generally carried out by centrifugation or ultra-centrifugation. If the product is biomass, then it is recovered for processing ... Ultra filtration is an alternative to the centrifugation. Cell disruption: If the desired product is intra cellular the cell ... The solid-liquid is separated by centrifugation or filtration and cell debris is discarded. Concentration of broth: The spent ...
The location of free MWCNTs in the density gradients after centrifugation was determined by quantification of 14C-labeled ... and protozoan fecal pellets by centrifugation in iodixanol solution. ... ... protozoa and carbon nanotubes by density gradient centrifugation, International journal of nanomedicine, [online], https:// ...
Rickman, L. R; Shute, G. T; Menzies, N. G. F; World Health Organization (‎World Health OrganizationWorld Health Organization, 1966)‎ ...
Fecal centrifugation testing can identify intestinal parasites in cats and dogs, and can help determine the right treatment ... What Are the Benefits of Fecal Centrifugation Testing?. Fecal centrifugation testing for parasites helps identify zoonotic ... To perform fecal centrifugation, your veterinarian places a small amount of fecal material into a test tube and mixes it with a ... How Is Fecal Centrifugation Performed?. To test for intestinal parasites, your veterinarian needs a stool sample from your pet ...
Lost in Centrifugation: Accounting for Transporter Protein Losses in Quantitative Targeted Absolute Proteomics. Matthew D ... Protein Losses in Centrifugation: The Utility of Recovery Factors. The well-established scaling factor, microsomal protein per ... To correct for losses of protein throughout centrifugation the fraction recovered (FR) is determined as the ratio of the actual ... Lost in Centrifugation: Accounting for Transporter Protein Losses in Quantitative Targeted Absolute Proteomics ...
"Centrifugation, Density Gradient" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Centrifugation, Density Gradient" by people in this website by ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Centrifugation, Density Gradient" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Centrifugation, Density Gradient". ...
Centrifugation. journals in this list are indexed in If you spot any mistakes in this table of Centrifugation. OA ... Open Access Centrifugation Journals. A list of Open Access Centrifugation. journals for you to publish your manuscript in. ... Where can I publish my Centrifugation paper?. You can publish your Centrifugation paper in the Open Access journals in this ... Centrifugation. Journals. Name. ISSN. DOAJ. Publisher. No. of Papers. Citations. Relevance▼. Website. ...
Be the first to review "Centrifugation Tube rack 81 wells Double Function" Cancel reply. Your email address will not be ...
Fast Micro-Centrifugation. *Maintenance-free rotors spin up to 14,800 rpm (16,163 x g) ...
... ... Multiplexed protein profiles of post-centrifugation delay were generated in 384 biotinylated samples using 373 antibodies that ... related to EDTA standard tubes and prolonged post-centrifugation delay of 36h. Indications from changes in CALD1 levels require ... three types of blood preparations for alterations in protein profiles with respect to time and temperature post centrifugation ...
A Modified Differential Centrifugation Protocol for Isolation and Quantitation of Extracel A Modified Differential ... Among the half a dozen reported methodologies, differential centrifugation is considered the "gold standard" largely for its ... Centrifugation Protocol for Isolation and Quantitation of Extracellular Heat Shock Protein 90 (eHsp90). ...
Centrifugation big volume harvesting solution For large scale expression in cell lines or bacteria. *Accurate cooling for cell ... Centrifugation Solutions. Optimal separation of your samples to produce fast and reliable results. Explore centrifuge solutions ... Centrifugation versatility solution GxP documentation support for antigen concentration, hybridoma, PBMC isolation or FACS * ... From producing target antigens up to cell line development, you benefit from optimal centrifugation, smart lab solutions, high- ...
centrifugation. a process of separating blood or other body fluid cells from liquid components using a device (centrifuge) ... blood containing all its cellular components that has not undergone centrifugation or had the plasma removed. ... require centrifugation, dilution, extraction, or other preparation steps that require special training or instrumentation and ... the specimen can be separated by centrifugation into cells and plasma. ...
Cell Separation by Centrifugation:. Cell separation by centrifugation is a method that separates cells based on their density. ... This process can be enhanced by using density gradient centrifugation to isolate specific cell types.. Our Unique Cell ... TwinSpin centrifugation tubes are suitable for efficiently separating peripheral blood mononuclear cells from whole blood and ...
Here we describe a simple density gradient centrifugation method, which allows the rapid purification of infective metacyclic ... method for isolation of infective Leishmania metacyclic promastigotes by density gradient centrifugation. ...
Sucrose gradient centrifugation Surface Projections/Envelope. Nucleocapsid Dimensions, Symmetry. Morphogenesis. Site of ...
What can you do to eliminate transfers for centrifugation steps and for cryopreservation into cryovials? Do you have any cell ...
The cell debris was removed by centrifugation. The cell-free extract was loaded onto a glutathione sepharose 4B (GE Healthcare ... precipitated with EtOH/sodium acetate at room temperature gently without centrifugation, washed five times with 70% EtOH ...
Clearing Centrifugation. A total of 200 μL of homogenate was placed in a 1.5-mL tube and vortexed vigorously. The homogenate ...
It is argued that the combination of density gradient and counter-flow centrifugation offers a greater potential for obtaining ... It is argued that the combination of density gradient and counter-flow centrifugation offers a greater potential for obtaining ... It is argued that the combination of density gradient and counter-flow centrifugation offers a greater potential for obtaining ... It is argued that the combination of density gradient and counter-flow centrifugation offers a greater potential for obtaining ...
The purified DNA is equivalent to that obtained by 2 x CsCl gradient centrifugation and is suitable for transfection-grade ... The unique QIAconcentrator (see figure " HighSpeed Plasmid Giga EF procedure") replaces the centrifugation step traditionally ... The QIAconcentrator delivers highly concentrated DNA by centrifugation after ethanol precipitation. Up to 2.5 mg (Mega) or 10 ... The vacuum driven QIAfilter module replaces the centrifugation step in the classic anion-exchange procedure, making ...
... insoluble material was removed with the same centrifugation. Solubilized brain membranes were adjusted to 100 mm NaCl and 1 mm ... Beads were collected by centrifugation and washed with the solubilization buffer. Protein was extracted with SDS sample buffer ...
Can also measure serum and plasma separated by external centrifugation. This is possible when there is a need to reduce the ... In case of whole blood samples, it will take another 2 minutes for the centrifugation for each sample. ...
The unattached fluorescent antibody is then removed by washing during centrifugation. The fluorescence of the stable solid- ...
Microbubble size isolation by differential centrifugation. JA Feshitan, CC Chen, JJ Kwan, MA Borden ...
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Cells were removed from storage by thawing in a 37 °C water bath, harvested by centrifugation, resuspended in growth medium, ... For storage, flasks containing confluent cultures were transferred to tubes, harvested by centrifugation, resuspended by 250 µL ... lymphocytes were isolated by Ficoll-Paque density centrifugation and counted. Next, 5 × 106 cells were harvested for ...
Centrifugation was performed again. After the supernatant was discarded, the cells were fixed with a pre-cooled ethanol ... With the filtrate collected, centrifugation was performed at 1,500 × g for 10 min at room temperature and the supernatant was ... followed by centrifugation at 1,000 × g for 5 min, and the supernatant was discarded. After washing in PBS, the cells were ...
  • Centrifugation, Density Gradient" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Centrifugation, Density Gradient" by people in this website by year, and whether "Centrifugation, Density Gradient" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Centrifugation, Density Gradient" by people in Profiles. (
  • This process can be enhanced by using density gradient centrifugation to isolate specific cell types. (
  • Here we describe a simple density gradient centrifugation method, which allows the rapid purification of infective metacyclic parasites from both wild-type and LPG-deficient Leishmania major. (
  • It is argued that the combination of density gradient and counter-flow centrifugation offers a greater potential for obtaining an old red cell population than classical red cell density centrifugation alone. (
  • In October and December, fresh ejaculate was fractionated by centrifugation through a discontinuous density gradient of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silica particles (Percoll((R))**) to separate motile spermatozoa from other cells and seminal plasma. (
  • The physician who performed the inseminations reported that in January 1990 a second HIV-1-discordant couple (i.e., seropositive husband with hemophilia, sero negative wife) underwent one insemination using the same density gradient centrifugation procedure. (
  • Leukocytes remained in all four samples after simple centrifugation and washing and in two of three samples tested after density gradient centrifugation. (
  • A Modified Differential Centrifugation Protocol for Isolation and Quantitation of Extracellular Heat Shock Protein 90 (eHsp90). (
  • Among the half a dozen reported methodologies, differential centrifugation is considered the " gold standard" largely for its quantitative recovery of eHsp90α from a conditioned medium of cultured cells . (
  • Microsomes were isolated by differential centrifugation of lung homogenate. (
  • Profiling post-centrifugation delay of serum and plasma with antibody bead arrays. (
  • HiSpeed Plasmid Mega and Giga EF Kits provide vacuum-driven, large-scale, anion-exchange-based plasmid DNA preparation and require only one centrifugation step to elute the final plasmid DNA. (
  • This unique module also eliminates the risk of pellet loss, which can occur during decanting of the supernatant following centrifugation. (
  • After centrifugation, the supernatant will be separated. (
  • We demonstrate separation of protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila) from MWCNTs, bacterial agglomerates, and protozoan fecal pellets by centrifugation in iodixanol solution. (
  • Fecal centrifugation testing can identify intestinal parasites, which is important for determining the best treatment and helping to ensure a full recovery. (
  • What Is Fecal Centrifugation? (
  • Fecal diagnostic testing, such as fecal centrifugation, is an important part of this process. (
  • Why Does My Pet Need a Fecal Centrifugation Test? (
  • If your pet is showing any suspicious signs, your veterinarian may recommend fecal centrifugation testing to determine if parasites are the cause. (
  • Parasites, viruses, and other medical problems aren't always apparent, so your veterinarian may recommend fecal centrifugation testing, along with some other diagnostic tests to help ensure that your new pet is healthy before being introduced to your other pets and family members. (
  • How Is Fecal Centrifugation Performed? (
  • To perform fecal centrifugation, your veterinarian places a small amount of fecal material into a test tube and mixes it with a special fecal flotation solution. (
  • Studies have shown that fecal centrifugation permits the detection of more parasite eggs than some other forms of fecal analysis. (
  • Some veterinarians perform fecal centrifugation testing in the office, so results may be available the same day. (
  • Other practices send fecal material to an outside laboratory for centrifugation testing, so results may take a few days. (
  • TwinSpin centrifugation tubes are suitable for efficiently separating peripheral blood mononuclear cells from whole blood and bone marrow. (
  • The purified DNA is equivalent to that obtained by 2 x CsCl gradient centrifugation and is suitable for transfection-grade applications. (
  • Single binder and sandwich assays revealed decreasing levels of caldesmon 1 (CALD1) related to EDTA standard tubes and prolonged post-centrifugation delay of 36h. (
  • Multiplexed protein profiles of post-centrifugation delay were generated in 384 biotinylated samples using 373 antibodies that targeted 343 unique proteins. (
  • By profiling three types of blood preparations for alterations in protein profiles with respect to time and temperature post centrifugation, we addressed an important component in the analysis and of such specimen. (
  • Cell separation by centrifugation is a method that separates cells based on their density. (
  • Its exceptional separation properties result in DNA purity equivalent or superior to that obtained by two successive rounds of CsCl gradient centrifugation. (
  • The unattached fluorescent antibody is then removed by washing during centrifugation. (
  • The vacuum driven QIAfilter module replaces the centrifugation step in the classic anion-exchange procedure, making purification faster and more convenient. (
  • The unique QIAconcentrator (see figure " HiSpeed Plasmid Giga EF procedure "> HighSpeed Plasmid Giga EF procedure ") replaces the centrifugation step traditionally used to collect isopropanol-precipitated DNA following purification. (
  • QIAfilter Cartridges (see figure " QIAfilter Mega-Giga Cartridge For fast purification of up to 10 mg transfection-grade plasmid or cosmid DNA "> QIAfilter Mega-Giga Cartridge ") are special filter units designed to replace the centrifugation step following alkaline lysis of bacterial cells. (
  • QIAfilter Cartridges completely remove SDS precipitates and clear bacterial lysates in a fraction of the time needed for centrifugation. (
  • [ 50 ] Optimal centrifugation time and speed are critical for concentrating Cryptosporidium oocysts. (
  • Glycolytic activity in human red cell populations separated by a combination of density and counterflow centrifugation. (
  • Red cells comprising the lowest and highest density fractions, respectively, were subsequently separated according to mean cell volume (MCV) by means of counterflow centrifugation. (
  • In two, CD4+ lymphocytes were present after simple centrifugation and washing. (
  • In case of whole blood samples, it will take another 2 minutes for the centrifugation for each sample. (
  • Our team made this list of Centrifugation Open Access journals with the aim to help you to decide where to publish your Centrifugation manuscript. (
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  • Two-step centrifugation method. (
  • This photograph shows Brent Bobick, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Fellow, examining a test tube for gradient centrifugation, a process that enriches adult human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells by removing smaller, unwanted cells, such as red blood cells. (
  • We also assessed the effects of different centrifugation times on the TAT of results. (
  • A few studies [ 8-10 ] have noted equivalent analytical accuracy for chemistry assays when using shorter centrifugation times when specimens are processed manually. (
  • In this study, we report the effect of varying centrifugation times on the accuracy and precision of chemistry assays, TAT, and specimen stability using an automated specimen processing system for chemistry testing. (
  • Reduced centrifugation time resulted in significant improvements in TAT, with a median TAT for STAT results decreasing from 38 minutes to 28 minutes. (
  • Furthermore, marked reductions in the TAT of chemistry results are achieved by using a shorter centrifugation time. (